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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1852
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


    We certify that we were present and witnessed the delivery of the following described articles to the band of Umpqua Indians residing on the south branch of the Umpqua River by Joseph Knott Esq. for A. A. Skinner Ind. Agent as presents this first day of January 1852.
  31 three point white blankets
    4     "        "      red        do.
151 yds. calico
Levi Knott
Matthias Smyth
V. H. Davis
    I certify that I have this day issued the property above described & to the Indians named.
Joseph Knott
    for A. A. Skinner
        Ind. Agent
Jany. 1, 1852.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 5.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, James S. Gamble, of the town of Port Orford, O.T., who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    On Sunday morning last, while in my office, I was alarmed by the report of a gun. Immediately after I saw an Indian run by the window of the office. I then went to the door and inquired what was the cause of the firing. I understood the Indians had been stealing. The first person that I saw was Seth Lount. Some person was standing in the door of the store, who fired in the direction of the woods. I turned and heard an Indian scream, holding up his hands as if he was wounded. In the meantime, there were several shots fired, but by whom I could not tell.
    Cross examined. I did not see Lount fire at the Indian.
    Did you see the Indian fall when he was shot?
    Ans.: I could not see very well, but I think he was on his knees screaming or yelling. I afterwards went up to where the Indian lay and discovered that he was dead. He was shot in the calf of the leg, and the leg was broken, and I think in the mouth from the fact of blood issuing from it.
    I heard Lount say he had fired at him. He said that the Indian had stolen his property. I heard no one else say he had fired at him. I heard that Wallace and Grant also fired at the Indian. They said the Indians had appeared in a hostile attitude, had raised their bows, and one had drawn a knife upon Lount. The Indians came there dressed in their war costume.
    I heard Lount say at the time that it was impossible to tell who shot the Indian, and I heard others make the same remark.
James S. Gamble
    Sworn to & subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document A of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery,
United States Army, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, John Girty, of the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    I was not in the store on Sunday last, but in the kitchen when the row occurred. I did not see it. I saw the Indians about the store before the firing commenced and heard the reports of the guns.
    Cross examined. I saw the Indian's body after he was shot. He was wounded in the leg and under the arm. I do not recollect hearing anyone say they fired at the Indian. I saw all the men about the store having guns in their hands. I saw Lount go out with arms in his hands. I saw no one else.
    I saw the Indians on the beach before they came to the house. I counted them at a distance. There were fifteen of them. There were eight men in the store.
    Did the Indians appear in a hostile manner?
    Ans.: I did not see them near enough to tell.
John Girty
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document B of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery,
United States Army, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, John Howe, in the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    I saw the Indians on Sunday morning last at the corner of the house. One of them had Lount's coat and broadaxe in his hand. Lount went out to get his coat. I saw one of them flourishing his knife about. They all had their bows and arrows strung, and looked as if they meant to fight. They were dodging about the corner from one window to another, as though they intended to shoot someone. The men that were in the store went to get their guns. I did not see anyone fire, though I heard the reports of several guns.
    Cross examined. I did not see the Indian fall when shot. I saw his body after he was shot. He was shot in the leg and under the arm.
    I think he was the Indian who had stolen things from Lount.
John Howe
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document C of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, United States Army, commanding Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, John W. Miller, of the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    I was at the store on Sunday last when the Indians came up. They came to the door at the east end of the building. I saw Lount and Unican go to the door when they came up. I saw Lount coming back with a coat and broadaxe in his hand, and he said the Indians had brought them back. I heard him accuse one of the Indians of stealing them. There was considerable noise outside, but I could not understand what it was about. I saw through the window five or six of the Indians in the act of drawing their bows.
    Cross examined. I heard several guns go off, but I did not see anyone fire. I heard Wallace say he had shot at the Indian. I think I heard Lount say he had shot at the Indian. I saw the Indian's body after he was dead. He was shot in the leg and near the head.
    I recognized the Indians that were there that morning as those who had committed thefts. I recognized the Indian who was shot as one who had been pointed out to me by Summers as having stolen things from him & Lount.
J. W. Miller Jr.
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document D of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, United States Army, commanding Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, Ralph E. Summers, of the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    I know that the Indian who was killed was the one who robbed our camp some time ago. The articles stolen were eight blankets, three rifles, four coats, and two axes, some ammunition, two drawing knives & some small articles.
    Cross examined: Has the Indian been in here since he stole these things?
    Ans.: Yes, twice.
    Did you not report his being in there to the officers of the post?
    Ans.: I did.
    Did you ask recompense of them for the deeds committed at the camp above?
    Ans.: Yes.
    What answer did you receive?
    Ans.: I was told to take satisfaction out of them if I wanted it myself.
    Can you give the names of the officers?
    I went first to Captain Kane, and he sent me to Lieut. Gibson, who was commander of the post. Capt. Kane & Lieut. Wyman said they had no authority, and Lt. Gibson said he had no authority to interfere and told me to take satisfaction myself. He said that if they stole from him, he should do the same himself.
    In what way did Lieut. Gibson tell you to take satisfaction?
    Ans.: I do not exactly recollect, but he said that if the Indians stole from him, he would flog them.
    Do you not recollect Lieut. Gibson advising you to flog them.
    Ans.: I do not. I told Captain Kane that if they stole from me again, I would shoot them. He said that if I did, it would be all right.
    Do you not recollect Capt. Kane telling you in this room to take Lt. Gibson's advice and flog them.
    Ans.: I recollect Capt. Kane's saying that he supposed that Lt. Gibson had told me what to do, and he thought I had better do as he said, and it would all be right.
    Did you understand Lieut. Gibson to authorize you to take your revenge by shooting or killing an Indian who stole from you?
    Ans.: If I took any revenge it would be to shoot him, but I did not understand Lt. Gibson to say that I might shoot or kill him.
    Do you recollect Lount's making threats against the Indian who stole from him?
    Ans.: I do not. I told him what Lieut. Gibson said, but I do not remember now what he said.
    When you reported to Lieut. Wyman what did he say to you?
    Ans.: He told me Lieut. Gibson was the commander of the post.
Ralph E. Summers
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document E of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, United States Army, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, Frederick Unican, of the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    The first I saw of the Indians on Sunday morning last, they were coming up the hill with their bows and arrows strung. They came up to the door of the store, and one of them had Lount's coat and broadaxe. Lount went out and got them. The chief had a blue blanket belonging to one of the whites that had been stolen. Lount asked him for the blanket, and he would not give it up. Lount then remarked that the Indian who was afterwards shot was the one who had stolen his things. The Indian then talked to the rest of the Indians, and swung his knife over his own head. The other Indians got their bows and arrows ready, and moved away as if ready for a fight. Then Lount ran in the store & got his rifle. The Indian ran round the house, and Lount followed him through the store. Wallace then jumped out of the front door, and I went to the door and saw the Indians with their bows and arrows strung, and I went out also. I jumped out of the house to keep the Indians from shooting Wallace.
    Cross examined. I saw no one fire at the Indians. I heard several shots fired. I did not hear Lount say he had fired at the Indian. I saw none of the Indians shoot off their arrows. After the firing commenced, the Indians drew their bows and ran off down the hill.
    Was not the greater part of the Indians recognized as thieves?
    Ans.: Yes, all of them. I recognized some of them myself as such.
F. Unican
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document F of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, United States Army, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, William Wallace, of the town of Port Orford, in said Territory, who being duly sworn, deposes as follows:
    The Indians came up to the store in a hostile manner, with their bows all strung, and came to the window & looked in. The Indian was there who stole Lount's things. Lount asked him where his things were. He said something to the other Indians, and they spoke to him, & the Indian then drew his knife on Lount. Lount ran in the door, and the Indian ran to the other door as if to head him off, and the Indians all put their arrows in their bows.
    Cross examined. I saw the body of the Indian after he was shot. He was shot in the leg, and I saw no other wound about his person. I did not hear Lount say he had fired at the Indian. I did not hear anyone else say he had fired at the Indian. I saw no one fire at the Indian. I heard four or five shots fired.
    I recognized an overcoat which the Indian had as belonging to Lount.
William Wallace
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this twenty-eighth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3rd Art.
        Comg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, Document G of No. 3.



    Personally appeared before me, Horatio G. J. Gibson, first lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery, United States Army, commanding the post of Fort Orford, Oregon Territory, and acting Indian agent, Frederick Unican, of the town of Port Orford, Oregon Territory, who being duly sworn deposes as follows:
    In November last, I built a house on Elk River about five miles from the settlement of Port Orford. About three weeks ago a party of Indians known as the "Tututni" tribe passed through the town of Port Orford and went up the coast. They were accompanied by a chief known as Chalnee or "Six"--the headman of the tribes between Port Orford & the Coquille River. Immediately after the house was found destroyed, and I was informed by an Indian living on Elk River that it had been done by the chief Chalnee or "Six," and that he had carried away the door & windows. The value of house or property destroyed was three hundred dollars. I could not erect the building again for less than that amount.
    I considered myself lawfully within the Indian country, as I had under the Oregon land bill taken possession of a claim of one hundred & sixty acres with the intention of settling upon it & improving it.
    I have never attempted to obtain private satisfaction or revenge of Indians for the property destroyed.
F. Unican
    Sworn to and subscribed before me this thirtieth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & fifty-two.
H. G. J. Gibson
    1 Lt. 3d Art.
        Comdg. Fort Orford
            & Act. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 16.



Indian Agency for S.W. Oregon
    Rogue River Valley Feby. 1, 1852
Dear Sir
    Your favor of the 29 of Dec. last was handed to me about ten days since, & the one of the 23 Dec. by Mr. Smith was delivered to me the day before yesterday. Mr. Smith also paid over to me the amount of the order in favor of C. B. Gray, which you paid to him on the 22 Dec. last. I should have been much pleased if you had sent by Mr. Smith the amount of the other accounts which I sent, as I am in great want of the money. I presume Mr. Dean, who has probably seen you before this, has got the money. If he has not, please send it by the first opportunity. Living here is so expensive that I need all the money I can get.
    I shall have another opportunity of sending in a few days, when I will send you in returns of the property distributed by me as presents to the Indians in accordance with the forms which you sent me.
    On my arrival here I found it necessary in consequence of the rain, which had commenced previous to my arrival, to put up a shanty as soon as possible, and we have been so busy that I have not yet got into my new house which I have been building. This house, however, is nothing but a log cabin 36 by 18 feet but will be quite comfortable in comparison with the one I am now living in. From what I have seen of the land in this valley I think the soil equal if not superior to any in the Willamette, and the climate thus far has been the most pleasant & delightful of any country in which I have ever lived. I am preparing to go into the wappato [an edible root--also used to mean "potato"] business quite extensively next summer, and if the Indians remain quiet, and I do not now see any reason to apprehend the reverse, I think I can make the profits of my farming at least equal to my salary.
    Since my last communication the Indians have appeared entirely friendly & visit me more frequently that I should desire unless Uncle Sam pays me for feeding them.
    Give my respects to all inquiring friends and believe me ever
Yours &c.
    A. A. Skinner
N. DuBois Esq.
    Milwaukie
        O.T.
P.S. You must excuse my chirography, as my finger has not got entirely well. and it is with considerable pain that I can hold the pen.
A. A. S.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 15.



Calapooya Linn Co. O.T. Feb. 10 / 52
To the Hon. L. Lea
    Commissioner of Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            Dear Sir
                Excuse me for calling your attention to a small matter pending between myself & the Superintendent of Ind. Affrs. for this Tert., Dr. Dart. The Dr. withholds from me the quarter's salary ending 30th June last on the ground that I was absent from my agency.
    It is true I was absent from my field during that quarter, but sickness was the cause.
    Soon after I was appointed to the agency it became manifest that Mrs. Spalding could not survive long, the result of her fatigue & sufferings in escaping from the Indian country at the time of the memorable massacre at Waiilatpu; consequently I repaired to my field without my family. A few weeks before my wife died I returned home & remained with her till she left us for her rest & reward in Heaven.
    Immediately after her death & as I was about to return to my field, I myself was taken sick & continued so during the quarter above named.
    As soon as I could ride, which was about the first of July, I repaired to Rogue River, which had now become the theater of Indian war. Rogue River & Umpqua country is the first district assigned me by the Superintendent, but he had requested me, verbally, to visit the Indians in the Upper Willamette, that is, in the vicinity of my residence, & obtain their numbers &c. I was engaged in this work when taken sick, but as soon as I could sit up a short time every day I had the several bands come to my house & went on with numbering them & obtaining other statistics required.
    I submit to your honor whether my sickness, especially acting under verbal instructions from the Superintendent, should be regarded as absence from my field.
    I have the satisfaction to feel assured that you will do me justice.
    The amount is small, $375.00, but with me of considerable importance, having lost not only my companion, but almost my entire means in consequence of the bloody massacre.
With best wishes I remain
    Your obedient servant
        H. H. Spalding
            Ind. Agent for S.W. Oregon
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1277-1279.



United States of America   )
Oregon Territory                 )    ss.
    On the 22nd day of February A.D. eighteen hundred and fifty-two before me, A. A. Skinner, Indian Agent for South Western Oregon, personally came James H. Russell and made solemn oath that as he verily believes, some twenty Shasta Indians from the south side of the Siskiyou Mountain were camped near his residence in the Rogue River Valley near the headwaters of Stuart's Creek on the 16th inst.; That a short time before sunset of the 17th February he saw some five or six of said Shasta Indians come from the neighborhood of a small tributary of said Stuart's Creek, and going in the direction of the Indian camps above referred to; That on the night of said 17th Feby., a new milch cow belonging to said Russell and several other men who were residing with him did not return to her calf as usual; That on the morning of the 18th inst. in looking for said cow he discovered on the bank of the creek from which on the 17th inst. he saw the Indians coming and going towards their camp, the feet and leg bones and some other parts of an animal which appeared to have been butchered the night previous, and that at the same time he discovered the head and horns of an animal which he at once recognized to be those of the cow that was missing; And that he verily believes said cow was killed by some one or more of said band of Shasta Indians residing south of the Siskiyou Mountain, and further this affiant saith not.
(signed) James H. Russell
    Sworn to & subscribed before me the date above written
(signed) A. A. Skinner Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 28.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Milwaukie, Oregon, April 11th 1852
To / Hon. L. Lea
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            Enclosed herewith is a copy of instructions to Lewis H. Judson, sub-Indian agent, Tansy Point (mouth of the Columbia River), as forwarded to him this day.
    Mr. Samuel Culver, who has been appointed sub-Indian agent, to reside at Port Orford, is now absent to the Upper Columbia. On his return, he will be notified of his appointment and suitable instructions given to him before going to Port Orford.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Putnam C. Dart
            Acting Superintendent
                 Ad Interim
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1164-1165.



United States of America   )
Oregon Territory                 )    ss.
    On this 8th day of March A.D. 1852 before me Alonzo A. Skinner, Indian Agent for South Western Oregon, personally came E. A. Matney and made solemn oath that he knew the cow belonging to John Gibbs & co. , supposed to have been killed by the band of Shasta Indians residing south of the Siskiyou Mountain, on or about the 17th of February last, and that he believes her to have been worth one hundred dollars.
                       his
(signed) E. A. X Matney
                      mark
    Sworn to & subscribed before me the date above written
(signed) A. A. Skinner Indian Agent &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 28.



Fort Orford, Oregon
    March 18 1852
Sir,
    Enclosed are depositions taken by my predecessor in the command of this post, in the case of Seth Lount, a citizen of the United States, charged with the murder of an Indian in the town of Port Orford the 25th of January last.
    This will be handed you by Corporal Doll of my command, who has with him the prisoner, with orders to give him into your custody, to be proceeded against in due course of law, according to the 23rd section of an act of Congress entitled "An Act to Regulate Trade & Intercourse with Indian Tribes, & to Preserve Peace on the Frontiers," approved June 30, 1834.
I am, sir, very respy.
    P. T. Wyman
        Lieut. 1st  U.S. Arty.
            Comdg. Post
To
    The Sheriff
        At Portland
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1853, No. 12.


Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    March 20, 1852
Sir
    Enclosed is a letter which I supposed I had forwarded to you at the time of its date, but on looking over my portfolio this morning I find that it has never been sent. At the time I wrote this letter I was suffering so much from the felon on my finger that it was somewhat difficult for me to remember anything or to know what I was doing.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esquire
    Superintendent &c.
        Oregon City
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 26.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    March 25, 1852
Sir
    Enclosed I send you duplicate receipts for the fifty blankets which you sent me by Mr. N. C. Dean in Feby. last. If the form is not correct, please send me blanks and I will fill and sign and return them.
    I should before this have sent you certificates of the delivery of the presents which I brought out with me, but Mr. Painter, who was present at the delivery of the articles, has been absent for almost the whole time since I received the form. He will return in a few days when I can make out the certificates in accordance with the forms which you sent.
    I have mislaid the copy of the certificate of the presents I delivered to the Shasta Indians at the [river] bar at Sam's house. Will you do me the favor to forward to me a copy of that certificate, without [which] I cannot make my return.
    I have written to Mr. Brayer.
In haste
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. A. Skinner
N. DuBois Esq.
    Oregon City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 27.



PORT ORFORD CORRESPONDENCE.
    (Our correspondence from Port Orford has been so long in the keeping of the government mail officers as to be almost valueless to us. The following extract from our correspondent's last letter, dated Feb. 12, presents the state of Indian affairs in a disagreeable light, in connection with the condition of the military post at Port Orford.)
    Never was there a time, since the foundation of this settlement, when action and efficient military protection was more required than now. The same law that makes the commander of the post superintendent of Indian affairs also makes it his duty to procure the arrest of Indians who may commit any wrong, either upon the person or property of the whites, but he has absolutely refused to comply with this requirement of the law. There has been no time since the commencement of this settlement that so prompt and decisive action ought to be taken with the Indians as at the present moment, and almost daily are we warned by a small band of friendly Indians resident in the vicinity that the Coquille or the Rogue River Indians are making preparations to attack us. Application has been made to the commander of the post for some action to be taken that would hold the belligerent parties in check, but we are informed by him that he has no authority to act in the matter, consequently rendering himself but a mere cipher in the performance of public duty for the public good. Not only is he deficient in this respect but in the command of the soldiers placed in his charge, who, we regret to say, have attained that degree of independence and insubordination that they respect not even the dignity of his office, much less himself.
    They are permitted to indulge in any degree of intemperance that the appetite may desire, and not unfrequently the major part of the entire post is rendered wholly unfit for duty, on account of the extreme intoxication. The whole number of soldiers now stationed at this place is only forty-two, which would be found wholly insufficient if a desperate and combined attack should be made, particularly at a time when they are indulging in these scenes of inebriation, which are almost nightly. Matters relative to the Indians have, during the few months last past, undergone a great change, and we regret to say that change has not been for the better. At the time the report of the attack on Mr. T'Vault and his party by the Coquille Indians was made to Gen. Hitchcock, prompt and immediate action was taken upon the subject, and such action as deserves the highest commendation and respect, but the manner in which his orders have been executed by the subordinate officers needs but to be known to be censured, thus rendering Indian difficulties of a more precarious character than they were before any action was taken upon the subject.
Yours, &c.,               CLINTON.  [probably William Clinton Tichenor]
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, March 29 and April 5, 1852, page 2



LETTER FROM GEN. HITCHCOCK.
Benicia, March 30, 1852.
    Editors Alta California:--Sirs: In your paper of yesterday I perceive you publish a letter, under the head of Port Orford Correspondence, which you published entire some few days before, violently abusive of the portion of the army at that place. Why you should parade this letter repeatedly before the public is not readily conceivable, unless it is your wish to give circulation to scandal rather than furnish simply the means of correcting any evil which might be supposed to exist as described by your correspondent. I should think that a practiced editor might have perceived sufficient reasons for withholding the letter altogether from print, its temper and scope bearing unmistakable signs of the malice and vindictiveness of the writer.
    Its complimentary notice of myself is entirely unacceptable in such connection as I find it.
    The writer represents the Coquille and Rogue River Indians as hostile, and would leave the public to infer that the people of the settlement at Port Orford are exposed to massacre in the very presence of the troops placed there for their protection. This account is false. There is not a word of truth in it. The very same conveyance which brought the letter of your correspondent when first published brought also official letters from Lieut. Stanton, representing that he had but recently been aided and assisted by the Coquille Indians to cross the Coquille River, where, if they had been hostile, they might have massacred him and his party. He reports that the Indians came to him in the most friendly manner, and supplied him with fish, and furnished the boats by which he crossed the river. As to the Rogue River Indians, there are none worth speaking of west of the mountains, between Port Orford and the Oregon Trail, and those mountains have not yet been passed by any white man, and are supposed by many to be impassable, so that the Indians, especially at this season of the year, on the Upper Rogue River, can have no access to Port Orford, where there is no more danger from any Indians whatever than there is in San Francisco, unless vengeance should be attempted by a few individuals, goaded by the foulest and most monstrous wrong committed upon them by the whites at Port Orford. Only a few weeks ago, an Indian near there recovered some stolen articles, which, as a proof of his wish to live at peace, he carried to the town of his own accord, to return to the owner, and in the act of delivering the property he was brutally and savagely shot to death by a white barbarian--probably a friend of your correspondent--the latter not being pleased to see the murderous villain seized by the military commandant and held for delivery to the civil authorities.
    As to what your corespondent says of the intemperance of the soldiers, judging by the other portions of his letter, it is, if not false, a most exaggerated statement, and at all events the evil, if it be one, the people of the town owe to themselves. Let them stop the supplies of liquor to the men and the evil is ended, for liquor is not allowed in the garrison, and besides, even if the statement be partially true, your correspondent knows, or might easily know, that there are not officers enough at the garrison to form a court-martial, and that arbitrary punishments are not permitted in the army.
    On another point: Your correspondent has used an incident which took place many months ago as if of recent occurrence and of present interest, when the commanding officer, young and inexperienced, was doubtful about his authority to leave his post on distant military expeditions, and applied for instructions, which were sent to him, and since then there has been no occasion to repress Indians near Port Orford: to speak of their punishment would be an abuse of words, for if punishment fell where it is due, there is too much reason to believe it would not fall upon Indians.
    This talk about Indian hostility at Port Orford is a game perfectly understood. If the people will let the Indians alone, the Indians will not trouble them. The cry of wolf cannot always succeed, besides running the risk of failure when really well grounded, which your correspondent would do well to remember.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
    E. A. Hitchcock, Brig. Gen. U.S.A.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, April 4, 1852, page 2



State of California    )
County of Shasta       )
Deposition of Robert Whittle
taken at the instance of
John Gibbs of Rogue River Valley
    Personally appeared before me, W. T. Smith, acting justice of the peace for Scotts Bar township, county of Shasta, state of California, Robert Whittle, who being duly sworn deposes and says, That he is personally acquainted with an Indian known by the name of Swill; That he the deponent had a conversation with the said Swill in the latter part of February last in which said Swill stated that when in the Rogue River Valley a Shasta Indian had wounded a cow, and he rode up afterwards and killed her, the cow; That Swill said he did not know who was the owner of the cow; That they were nearly starved, and any white man would have done the same. Said Swill is living with the Shasta Indians at this time, and has been since the treaty made by Col. McKee, Indian agt. for Northern California, and further the deponent says not.
(signed) Robert Whittle
    Sworn and subscribed before me the 1st day of April A.D. 1852.
(signed) W. T. Smith
    J.P.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 28.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    April 9, 1852
Sir
    On or about the 17th of February last Messrs. John Gibbs & co., residing at the foot of the Siskiyou Mountain in the valley of Stuart's Creek, a tributary of Rogue River, lost a cow which at the time they supposed to have been taken by the band of Shasta Indians residing near the crossing of the Klamath River. Since that time Messrs. Gibbs & co. have procured the affidavits, copies of which I herewith enclose to you, tending to show that the cow was taken by those Indians.
    As these Indians reside south of the supposed Oregon line, and within the agency of Col. McKee, I am at a loss what disposition to make of the affidavits--whether to forward them to your office for the purpose of enabling you to communicate with the Department in California, or to send them directly to Col. McKee. I should be pleased, at as early a day as convenient, to receive instructions on the subject.
    There are several cases of depredations committed by the Indians of Rogue River Valley on the property of white men since my arrival at this agency, and I should be pleased to be informed of the view taken by the Department of the relation which exists between these Indians and the government of the United States, whether it is such as to bring those depredations within the provisions of the 17th sect. of "an act to regulate trade and intercourse with Indian tribes and to preserve peace on the frontiers" approved June 30th, 1834.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. A. Skinner
                Indian Agent
Anson Dart Esquire
    Superintendent &c.
        Oregon City
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 28.



Washington, 12th April, 1852.
The Honorable
    Luke Lea
        Sir:
            I have carefully examined all the charges made against me by His Excellency, J. P. Gaines, of Oregon, in his letter of the 5th of December last. I do not know how to express my astonishment at the course taken by the Governor in this matter. Neither malice, envy or jealousy should induce any man holding the honorable position of Governor to prefer charges against anyone that cannot be proved. It is mortifying to me to be thus forcibly compelled to vindicate myself against charges that are malignant and false. It has always been my study to treat the Governor with great respect and courtesy even to the last, as he admits, with astonishment. He says I begged of him not to send these charges to Washington. So I did, but the reasons he omits to state. I told him that his imaginations in regard to the Statesman were entirely groundless, and it was then for the first time I learned of his displeasure at anything I had done, and if Bush, the editor of the Statesman, should learn that he had succeeded in making a breach between us, he would have accomplished his ends; besides, if there was any cause whatever for a difference of opinion, it was what we, as government officers, should amicably arrange without exposing our weaknesses at Washington.
    It seems the weight of charges made in the Governor's letter against me are that I now have, or have had, some direct or indirect interest in a newspaper called The Statesman, printed at Oregon City, and that I have in some way aided or assisted in writing, or causing to be written, or furnished, some part or all of the attacks published in that paper against him. I now state (as he says I always have stated to him) the assertion is false in every particular. I never wrote, or caused to be written, a word for Bush's paper (except advertisements or notices connected with the government business), nor have I ever had any more interest in the paper than the President of the United States has had, and I defy Governor Gaines, or any other person, to prove one shadow of truth in these charges.
    I next propose to examine the astounding developments that gave the Governor so much trouble to fetch to light, viz: the writer of a letter, two paragraphs of which were published in the Statesman. It is fortunate for me that I have this very letter with me, which with three others, all written by Jesse Applegate of Southern Oregon, are herewith submitted for your perusal; the one in question is marked "A." The first information that reached me of the publication of any part of this letter was communicated by Mr. Applegate in a letter herewith, marked "B." I do not know what paragraphs were published; I never saw them in print. On the receipt of the letter marked "B," I immediately explained how the letter got into Bush's hands; see his answer in letter marked "C." After the great discovery that the letter marked "A" was written to me in answer to one I had written, the Governor was, it seems, unwilling to wait (as he agreed to do) until I could get permission from the writer to show him the letter, but he writes to the supposed author. Mr. Applegate was kind enough to forward me a copy of his letter to the Governor, which copy I herewith send you marked "D." In conclusion, on this charge I say the letter was not furnished by me to Bush for publication.
    "That what I had done was proper under the circumstances, out of which no possible evil could grow." I made no such statement. I only said that no objection had ever been made by me to the course he had felt called upon to take under the circumstances, that I had said nothing, nor had I ever written anything against his doings.
    "About the time that accounts were being hawked about in our streets, Dr. Dart left for the country east of the Cascade Mountains." If this was the case, I did not hear of it.
    The charge that there is, or was, an understanding that I am to be continued in office under a Democratic administration, "having made up my mind that the next would be Democratic," is almost too absurd to be noticed. I have only to say it is false; such an idea never entered my mind.
    On my return from Port Orford, the Governor says, he procured an interview [and] exhibited letters complaining loudly of my gross inattention to the business of Southern Oregon. He showed me no letters--he read one received from one of the men engaged in the great Rogue River war--there were others dissatisfied, because I could not pay them for serving in this war.
    I now come to charges connected with my official conduct. It is therefore fortunate for me that my statements can be corroborated by documents in the Commissioner's Office in all of this Rogue River difficulty. I only received one letter from the Governor--that I copied and forwarded a copy to the Commissioner at, I think, the same time I stated my intention to leave within a few days to treat with the Rogue River Indians for their lands, believing, as I did, that there was a plenty of funds in the Governor's hands for such a purpose belonging to the Treaty Fund. On the 23rd of July the Governor arrived in Oregon City. I immediately called upon him to learn the condition of the Treaty Fund in his hands. He could not, he said, say how much there would be, but he had spent it all in the expedition south, but he could, he thought, borrow enough to replace it of Genl. Adair, Collector at Astoria. Being fully satisfied that the amount would be entirely insufficient to undertake the Rogue River journey, I immediately made preparations to go to the mouth of the Columbia to treat with some ten bands of Indians there. On the 31st we started for Tansy Point.
    On Sunday, August 3rd, Governor Gaines' son called at Tansy Point and gave me three hundred dollars, saying that was nearly all there would be left of the Treaty Fund. I communicated these facts to the Commissioner, remarking as to the impossibility of starting to the Rogue River without funds. The Governor says, "And the Rogue River meeting was postponed until the 15th Sept. and the Indians informed of it by Dr. Dart, as he assured me. This engagement was also disregarded" [Who had spent the money?] "and after about one month of quiet leisure in this city, the Doct. took his departure." On Wednesday the 13th we arrived at Oregon City. Coming up the river on the steamer Sea Gull, Captain Tichenor informed me there were more than one hundred families at San Francisco, waiting to have a treaty made with the Indians on the coast at Port Orford, so that they could safely remove there. I informed the captain that there were no funds to go any further with the treaties. He said he would carry me, and all the men, provisions and presents, from Portland to Port Orford and back, and wait for his pay until appropriation was made. On my arrival at Oregon City, I dispatched Mr. Parris, sub-agent, up the country fifty miles after beef cattle to feed the Indians on at Port Orford, having agreed to return with the steamer on her next trip--which took about three weeks--during which time Genl. Hitchcock called to inform me that he should send a detachment of troops to Port Orford, on the Sea Gull, making it a favorable time to treat with those hitherto troublesome Indians. I was very busy every day during these three weeks getting interpreters, buying provisions, blankets, presents &c .I mention these things as you have the evidence of their truth.
    I now come to the Governor's closing charge. "Upon a full and clear view of the whole matter, I charge that Doc. Dart has been guilty of gross infidelity to those who conferred the office upon him he now holds." I am happy to know that others are to judge of this, and of whom I have no fear of injustice being done me.
    I have only to add that should the Commissioner believe me guilty in the slightest degree as charged, I would solicit the most searching investigation.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Superintendent
   

(A)
Yoncalla Umpqua
    19th August 1851.
To
    Anson Dart Esq.
        Superintendent of Indian Affairs O.T.
            Sir,
                Your favor of the 17th July was duly received and would before this have been acknowledged, but having business at Oregon City I hoped to answer your question orally, but your absence from the city on the business of your office depriving me of the pleasure of paying my respects personally, I feel it my duty to impart to you the little information I possess if it will be at all useful to you in the discharge of your duties. That portion of your letter which calls for a reply reads as follows: "I shall feel greatly obliged to you for such information as may be within your reach touching the origin or causes of the difficulties with the Indians of Southern Oregon."
    Being partial to Southern Oregon, my attention was early drawn to that region, and I have availed myself of every source and opportunity to obtain correct information of its history and geography. With much of its surface I have made myself personally acquainted, and I think I can pretend to some knowledge of the habits and character of the natives. The Indians inhabiting the country west of the Cascade Mountains and south of the Umpqua Range as far south as Mount Shasta in California are known to the whites and Columbia Indians by the general name of Shasta. They appear to use a common language, and though they may have sometimes feuds among themselves, they band together against a common enemy.
    In the early occupation of the country, trapping parties were sent into this region. I have learned from some of the gentlemen heading these parties that in their early intercourse with the whites the natives did not appear disposed to shed blood, but were inveterate thieves, their cupidity being only exceeded by their dexterity in gratifying it at the expense of others.
    Though apparently desirous to cultivate the friendship of their visitors, they appeared wholly incapable of resisting their propensity to steal whenever an opportunity presented itself, and according to the stories of the trappers the most dexterous of the Old World were their inferiors in the "act of appropriation."
    From this trait of character the Canadians gave them the very appropriate surname of "rascal," from which the principal stream of the country is now known as the Rascal or Rogue River, and its ancient and far more musical appellation of Tututni is almost entirely disused. Though in many instances where the thief was taken in the fact a summary punishment was inflicted, yet in accordance with their general policy of conciliation I have heard of no instance in which parties belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company inflicted the punishment of death for a crime of less degree than murder.
    The first extreme punishment inflicted on these people for their disregard of the laws of property was by a party headed by Ewing Young Esq., late of Chehalem Valley and the founder of that settlement.
    His party of 18 men were encamped on the Tututni near its mouth; a large number of the natives assembled at his camp, and while in the act of stealing some meat from a scaffold, the party, being under arms, received from Mr. Young the order to fire. A terrible slaughter of the unprepared natives ensued, and the only injury sustained by the assailants was a severe bite received by one of the men while stripping the skin from the head of an Indian not yet dead.
    Mr. Young on the same expedition visited the Klamath Lake, where again a large body of Indians approached his camp, as he believed with hostile intent; he anticipated their attack, killing a number on the land and driving the rest into the lake, where my informant (one of the party) is confident one hundred must have perished.
    These facts were related to me by Mr. George Gay of Yamhill County, an inveterate Indian hater and a justifier of Mr. Young, but as in both instances the whites acted on suspicion only, the Indians making no positive demonstrations of hostility, they can be regarded only as wanton destruction of human life.
    Mr. Young's expedition took place 12 or 15 years ago, and I have gone thus back into the early history of the intercourse of the whites with the southern Indians because in that period I think is found the answer to your inquiry.
    Since that expedition these people have ever been hostile to the whites. Being by nature suspicious and revengeful even if their after treatment by whites had been uniformly friendly, it is doubtful whether these early injuries would yet be forgotten.
    But as a great thoroughfare lies through their country, the kindness they have received at the hands of one party has sometimes caused them to trust themselves in the power of another, where the existence of an ancient grudge or a reckless spirit has made them repent their confidence.
    Consequently, as fear and interest are their governing principles, they continue to gratify their ancient cupidity by robbing & stealing on all favorable opportunities, and for the ill treatment they receive from the strong, they retaliate on the weak.
    Such was the state of things when the late Superintendent, Ex-Gov. Lane resigned his commission as such to take effect sometime in June 1850. As he was about to pass through the Rogue River country on his way to California, he fixed a day for his resignation to take effect sufficiently distant as he thought to enable him to reach that country and in some way bring about a better understanding with these people. That his intentions in inviting the Indians to his camp, treating them kindly and making them presents, were to promote the best interests of his country, cannot be doubted, and by inducing the "Abiding Horse" and some others of the principal men to enter into an agreement to keep the peace, he partially effected his object, but as by his own limitation he had ceased to be an officer of his government, he could only regard his acts, however good in their tendency, as the unauthorized efforts of a private citizen. For Gov. Lane too well knows what is due to his government to have in an official capacity received as friends savages tricked out in arms and clothing obtained by the rapine and murder of her citizens and soldiers, without demanding and enforcing ample restitution. He looked (as we have long looked in vain) to the establishment of a military post in the country, and from such establishment alone in my opinion are we to expect a permanent peace.
      Before the appearance of Mr. Spalding's publication in the Spectator of August 5th, I was not aware that the late treaty negotiated with a part of the Rogue River Indians was the act of Gov. Gaines. I had supposed that power vested in the Indian Department, and I had also understood that Mr. Spalding's precipitate journey to Rogue River was undertaken solely to relieve Gov. Gaines from the necessity of assuming this power; if such was not the object of the Indian agent and Gov. Gaines powers were competent to enable him to appear for and bind his government in a treaty, Mr. Spalding in his great zeal to share the dangers of such negotiations should not have forgotten that the Umpqua Indians would again feel disappointed and aggrieved at his nonappearance at a meeting to which he had called them, and that his congregation on the Sabbath would ascribe the absence of their spiritual adviser to some personal calamity. If his perilous journey was performed merely to give the Governor the benefit of his advice and deep insight in Indian character, we cannot but admire his modesty while we regret that it deprives him of his full share of the honors of this transaction.
    I much regret that this treaty has become a theme of contention with the people and a source of virulent attack upon the Governor by the opposition proper, and that he appears very sensitive to a discussion of its merits. He should be satisfied with knowing that he had conscientiously acted for the best, and whether the people approve or the government sanction the act, his good intentions will be acknowledged and fully appreciated by both.
    I have through life adhered to Whig principles and been identified with them as a party, but arriving at my political, as I have my religious, opinions from the convictions of my judgment, I am neither a partisan in the one nor a sectarian in the other. I therefore feel that in giving some of the reasons why I consider the Rogue River treaty as not being the best arrangement that might have been made, and that the proposed purchase of the country by the Indian commissioners is premature, that I am not surrendering any political principle or arraying myself personally against Gov. Gaines, for whom I entertain the highest esteem, according to the publication of Mr. Spalding, "The conditions of the treaty are to give up prisoners and property on both sides" &c. The acknowledgment by our diplomatists that the Indians have a just claim to the restitution of horses and mules taken from them by the whites is not only in itself false but is calculated to encourage in them the commission of the very crimes for which they have lately received a severe punishment and to prevent which I thought the treaty was negotiated.
    For whether the horses and mules referred to have been wrested from them by their proper owners or not (for five of which Mr. Spalding has himself to account, as they were taken by his orders), it is a well-known fact that these Indians have come into the possession of such property only by robbery and theft.
    And while the whites are to make restitution in kind, it appears the Indians are only to pay for their stolen property out of monies to be drawn by a future treaty out of the Treasury of the U.S., while the whites are threatened with the penalties of the law in case of failure to make ample restitution to the Indians; those having claims against them are exhorted to use forbearance, as "It will not be prudent to retain so much of the monies as to irritate the Indians"!!
    After inflicting a severe punishment on the Indians as a further means of bringing them to terms, Maj. Kearny held a number of their women & children prisoners, some of them belonging to the family of the principal chief. So long as these captives were in our hands the peace of the country was secured. They should have been held until all just demands were complied with, and such steps taken by the government as would secure the peace of the country hereafter. But they were hastily released upon the bare promise of a pact only of those engaged in hostilities, which even if they understand (which is doubtful) they will no longer observe than suits their convenience.
    The concluding sentence of Mr. Spalding's communication reads, "From testimony on all hands, the great loss of life and property were brought about by the brutal act of a single individual." The use of such language by an officer of the government I think is highly improper.
    If from "testimony" he can fix upon "a single individual" all the rapine and bloodshed which has been perpetrated in Rogue River Valley, it is his duty to bring him to punishment; if he cannot establish the fact, he should not make the slanderous assertion.
    I have been informed Mr. Long was summoned to Oregon City by Mr. Spalding to answer to the charge of murder. The attendance of a prosecuting witness was secured by the promise of a daily compensation, while Mr. Long was left to his resources to obtain rebutting evidence. This he did by taking with him six witnesses. The journey was performed at a great loss of time and expense, and Mr. Long discharged without examination. If he were the guilty person alluded to by Mr. Spalding, his conviction and punishment was due to the country. If innocent he should not have been drawn a great distance from his place of business and procure the evidence necessary to his acquittal at his own expense. If Mr. Spalding alludes to an individual other than Mr. Long, the remark is equally uncalled for, as it, in case of the guilt of such person, will put him on his guard and enable him to escape the punishment he deserves or in case of a trial it is calculated to create either strong prejudices against or strong sympathy for the accused, according to the personal or political bias of the people.
    And lastly it has but recently come to my knowledge that the men employed to occupy Rogue River Valley are with the consent and approval of Mr. Spalding trading guns and ammunition to the Indians and receiving in return horses, which as I before remarked have been obtained surreptitiously from the whites. This act alone if generally known would create a burst of indignation from one end of the country to the other.
    The mode by which the commissioners propose to enable the Indians to indemnify those who have suffered losses by them, I think is in many respects objectionable.
    It may be objected by the government that many of the losses were sustained during the joint occupation of the country by Great Britain and the United States, and many of the sufferers were at the time and perhaps still are foreigners, and that all of them lost their property in a country the inhabitants of which they knew to be hostile and which they entered at their own risk and by their own free will. That with these people the government has never been on terms of friendship or entered into any treaty unless the informal one of Gov. Lane is so considered, which is of a date too recent to cover many cases.
    The country is not yet needed for agricultural purposes; there is no place to which the natives may be removed out of it, and further they are at this time too ignorant to understand the nature of the contract they are expected to enter into, the value of their country, or of the money and property they are to receive in payment. A better understanding of these things is sure to lead to discontent among the Indians hereafter, and then follows the troubles the purchase is intended to prevent.
    I think therefore the purchase of the country will be premature and will not further the end to be accomplished.
    Whatever treaty stipulations you see proper to enter into with these Indians I am of opinion a military post and a permanent Indian agency should be established in their country to enforce its observance. Unless this be done, to restrain the treachery and cupidity of the natives on the one side, and those vicious and reckless characters which the mines of the country bring into it on the other, I am fully persuaded that a treaty, however formally entered into, or however good the intentions of the contracting parties, will in itself be a nullity.
    Excuse the length of this epistle, which has insensibly grown under my hand without more touching upon many points which I should be pleased to elicit your opinion by freely expression my own.
Very respectfully
    Jesse Applegate
   
(B)
Yoncalla Umpqua Co. O.T.
    26th Oct. 1851
To
    Anson Dart
        Superintendent Indian Affairs
            Sir
                Your favor of 17th October was received last evening.
    The proposition it contains as a mark of your esteem is flattering, but I am sorry from it to perceive that my motives in the correspondence with which you have honored me has been misconstrued. I therefore avail myself of the present as a fit opportunity to set you right on that subject.
    Besides the reasons assigned by you for applying to me for information that the "agent for Southern Oregon had never been at this post," I was induced to reply to your letters from the strong interest I feel in the prosperity of the country generally, and my own locality in particular.
    Believing you to be an officer earnestly desirous of discharging your duty (which I am sorry to say is in Oregon an anomaly), even the presence of the then incumbent would not I conceive have been a sufficient reason for withholding any assistance in my power to render you, as I considered him in every way unfit for the station.
    But if the incumbent (as I hope is now the case) had been qualified and disposed to discharge his duties it would no doubt have justified you in concluding my communicativeness grew out of a desire to exalt myself in your estimation either from vanity or a wish to obtain your patronage.
    Though I must in frankness confess that I am weak enough (if it is a weakness) to value the good opinion of those whose conduct or character entitle them to mine, I am thankful I have never sought the favor of anyone for mercenary motives, or in any shape solicited the patronage of either government or people and am truly mortified if my letters to you admit of such construction.
    My last letter, which was written under the impression that the information it contained was really needed to enable you to decide justly and properly upon the merits of question which party feelings and particular discussion had tended to mystify, I regret to see has been suffered to be used in a way not intended, and by the disconnected extract which appears in the Statesman causes the writer to appear to be taking part in a discussion in which he had no wish to appear, and on a side with which he has no sympathy.
    This course was the more surprising as in your acknowledgment of its receipt you appear clearly to understand its private character by asking my consent to forwarding a copy to the Indian Dept. at Washington.
    Hoping you will excuse the freedom, I cannot forbear to say that the able and talented editor of the Statesman will rejoice in an opportunity of rendering odious an administration and breaking down a party to which his principles are hostile, by fomenting discords among its official representatives, and though he may now unite with all others of the people of the Territory in giving you the just praise you have merited by your ability and diligence, he will not utter a word in your favor to save you from the proscription his party will exercise if they succeed in obtaining the power.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Jesse Applegate
   
(C)
Yoncalla Umpqua O.T.
    16th November 1851.
Dear Sir
    Your letter of the 4th inst. was last night received, and the open and frank spirit in which it is dictated demands that it receive at my hands an equally frank and sincere reply.
    As a first evidence of that sincerity it is my duty to state that my last letter was dictated under an impression unfavorable to the purity of motives that directed your conduct, and the singleness of purpose with which I had before believed you governed in the discharge of your onerous duties.
    Besides the appearance of the extract of my letter in the Statesman and the marked deference and respect with which you have always been treated by that paper, I had yet a further cause of suspicion, in the shape of a letter (marked confidential) from a personage whose name it is unnecessary to mention, but who is, or aspires to be, the champion of the Whigs in this Territory, which besides other matter to the same effect contains the following words: "There are many I regret to say whose political integrity is in my estimation questionable, among them some of our government officers" and then follows a list of those functionaries who remain pure in the faith in which you are not included.
    I state this to show you that I did not on light grounds even hazard wounding the feelings of a man of whom I had formed an exalted opinion and at whose hands I had received such flattering testimonies of respect.
    I will dismiss this disagreeable subject by saying at once and for all that your frank and candid letter has more than reinstated you in the high place in my opinion your faithful and efficient services as an officer had placed you, and to treat with equal brevity that portion of your letter which relates to myself allow me to say that I am not without ambition, and that I aspire to establish a name that a numerous posterity may not blush to acknowledge their parentage.
    But I am too well acquainted with my own wants in education and ability to attempt to do so by the attainment of high station. There is an humbler path that circumstances have marked out for me that I may tread with honor, while a higher walk would only expose my deficiencies.
    At the age of forty, when all the romance with which youth colors the future has faded into the stern realities of life, I find myself surrounded by a numerous offspring for whose support and education I with them am bound to labor with my hands. I can expect for them no higher place in the social scale than I myself occupy, and as after God I owe to them the first duty, I am not certain that the time I take from my daily labors and nightly rest to bestow on the affairs of my country may not in my circumstances be a culpable neglect of duty which in others or under other circumstances would be the most exalted public virtue.
    In regard to official station I aspire to none, nor would I accept of any whether high or low unless my particular observation and experience enabled me to fill it with honor to myself and advantage to the people, nor any that would long separate me from my family whose education and wants require my constant and personal superintendence.
    To whatever elevated station your higher destiny may lead you, or my less prosperous one may assign to me, with this most candid explanation I sincerely hope that nothing will occur in future to mar the good understanding between us.
    With your wish that I should correspond with you frequently at Washington I will comply, and as I feel confident I may frankly and freely express myself (as I am but too apt to do for a politician), I shall on all subjects on which I pretend to give information express an opinion do so without reserve--not in the spirit of dictation or arrogance, but like other data to be taken for what it is worth, and I shall feel myself well repaid if they assist you in making up any course of action for the benefit of the country.
    I cannot however close without protesting against one sentiment contained in your letter in regard to holding office under a Locofoco administration. God forbid that offices created for the benefit of the whole people should ever be considered the spoils or private property of the successful party and that the claims of honesty and capacity must be set aside to gratify the avarice of its corrupt and servile followers.
    I hope you will have frequent intercourse with our Delegate Gen. Lane. You will find him or I am much mistaken [willing] cordially to cooperate with you in any plan by which Oregon will be benefited, and to whom I have already written a few letters, one of them on a subject in which all my feelings both public and private are deeply interested and for the furtherance of which I am ready to make almost any sacrifice--and in which you can if you approve render eminent assistance. It is exploring the country along the 42nd parallel and the establishment of a line of military posts for the protection of emigrants from your people.
I am with the highest
    Respect and esteem
        Your obdt. servt.
            Jesse Applegate
Anson Dart Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
   
(D)
Yoncalla O.T.
    21st November 1851
His Excellency
    Jno. P. Gaines
        Dear Sir,
            Your favor of the 12th Nov. by the hand of Mr. T'Vault is before me, and I at once proceed to reply.
    I of course regret my name or act should be mixed up in the elements of discord between the officers of a Whig administration, but far more deeply do I regret the discord itself.
    That I replied to a letter of Dr. Dart asking information in regard to the origin of the difficulties in Southern Oregon is true, and it is also true that in that letter the Rogue River treaty was freely discussed. But I would remark to your excellency that the letter was not written until the appearance of Mr. Spalding's publication in the Spectator of the 5th of August, who as an Indian agent under the supervision of Dr. Dart making the publication in an official form it was certainly presumable that whoever negotiated the treaty the Indian Department had assumed it as its act.
    It may also be necessary to state that my letter was only one in a series that were passed between Dr. Dart and myself, growing out of the absence and inefficiency of the Indian agent for this part of Oregon, which intercourse (for I have never met Dr. Dart) had led me to form a high opinion of that gentleman's ability as an officer and urbanity as a gentleman.
    An extract from my letter in the Statesman and letters from other quarters established in my mind the truth of the rumored misunderstanding between yourself and that gentleman and inclined me to give credit to the still graver charge of political unsoundness. As soon as I was notified of the return of the Superintendent from Port Orford I addressed him on the subject of this apparent breach of confidence.
    I mention this last circumstance not to exonerate myself (as it is evident from your letter you attach no consequence to the part I [have] taken) but to explain the probable cause of Dr. Dart's after conduct in declining to show you the letter which he had previously agreed to do "with the consent of the writer."
    Supposing by my letter of last month that it was not my wish to be known as the writer, you cannot but admit it was highly honorable in him to risk your displeasure rather than expose a confidence. It is also proper to say that my letter is addressed to him in his official capacity without any injunction to secrecy and (until the receipt of my last letter) could not be regarded in a light more sacred than other public records of his office, which you know by universal courtesy are open to all public journalists--and further if he ever had any scruples in showing you the letter it was not, nor could not be, on his own account but mine.
    I am sorry your excellency by repeatedly informing me that "you had no wish to see the letter" has cut off from me the means of removing any unpleasant feelings you may have respecting it by presenting you a full copy, by which you would see that it contains nothing personally offensive towards you whatever. And as Dr. Dart also appears to be under a mistake, and it contains nothing I wish to retract or excuse, I shall authorize him to publish it on the "housetops" if he chooses to do so. I must however add that if the remarks made on the subject of the Rogue River treaty as a public measure should by any misconstruction be applied personally I shall deeply regret it, but under no personal considerations would I under such circumstances feel justified in stating anything but my honest opinions.
I am with the highest respect
    Your obedient servant
        Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1136-1157.



Umpqua City O.T. April 17th A.D. 1852
Sir
    At the request of several inhabitants of Umpqua City, I would respectfully call your attention to the necessity of treating with the Indians in this vicinity, and negotiating with them for their claims to the lands or for certain privileges connected therewith.
    I would observe that Umpqua Indians, especially those living at the mouth of the river, comprising about fifty, are generally peaceably inclined and friendly. There is also a tribe residing north of this place on and in the vicinity of the Siuslaw River whose demeanor is for the most part friendly toward us, but those further north are rather hostile. There are also one or two tribes south of this place, living in the vicinity of the Coos River, parties of which sometimes make predatory excursions to this place, committing serious depredations and plundering the settlers of valuable property. They have in several instances broken into houses during the temporary absence of the occupants, robbing them of every article of value, and having but a small population in this place we have been obliged to submit to all these predatory acts without the means of procuring satisfaction. From the facilities of intercourse north and south on the coast and to the interior from this place it is confidently believed that a greater number of Indians can be concentrated within any given time than at any other point south of the Columbia River. We hope, therefore, as we believe it necessary in order to prevent serious trouble, that you will meet with them at this place at an early day at least so far as to make them sensible of their responsibility for all future aggressions toward us.
Very respectfully
    N. Scholfield
To Dr. Dart
    Indian Commissioner
        for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 29.



Washington, 20th April, 1852.
Dear Sir:
    I deem it
highly important that you should be made acquainted with some facts connected with the six Indian treaties made by Gaines, Allen and Skinner in the month of April last in the Territory of Oregon, believing as I do that the difficulties which I am about to relate were unknown to the above commissioners at the time of making their report on these treaties. You will observe by reference to these treaties that in each one the Indians have made for themselves a reservation of land of greater or less extent, set apart for their own exclusive use; another provision, however, grants to each settler then residing on these reservations (in conformity to the land law passed during the Thirty-First Congress) each one mile square. It was supposed at the making of these treaties, both by the commissioners and the Indians, that there were but few settlers claiming land on these reservations. It has subsequently been ascertained that in two cases the whole, or very nearly the whole, reservation is claimed by actual settlers. In the other reservations the good land is all claimed also. You will readily see that the difficulties in the case are not easily overcome.
    The settler claims by virtue of an act of Congress in which no provisions are made for the prior Indian title to these lands. The settlers, therefore, do not allow the Indians to occupy these reservations. I have persuaded the Indians to remain quiet, assuring them that the treaties were yet to go before the President and Senate, and that full explanations would then be given of all the facts in the case, that strict justice would there be done them.
    I do not see any better method to adopt in these cases than to buy out the Indian title to these reservations, and give them as an equivalent other lands (unoccupied, if such can be found). To buy the settlers' claims to these reservations would involve a very large sum of money--say not less than fifty thousand dollars--the only other alternative seems to be to reject the treaties; this would cause great delay in perfecting titles to the many old settlers on these lands, to say nothing of the cost of new treaties.
    You will doubtless recollect that I have while in Oregon set forth other difficulties connected with these treaties, viz: The undervalue of goods to be furnished: The reservation made by the northern band of Molallas covering three fourths of the whole quantity ceded to the United States.
    Our Delegate, Genl. Lane, has made himself fully acquainted with many of the facts set forth in this letter, to whom I would refer to for any additional information.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent of Indian
                Affairs for Oregon
The Honorable
    Luke Lea
        Commissioner of Ind. Affrs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1114-1116.




Indian Agency Rogue River
    April 20, 1852
Sir
    In many cases of depredations committed by Indians on the property of white men, from the nature of the case it is impossible to obtain the testimony of white men to establish their claims.
    I should be pleased if you would inform me at as early a day as convenient whether the testimony or statements of Indians will be sufficient to entitle them to indemnity.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
            Ind. Agent
Anson Dart Esq.
    Supert. Ind. Affairs &c.
        Oregon City
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 31.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    April 20, 1852
Dear Sir
    The bearer of this, Mr. Robert M. Painter, wishes to get the contract of furnishing the beef and of hauling out the presents which you will probably find necessary if you come out here the ensuing summer for the purpose of treating with the Indians of this valley.
    Mr. Painter came out with me last fall and has been with me most of the time since our arrival in the valley. I can recommend him to you as a gentleman of integrity, energy and good business capacity.
    If Mr. Painter is willing to deliver the beef and goods at this place at as low rates as any other responsible person I should be much pleased to have him get the contract.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esq.
    Supert. Ind. Affairs &c.
        Oregon City
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 34.


   
    Examination of witnesses before A. A. Skinner, Indian agent, held at Rogue River Bar--known as "Big Bar"--May 7, 1852.
    In case of Silas A. Holmes, charged with having shot an Indian.
    C. L. Fuller, being duly sworn by Indian agent, says: Dft. on the day above written about 1 o'clock p.m. struck an Indian boy one or two blows with a riding whip, and the boy left camp, soon after which the Indian that was afterwards shot came into camp and expressed indignation at the treatment of the boy, saying that there were but few whites now here and many Indians, that the whites were bad & must go away from here. Dft. then said: "Go away from here" & repeated the words two or three times, at same time walked towards Indian making signs and significations for him to go. As dft. stepped towards Indian, Indian made motion with his hand to draw his knife--upon which dft. pushed Indian away with his hand and snatched a small wagon whip from the hand of a witness, with which dft. struck at Indian. Does not know whether dft. hit the Indian or not. Indian on receiving the blow from the whip dodged to the ground and picked up a stone as large as he could conveniently hold in his hand, which he threw at dft. with much spite and force. Dft. dodged the stone so that it passed over his head. Dft. immediately arose to his feet, exclaiming "Give me a pistol" "Give me a pistol" when someone inside the tent exclaimed loudly "Don't shoot" repeating the words two or three times. Dft. did not appear to hear what was said but started for his own tent, which was near, and picked up his own pistol. He then run on after the Indian a few steps further when I heard the report of a pistol. Did not see dft. shoot. Witness with a number of others proceeded immediately on hearing report of pistol in the direction of the sound and found an Indian lying on the ground shot in the back.
C. L. Fuller
    La Fayette Witt: Being duly sworn deposes and says--First saw little Indian boy running from tent and saw deft. throw a small stick after him. Am not certain that the stick hit the boy. Stick was so small that if it did hit the boy it did not hurt him. Seeing this I went to Mr. Holmes' (dft.) tent, from which the boy was running. About half hour after the boy returned and deft. again ordered him to leave and took a whip from a bystander and struck the boy one or two blows, lightly. He again went off about two hundred yards. The Indian that was shot during the above transaction was standing at the table attached to one of Mr. Burgess' tents, eating, and on the whipping of the boy remarked that dft. was not a good man. I soon turned towards another tent. The next thing I saw of an unusual nature was dft. dodging to the ground. Heard dft. at this time exclaim "Give me a pistol"--saw Indian running & dft. in pursuit--heard the report of a pistol and saw the Indian fall. The above transaction took place on the "Big Bar" on Rogue River--about 8 miles above Evans Ferry, in Oregon Territory.
    Defendant has always heretofore treated the Indians that came about the camp with kindness, often feeding them. Lafayette William Witt--Being duly sworn deposes and says that at the time & place above written saw defendant pursue the Indian and shoot him--first previous to the shooting saw the Indian make an attempt to draw his knife.
William Witt
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 43.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    May 9th, 1852
Dear Sir
    A difficulty occurred on Friday last between an Indian and a white man by the name of Holmes in which the Indian was seriously wounded--perhaps mortally. The affair has been amicably settled by Mr. Holmes with the Indians. As the Indians appear entirely satisfied with the manner in which the matter has been arranged with them, I have deemed it best not to arrest and send Mr. H. down to the Willamette for trial in accordance with our laws.
    His arrest and transportation to the Willamette would have incurred a very heavy expense with but little prospect of any good resulting from it on account of the almost utter impossibility of ever getting the necessary evidence in to any of the organized counties of the Territory.
    The person who will carry this to Mr. Horam is now waiting for me to write, and it is impossible for me at this time to give you a detailed account of the affair. I will write you again in a few days. In the meantime I would beg to refer you to Mr. Horam, the bearer of this note, who is conversant with the whole transaction.
In great haste
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 39.



Office Sub Agt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland 10th May 1852
Dear Sir
    A gentleman arrived at this place from Port Orford last Saturday evening. He left that place four weeks since & came up the coast by land. He states in regard to matters at Port Orford that the Indians are in a very unsettled state, though not so bad as before. One of their number was killed by the whites, the account of which I gave you some information some days since.
    He also states that the whites are very much dissatisfied because some agent is not there, or someone [to] visit them in whom the Indians have confidence to settle some difficulties that now exist between them and the whites. The Indians are certainly stealing, and unless they are checked there is great fear of serious difficulty.
I am with great [omission]
    Your obt. servant
        J. L. Parrish
            Sub-Ind. Agent
P. C. Dart Esqr.
    Act. Supt.
        Milwaukie O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 36.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    May 26, 1852.
Dear Sir
    Enclosed I send you
certificates of the delivery of the blankets and calico which I left with Joseph Knott Esq. last fall while on my way to this valley, and also of the delivery of 47 of the last 50 which I received last winter. The certificate of the delivery of the goods is not strictly in accordance with the from which I received from your office, but the circumstances are such as to render it impossible for me to procure any other than the one I send you. Please inform me at your earliest convenience whether the one enclosed is sufficient.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner            I
            Ind. Agent
Anson Dart Esquire
    Supert. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 45.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    May 26, 1852.
Sir
    For the past two months the Indians living on Cow Creek south of the Kenyon and on Grave Creek have committed numerous depredations on the property of white men who have passed through their country. Repeated complaints have been made to me and repeated application under the provisions of the act of 1834. But not being yet informed of the view taken by yourself of the relation which exists between these Indians and the United States I have not been able to give them any satisfactory answers as to the prospects of their getting pay for their property taken by these Indians.
    Unless the relations between these Indians and the government of the U.S. is such that persons suffering from their depredations can have a prospect of remuneration either from the Indians or the U.S. it will in my opinion be quite impossible to promise persons suffering from their thievish disposition from seeking revenge and bringing on open hostilities with these people.
    I intend to leave home on Monday morning next for the purpose of visiting those Indians and shall probably go as far as the South Umpqua. I should have visited these Indians long since, but it has not been in my power to do so. My presence has appeared necessary all of the time in this valley. And on account of the roads it is almost impracticable to get from this valley to the Umpqua during the winter and spring.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
            Ind. Agent
Anson Dart Esquire
    Super. Ind. Affairs
        Milwaukie
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 42.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    May 26, 1852.
Sir
    On the 10th inst. I wrote you a hasty note stating that a difficulty had occurred on the "Big Bar" of Rogue River in which an Indian had been seriously if not mortally wounded. Circumstances at that time prevented me from giving you a detailed statement of the transaction, which I now proceed to do.
    The examination of witnesses which I herewith enclose [see above] I believe gives a tolerably full statement of the origin of the difficulty, and of all that occurred connected with the matter previous to my arrival at the Bar.
    I immediately on my arrival at the Bar I caused Silas N. Holmes to be arrested and commenced an examination for the purpose of enabling me to ascertain the facts of the case. With the view of enabling me to judge of the extent of the injury done the Indian I dispatched a messenger for a surgeon to examine the wound, who arrived about 10 o'clock on Friday evening, and after such examination as under the circumstances it was practicable to make he pronounced the wound a dangerous one, and gave it as his opinion that it would probably prove fatal.
    On Saturday morning Mr. Holmes wished to propose to the Indians to settle the matter by paying them. In view of the almost utter impossibility of procuring the attendance of the necessary witnesses in any of the organized counties of the Territory, and the dissatisfaction which would arise among the Indians if the prisoner should be sent to the valley for trial and discharged on account of the absence of the witnesses, I consented to his making the proposition to the Indians.
    At the time the proposition was made to them I reminded the Indians of what I had told them on my arrival in the valley. That if an Indian injured a white man, or if a white man injured an Indian I had no power to punish the offender in either case, but that I would send him to the Willamette Valley for trial. I informed the Indians that I was now willing to send Mr. Holmes to the Willamette for trial, and would do so if they desired it, but if they wished to settle the matter with Mr. Holmes by his paying them property I had no objections. But that I wished them to understand that the pay came from Holmes and not from the government of the United States, and that in case of the injury or murder of a white man by an Indian the matter could never be settled by the payment of property, but that the offender would be punished in accordance with our laws.
    Sam, the principal war chief, on whom devolves the entire control of the affair, in the absence of Joe, the principal chief, stated that if Mr. Holmes would pay the Indians five horses, ten blankets and thirty dollars in money they would be perfectly satisfied, and as friendly with the whites as if nothing of the kind had occurred, and that he would much prefer this mode of settling the affair to having the prisoner sent to the valley for trial. I also informed the Indians of the opinion of the surgeon with reference to the nature of the wound, and told them that if the Indian who was wounded should recover the whites would all be much rejoiced, and Mr. Holmes would not expect them to return any part of the property, and that if the Indian died we should expect them to say no more about the matter, but continue their friendly feelings towards the whites.
    On arriving at the "Bar" on the day the Indian was wounded I was surprised to see the Indians so little excited, and to see them manifest so much good sense and coolness. This I presume is attributable in part to the fact that the Indian wounded was not a man of much consequence in the tribe, or one very highly esteemed with the other Indians, but principally I believe to their confidence in the disposition of the great majority of the whites to see that justice was done to the Indians. The Indians at once informed me that they felt entirely friendly with all the other whites on the Bar, and that they had no disposition to seek revenge on any other white man, that they believed the other whites disapproved of the conduct of Holmes and wished to have him punished, and that if Holmes was punished they would be perfectly satisfied.
    I have never seen any community of white men under similar circumstances exhibit more forbearance and good sense than did the Indians on this occasion.
    The Indian who was wounded is not yet dead, and there is at present good reason to hope that he will yet recover from the effects of the wound.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. A. Skinner
                Ind. Agent
Anson Dart Esquire
    Super. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 43.



Fort Orford, Oregon
    May 28 1852
Sir,
    I have the honor to inform you
that the ship which carries this letter to you will carry a citizen named Seth Lount to Portland, charged with the murder of an Indian in the town of Port Orford, on the 25th of January last. This man will be delivered by one of my command into the custody of the sheriff to proceeded against in due course of law, in pursuance of an act of Congress regarding Indian affairs, approved June 30, 1834. The depositions taken in the case by my predecessor in the command of this post will also be delivered to the sheriff at the same time.
    I deemed it proper to notify you of these facts & am, sir, very resp'y.
P. T. Wyman
    Lieut. 1st Arty.
        Comdg. Post
To Rev. J. L. Parrish
    Indian Agent
        Portland
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 47.




United States of America   )
Territory of Oregon            )  s.s.
    On this 10th day of June A.D. 1852 before me A. A. Skinner Indian agent for southwestern Oregon personally came Richard W. Bragg who being duly sworn says that he together with Thomas C. Bragg and James McClenny and ------ Elliott on or about the first of March last came into the Rogue River Valley with about one hundred and forty-five hogs the property of Turner Crump and William Cox, that the hogs were placed in my care for the purpose of being butchered and sold at the mines in Rogue River Valley. That on or about the first of April last thirty-six of said hogs were missing, and a few days subsequent to the time when the hogs were missing I was informed by an Umpqua Indian that twenty-one of said hogs had been killed by the Indians living on Rogue River above Table Rock. That about the 15th of April last twenty-five of said hogs were missing, that on discovering the fact he immediately started in pursuit of the hogs and soon discovered a trail where a large number of hogs had been driven. That he followed said trail into the hills about six miles above the Indian agency, that after entering the hills the trail turned to the left and ran in the direction of Rogue River in the vicinity of the village of the Indians who were said by the Indians to have taken the first lot of hogs herein referred to, and that he followed said trail about twenty-five miles but could not overtake them. And that about the tenth of May last seven more of said hogs were missing, that immediate [sic] he [went] in pursuit and discovered their trail and followed it and found three of said hogs and discovered the trail where from appearances the balance of said seven had been driven across Rogue River nearly opposite to Table Rock. That on the day subsequent to that on which he found the three hogs above referred to he discovered in the woods east of Mr. Thompson's ranch where a hog had been killed and eaten apparently by the Indians, that a part of the head and bones of a hog were still remaining at the place. And that he verily believes that all of the hogs herein mentioned as missing were stolen by said Indians residing on Rogue River above Table Rock.
    That at the time the hogs herein referred to were taken he was selling hogs out of the same drove at $.35 & $.40 per lb. and that he believes that the hogs stolen would have averaged at least two hundred pounds each.
R. W. Bragg
Subscribed and sworn to the date here mentioned before me.
A. A. Skinner
Ind. Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1259-1261.



United States of America   )
Oregon Territory                 )  s.s.
    On this 11th day of June A.D. 1852 before me A. A. Skinner Indian agent for southwestern Oregon personally came James McClenny who being duly sworn says that on or about the first of March last he came into the Rogue River Valley in company with & in the employ of Richard W. Bragg who had charge of about one hundred and forty-four hogs, the property of Turner Crump & William Cox. That he remained with said Bragg from the said first of March until about four days since. That on or about the first of April last thirty-six of said hogs were missing, that as soon as that fact was discovered R. W. Bragg & himself went in pursuit and discovered a trail where hogs had been driven, that they followed it to where it crossed the Rogue River a short distance below Table Rock but were unable to follow it any further. That at the place where the trail crossed the river there were a great many tracks of Indians & also along the trail before they came to the river. And that about the 10th of May last seven more of said hogs were missing, that a few days subsequent while looking for said hogs he discovered the head of a hog which he believed to have been the head of one of the hogs which were missing, that on the succeeding day he discovered at an Indian camp, which was at that time deserted, the bones of a hog which appeared to have been killed and eaten by the Indians at that place, that some ten days subsequent to finding the bones of the hog at the Indian camp above referred to he found three of said seven hogs between the Willow Springs & the Indian agency. That three or four [days] after finding the hogs last referred to four other hogs were missing, that he went in pursuit and found three of them on the creek about two miles below the Indian agency near where some Indians had been encamped, but that the Indians had left their camp before he found the hogs. And this affiant further says that on or about the 25th of May last while R. W. Bragg & himself were driving said hogs together they saw an Indian attempting to drive off a portion of the hogs belonging to the herd of which they had the charge, that Mr. Bragg started in pursuit of said Indian but could not overtake him and that the Indian ran in the direction of Table Rock. And that he verily believes that all of the hogs herein referred to as missing from said herd belonging to Messrs. Crump & Cox were stolen by the Indians living on Rogue River above Table Rock, and that the hogs stolen would have averaged at least one hundred and seventy-five pounds each.
James McClenny
Subscribed and sworn to this 11th day of June A.D. 1852.
A. A. Skinner
Ind. Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1256-1258.



Indian Superintendency Milwaukie Oregon
    June 15, 1852
Sir:
    Enclosed I send you a new commission and also form of bond to be executed by you in the penal sum of $5,000 and returned to this office. The first commission you received was considered as of temporary character, but the present one is with the order and consent of the Senate and as [a] new appointment.
    The Superintendent is expected to arrive with the steamer due on the 22nd inst., having been delayed by business longer than he intended.
Yours very respectfully
    Putnam C. Dart
        Acting Supt. ad interim
To
    Alonzo A. Skinner
    Agent S.W. Dist. Oregon
    Note: Just as this letter was written your letters dated May 26th covering certificate of goods issued to Indians by Joseph Knott on south branch of Umpqua River on the first day of January last together with depositions in [the] case of Silas W. Holmes, and yours explaining the circumstances connected with the transaction, have been handed me.
    In reply I have to state that I presume the certificate will be sufficient as evidence of the delivery of goods to the Indians in question. The circumstances will seem to justify the Supt. in allowing its correctness. It will be submitted with the other papers you have enclosed immediately on his return.
    Yours also enclosed speaking of depredations committed by Indians on "Cow Creek" and on Grave Creek will also receive attention when the Supt. comes; and that he is expected so soon I shall omit any suggestions, except to urge you to take all reasonable measures within your power to ensure peace and harmony there until the Superintendent visits that section.
Yours very truly
    Putnam C. Dart
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.


Long's Ferry Rogue River
    July 4, 1852
Dr. Sir
    Having an opportunity of sending a letter directly to you through the politeness of Mr. Lownsdale, I avail myself of it for the purpose of requesting you to inform me at as early a day as convenient when you will probably visit this valley for the purpose of purchasing the lands of the Indians. The Indians since I have been here remained tolerably quiet, but I believe that the cause which has had more influence with them than any or perhaps all others is the prospect that you would come out this summer and purchase their lands and make them presents of blankets & clothing. They are now becoming somewhat restless, and I fear if you should not come out soon there will be serious difficulty to be apprehended from them.
    Some time since I wrote to you requesting to be informed as to the relation which existed between these Indians and the government & the U.S.--whether they came within the provisions of the act of 1834, and whether Indian testimony would be sufficient to establish claims against Indians.
    I am very anxious to visit the Willamette but should not deem it advisable to leave the agency until you come out. Please let me hear from you at your earliest convenience.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Milwaukie
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 54.



Indian Superintendency Oregon July 21st / 52
Hon. Luke Lea
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            I have to inform you that Rev. Elkanah Walker--who was appointed Indian agent (in place of Elias Wampole) to reside at the Utilla in Upper Oregon--has declined accepting the office, without there is an increase of salary. Since the place was proposed to him, prices of provisions, and all expenses attending a removal to that post, have greatly increased, and I am persuaded that the salary would not meet his expenses.
    I have directed Mr. Wampole to continue at the agency until the Superintendent shall return, when some fitting person without a family may be found ready to accept the office.
    Large numbers of emigrants are now passing through Upper Oregon on their way to this valley, and I consider it of the utmost importance to the Indians, as well as to the whites, to continue Mr. Wampole at his post, and I hope, notwithstanding he has been formally removed, that this course will meet your approbation.
    In a letter to you dated April 11th I stated that Mr. Samuel Culver, who had been appointed sub-Indian agent to reside at Port Orford, would be notified of his appointment and instructions given him on his return from the Upper Columbia. He, too, declines the office, and for the same reasons as Mr. Walker, and as yet I have not been able to find a person at all qualified for the place who was willing to accept it for the pay, the point being very remote and expenses of living extravagantly high, and the salary only equal to that of the commonest laborer.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Putnam C. Dart
            Acting Supt. ad interim
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1173-1175.



Indian Superintendency, Oregon
    July 23, 1852.
To / Hon. Luke Lea
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            By reference to my clerk's letter of the 21st inst. you will see that Mr. Elkanah Walker declines the appointment of Indian agent in place of Elias Wampole. I have however engaged the services of Mr. Luke Torrence to go to Upper Oregon and take possession of the agency house at the Utilla until some suitable person can be found to accept the office of agent there. But as the salary fixed by law for these agencies is so low, I expect to meet with some difficulty in filling them.
    Mr. Samuel Culver declines the sub-agency at Port Orford also, on account of the insufficiency of the pay.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
                Oregon
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1171-1172.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    July 26th 1852.
Dear Sir
    Tyee Sam has requested me to write to you and inform you of the amount of property he is frequently under the necessity of giving to his people in order to keep them quiet. I have seen him today give to the relatives of the Indians who have been killed in the late difficulty beads and other trinkets which I have no doubt have cost him more than the value of two good Indian horses, and since I have been in the valley I have no doubt that he has given to his people at various times to keep them from committing outrages on the property of the whites more than five hundred dollars worth of property. I suppose his object in wishing me to write to you is that you may see the propriety of making presents to him in proportion to the amount he is required to give to his people.
    I have told him that I would request you to make a distinction between him & Joe and the rest of the Indians. And I would suggest the propriety of bringing out a quantity of large blue beads. This is the kind most prized by them, and also a good suit of clothes each for both Joe & Sam. I have no doubt but that both Joe and Sam have used all their influence to restrain their people and prevent them from committing depredations on the property of the settlers of this valley, and that without their influence it would have been impossible for the whites to have remained in the valley during the past winter.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esquire
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 60.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    July 26, 1852.
Sir
    We have again been involved in difficulties with the Indians of this valley, which however are at this time, I believe, happily settled, and friendly feeling again restored between the whites and Indians. As various and perhaps erroneous reports with reference to the affair will undoubtedly reach you, I have thought it advisable to give you a detailed account of the origin and progress of the difficulty, so far as the facts have come within my knowledge.
    About the 8th inst. a white man, while passing from Shasta to Scotts Valley, was murdered under circumstances that rendered it almost certain that the murder had been committed by Indians, and it was subsequently ascertained from friendly Indians that the man had been murdered by three Indians, some of whom were supposed to be Shastas from Shasta Valley. The whites immediately arrested the Shasta chief and demanded of him the murderers. I am informed that he refused to deliver them up and shortly afterwards made his escape, and that immediately the whites commenced a war of extermination against the Shastas--shooting down every Indian that could be found. The knowledge of the difficulty at Shasta and Scotts valleys was soon spread among the Indians of this valley, causing much excitement and alarm.
    About the time of the murder of the white man at Scotts Valley, Sam, the principal war chief of the Indians of this valley, went to the house of Dr. Ambrose, who resides about two miles from the Big Bar on Rogue River (the usual winter residence of Sam) and demanded of him three beef cattle, or that he should immediately leave the place, stating that he (Sam) had previously sold the land to Wm. G. T'Vault Esq. Sam at the same time proposed to trade two Indian children and a horse and some money for a little girl of Dr. Ambrose, about two years of age. Sam's manner at the time was such as to cause the Dr. to apprehend that he intended to take the child by force if he could not otherwise obtain it. The next morning I went down and saw Sam, and as I supposed at the time settled the difficulty to the satisfaction of both parties.
    On the 15th inst. some fifteen or twenty Indians came to the camp of some whites near the house of Dr. Ambrose, and from what I can learn appeared angry and stated in substance "that the whites were not good, that they were killing all the Indians over at Shasta, that the whites had not done right in this valley, and that they intended to make them do right hereafter;" and while a white man was loading a gun, an Indian went up to him and told him to put the gun down and attempted to take the gun from him. The Indians also inquired for Sam. At this time a party of white men who were coming up the river arrived, when the Indians immediately left.
    The party of white men passed on to Jacksonville, the town at the diggins, and the account which they give of the affair was such as to cause great excitement and to induce the people to raise a company of some seventy-five or eighty men for the purpose of fighting the Indians. The company thus raised determined to start immediately in pursuit of the Indians, and to attack them wherever found. This was all done without giving me the slightest intimation of what was transpiring.
    On the morning of the 16th I accidentally learned what had taken place, and immediately hastened to town and endeavored to dissuade the men from attacking the Indians until I could see them and ascertain what their intentions were. This request was ultimately so far complied with as to agree to march down to Dr. Ambrose's, and there halt for a short time to give me an opportunity of seeing the Indians; at the same time they appointed a committee of four to accompany me in the proposed interview with the Indians.
    On the arrival of the committee and myself at the Big Bar, we discovered Sam on the opposite side of the river. We requested him to come across the river, as we wished to talk with him. As soon as he saw who we were (he being well acquainted with most of the committee), he and another Indian came over to us. He stated that he was not angry with the whites, that he did not wish to fight; and proposed to send for all his people, and also for his brother Joe, the principal chief, and have them all meet us on the Big Bar the next day. To this proposition we consented, and I informed Sam that there would be some seventy or eighty while men present, as I wished them all to hear what was said. To this he expressed his assent.
    About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 17th inst., a party of about ten or twelve men arrived at the bar, from Shasta or Scotts Valley for the purpose, as they alleged, of demanding of the Indians of this valley the Indians who were supposed to have murdered the white man in Scotts Valley, and who, they said, had fled to this valley. Just previous to their arrival on the bar, the party from Shasta arrested an Indian belonging on the creek above the agency. As soon as I was made aware of the fact I demanded the release of the Indian, but the party refused to release him.
    About 10 o'clock on the same morning, the company moved up to the bar and, as the Indians had not arrived, I crossed the river in company with four or five white men, all of whom were known to the Indians, and went up to the Indian camp about a mile and a half above where the company had halted. After some conversation with Joe & Sam they agreed to go down and cross the river. When we arrived opposite the whites, they were all mounted and drawn up in a line facing the river and in range of the Indians as they crossed the river. Joe & Sam immediately inquired why the men were drawn up in that order, and stated that their people were afraid to cross. I requested the men to withdraw some hundred and fifty yards from the bank, and to dismount, stack their arms in the rear and sit down on the ground; which request was complied with. Joe & Sam then crossed the river with me (the main body of the Indians not having yet arrived), and as soon as the Indians came down they talked to them across the river and informed me that they were telling them to come over. Only a few of the Indians, however, came over. During the day the men appeared very restless and determined to attack the Indians.
    Sam having recrossed the river, as he stated for the purpose of persuading his people to come over, I informed the captain of the company that if the men would remain seated on the ground and do nothing which the Indians could construe into evidence of hostility, I would go over the river again and endeavor to persuade the Indians to come over. To this the captain consented, and I went across the river. Soon after I arrived where the Indians were, an Indian came down and told Sam that quite a number of Indians had just arrived at his camp from Table Rock. Sam, as he informed me, sent the messenger immediately back to tell the Indians to [come] down and told me that as soon as his people arrived he and all his Indians would go over the river with me.
    At this time two of my friends came across the river and informed me that the whites were about to attack the Indians and advised me to recross the river as soon as possible, as I should be entirely in the power of the Indians in case of an attack. I informed Sam that the whites were getting very impatient at the delay of the Indians and that it was advisable for me to go over and talk to them. To this he appeared entirely willing. On recrossing the river I found most of the men mounted and the greatest excitement prevailing. I informed them of what Sam had told me, but they refused to delay any longer and proposed to shoot down the few Indians, some twenty or twenty-five, who had crossed over to us. Mr. Martin Angel, formerly of Oregon City, but now of this valley, for the purpose of saving the lives of the Indians proposed to take them prisoners. Most of the Indians, being acquainted with him, readily consented to go with him to a log house some hundred yards from where they were, but before they arrived at the house the Indians became alarmed at the conduct of the whites, when one of them attempted to make his escape. Some allege that the Indian attempted to draw his bow; others that he endeavored to draw a knife, and others who were present say that he attempted neither, but only endeavored to make his escape. Upon the Indian's thus attempting to escape, a man by the name of John Galvin, one of the party from Shasta, fired upon him. The firing now became pretty general from both sides; many who were opposed to commencing the attack thinking it now necessary to fight in self-defense. Four of the prisoners were immediately killed; the balance made their escape. No white men were injured so far as I have been able to learn. The firing continued pretty brisk for some ten or fifteen minutes across the river from both sides, but with little effect, when a part of the Indians retreated down the river and a part up. In a few minutes the firing recommenced about a mile and a half down the river, but without effect on either side. I am satisfied the arresting of the Indian herein referred [to] by the party from Shasta did much to intimidate the Indians and to prevent an amicable adjustment of all the difficulties between the whites and Indians. I am also satisfied, from what I saw myself, and from what I have learned from others, that a man by the name of -------- Steel, who pretended to be the leader of the party from Shasta, was principally instrumental in causing the attack on the prisoners, which for a time produced general hostilities.
    As soon as the firing commenced, being satisfied that I could be of no further service as Indian agent, not having the least influence with the company, and not being disposed to take part in hostilities commenced under circumstances such as herein related, I left for home for the purpose of preparing to defend my own house and property if circumstances should render it necessary.
    During the night of the 17th and the morning of the 18th inst., a portion of the whites pursued the Indians down the river some twenty-five miles and attacked and dispersed several small parties of Indians and I believe killed two or three Indians.
    On the 20th inst. Sam, who, together with the greater part of his men had taken up a position in an almost impenetrable thicket on the bank of the river near Table Rock as the whites were preparing to attack him, proposed a cessation of hostilities and offered to comply with the terms proposed by the whites and requested that I should be sent for to conclude a treaty. But as I was confined to the house by sickness, it was impossible for me to comply with his request, and on the 21st inst. the Indians and whites met at the agency, and the difficulty was settled--it having been ascertained beyond all doubt that the murderers from Shasta herein referred to were not in this valley, they having been arrested near the Klamath Lake.
    The greater portion of the Indians are still encamped near the agency, and appear entirely friendly.
    Permit me again to urge upon you the necessity of your visiting this section of country at as early a day as possible. The Indians are becoming very impatient and. are looking anxiously for their promised presents. I think it will be quite impossible to keep them quiet much longer unless these promises are fulfilled.
    At the termination of the late hostilities with the Indians, as they were almost famished, I deemed it advisable to make them a present of two beef cattle, in order to some extent to remove the temptation to renewed depredations on the property of the settlers.
    I have the honor to be
        Very respectfully
            Your obt. servt.
                A. A. Skinner
                    Ind. Agent.
Anson Dart Esquire
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1195-1202.  Anson Dart's cover letter to this document can be found below under date of September 6.  The letter can also be found in Executive Documents, 32nd Congress, pages 455-458.



Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    July 26, 1852.
Dear Sir
    Your favor of the 15th ult. was received on yesterday evening.
    As there are no legally constituted authorities in this valley it will be impossible for me to take the oath required under the new commission until I visit the Willamette this summer. And as I supposed that I continue to act under the old until I qualify under the new I presume it will make no difference whether I take the oath and execute the new bond now or when I come in.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esqr.
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 61.



Indian Superintendency
    Milwaukie July 29, 1852
Dear Sir:
    I have examined the several communications received at this office from you during my absence, the last of which forms was brought by Mr. Lownsdale of date July 4th inst.
    It is impossible for me to determine how soon I may be able to visit Southern Oregon--no appropriation for treaty purposes having been made before I left Washington nor indeed for any object connected with Indian affairs in Oregon.
    Up to the time of my leaving, the Oregon treaties had not been submitted to the President, and I think it doubtful whether they will be acted upon during this session of Congress. It is very much to be regretted on account of difficulties that must arise in consequence.
    You ask "whether or not Indians are competent witnesses against white men, Indians &c." and if the tribes within your agency "come within the provisions of the act of Congress of 1834." In reply to the first question I would say that by Chief Justice Nelson's decision accompanying my last report to the Commissioner, Indians are not competent witnesses in any case except to establish proof of the sale of liquor among them.
    To the second query, I would reply that Indians within your agency do come under the provisions of the act of 1834.
    The only funds in my hands at present are applicable to the pay of the salaries of agents and interpreters. As to your traveling and incidental expenses it will be necessary for you to be very explicit in rendering your accounts; let every item as far as possible be accompanied with a sub-voucher, all of which I have to send to Washington to be passed upon before I can be allowed to settle and pay them.
    As early as may be convenient I wish you would transmit to this office the names of the several tribes or bands and their numbers as near as practicable of all the Indians coming under your agency with such other information as asked for connected with the blanks lately sent you from Washington.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
A. A. Skinner
    Ind. Agent
        Ogn.
Note: Will you please forward the names of interpreters or others in your employment--age--birthplace--place of residence when appointed and date of appointment. This is to date on the 1st January 1852.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    July 31, 1852.
Sir
    Enclosed I return you the duplicate vouchers with my signature. I also send you the certificate for the delivery of fifty-one blankets which I have given as presents to the Indians in this agency since the date of the last certificates I sent you.
    I also send you duplicate vouchers for the quarter's salary ending June 30th 1852. Not being familiar with the form for these vouchers I do not know as they are sufficient. If they are you will please retain the money in your hands until I come in this summer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
            Ind. Agent
Anson Dart Esquire
    Superintendent &c.
        Milwaukie
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 63.



Indian Superintendency Oregon
    August 1st 1852
Hon. Luke Lea, Commissioner
    Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            On the 25th July ult. I informed you that Mr. Samuel Culver had declined accepting the office of sub-Indian agent, to reside at Port Orford, Oregon. Since which time, however, he has decided to accept and go immediately to his post. No suitable instructions for his guidance have this day been given him.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1180-1181.



Indian Superintendency Oregon
    August 1st 1852
Sir:
    I am just informed that you have concluded to enter upon the duties of the office of sub-Indian agent for which you were appointed last winter.
    You will I trust on arriving at Port Orford find your commission and blank bond--the latter you will please to execute, and as there is no proper officer there to approve it, you will, if it is possible, get the certificate of the commanding officer of the post, attesting to its sufficiency, and forward the bond to this office to be placed on file.
    I will recommend to the Department at Washington the propriety of having your pay commence at the time of your departure on board the steamer bound to your station (Port Orford). I shall take measures at once to secure the services of an interpreter to meet you at the mouth of the Columbia River & to accompany you to your post.
    The country to which you are directed to repair--embracing a tract extending south from the mouth of the Coquille River, along the coast to what is supposed to be the boundary line between Oregon and California, and extending back from the coast to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains--has been purchased of the Indians who now occupy that tract of country. They are quite numerous, and notwithstanding some dissatisfaction is expressed by them that the annuities stipulated to be paid in June last do not yet come. They are on the whole peaceable and friendly. I hope, however, you will be able to explain to them that we daily look for advices from our great father at Washington, which will allow us to take immediate steps to comply with all the conditions on our part of the treaty and that they may rest fully assured that strict justice will be done them by the government.
    Make the Indians to understand that you have come among them expressly to look to their welfare, and to see that no wrong is done them by the whites, as well as to see that they on their part desist from stealing or doing other injuries to the whites, for what severe punishment will be sure to overtake them for any aggressions upon our people.
    I wish you to be very vigilant in your watchfulness to prevent the introduction and sale of liquor among the Indians in your sub-agency. You are hereby authorized to break up and destroy any and every establishment engaged in this traffic with the Indians. (See Sec. 20 of the intercourse law, and amendments thereto.)
    You will I trust at all times endeavor to keep on the most friendly terms with the military officers in command at Port Orford. A courteous and respectful manner towards them will be sure to be reciprocated.
    You will be careful not to incur the expense of sending any person, or persons, accused of crime to this office, as there are no persons or military force in this part of Oregon where such offenders could be kept until tried by law.
    Your salary, and that of your interpreter, will be paid quarterly on receipt of the proper vouchers at this office. All accounts for other expenses connected with your office, such as traveling expenses, office, rent &c., must be forwarded quarterly to this office, with every item stated minutely, together with sub-vouchers in every case where it is practicable to procure them. These accounts will be forwarded to Washington to be passed upon, and finally to be paid at this office, as soon as we are authorized to do so.
    You will please communicate with this office as often as convenient, giving from time to time such information connected with your especial district as will be useful and interesting to the Indian Department at Washington.
    Copies of such labor--regulating Indian affairs--as are now in this office, together with blanks for accounts &c. will be furnished you, and when the subsequent Indian laws are received from Washington copies for your guidance will be promptly forwarded.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
Samuel Culver Esq.
    Sub-Indian Agent for
        Port Orford, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1852-1855, pages 63-65.



(Copy)
Indian Agency Rogue River
    August 6th 1852.
Sir:--
    In obedience to your instructions of the 10th of October last I have endeavored to ascertain as near as practicable the number of Indians inhabiting that portion of this agency lying between the Umpqua Mountain on the north and the Cascade Range on the east, the Siskiyou Mountain on the south and the summit of the Coast Range on the west. Owing to the limited acquaintance I have been enabled to form with the Indians of this valley since my arrival here last Nov., I have no great confidence in the entire accuracy of the numbers as given below, but I believe them not very far from correct.
    No. of men 406, of women 443, of boys 159, of girls 146.
    I have found the number of Indians in this portion of the agency much less than I anticipated when I arrived here. I have no doubt that but the number of men and women is given with tolerable accuracy; but the number of children is, I apprehend, much less than the actual number.
    The whole country from the Calapooya Creek in the Umpqua Valley to the Siskiyou Mountain is occupied by the Umpqua and Shasta tribes of Indians, and these tribes are subdivided into various bands, each claiming separate and distinct portions of territory, but owing to the shortness of the time I have been located in this agency, and the difficulty of communicating with the natives in consequence of not being able to procure an interpreter who can speak either the Umpqua or Shasta languages, the Indians having but an imperfect knowledge of the Chinook jargon, I have found it impossible to ascertain the boundaries of the territories of the different bands into which the principal tribes are divided.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
    Alonzo A. Skinner, Indian Agt.
        S.W. Oregon
Anson Dart Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon, Milwaukie, O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frame 1235.  The letter can also be found in Executive Documents, 32nd Congress, pages 453-454



Indian Agency Rogue River
    August 8th, 1852.
Dear Sir
    I have in a number of letters
which I have written you within the last two months urged the necessity of your coming out to this valley at as early a day as practicable, but for fear that those letters will not reach you I avail myself of the opportunity of writing you again by my nephew James D. Skinner, who will pass through your place on his way to the States. As he has been with me since my arrival in this valley, he will be able to give you much information that it would be difficult for me to communicate by letter.
    You will perhaps recollect that previous to my leaving Oregon City last fall for this valley you informed me that I might assure the Indians that you would visit this valley sometime this summer for the purpose of making them presents and of purchasing their lands, if they wished to dispose of them. Immediately on my arrival here I told the Indians that you would visit them this summer, and I have no doubt but the fear of forfeiting their expected presents has done much to keep them quiet during the past winter and spring. But they are now becoming very impatient, and it appears to them a long time since the promise was made to them. If anything should prevent you from visiting this valley this season it will be extremely difficult for an agent to preserve friendly relations with the Indians of this agency.
    If I should be designated as one of the commissioners to treat with the Indians for the purchase of their lands, it would suit my convenience much better to commence our negotiations in this part of the Territory than in the Willamette. And if it would be no inconvenience to you I should be much obliged if you would make your arrangements to come out here and commence in this valley. I should much prefer not to be one of the persons to treat with the Indians, as it will take me from home and give me no additional compensation, and in this valley honor does not pay.
    As you will require several thousand pounds of beef to feed the Indians while treating with them I presume you will contract with some person in the Willamette for its delivery here, but if you should not do so you can be supplied in this valley with all you will need at the current prices, say from 18 cts. to 20 cts. per lb.
    I find it very difficult to get along without a military force to assist in enforcing the laws against lawless and worthless white men. If the whites would in all instances conform strictly to the law regulating intercourse with the Indians I should have much less difficulty than I do at present. All the serious difficulty we have had with the Indians of this valley has been caused by white men, and would have been avoided if there had been a military station in the valley.
    It is of much more importance that you should make liberal presents to these Indians than that their lands should be purchased this season. This, however, is of very great importance. When I arrived here last fall Joe & Sam consented that the whites might settle anywhere on the south side of Rogue River, but did not wish to have them go on the north side, as they wished to reserve that portion of the valley for the use of the Indians. The whites have thus far refrained from settling on the north side of the river, but as most of the good farming land on the south side of the river is already occupied it will be difficult if not impossible much longer to prevent men from taking claims on the north as well as on the south side of the river, and whenever this is done it will make trouble with the Indians.
    When you come out I wish you would bring at least three or four pairs of blue blankets more than you will need as presents, as I wish to steal them on the credit of the Indians.
    Excuse the entire absence of order and arrangement in this letter, as it is written in great haste.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esquire
    Super. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 64.



Indian Agent Rogue River
    August 14, 1852.
Dear Sir
    If the receipt which I send you by the bearer of this Mr. I. D. Skinner is sufficient I wish you would pay the amount of my last quarter's salary to him, as he will have an opportunity of sending it to me immediately.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Anson Dart Esqr.
    Supert. &c.
        Milwaukie
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 67.



    The Pacific Mail Steamship Company's steamer Isthmus arrived last evening, three days' passage from Oregon. She brings thirty-three passengers, a list of which together with her memoranda will be found in another column. Mr. Culver, sub-Indian agent, together with his interpreter, "Chilliman," stopped at Port Orford to appease the disappointed Indians. Capt. William Tichenor and family also stopped there with the intention of remaining for some time. Capt. Tichenor designs investigating the new road that has been opened by Lieut. Stanton to Rogue River, the success of which is of great interest to the citizens in that region. Lieut. Williamson, who has been residing fifty miles back of Port Orford, was a passenger on the Isthmus, on his way to the States. He says that gold is plenty in that neighborhood.
"Later from Oregon," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 14, 1852, page 2



Port Orford and Shasta Road--Indian Affairs.
Port Orford, O.T., Aug. 27, 1852
    Messrs. Editors--The trail so long talked of leading from this place to the Shasta mines is now open, and ready for business. The work was accomplished under the supervision of Lieut. Stanton, and by him pronounced an excellent trail. It intersects the Oregon trail south of the Canon, and within a few miles of the crossing of Rogue River. The celebrated "Shasta mining district" can now be reached in four or five days' travel from this place.
    Provisions of all kinds are high, and in fact all kinds of goods bring good prices, and we have no trouble but the demand will increase at a great ratio before a sufficient supply can be obtained.
    The Indians continue troublesome, and hostile appearances among some of the bands in the vicinity are frequent. Their petty thefts have increased to horse stealing, and not unfrequently have they declared they would burn our houses over our heads. We anticipate the arrival of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs by the steamer now due. If he should arrive, all will be right; if not, I cannot say what will be the result.
Yours, &c.                CLINTON.  [probably William Clinton Tichenor]
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 15, 1852, page 1



Lafayette O.T.
    28 Augt. 1852
To the Hon., the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir
        From the 15th July 1851 until the 10th Sept. ensuing I was engaged at the head of a party of 12 men to conserve a treaty of peace concluded with the Rogue River Indians by his excellency the Governor of this Territory until such time as the Superintendent of Indian Affairs (Dr. Dart) should go among said tribes to make a purchase of their lands. I was employed by the then acting Indian agent for the southern district of Oregon, the Revd. H. H. Spalding, who was then on Rogue River, & who was obliged by circumstances to visit the head agency at Oregon City. He arrived at Oregon City on the 8th day after leaving me, and communicated to the Superintendent, Dr. Dart, what he had done, and by the advice of Dr. Dart Mr. Spalding wrote me from Oregon City on the 22nd July 1851 saying that Dr. Dart had resolved to make a purchase of the lands belonging to that tribe and desired I should visit the several Indian villages and notify the nations that the Dr. would meet them on the 15th Sept. to make a purchase of their lands; this I done & the Indians consented to sell, and the time and place for meeting the agents was agreed upon. Three days after these arrangements were made, Dr. Dart sent another man out on Rogue River with authority to convene the Indians at Port Orford on the Pacific coast. I was fully aware such an assemblage at that place could not be effected, & knowing too that the Indians knew nothing of the sea shore or had no connection with that or any tribe on the coast, I therefore hastened to Oregon City (making the trip in 7 days) to inform Dr. Dart of the utter impossibility of convening the Indians at Port Orford & to prevent him from carrying goods to Port Orford for that purpose. I succeeded in reaching Oregon City two days before the Dr. was to have sailed for Port Orford, & by my proper explanations of the situation of the tribes & the country, the Dr. abandoned the project of taking the goods to P. Orford and sent another letter to a gentleman on Rogue River, requesting him to assure the Indians he would meet them in their own country in the ensuing Novr. &c. I requested Dr. Dart to pay me for my services on Rogue River & that of my party; he replied he had not recognized a treaty of peace with those Indians by the Govr. nor had he instructed the agent Spalding to employ a party there &c. &c., therefore did not feel authorized in paying myself or party.
    He then went to Port Orford, and on his return I wrote him on the subject of my pay (having in addition to my time advanced my own money to purchase some supplies &c. for the party on Rogue River). In reply he stated he had not a dollar of government money in his hands and said to Dr. McLoughlin he had no doubt of the justice of my claim & he would lay it fairly before your honor & that he had no doubt but that you would authorize its immediate settlement.
    He then left for Washington City. I heard nothing more from him on the subject or anything of my claims except that at the instance of the Hon. Joseph Lane, delegate from Oregon, a bill was introduced in the lower house of Congress for my relief &c.
    Dr. Dart returned to this Territory last month. I lost no time in calling upon him to learn what he had done for me; he stated he had laid my claims before you and that in reply you said to him he had acted very prudently in the premises in not paying myself or party and that had he have assumed such authority it would have been sufficient grounds for removing [him] from office &c. But said he had used his influence to have a bill introduced into Congress for my relief &c.
    The object of troubling you now is to know from you if the bill introduced for my relief should not pass, if it will bar the Indian Department from paying this very just amount. I hope the question is not impertinent and hope I am not too presuming in seeking through you a knowledge of the probable issue of my rights.
    To remove any rising doubt in your mind as to the probable certainty of my right to pay, I refer you to the hon. delegate from this Territory, who is well acquainted with the whole of the circumstances and with my own character & person.
    If Dr. Dart's report to me of your reply to him, when he reported my case to you, through that channel (at present) [is correct] I suppose I have no hope. I however cherish a hope the Dr. is mistaken in your reply &c. And could you advise me of this, I will feel greatly bound
And remain
    Your hon. obt. very
        Humble servant
            C. M. Walker
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1301-1306.




Indian Superintendency Oregon
    August 28, 1852
Dear Sir:
    Your three communications of 26th July came duly to hand. 1st. In speaking of your new land you say it must be deferred until you come to the Willamette Valley.
    This would appear to be the only way to arrange it. 2nd. The friendly disposition shown by the chief "Sam" in giving to his people large quantities of presents to keep peace tell him will be duly considered when I go into that country. But I am very sure the prospect is so poor of my being able to get there this fall on account of there being no appropriation to defray expenses.
    The only funds now in my hands are applicable to the pay of the Supt., Agents, Sub Agents and Interpreters.
    3rd. Your minute detailed account of the cause of the late difficulty with the Indians in your neighborhood will be forwarded promptly to Washington.
    4th. Your letter of the 6th August speaking of the number of Indians in your district is also received.
    5th. Yours of the 31st July enclosing duplicate vouchers sent for your signature--the one for your own salary--with certificates for the delivery of fifty-one blankets and three cotton shirts is received. The money due you as salary for quarter ending 30th June will be paid on the voucher sent where called for. On account of the non-receipt of appropriations I am unable to reply at length to the several communications you have sent me.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
A. A. Skinner
Agt. Rogue River
Southern Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.



Indian Superintendency, Oregon
    September 6th 1852
Sir
    I enclose herewith the account given by Agent Skinner of late difficulties between the whites and Indians of Rogue River.
    This appears to be another of those troubles in which the origin was mainly, if not entirely, on the side of the whites. There will be no end, I feel satisfied, to these difficulties until there are troops stationed in the mining district referred to, to enforce the rights of the ignorant savages, as well as to protect the miners in a peaceable pursuit of their occupation.
    I also here enclose a short newspaper paragraph in relation to apprehended difficulties at Port Orford growing out of the failure on the part of the government to pay the first annuities to the several bands of Indians there according to treaty stipulations. I was fearful that some trouble like this might arise, which induced me while in Washington to urge, with great earnestness, the importance of early action upon the Oregon treaties.
    The inhabitants of Port Orford are extremely anxious that I should take the responsibility of paying to the Indians there the first payment as per treaty--without waiting to hear the action of the President and Senate upon them. This I of course decline doing, but nevertheless I take the liberty to call your attention to the 17th section of the act of Congress approved 30th June 1834--believing this section is broad enough to meet a case like this. Should you have the same view of it, I hope you will, as early as possible, give me such instructions as would enable me to act promptly, should such a case arise hereafter.
I have the honor to remain, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant Anson Dart
        Superintendent
To Hon. Luke Lea
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1193-1194.  Agent Skinner's letter referred to can be found above, dated July 26.



Office Superintendency Oregon
    September 23 1852
Hon. Luke Lea
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            I have the honor to submit herewith my third annual report upon the condition of Indian affairs within the Oregon Superintendency.
    Since my last report, two Indian agents, Edmund A. Starling and Alonzo A. Skinner, have received commissions and entered without delay upon the duties assigned them. I located Mr. Starling at Steilacoom on Puget Sound and Mr. Skinner in the Rogue River Valley, Southern Oregon. Copies of the instructions given to each were forwarded to you on the 10th October last. I have expected that detailed reports from them would arrive in time to accompany my own, but the already advanced season will not permit a longer delay, and their respective reports will be forwarded very soon after they are received at this office. I have, however, been in regular correspondence with the agents, and such letters and portions of letters as are considered important, not already forwarded, will be copied to accompany this report.
*  *  *
    While speaking of the sub-agents, I am reminded to say that no appropriation appears to have been recommended by the Commissioner, in his "estimate of money required for the current expenses of the Indian Department," for their pay this year in Oregon.
    The troubles growing out of the whiskey trade with the Indians are mostly confined to the country about Puget Sound and Shoalwater Bay. The traffic is carried on by persons engaged in the collection of oysters for the California trade. Liquor is brought in ships and given to the Indians in exchange for their labor in collecting the oysters. Agent Starling has succeeded in destroying large quantities of whiskey in vessels on the sound, and the trade in that quarter will very soon be effectually stopped, but at Shoalwater Bay it must remain unmolested at present, for it is absolutely impossible to reach these unlawful traders upon the ocean without the aid of a revenue cutter, or some quick sailing craft, properly manned and fully authorized to act promptly upon the offenders. It is a source of much embarrassment and regret to me that I cannot take immediate steps to eradicate this formidable evil and make an example of the unprincipled characters so manifestly violating the law.
    No appropriation has been made by Congress for the Indian Department in Oregon that could in conformity to law be applied to the cost (which is very great) of preventing these California vessels from engaging in this illicit traffic along the Pacific coast. It will, then, I think, be apparent to the Department, that the Superintendent and agents under his direction, labor under embarrassing circumstances when attempting to cope with this organized band of smugglers.
    In this, as in all other Indian countries, the chief source of trouble with the Indians arises out of the use of ardent spirits amongst them, but within the accessible limits of the Territory, with the aid and cooperation of my efficient corps of agents and sub-agents, I have succeeded in breaking up and destroying all, or nearly all, the liquor establishments where this bane has been dealt to them. I now feel quite confident that, with liberal appropriations at the next session of Congress for the purpose, together with instructions to act, I can keep the coast clear in future and intimidate those whose sense of justice would not prevent them from readily engaging in this profitable trade.
    I am sorry to record here that serious difficulties have from time to time occurred in that portion of Southern Oregon known as the Rogue River country between the miners engaged in digging gold and the Indians, but I am not in possession of sufficient facts, connected with the origin of these disturbances, to come to satisfactory conclusions as to which are most to be blamed--the whites or Indians. The account which Agent Skinner gave of a recent difficulty between the miners and Indians in his immediate neighborhood, in which a number of the latter were killed, was forwarded with my letter to you on the 6th instant.
    These unfortunate occurrences are seriously to be regretted. I have good reason to believe, however, that most, if not all, of the difficulties with the Indians in the southern portion of Oregon will subside so soon as treaties are made with them for their lands, and a judicious selection of country made for their future residence. At the same time, in view of the present state of things, I think there should be located in a proper place in that country a small detachment of U.S. troops, to keep in check improper conduct on the part of the whites as well as the Indians. As I have before suggested the propriety of doing this, I will not here enlarge upon the subject. Had I have had funds applicable to the object, I should long since have visited that portion of Oregon, for the purpose of making treaties with the Indians for the lands now so generally occupied by the gold diggers.
    In connection with the subject of Indian treaties, I will here remark that it is peculiarly unfortunate that so much delay occurs in getting the decision of the President and Senate upon the treaties negotiated with the Oregon Indians. It is exceedingly difficult, nay, impossible to convey to them intelligibly the causes of delay on my part in fulfilling the promise made. The month of June last was fixed upon to pay the first annuity to the Port Orford Indians, but in this particular no precise time was fixed with the other tribes and bands with whom I negotiated treaties.
    It is a matter of earnest solicitation with me, that the apprehended difficulties at Port Orford, alluded to in my letter of 6th instant, may be averted by the timely arrival of Mr. Culver, who may be able to pacify the Indians until the annuities they so anxiously expect shall arrive. And you may be assured that no time will be lost in forwarding the goods after the news of the ratification of the treaties is received, accompanied with instructions as to the mode of procuring the articles.
    Owing to the great length of time that must always necessarily intervene between the making and ratification of Indian treaties in Oregon, I take the liberty to suggest the propriety of permitting the Superintendent to cause a small payment to be made to the Indians at the time and place of concluding any treaty, and the payment to be considered the first in conformity to its conditions. I am confident that this would be more satisfactory to the Indians than to receive the same amount as a present, and then be liable to meet with disappointment in the time as understood by them that they were to receive their first payment. Whether to carry out this suggestion it would require an act of Congress, or if it would come within the powers now given to the President, as provided in the seventeenth section of the act of Congress of 30th June 1834 I am undetermined and would be happy to have your decision in regard to it.
*  *  *
I remain very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1852-1855, pages 66-75.



Port Orford, Oregon Territory
    Sept. 24th 1852.
Dr. Dart
    Sir,
        As the mail steamer may touch in as it comes down from the Columbia and I should have no time to write after it comes in, I will have in readiness a short sketch of what has come under my observation since my arrival here.
    The Indians were looking for the agent with not a little impatience when I arrived and seemed some disappointed when they learned that I had not brought the articles agreed upon by the treaty. But after I had explained to them the reason why, and everything connected with it, they seemed satisfied and are now quiet. But they cannot understand how it is that persons can have the power to make treaties, without the power to carry them out. The complicated machinery of our government is quite beyond their comprehension.
    It should be made a point by government to carry out literally all treaties, because the Indian cannot comprehend any but a moral obligation. I was yesterday talking with an Indian who had stolen an axe. I told him that it was wrong &c. and that he had agreed by the treaty not to steal, to which he replied, "The whites make treaty, agree to give blankets &c. and don't do it. But they expect Indian to do as he agrees."
    I am apprehensive of some trouble between the three tribes that were treated with and the Coquilles. As I understand it after the Coquilles had killed old Six they made a proposition to pay for him and to settle it, which was accepted, but the Coquilles it is said have since refused to pay the stipulated price. Many of the Indians that reside in this vicinity have gone up towards the Coquille River. And I understand that the rest will follow them in a few days. Threats have been made by some of them that if the Coquilles do not pay them they will make war upon them. I have told them that it was wrong, and that they must not fight anymore. If I see that they are not likely to settle it peaceably among themselves I shall go up there myself.
In haste
    Very truly
        Yours
            Saml. H. Culver
                Sub-Agt.
Dr. A. Dart
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 77.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    Sept. 27, 1852.
Sir
    In reply to your communication of the 29 of July last I can only give you the numbers of the Indians in the southern portion of this agency. As your instructions of the 10th of Oct. last only require me to furnish the number of Indians south of the Umpqua Valley. I have not ascertained the number in that valley. The only Indians occupying the Umpqua Valley are portions of the Calapooia and Umpqua tribes. The Indians inhabiting the Rogue River Valley are portions of the Umpqua and Shasta tribes. Of the Umpquas there are of men 377, of women 410, of boys 141, of girls 142. Of the Shastas there are of men 29, of women 33, of boys 18, of girls 22.
    The time I have been in this agency is so short, and the means of communicating with the Indians so imperfect, that it is not now in my power to answer any of the interrogatories contained in the blanks to which you allude in your communication of the 29th of July last, or to furnish any of the information therein requested.
    The only person in the employment of this agency is Chesley B. Gray, the interpreter, who was born in Hopkins County in the state of Kentucky, now aged twenty-five years. Resided at the time of his appointment in Lafayette, Yamhill Co., O.T. The date of his appointment is January 1st, 1852.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
            Ind. Agent
                S.W. Oregon
Anson Dart Esquire
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 71.



Unofficial
Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    Sept. 27, 1852.
Dear Sir
    I must crave your indulgence for having so long neglected to answer your communication of the 29th of July last. My excuse is that I have had the ague again for the last four or five weeks, and since I have got over the ague I have not had energy sufficient to do anything.
    I see by an office copy of the laws, regulations &c. of the Indian Bureau which I received a short time since, that an Ind. agent is not at liberty to leave his agency without permission from the Superintendent of the Territory in which his agency is situated.
    My private business will require that I should visit the Willamette this fall. And if you are not coming out here soon, I should be pleased if you could find some reason for requiring my presence at your office at Milwaukie. If not will you please give me permission to leave my agency for a few weeks.
    I have not seen your son George for the last two weeks. When I last saw him he thought he had a pretty fair prospect. I understand he has had a slight attack of the ague, but is now quite recovered. There has been a good many cases of ague & fever in the valley this summer, both among the whites & Indians. The weather has been excessively dry & hot since the middle of May last until the last few days, but is quite comfortable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
To
    Anson Dart Esquire
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 72.



Port Orford, O.T.
    Oct. 13th 1853
Anson Dart, Supt. &c.
    Sir,
        Mine of Sept. 24th, to you, is in the post office at this place yet, the steamer not having touched in here since that time.
    The difficulty, to wit, Coquilles vs. 
Tututnis and You-qui-chis ["Euchres"] that I then mentioned, is ended for the present.
    Lieut. Stolman with a small command has been out for the last few weeks exploring the country between this place and what is called the big bend of Rogue River 33 miles distant. On the 25th he commenced his march from the bend towards home, and had traveled but a few miles when he come upon a large body of Indians who occupied a strong position and seemed to be waiting for him. The force at his command was too small to think of attacking them in their present position and numbers. It consisted of 10 soldiers, Captain Tichenor and himself. The Indians dared them to fight, but he managed to avoid them by climbing a mountain and was clear of them before the (Indians) were aware of it.
    Another party of four men from Yreka came in this afternoon. They met seven Indians near the stronghold where Lieut. Stolman came upon them. They professed great friendship and proposed to pilot them to Port Orford. But after a little time the party became convinced that the Indians were deceiving them and trying to lead them into some large Indian ranch that was down the river, and they very wisely turned up the mountain, but the Indians traveled with them during the day. At night one of them remained up with the guard and among other things was explaining to him how the soldiers maneuvered with their guns, and of course had to take the guard's gun [to] illustrate it, which he very injudiciously permitted him to do. In the course of the exercise the Indian fired deliberately at his head. But fortunately it missed him. The other Indians sprang to their feet at the crack of the gun, but seeing the guard rushing at them they fled down the side of the mountain. It appeared to be understood between them (Indians), and probably if the guard had been killed all of the rest would have been [killed] before they could have made any resistance.
    These four men report that another company of eight men had started several days before them for this place. Nothing has been heard of them, and fears are entertained for their safety.
    I am now preparing to go over to this big bend, in company with Lieut. Stanton, who will take a command that will be equal to any emergency.
In haste
    Yours
        Very truly
            Saml. H. Culver, Sub
                Ind. Agt., Port Orford O.T.
Anson Dart, Supt. Ind.
    Affrs. Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 76.



Milwaukie Oct. 14, 1852.           
Sir:
    Your letter dated Sept. 28th has just reached me.
    In answer I have to say that the appropriation for treaty purposes has no connection with the bill that passed the House (before I left) for the pay of expenses of the Rogue River war.
Anson Dart
    Supt.
C. M. Walker
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.



Portland Oregon
    October 15th 1852
Hon. Luke Lea,
    Sir,
        Being a native of old Tennessee, where I once knew you, though I suppose you don't remember old Whig Tom, as the boys used to call me, and where I used to vote for you with hearty good will, and having strayed out here to Oregon, I find some things very bad, and being a plain man I tell you what it is all about.
    The Superintendent of Indian business they say is a pet of yours, and when I come to find out what an old cheat and whoremaster and liar and dog he was, I come near to a fight because they said you knew it all and would not turn him off. So I told some people here I would write to you and tell you the stories and who can prove him, and if you was willing to keep the old quack Dr. Dart in office, then why you ain't the Luke Lea you used to be. He is a cheat. He uses government money in trade for his own business and won't pay his debts. Then he keeps a whore in the Superintendent's house and no decent man will go there, and it looks well for such a building to be a brothel for old Dr. Dart and his woman. When he is turned loose he says Pierce is going to be [the] next President, and he wants to be in time to jump. Now to prove all these things, I can call the best men in Oregon, Gov. Abernethy, Gov. Gaines, Hon. A. Holbrook and Hon. J. B. Preston in Oregon City, and many more. In Portland Col. W. W. Chapman and Chief Justice Nelson and Judge Strong at Astoria.
    Everybody despises him all round.
I am an old friend
    Yours truly
        Josiah Bulford
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1111-1113.  This letter may be a hoax; search "Bulford" on the 1853 page.


The United States to
                                    A. A. Skinner
   1852
Nov. 30 To Supper & breakfast for Jo, Bill and Peter @ $1 per meal 6.00
Dec. 3 Supper & breakfast for Taylor and Jim, Indians 4.00
14 Same for 2 of Jo's brothers 4.00
Jany. 20 Supper & breakfast for Elijah 2.00
21 Supper & breakfast for Elijah 2.00
30 Supper & breakfast & dinner for Sam 3.00
31 Supper & breakfast for Sam 2.00
Feby. 8 Same for one of Jo's brothers 2.00
11 Same for Elijah & son 4.00
16 Same for Jim & Mary 4.00
20 Use of 2 horses 1 day each @ $5 per day, one for interpreter & one
   for agt. in visiting Indians on Applegate Creek 10.00
27 Supper & breakfast for Elijah & boy 4.00
March 6 Supper for Jim 1.00
6 Supper & breakfast for Elijah & boy 4.00
7 Supper & breakfast for Peter 2.00
8 Supper & breakfast for Sam & Bill 4.00
9 Supper & breakfast for Jo, Sam & Bill 6.00
10 Paid expenses in visiting Indians on Grave Creek--tavern bill at
    Dr. Rose's 2.50, Mack Rice's 3.00, Mr. Brown's 2.50 8.00
10 Use of 1 horse 4 days @ $5 per day 20.00
13 Supper for Ind. from Applegate Creek 1.00
14 Supper for Elijah & boy 2.00
15 Breakfast for Jim & another Ind. 2.00
19 Supper & breakfast for Elijah & Hans 4.00
25 Same for Peter 2.00
26 Same for Elijah 2.00
27 Supper and breakfast for Jo & Elijah 4.00
April 12 Same for Sam & boy 4.00
12 Same for Elijah 2.00
18 Same for Sam 2.00
21 Paid traveling expenses in visiting Ind. on Illinois River / tavern bill
    at Mooney's & Mickson's [sic--probably Mickelson] $1.50,
    same at same $1.50, tavern bill and ferriage at Thompson's $2.00 7.00
21 Use of one horse 8 days at $5 per day in visiting said Indians 40.00
May 1 Rent of house for use of agency from 15th October 1852 to
    1st May 1853 at $50 per month   325.00
$487.00
   
The United States
                            to A. A. Skinner                                Dr.
   1851 
Dec. 23 To Use of 3 horses 2 days (one for Ind. agent, one for interpreter &
    one for a person appointed to assist in arresting Worthington
    Bills, charged with an attempt to excite an Indian insurrection) @
    $5 per day for each horse 30.00
25 Use of 2 horses 2 days (one for Indian agt. and one for interpreter)
    in recapturing said Bills, who had escaped, at $5 per day 20.00
25 7 meals furnished to Jo and Sam, two chiefs, and 5 other Indians
    @ $1 cash 7.00
1852
Jany. 2 4 meals furnished Ind. Jacob & squaw 4.00
6 10 meal furnished Sam & 4 brothers 10.00
10 6 meals furnished Indians Sam, Peter & John 6.00
12 2 meals furnished Indians Sam & Peter 2.00
16 4 meals furnished 2 Indians from Smith's River 4.00
18 10 meals furnished Jo & Sam & 3 others--Indians 10.00
21 4 meals furnished 2 of Jo's brothers 4.00
29 2 meals furnished Sam 2.00
30 2 meals furnished Sam 2.00
31 6 meals furnished Indians from Butte Creek 6.00
Feby. 1 2 meals furnished Indians from Stuart's Creek 2.00
4 2 meals furnished for Sam 2.00
5 4 meals furnished Sam & Peter 4.00
11 4 meals furnished Jo & Ben 4.00
12 6 meals furnished Jo, Sam & 4 other Indians 6.00
13 8 meals furnished Jo & 3 other Indians 8.00
15 2 meals furnished Peter 2.00
15 Paid N. C. Dean as per voucher 20.00
15 Paid N. C. Dean as per voucher 82.76
18 6 meals furnished to 3 of Jo's and Sam's brothers 6.00
19 8 meals furnished Sam & 3 other Indians 8.00
19 Use of horse 2 days by Ind. agt. in visiting Shasta Inds. on
    Stuart's Creek 10.00
23 4 meals furnished Sam & brother 4.00
29 10 meals furnished Jo & Sam & 3 others 10.00
March 3 6 meals furnished 2 of Jo's brothers & old man 6.00
7 4 meals furnished Sam & Peter 4.00
14 Use of horse 3 days by Ind. agt. in visiting Umpqua Indians
    @ $5 per day 15.00
17 4 meals furnished Jo & Sam 4.00
18 4 meals furnished Jo & Sam 4.00
19 4 meals furnished Jo & Ben 4.00
30 6 meals furnished Peter, Ben & another 6.00
31 10 meals furnished Sam & 4 others 10.00
Apr. 7 4 meals furnished Jo & Peter 4.00
8 Paid J. V. Hoag [Hogue?] as per voucher 18.90
9 6 meals furnished Jo, Peter & Mary 6.00
11 4 meals furnished 2 Indians 4.00
11 10 lbs. flour @ .30 per lb. furnished Indians 3.00
11 10 lbs. beef @ .15 per lb. furnished Indians 1.50
12 Use of one horse 1 day by Ind. agt. 5.00
13 Use of two horses 1 day by Ind. agt. & interpreter 10.00
16 2 meals furnished Jo 2.00
16 8 lbs. flour @ .30 per lb. furnished Indians 2.40
17 4 meals furnished Jo and other Indians 4.00
18 2 meals furnished Jo and other Indians 2.00
May 5 4 meals furnished Jo & another Indian 4.00
9 8 meals furnished Sam & 7 others 8.00
10 4 meals furnished Sam & 1 other 4.00
13 10 meals furnished Jo & 4 other Inds. 10.00
24 2 meals furnished Peter 2.00
25 4 meals furnished Sam & John 4.00
25 Use of 1 horse 3 days by agt. in visiting Umpqua Indians 
    @ $5 per day 15.00
26 Use of 2 horses 1 day by agt. & interpreter in looking for property
    stolen by Inds. 10.00
26 4 meals furnished Jo & an Ind. woman 4.00
27 4 meals furnished Jo & an Ind. woman 4.00
June 7 Use of 3 horses 6 days by agt. & interpreter in visiting Umpqua
    Indians north of Umpqua Mountain 90.00
7 Paid tavern bills on the the above-mentioned tour to A. S. Bates $4,
    Crisman at mouth of Kenyon $1, Riddle on Cow Creek $5 10.00
16 Use of three horses 4 days by agt. & 2 interpreters in visiting
    Indians on Smith's River 60.00
16 Paid tavern bills on above-mentioned tour to Evans $2, Miller at
    Miller's Rancharee Smith's River $15, to Evans $2 19.00
20 Use of 2 horses 1 day in searching for property stolen by Indians 10.00
July 5 Use of 1 horse 4 days by agt. in visiting Umpqua Indians below
    Perkins' ferry 20.00
9 Use of one horse 1 day in visiting Indians on Big Bar 
    on Rogue River 5.00
17 Use of 3 horses 2 days & agt. and interpreter in time of Indian
    hostilities 30.00
19 15 meals furnished friendly Indians 15.00
20 20 lbs. flour to family of Chief Jo at 25 cts. per lb. 5.00
20 Paid James Clugage as per voucher 69.00
21 Paid James Clugage as per voucher 270.00
22 Paid James Clugage as per voucher 102.00
31 20 meals furnished to Sam & Jo between the 20 & 21 20.00
Aug. 7 21 meals furnished to Sam between 1st & 7th Aug. 21
8 42 meals furnished to sick Inds. from the 1st to 8 of August 42.00
8 Use of 1 horse 1 day in assisting Sam to recover a horse taken
    by the whites in the late hostilities 5.00
30 20 meals furnished sick Indians from Aug. 8th to Aug. 30th 20.00
Sept. 1 2 meals furnished to Jacob & Elijah 2.00
2 1 meal furnished Elijah 1.00
7 2 meals furnished Elijah 2.00
8 4 meals furnished 2 Indians from Dalles 4.00
14 2 meals furnished Elijah 2.00
25 2 meals furnished Jo 2.00
Oct. 7 2 meals furnished Jo 2.00
16 Paid traveling expenses in visiting Indians in Umpqua Valley:
    Wm. R. Rose $2.00, A. S. Bates $2, Crisman .62½, Rose .75 5.27
16 Use of 1 horse 5 days by Ind. agt. in visiting Indians in Umpqua
    Valley 25.00
16 Use of 1 house for agency from 15th of November 1851 to
    15th Oct. 1852 at $50 per month     550.00
Total       $1884.98
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 670-676.


Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        October 22nd 1852
Sir:
    I have received your letter of 6th ult., enclosing a letter from Agent Skinner giving an account of the occurrence and adjustment of recent difficulties between whites and Rogue River Indians.
    You also enclose a newspaper article in relation to apprehended difficulties at Port Orford, in consequence of the non-payment of annuities, expected by the Indians.
    The treaties with the Indians in Oregon not having been ratified, nor any appropriations made under them, as you were delivered on the 3rd ult., it is impossible for the Department to afford relief,and all that can be done will be for you to use your best efforts to keep the Indians quiet.
    The 17th sec. of the Intercourse Act of 1834, to which you refer, does not apply in this case, it being confined exclusively to depredations committed by Indians on the whites.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. Lea
            Commissioner
Anson Dart Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Oregon City
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, No. 87½.



Indian Superintendency, Oregon,
    October 25th 1852.
To / Hon. Luke Lea,
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            Yours of the 3rd ult. is before me; the Treasury drafts, therein spoken of for thirteen thousand four hundred dollars being a part of the amount appropriated in the "Deficiency Bill" for this Department, is this day arrived.
    You will observe that the six thousand dollars sent me out of the twelve thousand appropriated is only sufficient to pay expenses incurred last year for treaty purposes.
    I hope you will forward me the balance of the twelve thousand, for the following reasons: On receipt of intelligence that the deficiency bill had passed, appropriating twelve thousand dollars to "continue negotiations with the Indians," I took immediate steps to be in readiness at the shortest notice to start for Southern Oregon on the receipt of funds named. I bought blankets and other presents to the amount of thirty-seven hundred and eighteen dollars, to be paid for as soon as the appropriation should reach me. I took this precaution on account of the near approach of the rains and the apparent necessity of acting without delay in treating with the Rogue River Indians before the winter closed in.
    Should any difficulties arise in any quarter with the Indians it would be useless to approach them with a view to treat for peace without presents, and there are no other appropriations from which presents could be bought, and as these goods are now purchased and in my possession they will be in readiness for any emergency that may arise.
I have the honor
    To remain
        Very respectfully
            Your obedient servant
                Anson Dart
                    Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 1248-1249.



Indian Superintendency Milwaukie Nov. 12, 1852
Sir:
    I received your letter dated 28th Sept. 1852 this day. The reason of writing you that your claim came under the appropriation for the Cayuse War debt was because I was informed by Mr. Thurston that he had got an appropriation sufficient to pay all claims for Indian depredations in Oregon. You are mistaken in supposing Gov. Lane to be my predecessor; it was Gaines. Either Lane or Gaines should have attended to this matter at once. Two wrongs, however, does not make a right. I will without delay forward your letter as above, with such other papers as there may be in my office relating to this subject, to our delegate in Washington with a request that he should take the proper steps to get your account allowed. The government, however, is apt to be very tardy in their attention to such accounts.
I have the honor &c.
    Anson Dart
John Meldrum
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.




Oregon Indian Superintendency
    Nov. 27, 1852.
Dear Sir:
    Enclosed is a letter just received from John Meldrum Esq. giving an account of a claim he has on the government together with an old letter addressed to you on the same subject found on file in this office. The letter he speaks of having written me must have reference to Gov. Gaines, your successor, as I have no such letter in my office.
    I hope you may be able to get an appropriation to cover this claim, as it is undoubtedly just.
    I have the honor to be
        Your obedient servant
            Anson Dart
                Superintendent
                    Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon. Joseph Lane
        Delegate in Congress
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.



Milwaukie 27 1852 Nov.                   
Sir:
    Your letter of the 25th inst. dated at Portland is at hand, and in reply I have to state that you will ultimately be able to recover all damages sustained by Indians. The Champoeg treaties are not yet rejected by the United States Senate, but probably will be, in which case new treaties will be made. Your claim will be good against the first payment made to that band of Indians.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
Jacob Comegys
    Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 2; Letter Books A:10.



Oregon Indian Superintendency
    December 14th 1852
To / Hon. Luke Lea
    Commissioner of Ind. Affairs
        Sir:
            In view of the increased and increasing high cost of living in Oregon, together with the inadequate salary to meet these expenses, I am induced, very respectfully, to tender herewith my resignation, to take effect at the end of the fiscal year, 30th June 1853 (unless sooner displaced).
    It may not be improper then to suggest here that I be recalled to settle my accounts previous to that time, as I could not, I suppose, be allowed traveling expenses to the seat of government after my official term had expired (either by removal or resignation). In the event of being called to Washington settle my accts., my secretary would remain in charge of the books & papers of the office, and the public property, to turn the same over to my successor--being prepared myself to pay over any balance of public money in my hands, here or in Washington.
    The tardy movement of the mails to this distant coast has induced me to write thus early on the subject, as no more time will intervene than is necessary to obtain a reply.
    The result of the presidential election is not yet known to me; it would not, however, change my intentions as above.
I have the honor to be your obedient servt.
    Anson Dart
        Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 14-15.  A copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 373-374.





Port Orford O.T.
    Dec. 21st 1852
Dear Sir,
    Since mine to you of Oct. 13th but little has transpired here worthy of note. The Indians in this vicinity are friendly. They have food enough to sustain them through the winter, "principally dried salmon," but are badly off for wearing apparel. Some have obtained enough clothing from the whites to make themselves comfortable, but nine tenths have nothing more than a cotton shirt & small skin, which is but a slight protection against our violent winter storms.
    I am now making an effort to assist them to blankets by way of their own exertions. I tell them that if they will kill game that I will procure mules & go with them after it, sell it, & invest the proceeds in blankets for them. In this way I have within the last two weeks supplied four families with sufficient clothing to make them comfortable for the winter. They see the advantage of it & promise to bring in meat as fast as it can be sold.
    In mine of Oct. 18th I mentioned that the Indians at the big bend of Rogue River were disposed to be hostile, that upon one occasion they had attacked a small party & that I should go over there as soon as possible &c. I started in company with Lieut. Stanton & command for that place on the 5th Nov. & at the expiration of five dreadful days we found ourselves there. We were drenched with rain every day & almost hour for the entire time. This excessive rain caused Rogue River to rise so much that we were unable to cross it. We then could not get to the Indians & they would not or did not come to us, or were in sight. The snow commenced to fall in the mountains & Lt. Stanton concluded to abandon his original plan, which was to send a small party through to the Oregon Trail & retain the rest as a guard for me. This arrangement would have given me ten or twelve days at the bend, in which time I have no doubt I could have effected a permanent peace with them. After remaining two days we started for home.
    I intend as soon as the weather will permit to visit the different tribes that are under my charge to examine their condition, mode of living, dwellings, number &c.
Yours very
    Truly
        S. H. Culver Sub
            Agt. &c.
To Anson Dart, Supt. &c.
    Milwaukie, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1853, No. 2.





Last revised June 18, 2016