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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1854
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Office Superintendent Indn. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 1st, 1854--
Sir,
    I herewith submit my quarterly report of the qualifications of each employee of this Superintendency and the manner in which each has performed his duties, so far as [is] known to me, for the qr. ending 31st December 1853.
    Samuel H. Culver, Indian agent, assigned to Rogue River District, I regard as an efficient and competent officer who has, I believe, thus far performed his duties faithfully.
    R. R. Thompson, Indian agent, assigned to the Utilla District, Middle Oregon, I regard as a competent and efficient agent.
    J. L. Parrish, sub-agent, assigned to the District of Willamette Valley, is a very competent and suitable person for the station.
    W. W. Raymond, assigned to Astoria Sub-Agency, is believed to be an honest, well-meaning person, but is represented by many who claim to know him as lacking system and energy. Thus far I have seen nothing disparaging to him as an efficient sub-agent.
    F. M. Smith, special sub-agent in the District of Port Orford, is represented as being a competent and efficient officer.
    W. J. Martin, special sub-agent temporarily employed in the Umpqua Valley and around Coos Bay, has discharged his duties efficiently and faithfully.
    Joseph M. Garrison, agent, and Philip F. Thompson, sub-agent, have, as the Department has been heretofore notified, resigned office.
    The persons named in the following list of interpreters in the several agencies and sub-agencies are I believe competent and suitable to fulfill the duty required.
Rogue River Agency--two interpreters
Utilla Agency--none
Willamette Sub-Agency--Norman A. Parrish
Astoria Sub-Agency--none
Port Orford Sub-Agency--Chilliman, native
Special Agency of Umpqua & Coos Bay--J. R. Magruder
Superintendency--Lorenzo Palmer (dispensed with)
    Edward R. Geary, clerk for Superintendency, is competent and efficient in the discharge of his duties.
I am sir respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
                Oregon Territory
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Department of Interior
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 563-565.



Sub-Indian Agency
    Port Orford O.T. Jany. 1st, 1854.
Sir,
    I have the honor of reporting to you that I entered upon the duties of the office of sub-Indian agent on the 1st of October 1853, and since that period have visited and talked with the following tribes, and at dates as herein stated. Some little misunderstanding having occurred between the Tututni tribe, living on Rogue River seven miles from its mouth, and the miners of that vicinity, I repaired to the scene of difficulty on the 3rd of October. The difficulty alluded to was occasioned by the ill treatment of the Indian women on the part of the whites--the Indians threatening to drive off the miners as the only effectual method of preventing a recurrence of such insult upon their families. I had no trouble in settling the matter and establishing friendly relations, nor do I apprehend that any difficulty will hereafter occur, originating with the Indians. In the vicinity of Tututni village there are some three hundred miners at work upon the sea beach. Among their number are many desperate characters disposed to infringe upon the rights of the Indians, and upon all occasions to treat them badly. The preponderance of power, however, I am happy to say, is in the hands of well-disposed, law-abiding and order-loving men, who will not permit the rights of the Indian to be invaded. I confidently anticipate a long continuance of peace and friendly intercourse in that section of my district.
    Complaint being made to me that the Qus-tou-wah tribe, residing on the coast some twelve miles north of Port Orford, had ordered a white settler to leave their country, threatening to kill him should he fail to do so, I visited that tribe on the 7th of November last, and not only succeeded in forming friendly relations, but obtained permission for Americans to settle upon and work the lands of their people. During my interview with the chief he said to me, "I cannot understand white man. You make promises but do not fulfill them. I sold my country long ago to the Great American Tyee. The Great American Tyee promised to pay my people. He has not made good his words. Now his people come here, take my land without permission and do not pay me. What do you people mean?" I could only answer that the American Tyee would not wrong his Indian people, that he would make good his words, that he would soon pay for their lands.
    I certainly hope that government will not much longer delay this matter. This very neglect occasions no little difficulty to the Indian agent in the performance of the duties of his office. I earnestly hope it may soon be removed. On the 3rd December last I left Port Orford accompanied by Lieut. Kautz, commanding at Fort Orford, and two men, with George Abbott as guide, for the Big Bend of Rogue River, the residence of the Shasta Costa tribe. I arrived at the principal village of the Shasta Costa on the 7th of December and immediately went into council with three of their principal chiefs, attended by about forty warriors. The interview was long and exceedingly interesting, and ended to my entire satisfaction. The Shasta Costa chiefs had been told by the Taylor Indians, some of whom have moved down to the upper ends of Big Bend, that the American Tyee had deceived his people, that he never intended to pay for the lands of the Indian, that he had ordered his white people to take the land and destroy all the Indians. The chiefs seemed pleased with my talk and gave me every assurance of a desire for peace and permanent friendly relations. I apprehend trouble with the Taylor Indians--they appear to be unsettled, moving about, up and down Rogue River, without any fixed residence.
    It was with the Taylor Indians and not the Shasta Costa tribe that Benj. Wright had difficulty. I wrote you in reference to that difficulty in the month of November last. In journeying from Port Orford to the Big Bend of Rogue River I proceeded by land as far as the Shasta Costa village, a distance of 28 miles from Port Orford. At the Tututni village we took canoes and ascended Rogue River to Big Bend--distance thirty-five miles. My object in going by water was that I might examine the country on the banks of the river and ascertain its adaptation to your project of colonization. We were three days in ascending the river. A more wild or turbulent stream I never saw, and as to the country through which it courses its way to the sea, it is totally unfit for the permanent abode of white men.
    In consequence of the frequency of the rapids we were often obliged to walk miles. This afforded me an opportunity to examine the country some distance inland. I find it all of the same character--mountains and canyons, nearly all heavily timbered. There are, here and there, upon the banks of the river, small patches of open bottom lands, from fifty to one hundred acres each, admirably calculated for Indian settlement, most of which are now occupied by small bands of Indians. At the Big Bend of the river I should estimate the open bottom land to contain about 3000 acres. Even that spot, with all its beauty and fertility, is so completely enclosed by almost impassable mountains as to offer no inducement for its settlement and occupation by white men.
    In conclusion I cannot but recommend to your notice in furtherance of your project of colonization the Rogue River country from the Big Bend of that stream to the sea coast. It is particularly adapted to the wants of the Indian--the river is full of fish, and the mountains will ever furnish abundance of game, and there is sufficient agricultural land to instruct them in the science of farming. There they will not often be brought into intercourse with others than their own people--seldom if ever molested by the white man.
    In the performance of the duties of my office, in consequence of the absence of a military force and the nonexistence of organized courts of law, I have experienced much difficulty. There are very many bad men among us, men who do not scruple to distribute liquor freely among the Indians. Against this course I can only remonstrate. I have no means within my reach to prevent this violation of law. I hope ere long a remedy will be immediately at hand, so that I may be able to bring the offender of the law to speedy justice. At present I am performing the duties of my office without any particular instruction. If I err, and I fear I may, my errors will be founded in ignorance of the power invested in me, and the extent and precise meaning of the services expected at my hands.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        F. M. Smith
            Sub-Agent Ind. Affairs
                Port Orford O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original letter can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 132.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 2nd 1854
Sir,
    Your letter of the 17th ultimo asking payment for packing Indian goods has been received.
    Before the amount can be paid it will be necessary for you to procure the certificate of the persons by whom you were employed showing the number of animals engaged in the service, the rate per day, the number of days thus employed, and as there were three different points at which the goods were to be delivered, it will be necessary to state the length of time and number of animals engaged in each respectively as inst. first from Pass Creek to W. J. Martin's: here ended the first contract. From W. J. Martin's to Cow Creek near Mr. Riddle's, as at this point a portion of the goods were left. From Mr. Riddle's to the Indian agency in Rogue River.
    You should also procure a certificate or receipt from Mr. Culver, the Indian agent, showing the time the articles were delivered.
    These certificates are necessary in order to properly adjust the accounts. Mr. Hubbard has informed me with regard to the trip as far as Mr. Martin's, and the latter as to the rates per day. It is necessary that I should know the number of animals and length of time between the respective points. No information as to the reception of the goods has yet been received. Nor has there been funds remitted applicable to the payment of your claim, but I hope to receive remittances soon. Enclosed are blank forms of vouchers such as we are required to take, to be in duplicate.
Respectfully your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Mr. James McDonald
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Albany, Oregon Territory
    January 2nd 1854
Hon. the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Washington City
        Dear Sir
            Mr. James P. Day left in my hands for collection an acct., of which I herewith send a copy marked (A.), for which I gave a receipt copy of which I send herewith marked (B.). Mr. Day informs me by letter that he made arrangements with Mr. Walker to receive into his hands for safekeeping the money which I might obtain from the government on his acct., and that for this purpose he had left my receipt in the hands of Mr. C. M. Walker. From letters received from Mr. Walker it would seem that he desired me to send to him the original of the copy marked (A.) in order that he may appropriate to his own use the money when received, as though it had been so agreed between him and Mr. Day. But the latter gentleman has not informed me of any such arrangement, but on the contrary instructs me by letter to remit the money to a given point, and to get my receipt from Mr. Walker. Mr. Walker has just sent my receipt to me by mail enclosed in a letter, a copy of which is marked (C.). But I should be wanting in duty to my client were I to comply with Mr. Walker's request.
    Would you do me the favor to inform me to whom I should present Mr. Day's acct. for payment. Please write to me at your earliest convenience.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. svt.
            [J. Quinn Thornton]
   
(A.)
Rogue River Agency for C. M. Walker
    in a/c James P. Day
    1851
July 25th For cash lent pd. Geiger's $  60.00
Aug. 25 1 blanket pd. Young ch 7.00
25 1 blanket pd. old ch 7.00
25 5 cotton shirts $2.00 ea. 10.00
cash lent pd. for sundries 7.75
amt. pd. on expedition up river 13.25
for serving from July 15th 1851 to Aug. 31 1851
    @ $3 per day (48 days)   144.00
$249.00
Making two hundred and forty-nine dollars.
    I certify that the foregoing account is true and correct.
C. M. Walker
    for H. H. Spalding
        Ind. Agt. for So. W. Oregon
27th Aug. 1851.
   

(B.)
    Received of James P. Day for collection on a/c for $249 (two hundred and forty-nine dollars) on the Rogue River Agency, certified by C. M. Walker, acting for H. H. Spalding, Indian agent for S.W. Oregon.
Oregon City, Sept. 23rd, 1851
J. Quinn Thornton
    Atty. at law
   

(C.)
Dayton O.T.
    8th Decr. 1853
J. Quinn Thornton Esq.
    Albany O.T.
        Sir
            A letter to me from the Hon. the Commissioner of Indian Affairs makes it necessary for me to make out new certificates for the several claimants in my party on Rogue River in 1851. You will please send me by next mail's return Mr. Day's certificate, as 'tis in your hands.
    If you have any charges against Day, send them and I will attend to collecting them for you.
    I herein enclose your receipt to Mr. Day.
    No news with us.
I am
    Dr. sir
        Very respectfully
            Yours
                C. M. Walker
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 758-761. These documents throughout give Day's name as "James M. Day."




Indian Agency Rogue River Valley
    Fort Lane Jany. 3 1854
Sir
    Yours of the 29th Nov. was received on the 28th Decr. In answer to your inquiry whether my census return embraced Taylor's Band I would say that it does.
    In that census I depended much upon the one that Judge Skinner furnished me with & either he was too high, or many of them have since died, probably a little of both. My time has been so completely occupied since my arrival here that to take the census of them so as to be entirely correct has been impossible.
    Your estimate "six hundred souls" of the Rogue River tribe proper is not far from correct.
    I also received the copy of Agent F. M. Smith's letter informing you that the Shasta Costa band of Indians are disposed to be hostile.
    Your suggestion that perhaps I may be able to get a message to them, or do something that would be of service in the matter from this direction, gives me pain rather than otherwise, for I know that I could bring about a friendly feeling in a very short time if I had any means, but without, it is doubtful. The Indians between this and the part where the Shasta Costas reside speak three or four different languages. It would be difficult for any Indians from this part to get them to come in, or to effect anything with them. It cannot be done by less than from 3 to 5, and it would be necessary to look until I could find some persons that among them could speak each different language, and that each of them should be possessed of a character that would be known to be above deception among themselves. Such persons cannot be procured for such service without good pay. I might promise something to be paid hereafter, but in so doing I would depart from a rule made long since not to promise an Indian the least thing unless I know I can comply with it.
    Be assured however that no stone shall be left unturned by me in this matter with the means that I have. It is to be regretted that the service should be so embarrassed. In this instance probably a small amount, judiciously expended, would save a very large sum hereafter and many valuable lives. But I will not dwell on the subject farther. Your experience is quite sufficient.
    Speaking of sending troops from this to Port Orford. There are today at Fort Lane forty-one men. These are remnants of three companies of dragoons, and more will be discharged soon. Instead of sending any away more ought to be sent here. A good force and prudent management will preserve peace in this part--nothing else.
    It is reported that Fort Jones is to be broken up & the garrison sent here--it ought to be done.
    I am glad to learn that you have taken steps to get troops sent to Port Orford, for they are needed there much.
    As I wrote in my last, I have made an arrangement with Tipsey to come upon the reserve in the spring. It is impossible for him to go the other way, for the miners drive him back. The only thing that he could do is to come upon the reserve. Early steps ought to be taken to assist them to raise food. All they want is potatoes. To assist them to raise a field of potatoes would do much toward keeping peace. With a little assistance of that kind, they cannot suffer for food. And if they have a fine lot in the ground, or in store for winter, they would not dare to do wrong for fear of losing them.
    I hope that General Lane will try to get a large sum appropriated "for treaty purposes" this winter and in time that it can be used next summer.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Territory   
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 7.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 3rd 1854
Sir
    Upon my arrival I find in my office your letter in reference to the destitute condition of a portion of the Indians in your sub-agency. If their condition be such as to demand assistance, you will make such provisions for their relief as you may think necessary, and be ordered to do so. You will receive orders to call on Mr. Garrison for such goods as he may have in his possession belonging to the government.
    Before doing so, however, perhaps you would do well to come down and be supplied with the needful a little pay, as you will doubtless be pleased to learn that a small remittance has been made from which your accounts may be paid up to the 30 June last, and other few funds applicable for the payment of accounts subsequent to that date has been received. It is desirable to have returns as soon as possible up to the close of last quarter. The accounts transmitted by Doct. Dart have been returned with directions to audit and pay if found just and proper.
Respectfully
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
J. L. Parrish Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Randolph City Coquille Mines
    January 4, 1854
General Joel Palmer
    Supt. of Indian Affairs,
        Sir,
            Inasmuch as we are situated on the coast in Jackson County and Territory of Oregon, and surrounded by Indians on all sides, with whom our relations are frequently of a delicate and intricate character, we deem it our interest to ask at your hands the exercise of the power and authority with which you are invested by the law to place upon a more proper and desirable basis our relations with our neighbors. We ask this in consideration of the facts that we have been recently menaced in various forms by our neighbors, who have also as they believe demanded in a formal manner that pay for the land upon which we are located. We cannot in view of the circumstances but regret the evils consequent upon further delay by your department, and we hope by action on your part to avoid the evils to which we are daily liable. And while we are anxious to avoid the evils resulting from an open rupture with our neighbors, we have confidence that you will readily comprehend the necessity of acting promptly and efficiently in the matter.
Yours respectfully
    John C. Danford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 555-556.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 12th 1854.
Sir
    I herewith transmit an abstract with accompanying schedule of merchandise to be purchased in the eastern markets for paying Indian annuities for the year 1855 in this Superintendency.
    No. 1 is for 2nd payment of annuity to the Rogue River tribe. This annuity is too small to afford the tribe adequate supplies. But should the treaty of the 18th November last be ratified and appropriations made to carry it into effect, it is believed that with the proceeds of their own labor and the unexpended portions of the five thousand dollars appropriated in the treaty of the 10th Sept. 1853, a sufficiency may be obtained to provide for their actual necessities and much be accomplished towards preparing them for self-sustenance.
    The outlay of a few hundred dollars in the spring to purchase seed and aid in putting in crops is greatly demanded, and the appropriation referred to is thought sufficient for the object. These Indians do not all reside on the reserve, and it will doubtless take several years to provide comfortable quarters for them all thereon. But little improvement can be expected unless they are encouraged by the residence of an agent and farmer among them, when they may be induced to do much for themselves.
    No. 2 second payment of annuity to Cow Creek band. It is contemplated that this band will be located on the Umpqua Reserve with those treated with on the 29th November last, and thus the deficiencies in their limited provision may be to some extent supplied. The addition of several families to this band, gathered in from remote districts where they had been for some time residing, leaves their annuity insufficient to supply them with the actual necessaries of life. But when located with other bands so as to realize the benefit of shops, farmers, schools &c. it will with care be sufficient connected with the proceeds of their own labor to support them comfortably. The articles for this band will probably cost nearly the entire amount of their annuity. Should it be sufficient, however, I would suggest the purchase of a few rifles and some ammunition, which they greatly need.
    In connection with this subject I would suggest the propriety of furnishing this Superintendency with from four to five hundred stand of arms to be given to the various bands as circumstances may warrant in payment of annuities. In fact no species of property would be more acceptable as a first payment than arms and ammunition. The few now possessed by them are generally old and worn out, and insufficient to enable them to procure wild game, upon which they must mainly for some years depend for food.
    It is highly probable that an abundant supply might be obtainable from some of the arsenals of a style and finish suited to these Indians, regarded by the War Department as almost valueless in the service. In the mountain districts rifles are best suited to their wants, but along the coast fowling pieces or shotguns would generally be preferred. No danger need be apprehended from supplying these arms to the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains.
    No. 3. Articles designed for the Shasta and Scotan tribes and Grave Creek band of Umpquas, treated with on the 18th day of November last. Confederating these bands with those embraced in the treaty of the 10th September 1853, and providing for the erection and maintenance of smith shops, schools, hospital, the employment of farmers and the expenditure of $6500 in improvements, stock, subsistence &c. will place all these bands in a condition much better than was possible with the limited amount afforded by the treaty referred to. Those bands also stand in need of a few firearms and I have accordingly entered on the list one box of rifles with ammunition. It may be proper here to state that it was understood at the time of the treaty that in the event of an individual settling upon and cultivating any particular tract which might be designated, he was to be supplied with a gun on account of annuity, if he had none. No provision is made in this treaty for the erection of mills, as it was presumed settlers residing adjacent would erect such improvements. But it may ultimately be found advantageous to erect them. It would be very desirable if found practicable to have the tools shipped in time for using them in gathering the next harvest. All goods designed for Indian use should reach our ports in April, May or June, that they may be transported to the respective districts during the summer months or before the commencement of the rainy season. The chiefs and headmen of these bands greatly desire a few horses, which can be purchased in this country.
    No. 4. Is for the confederated bands of the Umpquas and Calapooias treated with on the 29th November last. In addition to the articles embraced in the lists for other tribes, this calls for the purchase of materials for supplying the smith shop which by the treaty with them will be paid for out of their annuity, while by the treaties with the other bands the materials are to be paid for out of specific appropriations. To the usual materials for supplying the shop I have added materials for manufacturing their own tinware and camp equipage and for repairing their firearms, making their plows &c. In another communication I have given my reasons at some length for adopting this policy.
    Embraced in these lists are many articles which at certain periods might advantageously be purchased in Oregon. But the fluctuating prices and the inferior quality of the greater proportion of such goods shipped to this coast renders it too uncertain to rely on this market; besides the annuities are too small to justify the additional tax, with percents insurance &c. of transportation.
    The article of coats I have omitted in all these lists, and yet they are greatly desired by the Indians. But until permanently located on their reserves, and other essential provisions for their comfort and convenience are made, I have thought it best not to draw so heavily from their annuity by supplying this article. There are instances in which an Indian would prefer a coat to all other articles, and it might be well that a limited supply of coats, vests, hats [and] boots were placed at the disposal of this office to meet such cases.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Indn. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 910-915.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 16, 1854
Sir,
    I herewith enclose my abstract of disbursements with the accompanying vouchers for the quarter ending December 31st, 1853. Under the first five heads of account there is an aggregate balance on hand of $6,502.34⅔, and under the last four heads an aggregate deficit of $5,520.98, which has been disbursed out of my private funds, and for the payment of which I trust early provisions will be made, as the pecuniary liabilities I have incurred in order to meet with promptness and efficiency the emergencies which have arisen in this Superintendency since my coming into office are now pressing heavily. A reference to the abstract will show no accounts of agents and sub-agents--with the exception of those of sub-agent Culver up to the 30th June last--have been liquidated.
    This is owing in a great measure to the late period at which funds were received and the unusual inclemency of the season, which has for some time almost entirely suspended intercourse with the different parts of the Territory.
    The ox team (see vouchers 8 & 16) was purchased to convey goods to the Cow Creek & Rogue River Indians according to agreement at the time of treating with them at the close of the late hostilities, the goods being on account of the first payment of annuities. The team is designed for the Rogue River Indians, who at the time of the treaty expressed a desire to be furnished with a team to aid them in the cultivation of the soil. They will be retained till spring and after being employed in the transferring of some supplies of goods for the Indians will be turned over to the above-named tribe at cost. A large amount of Indian property having been destroyed during the war and the Indians, being cut off from their usual supply of winter clothing, were in circumstances of great destitution, so that it became necessary, though the season was far advanced, to endeavor to supply them.
    Owing to the high waters it was impossible to take the ox team farther than the Umpqua Valley, where it will remain in charge of special agent Martin till spring.
    From that point the goods were packed to their destination.
    The prices paid for the team and for transportation are at the ordinary rates of the country.
    Vo. No. 18 is for goods given to Ben, son of the principal chief of the R.R. Indians, who set out to accompany General Lane to Washington, but was sent back in consequence of the failure of his health. It was deemed expedient to make him a few presents.
    Vos. No. 19, 20 are for expenses and services of Thos. K. Williams in preparing for and traveling to Olalla Agency and for services while there. Mr. Thompson reached the agency at what was deemed a very critical juncture; a general rising among the Indians being apprehended, and his health having become quite feeble, it was deemed important to retain Mr. Williams in the service to assist in visiting and keeping a watchful eye upon these powerful tribes.
    I also transmit herewith an abstract showing the vouchers heretofore transmitted with the abstracts of disbursement for the quarter ending June 30 and Sept. 30, 1853 as arranged under their proper heads of account.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Indian agency evening Jany 17--1854       
Sir,
    I received
news of a battle which occurred on the 15 near Cottonwood Creek in California, a few minutes since. This Cottonwood unites with Klamath [River] below the crossing between this and Yreka.
    Report has it that Tipsey's Indians are there, but I think it is a mistake, for several members of this band were here on the day the battle is said to have been fought. I start in the morning at daylight for Applegate Creek. The same report say that four whites were killed and several wounded--Indian loss not known. The same report says that the whites were beaten, that they left all their provision, a number of guns, eight or ten pistols, six horses, all their blankets and were completely defeated.
    I made a mistake; it did not occur on Cottonwood but above the mouth of it some twelve miles. The Indians are said to be in or near some cave. I will write as soon as I return. In haste
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
N.B. The Rogue River Indians are nearly all now on the reserve. They will all be there tomorrow.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 5.



Linn City Jany. 18th 1854               
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Dear Sir,
        Your note of the 8th inst. relative to the non-allowance of an item in my brother's accts. in amount 7.00 and asking his signature to vouchers which were, through mistake, submitted without being signed, has been received, and I herewith return the vouchers with his name duly appended, the item of $7.00 for spurs will be refunded at the first opportunity.
    I have received no information from the south since I saw you at this place, and know of nothing new from there, excepting the recovery of the two Indians who murdered Mr. Kyle, who escaped from their quarters some time ago--and the taking of the Indian that killed Mr. Edwards some time since, all of which I learn from a letter dated at Jacksonville, published in the Statesman of the 10th instant.
I am yours very truly,
    C. P. Culver
Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Superintendent Indian Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 23rd 1854
Dear Sir,
    According
to your request I herewith transmit a statement of the number, location and condition of the Indian tribes in Oregon Territory west of the Cascade Mountains. It is not presumable however that the statement herein given is correct in all things, but only approximately, as no census of the various tribes has been taken since I entered on the duties of Superintendent.
    In some cases their number as set down by those holding treaties have been taken, while in others I have been governed by my own knowledge of their number and location.
    There is much difficulty in ascertaining their exact number as it is seldom all the families of any one tribe are congregated at one point, and they seem to have a very indistinct knowledge of computing numbers.
    As soon as possible I will furnish you a statement of the tribes east of the Cascade Range of mountains, together with my suggestions as to the policy deemed necessary in the management of these tribes. In the meantime I shall be pleased to have your views in regard to the adaptation of our intercourse laws to the tribes west of the Rocky Mountains, and such suggestions as your long experience in the management of the eastern tribes will enable you to give in regard to forming some systems by which the tribes may be perpetuated, either in their tribal or national character or their nationality destroyed and they made amenable to our laws, or upon any points touching Indian affairs in this Territory.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
His Excellency
    John W. Davis Gov. O.T.
* * *
Umpquas
    This tribe is divided into numerous bands called Lower and Upper Umpquas, Yoncallas, Myrtle Creek, Cow Creek and others not known to me. They probably number in all three hundred and fifty. A great part of the country occupied is portioned off to families, each family having exclusive control over that portion of country claimed by them. Many of them are industrious, and a few have commenced the culture of the soil. The country claimed by the Cow Creek band, amounting to some eighteen thousand square miles, was purchased in September last for the sum of twelve thousand dollars. A temporary reserve was assigned them until a more suitable selection should be made. This band numbers fifty-two.
    I confidently anticipate the treaty will be ratified.
* * *
Port Orford Indians
    Port Orford district embraces eleven bands or tribes and numbers in all five thousand souls and are named as follows, viz:
1st. Nacoes, or Coquilles, residing on Coquille River.
2nd. Quartoes, around Port Orford.
3rd. U-que-shes, south of Port Orford.
4th. Ia-shoes, north of Rogue River.
5th. Tututnis, up Rogue River.
6th. Mikonotunnes, farther up Rogue River.
7th. Cis-ti-cos-tas, Big Bend of Rogue River.
8th. Whe-cin-nah-tins, on the coast south of Rogue River on Ford's River.
9th. Nal-ti-na-tins, south on Rock Creek.
10th. Chil-tis, farther south.
11th. Whoo-quits, south to the California line.
    Several of these bands have been treated with for the purchase of their country, but the treaties have not been ratified. It is feared that unless the military force at Port Orford be strengthened so as to restrain reckless whites who are crowding into that country serious difficulties if not a general Indian war will be the consequence.
    The difference in orthography between the names of these tribes as set forth in the treaties made by Dr. Dart, Mr. Parrish & Spaulding and this renders it very difficult to distinguish the tribes by name. Their locality is the only means by which to arrive at it.
    These tribes, however, claim all the country commencing with the Coquille River and extending south to the 40th degree of north latitude and between the ocean and summit of the Coast Range of mountains. It is a gold region. Much, however, is a good agricultural country, with heavy forests of timber and some open land.
    The Shasta Costas have recently manifested unfriendly feelings but are generally friendly if treated kindly.
Rogue River Indians
    These Indians are also divided into several bands known generally by the name of the chief who presides over the band, as Joe the head chief, who has a band. Sam, the war chief, has his band, and Jim a subordinate and civil chief has his band. These three are called the principal chiefs, and the former have to a great extent controlling influence over all the other bands. Jim, I believe, however, has the greatest number in his band, and there is John and his band, Limpy's band & Taylor's band together with several others, the names of which are not known to me.
    The whole number in the bands above named is reported by Mr. Culver, agent in that district, to be one thousand and one, & it is presumed there are other tribes indirectly connected with these bands, such as the Grave Creeks, Sucker Creeks, Althouse Creeks &c., amounting in all to some five or six hundred more.
    The country claimed by the five first-named bands was purchased by treaty in September last for the sum of sixty thousand dollars. It embraces an area of some three thousand five hundred square miles and is rich in minerals, and much of it unsurpassed for fertility of soil by any lands on this coast.
    A tract included in the above purchase has been set aside for a temporary reserve for them until the policy of the government in regard to the final settlement of the Indians in Oregon is known, and a proper selection made for a permanent home, whither when removed they are to receive fifteen thousand dollars in addition to the sixty thousand. However it is not yet known whether the treaty will be ratified, but a failure to ratify could not but be a serious obstacle to the maintenance of friendly relations with these and other tribes. Admitting the estimates as herein given to be correct and I have reason to believe them so as nearly as possible at this time, there are in this Territory west of the Cascade Mountains about eight thousand four hundred Indians.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.


Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        January 24--1854
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 8th October, transmitting with other papers the treaty made by yourself and Agent Culver on the 10th of September with the chiefs and headmen of the bands of the Rogue River tribe of Indians, and that made by you, on the 19th of the same month, with the chiefs of the Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians in Oregon, and to state that I have today sent them up to the Secretary of the Interior with the recommendation that they be laid before the President to the end that he may submit them to the Senate for constitutional [omission] thereon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Charles E. Mix
            Acting Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. &c.
        Dayton
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 26.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. January 25, 1854
Gentlemen
    Your letter of the 4th instant [above] postmarked Scottsburg Jany. 13th, calling my attention to existing relations between the whites and Indians in your vicinity and requesting prompt and energetic action, according to the powers vested by law in this department, to place these relations on a more reliable basis, has this day been received. Your views and motives are duly appreciated, and the delay which has occurred in establishing proper and permanent relations on a more reliable basis had with the coast tribes by treaty is much to be regretted. The evils of which you complain justly, in common with nearly all the settlers in Oregon, cannot be remedied short of the extinguishment of Indian title to the soil and the removal of the Indians to some district remote from the settlements of the whites.
    Although residing in a district where we are comparatively secure from personal danger by combined action of the natives, we nevertheless have our annoyances from them and are not ignorant or unmindful of the strong claims you have on the prompt and energetic action of the agents of the government in your behalf. But while ready and anxious at all times to act promptly and to the extent authorized by law, I apprehend an erroneous impression exists in regard to the powers with which the Superintendency of Ind. Affairs in this Territory is invested and also with regard to the means at his disposal for carrying into effect measures by him deemed important.
    The law authorizing treaties with the Indian tribes in Oregon Territory for the purchase of their lands at first provided a Board of Commissioners for that purpose, of whom ex-Governor Gaines was the head. Subsequently the law was so amended as to authorize such persons in the Indian Department as the President might designate to negotiate such treaties. The President designated Dr. Dart, one agent and a sub-agent, since which time these persons have been removed from office, and none of the present officers in the Indian Department in Oregon have yet been designated to this duty by the President.
    None of the treaties of purchase negotiated by the Board of Commissioners, nor by the late Superintendent and agents, have been ratified and are consequently of no force.
    Treaties of peace and amity have at sundry times been negotiated with Indian tribes, but as they necessarily secured no permanent benefits to the Indians, nor protected the whites from evils and annoyances to which they were continually exposed, they were made, as all of like kind must be, only to be speedily broken.
    The effect of the non-ratification of one class of treaties and the speedy infraction of the stipulations of another class, has been, in a great measure, to destroy the confidence of the Indians in the agents of this government; this together with the encroachments of settlers on their lands has rendered the Indians in some cases desperate.
    The restoration of confidence, and the establishment of amicable relations with the Indians in our Territory on a durable basis, is a work of time, calling for the exercise of much patience and sound discussion on the part of the agents, and prudence and forbearance on the part of our citizens.
    Much valuable time has been lost in treating, talking and attending to petty annoyances, vexations to the agent, unsatisfactory to the settler, and wholly inadequate to the accomplishment of permanent good to either whites or Indians, and these abortive efforts now lie, like so many blocks, in the way of securing really beneficial and lasting results.
    Two obstacles stand in the way of my entering into treaties for the purchase of Indian lands at present--the fact that I am not invested with the requisite legal authority, and the want of means to defray the necessary expenses. The former is avoidable when such treaty is found absolutely necessary to preserve or maintain peace; the latter can only be removed when my purse is sufficiently replenished after the exhaustion of many draws already made upon it for similar purposes.
    The importance of early negotiations with the tribes of your district of country has been pressed upon the considerations of the Indian Department as necessary to the maintenance of peace, and I confidently expect the early receipt of authority and means to carry the measure into effect. In the meantime I appeal to you gentlemen to unite with me and the agents and all good citizens in efforts to maintain peace, to restrain the violent acts of reckless and evil-disposed whites towards the natives, to treat the Indians kindly and encourage them in well doing, to discourage the sale of intoxicating liquors among them, & strive to convince them that we are a Christian and humane people, and that we desire their good.
    The day when these Indians will be placed in a home remote from the whites is I believe near, and I trust nothing will be done in the intercourse of the whites with the Indians in your region to increase the difficulties of effecting a treaty of purchase of their land and their removal from among you. I assure you gentlemen that nothing in my power shall be left undone to relieve you from the evils and annoyances you justly complain of.
    In addition to my communication to the Indian Department upon the importance of treating with these tribes, I have written to General Hitchcock, commanding the Military Department of the Pacific, urging the importance of strengthening the garrison at Port Orford.
    To this communication I have as yet received no reply, but hope he may regard it of sufficient importance to comply with my request.
    The want of proper and adequate appropriation by Congress and the delay which has attended the transmission of funds and instructions to this office are subjects much to be regretted, as the settlement of Indian affairs in this Territory has thereby been much protracted, leaving many of the more sparsely settled parts of our Territory exposed to the violence of the incensed savages, and the country in danger of being involved in a bloody Indian war which may cost the government hundreds of thousands of dollars; while the timely and judicious expenditure of a few thousand dollars by the agents of the government in the Indian Department might place our relations with the Indian tribes on the most desirable and permanent basis, securing the removal of the Indians from among us and ample provision for them, restoring safety and confidence to the settlers, and preserving many valuable lives.
    The character of our government and the cause of humanity demand that this state of affairs should not long exist, and I entertain the hope of being able, during the coming spring and summer, to perfect treaties with nearly all the tribes west of the Cascade Range, securing the purchase of their lands and their removal to such districts as may be selected and secured to them as a permanent home.
    The securing of their consent to remove to such districts you are doubtless aware is the most difficult part of the undertaking and will require the cooperation of all the persuasive powers of agents and settlers, and in some cases we may wholly fail if the removal to the east side of the Cascade Range be insisted on.
Very respectfully gentlemen
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
To Messrs
    John C. Danford
    Wm. T. Ray & others
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Indian Agency Rogue River
    Jany. 26th 1854
Sir
    In mine of the 17th inst. I mentioned that the Indians on Cottonwood were at war with the whites, that it was reported Tipsey & his band were there. As I then said I should, I started at once for Tipsey's ranch, and had the satisfaction of finding every one of his people at home, and further to learn "from whites" who were mining near them, that they had all been at home every day for weeks. I collected & placed them in a few comfortable Indian houses that were near a miner's house and engaged him to count them daily. This was done that no person could doubt as to their whereabouts, and that none could be absent without my knowing it.
    I understood night before last that some persons from Althouse had come up and attacked a small ranch of Illinois Creek Indians during the late snow storm. I have sent an express to learn if it is true & if so the particulars. I was fearful of it, but dare not leave this part so long as the snow is upon the ground, for fear that something of the kind might occur toward the Rogue River bands. If the treaty is ratified I hope funds will reach here in time to purchase potatoes for seed, plows &c. to enable all of the tribe to live on the reserve.
    The express spoken of as sent to Illinois Creek has this moment returned. The report was true. The facts are that a party supposed to be from Althouse killed eight squaws, one little boy, & wounded another. The Indians are completely under my control. No war need be feared--but it is too bad.
    One word more; there are only about thirty men at this post (Fort Lane). I don't see how things can be managed to get along without more. Capt. Smith is now at Cottonwood with 15 men, which only leaves about 15 here at this moment. I start for Illinois now--in haste.
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Supt.
    Dayton Yamhill O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  Another copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 552-554.  The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 10.



Copy of C. M. Walker's individual a/c, original sent to Joel Palmer 26th Jany. '54.
   
United States Indian Agency, in a/c with C. M. Walker
1851, July 15
    For Services as Capt. of a Company on Rogue River
    from 15th July to 8th Sept. 1851, being 55 days @ $5 per day $275.00
For amt. paid Barnard 5.00
For amt. paid Bayley 11.10
For amt. paid Jackson on wages 16.50
For amt. paid West on wages 1.50
For amt. paid for shoeing Ch's horses 5.00
For amt. paid Perkins for provisions &c. 30.00
For amt. paid James P. Day on wages 86.00
For amt. paid expenses from Rogue River to Oregon City     12.00
$442.10
Say four hundred and forty-two 10/100 dollars
   
(Perkins)
United States per Cap. Walker's Co.
To 60 lbs. flour 40¢ $24.00
To 6 meals @ $1     6.00
$30.00
   
Rogue River Agency per C. M. Walker
    Bought of Chas. A. Barnard
Aug. 10, 1851        5 lbs. coffee        @ $1        $5.00
Recd. Payt: A. Barnard
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 747-750.




Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        January 26th 1854
Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th October last, enclosing letters from C. M. Walker, and memorandum book and journal kept by him, relative to his claim for services and expenses incurred in quelling difficulties with the Rogue River Indians in 1851. I have also received a letter from Mr. Walker on the same subject, of date December 2nd 1853, and another from the same gentleman by reference from the office of the 2nd Auditor of the Treasury.
    Of the appropriation of $4,979.00 made at the last session of Congress to pay Gen. Jno. P. Gaines and Courtney M. Walker, there remains a balance of $2,086.91.
    The Secretary of the Interior will be requested to issue a requisition in your favor for this latter sum, and you will proceed to pay the several accounts named in the memorandum of Mr. Walker, herewith enclosed.
    As the appropriation was made for the relief of Gen. Jno. P. Gaines and Courtney M. Walker, it will be necessary for you to have Mr. Walker's order before you can properly pay any of the accounts. Under the circumstances which the disbursements were made it is not expected that vouchers can be procured for all the expenditures, consequently much must be left to your discretion.
    There appears to be a discrepancy in the amount of the account of Joel Perkins, and also in that of Mr. Walker himself, with explanations of which he can doubtless furnish you.
    After having paid the accounts you will return the memorandum book, and other papers explanatory thereof, to this office, and if a balance should remain in your hands you will refund the same to the United States Treasury.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Charles E. Mix
            Acting Commissioner
Joel Palmer, Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton, Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 28.



Another Indian War.

    It will be seen by the following letter, just received, that the Indians in the neighborhood of Coquille are not inclined to remain peaceable only while they have the fear of powder and American promptness and bravery before their eyes. We are rather inclined to think this the shortest Indian war on record.
Randolph City, Coquille Mines
    January 29, 1854.
    Mr. Bush--Dear Sir:--We have had a difficulty with the Indians, the details of which may be interesting to your numerous readers.
    The Indians located at the mouth of the Coquille have repeatedly warned the people residing here, and the miners scattered along the beach, that if they did not leave they would compel them to, or kill them. They have also committed several thefts, breaking into the houses of miners when they were absent at work, and stealing their provisions, ammunition &c. Two days since a messenger arrived together with an interpreter from the Indian agent at Port Orford and requested the Chief to come in and have a talk. He replied that he did not want to talk, that he wanted to fight, that he was an enemy to the whites and always would be an enemy. He also said that the Bostons were gone (meaning the soldiers) and that the rest of the Americans were all women and could not fight and that he intended to kill them all.
    Yesterday morning a small party from this place and vicinity together with a few resident at the Coquille attacked them at their rancharee and killed fifteen Indians; the rest fled--they then burnt the rancharee. The Chief was wounded, being shot through the shoulder. Two squaws were killed by accident. Eight squaws were taken prisoner. Later in the day the Chief came in and gave himself up. He said he was sorry that he was hostile to the whites and promised to behave better in future, that his heart was now changed. He also said that he had thought that it was only the soldiers who could fight, but that he had now found out his mistake. After some talk the prisoners were all set at liberty, some provisions were given them, and they were told that as long as they remained friendly and did not steal or molest the whites in their avocations they should be unmolested, and that if any white men injured them they should come in and make it known and have the matter investigated, and if wronged they should receive reparation.
    So the matter stands--war was declared, the enemy conquered, and peace restored in less than twelve hours. How long they will remain peaceable time will show.
    There was one thing which happened at which humanity shudders, but it is believed on all hands to have been purely accidental. After the firing had ceased a squaw was found in a swamp shot dead with her helpless infant lying by her side, so young as to be unconscious that its mother had ceased to live; she was endeavoring to get away with her child when a ball struck her which was intended for a man. Before the attack it was expressly agreed and understood that no women or children should be killed, and I repeat that it was purely accidental and is deplored by all. In connection with the case above named allow me to record an act of humanity: the men endeavored to persuade the squaws who were taken prisoners to go and bring in the child which lay by its dead mother, but they positively refused, saying that their chief would kill them if they touched it. One of the company then went out and brought the child in his arms and pulled off his shirt and wrapped it in it and gave it to one of the squaws and compelled her to nurse it. To the honor of the men concerned, be it recorded that there were none of those barbarous scenes enacted which make civilization blush for its name! No scalping or other desecration of the dead. They turned away feeling that they had performed a melancholy duty and sick at heart at the blood they shed. The people here are very poorly armed.
    A meeting was held in this place yesterday, the proceedings of which were ordered to be published, which I expect you will receive in due time. I will, however, give a copy of one resolution which was passed with but one dissenting voice.
    "Resolved, That if any person or persons shall sell, give, barter, or in any manner dispose of any gun, rifle, pistol, carbine or other firearms, or any powder, lead, caps or other ammunition, to any Indian or Indians, such person or persons so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and for the first offense shall receive thirty-nine lashes upon the bare back, and for the second offense shall suffer death."
Yours, respectfully,
    Wm. J. Berry.
Undated Oregon Statesman clipping, NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 562.



Coquille Mines Oregon Territory
    Randolph City 30th Jany. 1854
F. M. Smith Esquire
    Indian Agent
        Port Orford
            Sir
                
We the undersigned as members of the committee of a public meeting held here last Saturday and today, in accordance with the accompanying resolutions, beg to call your prompt attention to the serious matters under consideration, and we further hope that, as you have verbally stated, that you shall consider it your duty to forward this letter and the accompanying report to Genl. Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs (reserving for your own use and in your own office a copy of the same), [and] that you will do so at your earliest convenience. We have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient, humble servants.
    (signed) B. J. Burns, B. J. Bell, Wm. J. Berry, J. E. McClure, J. C. Danford
   

Coquille Mines, Oregon Territory
    Randolph City 28th Jany. 1854.
    At a public meeting of the citizens held this day at Randolph City with the view of taking into consideration and adopting measures relative to the misunderstanding that has recently occurred at Coquille River between the citizens and Indians, X. E. Scott was chosen chairman and .I. B. O'Mealy secretary, and subsequently the following resolutions were passed and adopted:
    1st Resolved, That our strength at this meeting shall be ascertained. Upon being counted it is found that there are seventy-three men present, fourteen of whom had serviceable rifles and shotguns and eleven of whom had pistols, making in all twenty-five men who have firearms in their possession.
    2nd Resolved, That a committee of five gentlemen be appointed to communicate with F. M. Smith, Esq., Indian agent at Port Orford, soliciting that officer to aid and assist the citizens on the Coquille mines as far as lies in his power with firearms and ammunition to put down and quell the Indians, and at the same time it is considered advisable that the committee report to Genl. Palmer, Supt. of Indian Affairs, the present state of affairs in this vicinity.
    3rd Resolved, That the following five gentlemen be appointed to form the committee: Capt. B. J. Bell, Wm. J. Berry, B. J. Burns, J. E. McClure, and J. Danford.
    4th Resolved, That when this meeting is adjourned, it shall be only till 9 o'clock this evening, when the meeting will be reassembled at Messrs. Scott & Evans' house at Randolph City, with the view of ascertaining the feelings of the Indians, and more particularly to learn if the chief at Coquille River feels inclined to comply with the request and wishes of the citizens by conversing with and visiting the citizens. and stating his grievance, if he has any to complain of.
    5th Resolved, That B. J. Burns be appointed commissary of this meeting to supply and forward rations &c. to the men engaged in suppressing the Indians.
    6th Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the Indian agent at Port Orford and also to the citizens at Empire City and also published in the Oregon newspapers.
    7th Resolved, That if any person or persons shall sell, give, barter or in any manner dispose of any gun, rifle, pistol, carbine or other firearms, or any powder, lead, caps or other ammunition, to any Indian or Indians, such person or persons so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall receive for the first offense thirty-nine lashes upon the bare back, and for the second offense shall suffer death.
X. E. Scott, Chairman
J. B. O'Mealy, Secretary
   
Randolph City Saturday evening
    Nine o'clock p.m. 28 Jany. 1854
    In pursuance of the preceding resolutions, the meeting reassembled at nine o'clock p.m., when the following resolution was adopted:
    Resolved, That this meeting is hereby adjourned until 4 o'clock tomorrow evening, in order that there shall be sufficient time to compare the resolutions and proceedings passed and adopted by our fellow citizens at Coquille River, with the resolutions and proceedings passed and adopted at this meeting today. Prior to their being transmitted to their respective destinations, and it is further hoped and requested that the meeting tomorrow will be numerously attended, as it is deemed advisable that every citizen that can possibly attend will do so, to give the meeting the benefit of his judgment, experience and advice.
X. E. Scott, Chrmn.
J. B. O'Mealy, Secy.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 585-588.



Coquille Mines Oregon Territory
    Randolph City 30 Jany. 1854
    In pursuance of the wishes of the citizens a public meeting which was to be held yesterday was adjourned until today, when the meeting was held at Randolph City, in order to take into consideration and reconsider the resolutions that were passed and adopted here last Saturday, 28th instant, as well as the resolutions and proceedings passed and adopted at a public meeting held at Coquille River (the seat of war) which were read at this meeting today, and were sanctioned and highly approved relative to the hostilities evinced by the Indians at Coquille River against the citizens. Upon the meeting being called to order, X. E. Scott was appointed chairman and J. B. O'Mealy secy., when the following resolutions were passed and adopted.
    1st Resolved, Whereas the Indians in this vicinity have been very troublesome for some time past (i.e., ever since and before the discovery of the mines), on account of their many thefts, it being unsafe to leave a house alone while the inhabitants were absent at work, they (the Indians) being in the habit of ransacking such houses, taking all the ammunition, provisions and other articles such as they could conveniently secrete and becoming more hostile in their movements every day; and that the threatening attitude of the Indians a few days since at Coquille River called for immediate and decisive action; and as it was then considered necessary for the safety of the lives and property of the citizens that prompt and energetic measures should be taken.
    2nd Resolved, That we consider the threatening and menacing aspect of the Indians at the Coquille River on the 27th & 28th inst. amounted to a declaration of war on their part.
    3rd Res'd., That the prompt and timely action of the citizens and miners assembled at the Coquille River on the 27th & 28th inst. has struck a decisive blow which we believe has quelled at the commencement an Indian war which might have lasted for months, causing much bloodshed and expense to the people in general, and we have also ascertained that a large quantity of secreted firearms and powder was destroyed in the burning of the Indian villages.
    4th Res'd., That duplicates of the proceedings of this meeting be drawn up for the purpose of publication, one copy to be sent to the Ind. agent at Pt. Orford and others to be transmitted to the different newspapers in Oregon & California, and it is further resolved, that a copy of the resolutions passed and adopted at the meeting held last Saturday, 28th inst. at Randolph City shall also accompany [omission] passed and adopted here today.
    5th Res'd., That the thanks of this meeting are justly due and hereby given to our fellow citizens who have behaved so nobly in suppressing with a small force of volunteers the Indians on the 27th & 28th inst. at Coquille River who had declared war; and from the most authentic information that we have obtained, after mature investigation, we have every reason to believe that the Indians were on the eve of commencing an outbreak against the whites.
X. E. Scott, Chairman
J. B. O'Mealy, Secretary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 589-590.



Port Orford O.T.
    Feb. 2nd 1854
Your Excellency
    I arrived here yesterday at 3½ o'clock, in company with Mr. F. M. Smith, sub-Indian agent, and Lieutenant Kautz, U.S.A., commanding officer at Fort Orford, from the Coquille River, which your excellency will undoubtedly learn in advance of this communication has been the scene of Indian difficulties for several days past.
    The causes &c. of the troubles your excellency can glean from the enclosed copy of the proceedings of the miners and citizens assembled en masse at the Coquille ferry on the 27th of January, and also the proceedings of the meeting at Randolph on the 30th and subsequent to the attack on the Indians which was made on the 28th. Therefore I will leave the causes and proceed with a report of the effects.
    At the meeting of the miners and citizens on the 27th a company of volunteers was organized of which I was chosen captain, A. F. Soap first lieutenant and Wm. H. Packwood second lieutenant (as your excellency may see in the report of those proceedings of the meeting) for the purpose of chastising the Indians effectively and immediately, the next morning (28th) being the time set for the attack.
    The Indian village was in three parts situated on both sides of the river and about one and a half miles from the mouth, one part on the north and two on the south side.
    The huts on the north side, being situated on open ground, was easy of approach, while those on the south were in the edge of a thicket connecting with a large and heavy body of timber.
    It was supposed that if the Indians were not completely surprised and should make a stand it would be at that portion of the village immediately occupied by the chief.
    I divided the company into three detachments, the first detachment, under First Lieutenant A. F. Soap, crossed the river (to the north side), took position on a mound overlooking the village, there to await the signal for attack. The second detachment, under Second Lieut. Wm. H. Packwood, took a circuitous route through the timber, intending to approach the village situated furthest up the river on the south side, from the rear, but owing to some deficiency in the guide this detachment did not get to their position until after the signal of attack was given. The third detachment, under my immediate command, taking a circuitous route, got a position in rear of the lower village (south side) and the part occupied by the chief.
    All of those movements were made before daylight the morning of the 28th. As soon as it was light the signal of attack (which was the report of a rifle fired by one of the party under my immediate command) was given, and the village was attacked at the three points simultaneously. The surprise was complete, consequently the resistance was but trifling. Sixteen of the Indians were killed and four wounded; among the latter was the chief. We took twenty old men, women and children.
    We destroyed the village by fire, but the principal portion of their provisions were saved, together with some twelve canoes. In burning the village a considerable quantity of arms and ammunition was destroyed. The Indians were thus severely chastised without any loss on the part of the whites, which will undoubtedly have a salutary effect on all the Indians inhabiting this coast from the Umpqua to Rogue River.
    Immediately after the destruction of the village, I sent out three of the women that had been taken in the engagement to find the chief, inviting him in and offering peace and friendship if he wished it. He returned for answer that a great portion of his people had been killed, that he was wounded himself, and that he asked peace and friendship for himself and the remainder of his people, stating that his heart was changed, that he did not wish to trouble the whites any further and that if I would send the chief of the tribe at Sixes River (who he knew to be in my camp at the time) to him with assurance that he would be protected, that he would come in.
    I sent that individual accordingly and the hostile chief, accompanied by ten of his principal men, came in to council. A friendly understanding was established and the volunteers were disbanded, the men returning to their peaceable occupations. The next day 29th Mr. F. M. Smith, sub-Indian agent from Port Orford, arrived at the ferry accompanied by Lieut. Kautz. Mr. Smith made every exertion to get to the scene of difficulties before hostilities commenced but was there only in time to establish more permanent understanding with the Indians, which he did in a manner highly creditable to himself as a public official.
    The foregoing report I deem it necessary to make to your excellency, as I was chosen by the miners and citizens at their meeting on the 28th (as your excellency will perceive) to forward two copies of the proceedings of the different meetings held by them during the few days' active operations, one to your excellency and one to Mr. F. M. Smith, sub-agent Indian affairs at Port Orford.
    A simple copy of those proceedings, unaccompanied by a report of the attack and of the preceding and succeeding incidents, would be rather unsatisfactory.
I remain your
    Excellency's most
        Obedient subject
            G. H. Abbott
To his excellency
    Governor of Oregon
Cayuse, Yakima and Rogue River Wars Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Bx47, Box 1, Folder 36



    Further difficulties had occurred with the Indians on Coquille River. Some alleged outrages by the red men were avenged by a party of fifty miners, who attacked an Indian village and killed 16 of the aborigines.
"Oregon," New York Times, March 13, 1854, page 3



Fort Lane February 5th 1854
Dear Sir,
    I received news on the 23rd instant that a party of whites from Sailor Diggings had attacked the Indians on Illinois or Deer Creek and killed several. It was very cold and snow upon the ground. I dared not leave this part at that time fearing something of the kind toward the Rogue River tribe. I sent an express to them at once telling them not to retaliate on anyone; on the contrary, if another party came and they were aware of it in time to leave for the mountains, to keep clear of them, and not to molest them or anyone else, that I would be there as soon as possible, which they did. The Indians killed were not Illinois but Tyee John's (branch of Tipsey's) people.
    I sent them there to keep the Illinois Indians in check this winter, as I have perfect control of John's & have not as perfect over the Illinois. I have just returned from there. It is settled so far as the Indians are concerned; they will not allow it to interfere with the relations now existing. Can anyone ask better evidences of their desire for peace? It has been & is now so that I could send every one of them into the mountains to avoid such parties if necessary, which I certainly hope will not be. I tested it when news reached this valley of the troubles on Klamath. I received news of it after dark and before 9 o'clock next morning I knew where all of Jo, Sam & Jim's people were, and before dark next day also where Tipsey's were; none were absent. The trouble on the other side of the Siskiyou has given me much uneasiness, & I hope it is ended.
    The team, implements & money necessary to put in potatoes in the spring I hope will not fail. I will try to write you again before the mail leaves.
    There were one squaw & two boys killed & three squaws & one boy wounded. Three other squaws & one young Ind. whipped the 19 men & chased them two miles.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 12.




Port Orford O.T.
    February 5th 1854
Hon. Sir,
    I grieve to report to you that a most horrid massacre, or rather an out-and-out barbarous murder, was perpetrated upon a portion of the Na-sou tribe, residing at the mouth of the Coquille River, on the morning of the 28th January past, by a party of forty miners. Before giving you the result of my examination and my own conclusions, I will give you the reasons which that party assign in justification of their acts.
    They avow that for some time past the Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River have been insolent--that they have been in the habit of riding the horses of white men without permission--that of late they have committed many thefts, such as stealing paddles and many other articles, the property of white men--that one of their number recently discharged his gun at the ferry houses--and that but a few days prior to the attack upon the Indians, the chief, on leaving the ferry house, where he had just been fed, fired his gun at a party of four white men, standing near the door of the house. They further state that on the 27th of January they sent for the chief to come in for a talk--that he not only refused to come in, but sent back word that he would kill white men if they came to his house--that he meant to kill all the white men he could--that he was determined to drive the white men out of his country--that he would kill the men at the ferry and burn their houses. This communication with the chief, and his returning answers, were had through my interpreter Chilliman, who happened to be there at that time on a visit. On the afternoon of the 27th of January, immediately after this correspondence with the chief, the white men at and near the ferry house assembled and deliberated upon the necessity of an immediate attack upon the Indians. The result of their deliberation, with the full proceedings of their meeting, is herein enclosed. (Read document No. 2.) At the conclusion of the meeting a courier was dispatched to the upper mines for assistance. A party of about twenty responded to this call, and arrived at the ferry house in the evening preceding the morning of the massacre. On the arrival of this reinforcement, the proceedings of the meeting first held were reconsidered and unanimously approved. The "upper mines," referred to above, are on the sea beach, about seven miles north of the mouth of the Coquille. There are about 250 men at work there. At the dawn of day on the morning of the 28th of January, the party at the ferry, joined by about twenty men from the upper mines, organized under command of Geo. H. Abbott, with A. H. Soap as 1st lieutenant, and William H. Packwood as 2nd lieutenant, and in three detachments marched upon the Indian ranches and consummated a most inhuman slaughter. A full account of what they falsely term "a fight" you will find in the report which their captain, George H. Abbott, forwarded to me on the day of the massacre. Said report is marked No. 3, and is herein enclosed. The Indians were aroused from sleep to meet their death, with but feeble show of resistance; they were shot down as they were attempting to escape from their houses. Fifteen men and one squaw were killed--two men and two squaws were badly wounded. On the part of the white men, not even the slightest wound was received. The houses of the Indians, with but one exception, were fired and entirely destroyed. Thus was committed a massacre too inhuman to be readily believed. Now for my examination of this horrid affair.
    Receiving information from Mr. Abbott in the evening of the 28th of January in letter forwarded bearing date January 27th, that the Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River were disposed to be hostile, and that in consequence thereof the miners were arming, I immediately set about making preparation to start at an early hour of the following day for the scene of difficulty.
    On the morning of the 29th of January I left Port Orford for the Coquille, accompanied by Lieutenant Kautz, commanding Fort Orford.
    We arrived at the mouth of the Coquille, at the ferry house, early in the evening of that day. On my arrival Mr. Abbott handed me dispatch No. 4, containing, as you will find, an account of the proceedings at the ferry house during the day of the 28th of January. Early in the morning of the day after my arrival I sent for the chief, who immediately came in, attended by about thirty of his people. The chief, as well as those of his people present, were so greatly alarmed, and apparently so apprehensive that the white men would kill them, even in my presence, that it was with [a] good deal of difficulty that I could induce the chief to express his mind freely. He seemed only anxious to stipulate for peace and the future safety of his people, and to procure this he was willing to accept any terms that I might dictate. The chief was evidently afraid to complain of, or in any manner to censure the slaughterers of his tribe, and for some time replied to the charges made against him with a good deal of hesitancy. After repeated assurances of my protection he finally answered to the point every interrogatory. I asked him if he had at any time fired at the men at the ferry house. No was his prompt reply. At the time he was said to have fired upon the white men, he declared with great earnestness that he shot at a duck in the river, at a distance of some two hundred yards from the ferry house, when on his way home, and possibly the ball of his gun might have bounded from the water. My subsequent examination of the course of the river, and the point from which he was said to have fired, convinced me that his statement was entitled to the fullest credit. This statement of the chief is somewhat confirmed by the doubt expressed by one of the party at whom he was said to have fired. The white men making this accusation against the chief only heard; the whizzing of a bullet; this was the only evidence adduced in proof of the chief having fired at them. I asked the chief if he, or if to his knowledge any of his people, had ever fired at the ferry house. To this he answered No. The chief most emphatically denied sending threatening language to the men at the ferry, but admitted that some of his people had. He also admitted that some of his tribe had stolen from white men, and that they had used their horses without permission. He did not deny that his heart had been bad toward white men, and that he had hoped they would leave his country, but all graver charges, such as shooting at white people, or at their houses, he stoutly denied.
    The chief promised to do all I required of him; if I desired he said he would leave the home of his fathers and with his people would take to the mountains; but with my permission and the assurance of my protection he would prefer remaining in the present home of his people. Everything I asked or required of him he readily assented to, promising most solemnly to maintain on his part permanent friendly relations with white men. My interview with the tribe occupied about two hours. During the entire council they listened with most profound attention, evidently being determined to fasten on their minds all that fell from my lips. At the conclusion of the council I requested the chief to send for all the guns and pistols in the possession of his men. You will be surprised when I tell you that all the guns and pistols in the hands of the Indians at the ranches, at the time of the massacre, amounted to just five pieces, two of which were wholly unserviceable. As to powder and ball, I do not believe they had even five rounds. Does this look like being prepared for war? Can any sane man believe that these Indians, numbering not over seventy-five, men, women and children, all told, with but three serviceable guns, had concocted a plan to expel from their country some 300 white men? Such a conclusion is too preposterous to be entertained even for a moment. Sir, there was no necessity for resorting to such extreme measures. I regard the murder of these Indians as one of the most barbarous acts ever perpetrated by civilized men. But what can be done? The leaders of the party cannot be arrested, though justice largely demands their punishment. Here we have not even a justice of the peace; and as to the military force garrisoned at Fort Orford, it consists of but four men! If such murderous assaults are to be continued, there will be no end of Indian war in Oregon.
    The proceedings of the meetings held at the mines above the Coquille I herein enclose. Those meetings were held subsequent to the massacre. The action of the citizens present at these meetings was based upon the statements of those engaged in the affair at the mouth of the Coquille. I was assured by several gentlemen at the upper mines that word was sent up from the ferry house that Mr. Abbott was acting upon my authority--specially deputed by a full commission from my hands, and that the government interpreter was with him. Upon this and other kindred reports was based the proceedings of their meetings. The very first intimation of there being any difficulty, or‘any misunderstanding whatever, between the Indians and white men at the mouth of the Coquille, I received by letter from Mr. Abbott on the 28th of January late in the afternoon of that day. You will find by referring to the letter marked No. 1 that it bears date January 27th. The distance from Port Orford to the Coquille ferry is about twenty-eight miles. I left Port Orford for the scene of difficulty, as before stated, on the morning of the 29th of January, the earliest possible moment after receiving Abbott's communication. Now, why could they not have awaited my arrival?
    I will tell you why, and it was urged in the meeting at the ferry house; they knew if they awaited the arrival of the Indian agent a treaty would be entered into, and friendly relations with the Indians would be established without the sacrifice of Indian life. In plainer words, and more in accordance with the spirit and acts of these men, if they awaited my arrival they would lose the pleasure and opportunity of settling the alleged difficulty in their own peculiar way. On reading of the proceedings of the meeting at the "upper mines," you will observe that it had been reported there that a large quantity of firearms and powder was destroyed in the burning of the Indian ranches. The report, of course, was sent up by the party engaged in the massacre. I do not hesitate to pronounce the statement false--false in every particular. Bold, brave, courageous men! to attack a friendly and defenseless tribe of Indians--to burn, roast, and shoot sixteen of their number, and all on suspicion that they were about to rise and drive from their country some 300 white men. In justice to Mr. Abbott, I must add that he wholly denies having sent word to the "upper mines" that he was acting upon authority delegated by me to him; on the contrary he asserts that he openly declared in the meeting at the ferry house, the night preceding the attack upon the Indian ranches, that he possessed no authority at my hands--that he acted, and should continue to act, upon his own responsibility, and such further authority as should be conferred on him by the people there assembled.
    In conclusion, I am happy to inform you that the Indians throughout my district are disposed to live on friendly relations with white men. They evince no desire whatever to be hostile, nor do I believe that they will ever become so, unless forced by savage white men.
I am sir your obt. servant,
    F. M. Smith
        Sub-Indian Agent
   
Letter No. 1.
Coquille Ferry O.T.
    January 27th 1854
Dear Sir,
    I arrived at this place yesterday at dark and found difficulties existing between the whites and Indians, and my arrival (with Chilliman) was hailed as very fortunate.
    I sent for the chief for the purpose of holding a council (in your name, of course), but he refused to come and said that he was determined to kill as many whites as he could, and if any of us dared to go to the village to him that it would be the commencement of hostilities, or at least he would consider it as such and act accordingly. He appears anxious to drive the whites out of his country. The whites are collecting and arming themselves, and it is hard to guess what will be the issue. The Indians have committed some depredations, such as cutting the rope by which the ferry boat is fastened, stealing canoe paddles, shooting at the house &c. I think the whites are justifiable; in fact, it is necessary for their own protection to take a decided step sufficient at least to frighten them.
Yours &c.
    G. H. Abbott
   
(Paper No. 2)
Coquille Ferry House, Jany. 27th 1854       
    At a meeting of miners and citizens assembled at the Coquille ferry house, for the purpose of investigating Indian difficulties, the following resolutions were adopted, that a chairman and secretary be appointed.
    On motion, A. F. Soap was called to the chair and Wm. H. Packwood appointed secretary.
    Circumstances are as follows:
    Statement first
    John A. Pension stated that he discovered on the 23rd instant an Indian riding a horse up and down the beach. I went over to the ranch to see whose horse it was. It proved to be a horse that Mr. Whike rode up from Port Orford. I took the horse from the Indian and went to the Indian chief. He attempted to take the trappings off the horse. I would not allow him to do so, wanting them as proof of his conduct. They laughed at me and ordered me to klatawa ["go," "leave"].
    Mr. William Whike being present corroborates the above statement.
    Statement second
    John A. Pension stated that on the 24th inst. there were three men on the other side of the river. I went over to them to ferry them across. They complained to me and asked me the reason why the Indians wanted to drive us back to the mines, and not let us cross the river. An Indian present at the time seemed to be in a great passion, using the word God damn Americans very frequently.
    Mr. Thos. Lowe corroborates the above statement.
    Statement third
    Mr. Malcolm stated that yesterday evening the 26th inst. the Indian chief John shot at a crowd of men standing in front of the ferry house at that time.
    Mr. Thomas Lowe and Mr. Whike corroborate the above statement.
    Statement fourth
    Mr. Whike and Thos. Lowe stated that early this morning (the 27th) they discovered the rope by which the ferry boat was tied up to be cut in two, having been done on the night of the 26th inst. The boat would have been lost had it not been buoyed out.
    Statement fifth
    Mr. Geo. H. Abbott stated: I came here yesterday evening (the 26th) and finding difficulties existing between the whites and Indians, and having an interpreter with me, sent for the Indian chief for the purpose of having an explanation. He returned for answer that he would neither explain nor be friendly with the whites on any terms. I sent back the Indian the second time, insisting on an explanation. He sent back word by some friendly Indians that he would not come nor give any explanation whatever, and that he would kill every white man that attempted to come to him or go to his village; that he intended to kill the white men at the ferry and destroy their houses--that he was going to rid his country of all white men. That it was no use talking to him, and that if they (the whites) would take out his heart and wash it, he would still be the same.
    Mr. Geo. H. Abbott's interpreter's interpretation of the above statement is corroborated by John Groslouis.
    Resolved, That the Indians in this vicinity are in a state of hostility towards the whites, from their own acknowledgment and declarations.
    Resolved, That tomorrow morning, (the 28th inst.) as early as possible we will move up and attack the Indian villages.
    By vote Geo. H. Abbott is elected captain of this expedition, A. F. Soap 1st lieutenant, and Wm. H. Packwood 2nd lieutenant.
    On motion, this meeting adjourned.
(signed) A. F. Soap, Chairman.
Wm. H. Packwood, Secretary
   
(Paper No. 3)
Coquille Ferry Oregon T.
    Jany. 28th / 54
Dear Sir,
    At a meeting of the miners and. citizens held at this place yesterday a copy of the preambles which I send enclosed, it was resolved that the threatening attitude of the Indians of this place called for immediate proceedings. A company of forty volunteers was raised, of which I was chosen captain and entrusted with the command of the party, A. F. Soap first lieutenant, and W. H. Packwood second lieutenant, for the purpose of chastising the Indians. The Indian village is in three different parts, situated on both sides of the river, about one and a half miles from the mouth. I divided the company into three detachments and attacked them at all three points simultaneously this morning at daylight. We were perfectly successful in surprising them (the Indians) although they have been making preparations for a stand for several days, and appeared to be very confident of their ability to fight the whites. From the accounts, and from my personal observation, fifteen (15) Indians were killed, their houses destroyed &c. We took all the women, children and old men prisoners as far as possible. I have sent out three squaws for the purpose of offering terms of friendship, if they wish it.
    The greatest regularity was observed during the whole of the proceedings--the authority of the officers was fully observed, and I can say to the credit of both officers and men that they behaved themselves like soldiers and avoided innocent bloodshed as much as possible.
    I think hostilities will be suspended until your arrival, which I hope will be soon.
    I will detain Chilliman till you come.
    I had almost forgot to say that our loss was none in either killed, wounded or prisoners.
    The Indians are .in sight, hovering around the ashes of their houses.
Yours &c.
    G. H. Abbott
        Capt. comdg.
            Coos County vols.
   
(Paper No. 4.)
Coquille Ferry, Jany. 29 / 54       
Dear Sir,
    I am happy to inform you that hostilities are at an end and friendly relations established, so far as it is in my power to proceed with negotiations.
    As I informed you in my report yesterday, I sent three of the squaws that we had taken prisoners among the Indians, offering terms of friendship if they chose it. The chief sent in word that if we would send the chief of Six River to him with assurance that he would not be killed by our people he would be glad to come in and come to any terms that the whites might offer. I sent the chief accordingly and after a short delay the chief John, the principal chief of the tribe here, came in with two of his principal men. The chief was badly wounded in the left arm. His wound was dressed by some of our men, and we held a council.
    He stated that fifteen of his people had been found dead and some wounded. He also stated that few of his people were left, and he was anxious to renew friendly relations on any terms, taking on himself and his people the responsibility, and acknowledging their conduct as the cause of the war. He (the chief) will be glad to meet you and come to some permanent arrangement. We expect you here today. All of the prisoners have been released, some of their canoes returned, &c. The Indians appear quite confident of the protection of the whites, and rely upon our word that they will not be interrupted further if they remain peaceable, showing that they have not been unfairly dealt with or deceived.
    In haste, yours, &c.
        G. H. Abbott
            Capt. Coos County vols.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 572-584.  The originals can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 144.



Salem O.T. Jan. 29th 1854.       
Hon. Joel Palmer:
    Dear sir--I have just received a letter from home which compels me to start home immediately without seeing you. I have also learned that there is great dissatisfaction among the Coos Bay Indians. I will start for Coos Bay soon after I hear from you, after I arrive at home. It is necessary for me to have some presents to give the Indians, to make them reconciled for the whites to make settlements among them. I therefore think you would do well to send me a letter of instructions authorizing me to bring two or three hundred dollars worth of blankets, shirts, pants &c. for the use of the Indians at Coos Bay and the vicinity. By this means I shall be able to quiet the present dissatisfaction of those Indians.
    Please send me any other instructions that you may think best, and inform me whether you have funds on hand to pay me the first quarter for my services. I am in great need of funds at this time, otherwise I should not trouble you about funds for my own use.
I have the honor to remain
    Your obedient servt.
        Wm. J. Martin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 6.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Feby. 9th 1854
Dear Sir,
    From recent
information by letter and otherwise it is seriously apprehended that great difficulties, if not a general Indian war, must be forced upon us in the southwestern portion of our Territory unless averted by prompt action on the part of the government, and in absence of any specific instructions on the subject of treaties, it may be questioned whether the general powers conferred on the Superintendent of Indian Affairs or agents will warrant the entering into negotiations for the purchase of their lands.
    My object in addressing you is to obtain your counsel and advice upon this important question.
    The treaty-making power has I believe ever been regarded as among the highest functions of sovereignty, and the authority to negotiate treaties is ordinarily confided to the servants of the government by express appointment and for specific objects, and has been watched over with a vigilant eye by the United States. But in regard to negotiating treaties with the numerous petty bands and tribes of Indians scattered over our broad domain less technical formalities seem in accordance with these conditions, as they have never been regarded by our government as coordinate with itself or as possessed of absolute sovereignty. The control and management of the Indian tribes by government appears to be in accordance with general views of expediency, desired sometimes from the experience of the past and from the emergencies of the present, rather than in conformity to the unbending provisions of legal enactments.
    If this view be correct, and an emergency can at all arise authorizing the assumption of the power to negotiate treaties in relation to the Indian tribes by a superintendent or Indian agent, when the lives and property of our citizens, engaged in their lawful callings, are in danger, and an expensive and bloody savage war seems impending, only, to all appearance to be avoided by the purchase of their lands, the occupancy of which by the whites is the cause of the difficulty, then I apprehend such emergency now exists in the region referred to, and the repeated failures of maintaining for any considerable length of time new treaties of peace with the various tribes is conclusive evidence of the fallacy of such uncertain efforts to maintain or restore peace and give security to our citizens.
    The distribution of valuable presents amongst them might for a time preserve peace but would fail to remove the cause, and tend greatly to embarrass our operations hereafter. The only sure remedy is the purchase of their claims to the soil and their removal to points remote from the settlements.
    But inasmuch as no permanent policy has been adopted by the government in regard to the tribes of this Territory, and the uncertainty as to what their policy may be, renders it somewhat difficult to act understandingly. Do you not believe from the necessity and emergency of the case I would be warranted in proceeding to enter into treaty stipulations for the purchase of Indian title, by incorporating provisions in the treaty by which the tribes agree to remove to such locations as may hereafter be designated by the agents of government for permanent homes, and the right of the government to change the mode of payment so as to conform to any system which may be adopted, having for its object the promotion of peace and the advancement of the interest of such tribes? In other words, to form such treaties as that none of its provisions shall embarrass the action of the government in adopting any measure for the future management of these tribes, and at the same time give security to our citizens and save this rapidly waning people from utter annihilation? Humanity to those miserable beings, no less than a duty to our own citizens, demands that something be done immediately. Much valuable time is being lost, and an expenditure of a large amount of funds in the way of salaries, presents &c., and no permanent good accomplished, and if we are to await the tardy action of government for specific instructions, I fear but little will be done until the lives of many of our citizens will be sacrificed. I desire if possible to avert such a calamity, and want to be gratified if after you examine the points you shall come to the conclusion that it is expedient and proper for me to act in the premises. Should you decide in the affirmative, I shall probably leave for that region by the first of March.
    The absence of funds, however, applicable to such purposes will be a serious drawback, but it must be overcome, in what way is to me an enigma.
    I trust you will pardon me for trespassing on your time, but the subject is of too much importance to be acted on without due deliberation, and I should regret exceedingly to enter upon such duties and have the treaties rejected, but if the lives of our people can be saved by it why not act?
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Hon. B. F. Harding
    Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Supt. Indn. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Feby. 9, 1854
Dear Sir,
    The last mail brought me your letter of the 3rd & 17th ultimo. Special agent Smith informs me in a letter dated Jany. 1 that he was misinformed in regard to the hostile manifestations among the Shasta Costas, to which he referred in his letter to this office, of which I sent you a copy, and that the manifestations of unfriendly feelings was by Indians of Taylor's band, who have been roaming along Rogue River during the past season and striving to spread a spirit of discontent among the Indians west of the Coast Range. I am pleased to learn that the Shasta Costas continue friendly, as I had anticipated some difficulty in establishing proper relations with them, but I regret exceedingly that Mr. Smith should have led me into so great a blunder.
    False alarms in regard to Indian hostilities are calculated to lessen the vigilance and promptness of those whose duty it is to watch over our Indian affairs, and must tend greatly to weaken the confidence of the government in the representations of officers of this department and to embarrass all our actions.
    Mr. Smith informs me that he has visited the Shasta Costas and other tribes in that part of his district, and found them all well disposed towards the whites.
    I much regret to hear of the difficulties with the Indians south of you, and hope that, as you intimate, the report in relation to Tipsey's band being concerned in it may prove erroneous, but the locality where the fight is said to have occurred renders the report but too plausible, as the country along Cottonwood, from its mouth to the mountain, is, I believe, claimed by them.
    Much uneasiness is manifested by the settlers and miners on Coos Bay, Coquille and other places along the coast, on account of the discontent and excited state of feelings existing among the Indians, and unless something be done soon to establish better relations between the parties there, the issue will be in consequences of serious character. In order to avert, if possible, such results, I have determined on an early visit to that region, at least preparing the way for extinguishment of Indian title to the country.
    Though no instructions have yet been received in regard to negotiating treaties, the emergencies existing might possibly warrant my entering on that duty.
    I shall proceed about the first of March by steamer to Coos Bay, and, should I find it practicable, visit all the Indian tribes along the coast to our southern boundary.
    If the consent of these tribes to remove to reserves hereafter to be located be secured, and the provision incorporated securing [omission] to the President, or other authorized agent of the government, the power to change the manner of making the stipulated payments, as may be deemed at any time expedient for the promotion of the welfare of the Indians, surely no serious objection to negotiation, under the circumstances named, can well be urged. When the alternative probably is the blood of our citizens, and the consequent annihilation of the Indians, every dictate of humanity and patriotism demand that action, however informal, which will avert such a catastrophe.
    I shall seek to do everything quietly, make as little parade as possible, and to incur the least possible expense. Were it possible for you to leave your post, I would be glad to have you with me, but it seems too hazardous to call you away.
    In this, as in every other undertaking of the Superintendency, a most serious embarrassment exists in the want of funds, nothing applicable to treaty expenses being received, nor indeed for other purposes of later date than the 30th of June last. I can obtain goods, but the cost of transportation and other expenses will require funds far beyond my present means, and how to arrive at their possession is yet an enigma.
Very respectfully &
    Truly yours
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
S. H. Culver Esq.
    Indn. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Rogue River Valley February 11th '54   
Dear Sir,
    As I have not received a letter from you since you left the valley last fall I have concluded that your letter has probably miscarried, and I have concluded to address you and request you to inform me whether there are any funds in your hands applicable to the payment of the salaries of Indian agents.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esquire
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 13.



Winchester February 11th 1854       
Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir
            I herewith send you a statement of the amount due Mr. McDonald for packing Indian goods from this place to Fort Lane Rogue River.
    It was understood that he was to have one dollar and fifty cents per day for each mule packed or rode, and three dollars per day for himself.
One mule for packing the goods to Cow Creek three days at $1.50 per day $4.50
Two mules out to Fort Lane eight days and five days back to this place 195.00
Services per himself 13 days at $3 per day     39.00
$238.50
Amt. of ferriage paid by D. P. Barnes and board of Ben $  10.00
    Mr. Barnes was thirteen days out with his horses. I sent him with Ben to see him safe to his people.
    I am in quite bad health at this time with a bad cold. All things are quiet in this valley.
    There are various reports from Coos Bay. None of them I think of much weight. Nevertheless I will make a trip there as soon as I possibly can after my health will admit; it will be necessary to have some presents for the Indians of Coos Bay.
Yours truly
    W. J. Martin
        Spl. Agent
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. of Indn. Affairs
        Dayton Yamhill O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 14.



Indian Agency
    Southern District O.T.
        Febry. 14, 1854
Sir,
    The two Indians that I have in custody charged with having been the murderers of James Kyle, also one that was delivered to me as the murderer of Mr. Edwards, were executed on the 10th instant.
    One that I had in custody charged with theft was acquitted.
    I find it necessary to be constantly among the Indians. They take the loss of these three Indians much to heart (their relations) and must be watched closely. I returned late last night from Applegate Creek & am trying to get all of these relatives in to the agency.
    The mail will leave in a short time. I have only time to express the hope that nothing will prevent a farm's being started on the reserve for the benefit of the Indians next spring.
Respectfully yours
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Supt. &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 15.




Fort Lane February 23rd 1854           
Dear Sir,
    Since mine of the 14th instant all has been quiet; I then told you that the three Indians who had been in custody, charged with murder, two of Kyle and one of Edwards, were executed on the 10th. I am watching closely that no retaliatory acts on the part of friends of those three may take place. They do not complain about their being hung, but they say some whites killed some of our people on Deer Creek not long since, "now if we see that you do the same to your own people then we are convinced of the justice of your laws."
    I learned by yesterday's mail that 120 dragoons recently have arrived at San Francisco. I hope they will all be sent at once to this post; if so, then I can get means to put in a crop for the Indians. Peace is "certain" in this valley next summer, but if either fail it is not.
    As I said this morning in writing to General Lane, "This valley may now well be compared to a bomb shell; a slight cause may ignite the fuse, the explosion would carry destruction to every part if it." This can and must be averted. Another advantage gained by putting in this crop. Treaties will doubtless be made during the next summer with several small bands near this and if they can see the way provided for raising food, will make much less objection to removing upon it (reserve).
    If treaties are to be made with Indians in Oregon next spring I hope those in this part will be first, those in Illinois Creek & down Rogue River. When those bands are brought out and presents given them it could be so arranged as to unite all of the bands in one tribe; it would be an advantage to them all & make them easier to control.
    Respectfully your obt. servant
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs Dayton
        Yamhill Co. Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 18.



Headquarters
    Department of the Pacific
        San Francisco, February 23rd 1854
Sir,
    Your letter of December 2nd, enclosing one from Mr. F. M. Smith, sub-Indian agent at Port Orford, was received by me the 16th instant. I regret very much that the reduced number of troops now in this military department will for the present prevent my stationing a force at Port Orford, but I will endeavor to make arrangements by which the post at that place can be reinforced at an early day.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servant
        John E. Wool
            Major General
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs &c.
        Dayton, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Indian Agency Southern Dist. O.T.
    February 24, 1854
Sir,
    The
enclosed affidavit of Gabriel Smith (No. 1) is to recover an amount equal to property destroyed by Indians on Illinois Creek during the month of October 1853.
    I have taken much trouble to learn the facts both from the whites who were near at the time and also from the Indians themselves. Both prove the affiant to be correct in all respects. The one marked (No. 2) is to prove the material facts--it will explain itself. It is but just towards Mr. Smith to say that I know of & have seen other persons who could make affidavit to the case, but they are now absent and cannot be procured without much trouble & expense. I am satisfied that this claim is just and equitable.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
       
Affidavit (No. 1)
United States of America
Oregon Territory s.s.
    On the 30th day of January A.D. 1854, before me, S. H. Culver, Indian Agent for the Southern District of Oregon, personally came Gabriel Smith, who being duly sworn says, I have resided in that part of the Indian country known as the Illinois Creek Valley which is in the Territory of Oregon, since March 1853, by and with the consent of the proper Indian authorities--that on or about the night of the 18th October 1853, a party of Illinois Creek Indians attacked my house and attempted to set it on fire. That said Indians did then set fire to and burn eight tons of good hay, that was worth, where it stood, in the market, seventy-five dollars per ton, $600.00.
    That at the same time, said Indians did shoot and destroy two good oxen that were then worth in the market one hundred dollars each, $200.00.
    That all of said property belonged to me, and that neither myself, my representatives, attorney or agent, have attempted to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
(signed) Gabriel Smith
Subscribed and sworn to this thirtieth day of January A.D. 1854.
(signed) Saml. H. Culver
Indian Agent
   
Affidavit (No. 2)
United States of America
Oregon Territory s.s.
    On the 30th day of January A.D. 1854, before me, S. H. Culver, Indian Agent for the Southern District of Oregon, personally came John R. Nickel, who being duly sworn says, On the 18th of October 1853, I was living at a house that was occupied by Gabriel Smith and Mrs. Ede Nickel; said house was in Illinois Creek Valley in the Territory of Oregon. That on the night of the said 18th October a party of Indians attacked said house and attempted to set it on fire--that said Indians did then set fire to and burn a stack of hay that contained more than 16 tons. I saw said stack of hay put up and know that one half belonged to Gabriel Smith and that the other half belonged to Mrs. E. M. Nickel. Said hay was worth, where it stood, seventy-five dollars per ton in the market. That on the same night said Indians did shoot and destroy two good oxen that belonged to said Gabriel Smith; said oxen were worth in the market one hundred dollars each.
(signed) John R. Nickel
Sworn and subscribed to this thirtieth day of January A.D. 1854.
S. H. Culver
Indian Agent
             
Indian Agency Southern Dist. O.T.   
    February 24, 1854
Sir,
    The enclosed affidavit of Mrs. E. M. Nickel (No. 3) is to recover an amount equal to property destroyed by Indians on Illinois Creek during the month of October 1853. I have taken much trouble to learn the facts both from the whites who were near at the time and also from the Indians themselves; both prove the affidavit to be true in all respects. The one marked (No. 4) is to prove the material facts--it will explain itself. This Mrs. E. M. Nickel is sister to Gabriel Smith (No. 1). They were occupying the same house. Mrs. Nickel lost her husband while coming to this country, and I regret to say is now in a suffering condition on account of the loss of this property. I am satisfied that this claim is just and equitable.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Dayton Yamhill Co. Oregon Ty.
   

Affidavit (No. 3)
United States of America
Oregon Territory s.s.
    On the 30th day of January A.D. 1854 before me, S. H. Culver, Indian Agent for the Southern District, Oregon, personally came Mrs. E. M. Nickel who being duly sworn says, I have resided in that part of the Indian country known as the Illinois Creek Valley, which is in the Territory of Oregon, since March 1853, by and with the consent of the proper Indian authorities. That on or about the night of the 18th October 1853 a party of Illinois Creek Indians attacked my house and attempted to set it on fire. That said Indians did then set fire to, and burn, eight tons of hay that was worth, where it stood, in the market, seventy-five dollars per ton, $600.00.
    That they then shot and destroyed one ox that [was] worth in the market one hundred and twenty-five dollars, 125.00.
    That they drove away and afterwards killed one mule that was then worth in the market two hundred dollars, 200.00.
    That all of said property belonged to me and that neither myself, my representatives, attorney or agent, have attempted to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
(signed) E. M. Nickel
Subscribed and sworn to this thirtieth day of January A.D. 1854.
(signed) Samuel H. Culver
Indian Agent
   
Affidavit (No. 4)
United States of America
Oregon Territory s.s.
    On the 30th day of January A.D. 1854, before me, S. H. Culver, Indian Agent for the Southern District of Oregon, personally came John B. Nickel, who being duly sworn says, On the 18th of Octr. 1853 I was living at a house that was occupied by Gabriel Smith and Mrs. E. M. Nickel. Said house is in Illinois Creek Valley in the Territory of Oregon, that on the night of the said 18th October a party of Indians attacked said house and attempted to set it on fire. That said Indians did then set fire to and burn a stack of hay that contained more than sixteen tons. I saw said stack of hay put up & know that one half belonged to said Gabriel Smith and that the other half belonged to Mrs. E. M. Nickel. Said hay was worth, where it stood, seventy-five dollars per ton in the market. That at the same time said Indians did shoot & destroy one good ox that was then worth in the market one hundred & twenty-five dollars. Said ox belonged to Mrs. Nickel. That at the same time said Indians did take away by force one good mule that was then worth in the market two hundred dollars. Said mule belonged to said Mrs. E. M. Nickel.
(signed) John R. Nickel
Subscribed and sworn to this thirtieth day of January A.D. 1854.
(signed) S. H. Culver
Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The originals can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, Nos. 17 and 20.




Office Supt. Indn. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Febry. 27 1854
Sir,
    The irritated state of feeling among the Indian tribes in the southwestern portion of Oregon, and the constant apprehension of the settlers, impress me with the importance of taking immediate steps to place our relations with those tribes on a firmer basis. The numbers attracted to that region by the discovery of gold, and the reckless character of many traversing every part of that country wholly without regard to the rights of the Indians, and embracing every opportunity to annoy, insult, plunder and murder them, preclude the hope of much longer maintaining peace with them unless the purchase of their country can be effected, and proper provisions be made for their removal to a region remote from the mining districts, or at least to place them within prescribed limits where they can be protected from the injuries of the evil-minded, and also restrained from aggressing on their part, upon the property & persons of our citizens.
    The delay of the government in prescribing and carrying out a permanent system of policy towards the Indian tribes in Oregon, and the defenseless condition of many of our sparse settlements, has excited and emboldened the savages to deeds of theft and violence, and the result has been not only the loss of the lives of Indians but of a number of our valuable citizens.
    Impressed with a sense of the great importance of immediate and efficient action, I have determined to visit the tribes on our southwestern coast in person early in March, and if possible effect some conventional arrangement by which peace may be maintained.
    I feel quite confident that the purchase of their entire country might be effected, and their consent to remove to such locations as may hereafter be selected obtained, provided these selections be west of the Cascade Mountains, and upon quite favorable terms. But in the absence of instructions on the subject of holding treaties of purchase, and in view of the fact that no permanent policy seems to be fixed on, it appears doubtful whether such purchase can be made so as to leave the government unembarrassed thereby. It is evident that a new treaty of peace, unless accompanied with a large amount of presents sufficient to supply their numerous wants, could not secure tranquility for any considerable time; besides this, the longer treaties of purchase are postponed the less inclined the natives become to leave their homes, notwithstanding the increasing rapidity with which they are dwindling away.
    If in visiting those tribes a willingness is manifested by them to dispose of their country on fair and equitable terms and their consent to remove to such places as the government may hereafter indicate be obtained, the right being secured to government to change the mode of paying the annuities stipulated for so as to suit any system of policy which may be adopted, leaving the government wholly unembarrassed in the matter, I shall feel warranted in entering into such treaties and in assigning them districts for their temporary residence; also to make them a small payment at once in order to restore their confidence and by relieving their pressing wants lessen their inducement to do wrong.
    This course may be objected to on account of the absence of express instructions empowering me to act in the premises, but if the alternative is a bloody Indian war, and peace can thus be secured, I feel a conviction that I ought not to hesitate to act.
    Efforts have recently been made with some of the bands of this valley to obtain their consent to remove to such places as might be hereafter selected for them, but without success. They seek only to be permitted to occupy a small portion of the country claimed by them. Regardless of the future they look only to the present, and are willing to conform to any terms prescribed which allow them to reside on or near the homes of their fathers.
    As respects some of the dwindled bands of the Willamette Valley who have lost almost every vestige of tribal government, it might be well to permit them to reside among the settlers if power were given to the Superintendent to assign to each family a small tract of land, say 40 acres, and to aid and encourage them by furnishing them teams and necessary implements of agriculture, seeds &c. If such a course should be adopted there are yet vacant tracts upon which such families might be located, which would not be seriously objected to by the settlers, and as they are already inclined to adopt the customs and habits of the whites, this course, by separating them into families apart from each other, would greatly facilitate their progress in civilization. It is questionable whether such a course could be safely adopted without giving discretionary power to the Superintendent to remove them should they not conform to the regulations prescribed for them.
    Compulsory measures may be necessary to effect the removal of some of the bands, but as a general rule, a decided and firm stand in the matter will suffice for its accomplishment.
    The unfortunate provision incorporated in the treaties heretofore entered into with a portion of these tribes, allowing them to occupy reserves in the settlements, tends much to the embarrassment of future negotiations with all the tribes, as by holding out, they hope to carry the point, and I fear there are not wanting persons who expect to profit by the expenditure of large sums of money in the shape of annuities who encourage them to contend for reserves in the settlements.
    Enclosed are copies of letters from Agent Culver and from a number of persons at Randolph City on the Coquille, and an extract from a letter published in the Oregon Statesman of the 14th instant. These exhibit the sad state of affairs in our mining districts.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 557-560.



Fort Lane O.T.
    March 1st 1854
Sir
    Enclosed is as slip from the Mountain Herald of 25th Feby. So far as Indians in this district are concerned it is not true. The only thing that would cause depredations is hunger. No one can tell what that may drive them to. In haste
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 39.



Port Orford O.T.
    March 1st 1854
Hon. Sir,
    I presume you have received my report of the massacre at the mouth of the Coquille ere this. In this report I number the dead, as found on the day of the attack, at sixteen. From Indian information, six of the tribe have since been found dead in the woods. A few days since a gentleman, an intimate acquaintance of Mr. Soule, the editor of the California Chronicle, called at my office and asked permission to make an extract from my report for publication. I permitted him to do so; his letter and the said extract was published in the paper referred to. This paper found its way here a day or two since, and, as there happened to be some two or three of the party who attacked the Indians in town, the article created a great excitement, confined, however, wholly to these gentlemen.
    Threats were freely used such as taking my heart's blood, giving me fifty lashes &c. &c. General, you can judge of the character of men who would presume to make such a murderous assault upon a friendly and unarmed tribe of Indians, and you will not be surprised when I say to you that I am alarmed. I consider my life in danger, and I think with good reason. As regards my report, it is true, every word truth, and fearlessly doing my duty as a government officer, I am threatened with a public chastisement, such as being tied to a tree and whipped like a dog. As a matter of course they pronounce my report false and slanderous. You recollect I speak of the report which these men made of their having burnt "a large quantity of secreted firearms destroyed in the burning of the ranches," as being "false, false in every particular." In this remark they charge the lie upon me. I ask, If a large quantity of firearms were destroyed, what became of the barrels and locks? Surely they could not have been destroyed. With all my inquiries from every quarter, not one gun barrel or gun lock has ever been found. The truth is, these men are driven to the meanest extreme to find an excuse for their cruel assault. They now fall back upon your unfortunate agent and threaten his life for presuming to report in words of truth their inhuman act. Lieut. Kautz was with me at the mouth of the Coquille. We do not differ in our opinion of the affair. What will be the result of this affair I cannot tell. Yesterday the men, these I speak of as being here on the receipt of the paper containing Dr. Hubbard's letter to editor Soule, started for the Coquille mines for the purpose of calling a public meeting.
    They boldly declared at the time they left that they would send down a committee of forty to arrest and take me to the Coquille to be tried before and by the miners and offered to bet one hundred dollars that in less than five days they would have me there. My position is truly disagreeable to say the least. There is but one man in the garrison of Fort Orford, and I am surrounded and my life threatened to be taken by these desperate men--and men capable of attacking a defenseless tribe of Indians and killing some twenty or more of their number would not scruple to take the life of an Indian agent.
    Your letter of December 30th I received by last mail. I wish I could have known its contents long ago. I have actually paid thirty dollars per month for my office, and took a lease at that rate for six months from the first of October last. The building I occupied I not only used as an office, but it furnished quarters for my interpreter Chilliman, and as I am indeed poor, it seems hard that I should be obliged to pay fifteen dollars from my own pocket. I do not speak of this in complaint of yourself, but as being in its effect hard upon me. As an act of justice to me (as all sorts of hard things will be said against me by the men engaged in the massacre at the Coquille) if you concur, I would like to have my entire report published. Of course I shall cheerfully submit to your opinion of the propriety of so doing. In great haste I conclude by subscribing myself
Your obt. servant
    F. M. Smith
        Sub Ind. Agent
            Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 133.




Portland O.T. March 1st 1854           
Dear General,
    On my arrival here this morning I find published in a California paper of Feby. 24th 1854 an extract of a report of F. M. Smith, Special Sub-Agent in the Port Orford District to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which, although the report referred to has not yet come to hand, on account, I presume, of the non-arrival of the Port Orford mail, yet I have full confidence in its correctness. I herewith transmit the slip containing the matter referred to, which you will observe corroborates my predictions in regard to the unwarranted attack on those poor savages. I have several times addressed General Hitchcock and urged upon him the necessity of strengthening the post at Port Orford, all of which has been unheeded, and the scattered condition of many of our settlers and miners roaming through that country renders it more than probable that the lives of many whites will be sacrificed for this wanton outrage. If the retaliation could only be visited on the heads of the guilty scoundrels who thus violate our laws and recklessly disregard every feeling of humanity I would say amen! But unfortunately the innocent must suffer for the guilty.
    I shall proceed at once to Coquille, and endeavor if possible to effect some arrangement to prevent a like occurrence. But, as usual in all our movements, we are without the necessary means to do anything without great pecuniary sacrifices, as the funds sent have all been absorbed, leaving considerable amounts of old debts outstanding and me wholly destitute of the means to meet any contingencies. I have made out an estimate of the amount necessary to meet the liabilities up to the 31st March 1854, which will probably fall short of the actual expense. Will you do me the favor to call in person upon the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and urge upon him the necessity of the immediate transmission of funds. I may fail to make up estimates in accordance with the usual forms, as there seems to be nothing in this office throwing light on the subject.
    I purpose taking a few goods to Coquille suitable for Indian use. The purchase of which will be on credit relying on the early transmission of funds to meet the payments as well as the amount necessary to pay the cost of transportation and traveling and contingent expenses incurred in making the trip. The goods I shall send by steamer to Port Orford, and travel myself by land in order to visit the tribes intervening.
    The steamer is just about to leave and I have not time to say more. May I not hope for your reply to this and former communications at an early day.
Your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Gen. Jo Lane
    Delegate in Congress
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Pacific County Washington T.O.
    March the 2nd 1854
Mr. Palmer Dear sir
    Yours of the 29 of Nov. was duly received and I have complied as far as is in my power down here to do. You will see in my account that Arthur Saltmarsh knows what money I lost by the Indians and I think likely he has laid in his account to you and has stated the amount that I lost. He lives in Linn County O.T. I [have] not seen him for three years but I will now write to him and if he has not laid in his account I will urge him to do it and also state what I lost.
    I am much pleased at your being disposed to give my claim a hearing for my account is just and I have no doubt will be paid but if such men as Judge Skinner and Dr. Dart had remained in office I think it would have been a century or two before I would have got it.
    I hope you will write to me as soon as you get instructions whether my account can be paid out of the money due those Indians or not and so doing you will much oblige your humble servant
    John Meldrum
Joel Palmer
Superintendent, Indian Affairs

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 656-657.



Port Orford O.T.
    March 3rd 1854
Hon. Sir:
    Believing myself, in peace of mind or safety of person, wholly incapable of justly performing the duties of sub-Indian agent in this district, I do here by resign said office, my resignation to take place on the 31st of March present.
    With very many thanks, and grateful acknowledgment for the honor you have bestowed upon me in the appointment, and the conscientious belief that I have performed the duties of the office faithfully and justly, and in such manner as will secure your approval, do I tender this resignation.
I am dear sir
    Your friend and obt. servt.
        F. M. Smith
            Sub-Indian Agent
                Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 136.



Port Orford March 4 / 54
Sir
    We are informed that the Indian agency at this place is about to become vacant. Feeling anxious that the place should be filled by a capable and an efficient person, we earnestly recommend Dr. Lorenzo Hubbard as a person in every respect eminently qualified to fulfill the duties of that office.
    His appointment will confer a lasting benefit on the Indian tribes in this district and meet with the approbation of the inhabitants generally.
We are
    Respectfully yours
        R. H. Smith
        E. W. Culver
        J. E. McClure
        Jas. B. Allen
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 135.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 6th 1854
Sir,
    Your letter bearing date Jany. 7th, asking my views about the binding obligation of the Indian Intercourse Laws in the region between the Cascade and Rocky mountains, has but just reached me. The cause of its long detention on the way I am unable to account for, and I much fear from its great delay in finding an answer. You may think the fault my own, but I beg to assure you of the contrary.
    In reply, I unhesitatingly express the opinion that the laws regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes are in full force over the entire region to which you refer, and I assure you I would cause full and efficient enforcement against all violations there of those laws, had I the necessary physical and judicial means for that purpose at my command.
    It is greatly to be lamented that all who are properly entrusted there with the duty of seeing those laws are respected and promptly enforced should be left in so incapable a situation as is manifest to all in rendering efficacious those most wholesome enactments.
    Our position is anomalous and without precedent, and hence it is not strange that a great difference of opinion prevails amongst the people here as to the precise rights of the whites as well as those of the Indians, in their present unnatural attitude. Heretofore, laws encouraging and inviting settlements by white men through bounties in regions previously occupied by Indians have been preceded by treaties or other steps to extinguish the right of occupancy by the aboriginal inhabitants. The act of Congress of Aug. 16th 1848 organizing Oregon, and that of Sept. 27th 1850 making donations to settlers therein, embraced territory wholly within the Indian country, as it was therefore described by the laws of the land and regarded by common consent and no provisions were previously made by treaty (nor anything since effectually accomplished in that way) by which the prior right of occupancy on the part of the Indians has been changed or in any respect done away. This congressional action marked by so wide a departure from the usual course in similar cases it is well known was the work of necessity and not of choice. Large numbers of white inhabitants were already settled and had homes in the country before our government obtained exclusive jurisdiction over it by the treaty of June 15th 1846. Hence legislation was attempted to be conformed to the existing state of things. As a necessary consequence of this, in one sense all of Oregon still remains "Indian country," and in another, so far as whites are concerned and the laws regulating municipal rights amongst themselves, it is not and should not, I think, be so treated and understood.
    As to the authority of the legislative assembly to organize counties and extend the local laws of the Territory into the region east of the Cascade Mountains, I entertain no doubt this is however to be taken with the qualifications that any such enactments must harmonize with all constitutional laws of Congress, when concerning Indians or otherwise, and be in no way in conflict with or repugnant to them.
    I do not regard it as competent or at all warranted to undertake to supplant the provisions of the Intercourse Laws by any territorial enactments. Congress alone has power, under the Constitution of the U.S., to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and that ought to be and is, I trust, quite decisive of the question. The use of Indian testimony, as contemplated by the 2nd section of the act of March 3rd 1847, and the 20th section of the act of June 30th 1834 relating to the sale or gift of spirituous liquors to Indians, it is clear cannot be done away with by any territorial legislation whatsoever. The law of Congress in that respect is paramount, but how far such testimony in other matters may or may not be admissible must and will in the present state of affairs be determined through laws passed and construed by the local authorities.
    Hoping that I have sufficiently answered all your inquiries, I have the honor to subscribe myself
Very respectfully yours,
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Major G. J. Raines U.S. Army
    Comdg. Fort Dalles
        Dalles of the Columbia
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 1-2.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton March 11th 1854
Sir
    Enclosed please find a memorandum of goods which I have shipped to your care together with the bills of lading for the same. These articles I desire you will receive and store until my arrival, and I wish you to hold yourself in readiness to accompany me throughout the Port Orford District.
    I purpose starting on the 15th instant by land, but have not yet determined whether I shall go by way of Coquille or down Rogue River. The latter I would much prefer if the condition of my animals be such as to warrant it, as by so doing I could ascertain the practicability of colonizing temporarily at least the Indians of that district at or near the Great Bend.
    In the event I should go by way of Rogue River I shall endeavor to send a runner from Fort Lane to apprise you of my route, with a view of having you meet me at the Great Bend. I am much embarrassed on account of the absence of funds, and should we fail to make arrangements to pay the freight on these goods I desire you will settle that bill and await the arrival of funds which will be remitted to me at Port Orford. A copy of your report of July 5th with copies of accompanying papers has been transmitted to Washington, and the necessity of strengthening the military force at Port Orford has been urged; nothing short of that will maintain peace.
I am respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
F. M. Smith Esq.
    Spl. Ind. Agent
        Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 11th 1854
Dear Sir,
    Owing to unexpected delay in receiving a remittance of funds from Washington, I find myself wholly without the means of accomplishing my projected trip to the southwestern part of our Territory, where the unsettled condition of our relations with the Indian tribes seems to demand my presence. If early measures are not taken to quiet the apprehensions of the Indians, and check the murderous outrages of lawless white men, a bloody and expensive war must certainly and speedily ensue, and in the crisis of affairs I feel it my duty as a public [omission] to leave no efforts unattempted to restore order and quiet and preserve peace.
    I have made several unsuccessful efforts to raise the requisite funds, and as a last resort I apply to you, hoping to obtain a loan from you or through your aid, of about four hundred dollars; without that amount I fear I shall experience the mortification of being compelled to abandon an expedition which I have flattered myself would prove highly beneficial in its results. If you render me the required aid, I shall feel under great obligation to you and will not hesitate to pay a high percentage. I have furnished Mr. Chris Taylor with a blank draft on this office, with my signature attached, and he is duly authorized to fill up the same and receive the amount you may send me. Or should you prefer another form of obligation, he is hereby fully authorized to sign the same for me.
I am sir respectfully
    Your obdnt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
A. Campbell Esqr.
    Portland O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 11th 1854
Sir
    Enclosed herewith is a copy of the report of F. M. Smith Esq., special sub-Indian agent in Port Orford district, with copies of accompanying papers.
    From the frequent recurrences of similar atrocities against the Indians in Southern and Southwestern Oregon, the conviction is forced upon me that a premeditated and combined effort on the part of reckless and evil-disposed whites roaming through that country has been, and continues to be, made to plunge the government into another Indian war and to carry out their favorite scheme of annihilating those tribes.
    These miscreants, regardless of age or sex, assail and slaughter these poor meek and defenseless Indians with impunity, as there is no means in the hands of the agents to prevent these outrages or bring the perpetrators to justice.
    There are many well-disposed persons in that district whose sense of justice and humanity revolts at such inhuman scenes, but through fear or some other cause they are silent. It is presumed many unite and take part in those deeds of horror as a means of self-preservation, their fears being wrought upon by reckless and lawless persons lest the appearance of opposition to their conduct might subject them to a doom similar to that which befalls the Indian.
    In such a country and community the Indian agent is entirely powerless unless sustained by a military force. I have written to Genl. Hitchcock urging the importance of increasing the force at Port Orford, which appears to me as the only means by which peace can be maintained. In the event of the tribes being removed from the neighborhood of the mining districts and located on remote tracts, we have no assurance that our stipulations to protect them from the violence of lawless whites or the attacks of other tribes could be carried out. It is therefore of the highest importance that measures be taken at the earliest possible moment to station an additional effective military force, say one company at least, at Port Orford, or some point in the vicinity where those tribes may be located.
    My intended trip to that district has been postponed longer than I had anticipated, from the absence of funds to meet the necessary expenses attending the expedition. I hope to set out about the fifteenth instant.
I have the honor to
    Be your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
                I.A. O.T.
Hon. George W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 569-571.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 13th 1854
Dear Sir
    Your note of the 14th ultimo came duly to hand, and in reply I have to state that a small amount applicable to the liabilities in the 3 and 4 qr. of 1853 has been remitted, but the amount has proved entirely insufficient to meet the liabilities. I have been so heavily pressed as to be compelled to use a portion of the amount for expenses incurred subsequent to the 30th June, being the 4th qr. referred to.
    I am now entirely destitute of funds for any object.
    No direction has been received from the Department relative to the payment of your accounts.
    I confidently anticipate the reception of funds at an early day. All the operations of this department have been, and are likely to continue to be, embarrassed on account of the absence of the necessary funds.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
A. A. Skinner Esqr.
    Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Superintendent Indn. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 13th 1854
Dear Sir,
    Your favor of the 24th ultimo, making inquiry whether I am authorized to settle the account of J. P. Day, has been received, and in reply I have to state that I am not authorized to audit and pay that or any other account pertaining to Mr. Walker's expenses, nor can I give you any information upon the subject other than the following.
    Mr. C. M. Walker some time since placed in my hands an abstract of accounts due him, and others with him in Rogue River Valley, among [whom] was Mr. Day, with a request that I would write to the department at Washington and urge the payment of those claims. I at once did so, and transmitted the entire accounts to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. It is proper here to state that previous to forwarding the accounts I had by request of Mr. Walker written to the Commissioner making inquiry upon the subject and received in reply that the matter had been referred to the Comptroller of the Treasury, who had informed him that the specific accounts had been presented &c.
    The accounts in this office were then transmitted, but what action has since been had I am not informed.
    Mr. Walker claims to have paid a portion of these accounts, and I think among the number that of Mr. Day, but whether he has a voucher or not I am unable to say.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                O.T.
Hon. J. D. Thornton
    Albany Oregon Ter'y.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Fort Lane March 14 1854           
Dear Sir
    On the first [of March] instant I enclosed to you a slip from the Mountain Herald which contained the confessions of a negro boy and characteristic remarks by the editor. Events so far have proved it a humbug
    The Indians in this district are as quiet as could reasonably be expected. They are in a starving condition. Some persons that belong to Tyee Jim's band killed several hogs the other day. Jim was trying to take them day before yesterday when one of them shot at him and wounded him slightly. He and his party fired on the others and killed two and wounded one. It will be all smoothed over.
    The former agent A. A. Skinner turned over to me some papers (affidavits) that are intended to prove that persons lost property, that it was stolen by the Indians &c. with a view to getting pay for it. What shall I do with those papers? I thought of sending them to you at once but will defer it until I hear from you.
    A detachment of seventy dragoons, recruits, are expected to arrive here in a few days.
Yours very truly
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Territory
P.S. Yours of the 9th Feb. was rec'd. on the 9th instant.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 38.



Rogue River Valley March 21st, 1854       
Dear Sir,
    I wrote you some time since requesting you to inform me whether there was any money in your hands for the payment of the salaries of Indian agents. As there is so much irregularity in our mails, I have concluded that my letter must have miscarried.
    You will confer a very great favor if at your earliest convenience you will write and let me know whether there are any funds on hands for the payment of that portion of my salary as Indian agent which is yet due, and also what has been done with my account for contingent expenses which was forwarded to Washington by Dr. Dart while Superintendent. My pecuniary circumstances are such that it is of very great importance that I should receive the money as soon as possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Superintendent &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 43.



Fort Lane O.T.
    March 26, 1854
Dear Sir,
    Affairs in this agency are without much change since my last. A large majority of the Indians desire peace and seem determined to preserve it, though there are some quite as anxious for a different state of things. For instance, since my last, four have been killed and one wounded by other Indians in this way.
    The bad ones stole and killed stock, the good ones in arresting them were compelled to kill some before the rest would be taken.
    This seemed hard, but peace cannot be preserved two weeks in this valley without such a course; the bad ones must see that they cannot escape. Two were killed on Butte Creek, one up Rogue River, and one on Illinois Creek. In the early part of last winter I was compelled to establish a sort of police arrangement among them, that I could act quickly and understandingly, which I have preserved since that time.
    I hope the treaty will soon be ratified that they may see the effects of it.
    I have contracted with a Mr. Hughes to put on twenty acres of potatoes for them on the reserve. It would not do to defer it longer, as it would soon be too late. I pay forty-five dollars per acre. He furnished everything. I consulted Capt. Smith in the matter; his advice was "by all means do so."
    Whether the treaty is ratified or not this must be done, for they cannot live without it.
Respectfully
    Yours truly
        S. H. Culver
            Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton Yamhill Co. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 42.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. March 28th 1854
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 26th January enclosing a commission for Josiah L. Parrish as agent for the Indians and a blank form of bond &c.
    Also the receipt of your letter of the 28th of the same month enclosing a commission for William J. Martin of Winchester, Oregon as sub-agent for Indians in Oregon in place of Josiah L. Parrish appointed agent.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. George W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 591-592.



Office Indian Superintendency
    Dayton O.T. March 30th 1854
Sir
    I acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th February last with the accompanying papers relating to the suspended items in the account of late agent Elias Wampole and directing me to report thereon to your office as to the propriety of allowing the suspended items in full, or such parts thereof as after examination he may, in my judgment, be found entitled to.
    I am just setting out on my projected expedition to visit the Indian tribes of Rogue River and Port Orford districts, and my train is already on the way so that the time necessary for the proper investigation of this matter cannot now be taken without delay detrimental to the service.
    I expect to be absent about 2 months, and the earliest moment possible on my return shall be devoted to the examination of these suspended items of Mr. Wampole's account, and reporting to your office thereon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 595-597.



Indian Agency
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        March 31st 1854.
Sir
    As directed by circular of 24 June 1854, I make this quarterly return of the manner in which each employee within this agency discharges his duty.
    Ben, an Indian, is my interpreter for the Rogue River tribe of Indians; he is in every way qualified to perform the duties of interpreter for said tribe, is trustworthy and untiring in his efforts to perform all the duties required of him.
    Lewis, also an Indian, is my interpreter for the Indians on & below a stream known as Illinois Creek, who speak an entirely different language from the Rogue River tribe, has also the same good habits & has been remarkable for his energy. In justice to both I ought to say that without such valuable aid this agency could not have accomplished what it has with Indians in this district during quarter just ending. The 2nd interpreter was employed by direction of Superintendent Palmer upon his becoming satisfied that the business of this agency could not be performed with one interpreter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Sam H. Culver
            Indian Agent O.T.
Geo. H .Manypenny
    Commissioner
        Office Indian Affairs
            Department of the Interior
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 636-637.



Sub-Indian Agency Office
    Port Orford O.T.
        March 31st 1854
Hon. Sir:
    Enclosed you have documents closing the January quarter of this Sub-Indian Agency. It gives me great pleasure to report to you that the Indians throughout my district are at peace with their respective tribes, and are living upon the most friendly relations with the whites. This communication is necessarily brief, as I have not been called upon to perform any specific duty by the hon. Superintendent.
With great respect
    I am your obt. servt.
        F. M. Smith
            Sub-Indian Agent
                Port Orford O.T.
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 138.



Report of F. M. Smith Esq., late Spl. Agt.
Sub-Indian Agency Office
    Port Orford O.T. March 31st 1854.
Hon. Sir,
    I am happy in being able to report to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs that at this date the Indian tribes throughout my district are living upon the most friendly relations with each other and with the whites around them. No misunderstanding whatever has occurred between the whites and Indians since the attack of the miners upon a portion of the tribe Nar-sou at the mouth of the Coquille River on the morning of the 28th of January last, and concerning which I reported to you fully in the early part of February last. I have now to call your attention to a difficulty that occurred on the sea beach at the Ya-que-chee village, some twelve miles south of Port Orford, between a party of three white men and one of the Ya-que-chee Indians on or about the 19th of January just past.
    The statement of one of the white men, Mr. E. W. Culver, engaged in the difficulty I have this day forwarded. The history of this affair as related to me at the time, or soon thereafter, by the very white men engaged in the affray, and by the Indians who witnessed it, is substantially as follows. Mr. Culver, the complainant, and Mr. McClure, and a man by the name of Quarley, landed upon the Ya-que-chee beach with their mining tools and provisions en route for the mines at the mouth of Rogue River, on the 19th of January as before stated. The Indians received them in the most friendly manner, and the accused with others of his tribe aided in discharging the boat. After the boat was discharged some trifling dispute arose between the accused and the man Quarley whereupon Quarley struck the Indian over the head with a club. The Indian jumped back, drew up his gun, but did not bring it to his face--he merely placed himself in an attitude of defense. Culver, noticing the movement of the Indian, and, as he says, believing the accused intended to fire upon Quarley, drew his revolver and discharged upon the Indian, running him off, and actually shooting at him, as will be shown by his own statement, before the Indian had made any actual demonstration of hostility towards him or either of his party. From this point in this foolish affair to its termination, your attention is respectfully called to Mr. Culver's statement.
    Neither gentleman concerned in this difficulty thought proper at the time to bring the matter to my notice; on the contrary both Culver and McClure, in an interview I had with them some two or three weeks subsequent to the occurrence of the difficulty, confessed to me that they are as much to blame as the Indian--that it was a hasty matter on both sides, and they were glad they did not kill the Indian. When I first heard of this difficulty, which was almost immediately after its occurrence, I sent for the Indian. The chief of the tribe brought him to my office. Indian witnesses of the affair accompanied the chief.
    Upon examination of the cause leading to the difficulty, and the conduct of the accused at the time, I made up my mind that the white men were altogether to blame, and that the accused Indian was really the party in defense. I thought proper however to lecture the Indian severely, and in this I was aided by the chief, who seemed to regret that any difficulty had occurred between his people and the white men. In the absence of any complaint upon the part of the whites interested, and with the conviction that the accused had committed no offense against the laws of the land, I dismissed him. Since that time the conduct of the Indian has been good--he has visited me frequently--in fact he has been among the whites in every direction, here and at the mouth of Rogue River, with the same freedom as before the difficulty. The Indian was arrested and brought before me under circumstances as follows.
    On the 20th of March last Capt. Wm. Tichenor was among the miners at the mouth of Rogue River on an electioneering tour. The accused Indian happened to be there at the same time.
    Tichenor, seeing him, immediately called the attention of Mr. Culver to the fact of the Indian's being there and urging the necessity of arresting and bringing him to trial before a meeting of the miners. This was at once done. The Indian was arrested and a meeting of the miners convened. Capt. Tichenor acted as counsel for the people, as his office was gravely termed, opened the case and examined Mr. Culver, the complainant in the cause.
    The judgment of the meeting was "guilty of an attempt to take a white man's life," and the sentence was death. Wiser counsel however at length prevailed, the decision of the meeting was reconsidered, and so far changed as to procure the appointment of a committee of twelve miners to take the Indian to Port Orford and demand his trial and execution at the hands of the Indian agent, with the further instruction that if the said Indian agent should refuse to hang the accused, they were to return with him to the mouth of Rogue River. On the morning of the 22nd of March the committee with the Indian in charge arrived. Previous to any further action on the part of the committee the Indian was placed in my hands with the instruction that I hold him as a prisoner, to be delivered up on on demand of the committee. I received the Indian, not that I deemed it my duty to hold him in custody as one who had committed any offense against the law; I took charge of him to protect him against lawless violence--to prevent his being deliberately murdered.
    The committee from Rogue River, with Capt. Tichenor at their head, waited on me and demanded the Indian for trial. I refused to deliver the accused into their hands. This of course produced great excitement, and a determination was expressed to take him from my hands by force, but the "sober second thought" again prevailed, and they wisely concluded not to proceed to such an extremity. The Indian is still in my hands, not as a prisoner, not for the purpose of bringing him to trial, but for his own safety do I hold him. My judgment prompts me to release him at once, and I should do so, did I not apprehend that consequences that all good men would deplore would at this time result from his release. Your direction in the premises is respectfully solicited.
Your obt. servant
    F. M. Smith
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Port Orford
To Hon. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs
, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 141-145.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 145.



Fort Lane 5th April 1854               
Sir
    Enclosed is my quarterly return of the manner in which each employee within the agency discharged his duty.
    From the terms of the circular referred to in return I judge it was intended this return should be made by the agent &c. to the Department direct, but it certainly is necessary that the Superintendent Ind. Affrs. should also be informed of the same thing. That he can make an intelligible return of the same. I will not seal that you can examine and then forward it.
    I start in the morning to try to remove the Indians from Applegate Creek to the reserve; an escort of dragoons will accompany me. There will be many obstacles to overcome.
Respectfully
    Yours &c.
        S. H. Culver
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.   
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 63.




Instructions to Agt. Parrish
Salem Oregon Territory
    April 5th 1854
Sir,
    Your commission as agent for the Indian tribes in Oregon having been forwarded to you, and your bond properly executed and approved, I deem it necessary to assign you temporarily to the Port Orford District. You will therefore proceed at the earliest possible moment by steamer to Port Orford, where you will visit the settlers and Indians and endeavor if possible to bring about a better state of feeling.
    I am now on my way to Rogue River with a view of visiting the Indian tribes in that and Port Orford districts. My route will be from the settlements near Table Rock down Rogue River to the ocean. I shall probably arrive at Port Orford about the first of May. In the meantime, I desire you will gather such information respecting the condition of the several tribes and bands as you may deem of importance, and particularly of their feelings in regards to colonization at suitable points where they can be watched over and protected, encouraged to cultivate the soil and kept separate from the whites engaged in mining operations.
    About three thousand dollars worth of goods have been shipped to that district, with a view of effecting these objects. They are all marked in my name and directed to the care of F. M. Smith, then special agent, but who has since resigned. I have consequently directed him to turn them over to Lieut. Kautz. In the event you may need some of the goods before my arrival, you are authorized to take them and receipt to Lieut. Kautz therefor, but should you not particularly require them to enable you to maintain peace, you will cause them to be properly taken care of till my arrival.
    In consequence of my great hurry to proceed on my journey, I am unable to give you instructions for your guidance in the discharge of your duties in detail, but waive them till my arrival at Port Orford.
    I think you would do well to take with you an interpreter.
    Before you set out, I desire you to visit the Indians on the Molalla in the settlement of Jackson, where I am told that some difficulties exist between a party of Klamath Indians and the settlers, and endeavor to effect a reconciliation.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
J. L. Parrish Esquire
    Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1853-1855, pages 133-134.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 626-628.


Winchester April 9th / 54
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indn. Affrs. Oregon
        Sir, in accordance with your letter of Feby. 15th I left this place for Coos Bay, taking with me Mr. Magruder and an Indian by the name of Joe as interpreter and arrived at Coos Bay Feby. 27th and proceeded to see all of the Indians on the bay and informed them that I looked for you to be there in a short time and when you come it would be necessary for them all to meet you at some convenient place and then it would be necessary for them to listen to you attentively in all things.
    The Indians was very reluctant in giving their numbers on account of their superstitious notions, though after satisfying them that it was absolutely necessary that they should let their numbers be known they very readily gave the number of men in their band and the other band gave the numbers of their women and children.
    Nevertheless I found means to ascertain very near the number of women and children.
    The Coos Bay Indians subsist entirely by fishing. They have no ideas of hunting and in fact hardly ever leave the bay, and they are entire strangers to hunger. They are over anxious to sell their land. They claim all of the land commencing at a lake near the coast some twenty miles south of Coos Bay, thence to Ten Mile Creek about ten miles south of the mouth of the Umpqua River, thence running back to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains, which will make their country about thirty-five miles square, including all Coos Bay, which is by far the finest bay in all Southern Oregon; numerous coal beds are found in the immediate vicinity. The Coos Indians is a decided unwarlike people. They are almost entirely unarmed. All they seem to want is merely to be let alone at their lodges. They are free of diseases. You will see from their numbers that they are not to be dreaded. After waiting at Coos one month for your arrival and hearing nothing from you and having fully satisfied myself that all of the complaints from Coos was false, on my first visit to the ranch ["village"] I told the chief that before I left they should have some things in part pay for their land and consequently before leaving I bought of Allen McKinley & Co. one hundred and fifty-four dollars worth of goods which I divided amongst the Indians and made out an abstract of the articles, which I forward to you. I am well aware that I had no instructions to make the purchase, but believing that good faith required that they should have some articles, I am in hopes you will find it right and assume the payment of the amount. I also forward the bill of articles. It costs a round sum to travel from here to Coos and back, which I hope you will allow me for myself and Magruder and Indian. You will perceive nothing for horse hire. I shall forward to you the bill of my expenses to Coos and back which if the government does not allow to me it will be a serious loss to me. I shall file the bond soon and forward the same to you. Genl., I wish you would forward to me a form of a pay account. I am in a great need of cash, and if I could draw some it would greatly relieve me. I should [have] been quite relieved to have met you at Coos, but feeling confident that it was no fault of yours that you did not reach Coos. You will please write me and let me know what the pay of a sub-agent is in Oregon.
    One thing I had nearly forgot that is a few days before leaving Coos Bay there was a difficulty happened on Coos River with a band of Indians there--five in number--which resulted in three of them being killed by the whites. It seems from all information that the Indians first drew a gun on a Mr. Johnson. I notified Mr. Johnson that he would have to appear before the district court in July next there and then to have the matter legally investigated.
Yours with respect
    Wm. J. Martin
        Sub-Ind. Agt.
To Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indn. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 46.


Amendment to Treaty with Rogue River Tribe of Indians
    We, the undersigned principal chief, subordinate chiefs and headmen of the bands of the Rogue River tribe of Indians, parties to the treaty concluded at Table Rock near Rogue River in the Territory of Oregon on the 10th day of September A.D. 1853, having had fully explained to us the amendment made to the same by the Senate of the United States on the 12th day of April 1854 which is in the following words, viz:
Amendment
    And the following as a new Article:
"Article 7.
    "It is agreed between the United States and the Rogue River tribe of Indians that should it at any time hereafter be considered by the United States as a proper policy to establish farms among and for the benefit of said Indians, it shall be discretionary with the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to change the annuities herein provided for, or any part thereof, into a fund for that purpose.
    "Change Article 7th to Article 8th"--do hereby accept and consent to the said amendment to the treaty aforesaid, and agree that the same shall be considered as a part thereof.
    In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and affixed our seals this [blank] day of [blank] A.D. 1854.
Executed in presence of
[blank]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 28, Records of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Records Pertaining to Relations with the Indians.


Fort Lane O.T.
    April 16, 1854
Dear Sir
    Since mine of the 3rd instant I have visited the Indians on Deer Creek, Tyee John's, also those on Applegate, except Tipsey's band. All that I have seen will come to the reserve as soon as possible. Many are sick and so bad that they cannot travel, but they have the disposition to do so, and will come. Tipsey is in the mountains and so far will not come out.
    Tyees Jo and Sam have frequently told me that they had learned by Indians that it was his intention to start and perhaps kill after a time, and I fear he is determined to do so. Many Indians tell me that he is trying to persuade members of other bands that the white tyees are deceiving them. That they will not give them things according to treaty.
    If the powers that be at Washington could know how much good prompt action would accomplish for this valley, they certainly would favor us with it.
    While I was absent one of Tipsey's Indians killed Jim. The only reason assigned is that Jim was friendly to the whites. The Rogue River tribe proper are perfectly friendly to the whites and reliable. Last year this Tipsey's band killed the first whites, and after killing four or five, run to the mountains and looked on to see the whites, who did not take time to investigate the matter, make war upon and direct all their energies against those that would have been their friends.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent &c.
Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton Yamhill Co.
        Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 56.



Instructions to Agt. Culver
Fort Lane April 26th 1854
Sir,
    In supplying you with goods, teams, provisions and farming implements for the use of the Rogue River Valley Indian Agency, I have to say the horses, saddles, bridles, blankets, ropes and goods, as per bill marked "A" herewith enclosed, are designed for the use of your agency without regard to any particular locality, band or tribe, and you will expend the goods as presents, pay of messengers and guides, and in such way and manner as to you may seem most conducive to the benefit of the service, accounting for each article under its appropriate head.
    The horses will be used in the service, and are intended to supersede the necessity of hiring animals. The oxen, yokes, wagon, plows, axes and camp equipage are designed for the use and benefit of the Indians residing on the Table Rock Reserve, and as far as practicable only to the families disposed to aid in cultivating the soil and in making other improvements designed to promote the well-being of the tribe. We cannot at present limit our aid strictly to those only who perform labor, but due discretion should be exercised so as to avoid impressing them with the idea that they are to be fed and clothed by the government without effort on their part, but on the contrary to stimulate and encourage habits of industry and economy and to provide for their future wants. The articles above named as furnished to the Indians are designed to be in part payment for their lands.
    I would recommend that separate fields, or certain portions of the same field, be designated for the respective bands, and as soon as practicable a separate enclosure for each family, thereby giving an individual interest in the parcel of ground and the proceeds of the labor performed thereon, as the best means of reclaiming them from their roaming propensities and of protecting and encouraging those inclined to industry, as the reckless and indolent might otherwise realize the benefits of their labor.
    I deem it important that a building of suitable capacity should be erected on the reserve, to be used, temporarily at least, as a farmhouse, storehouse, and the residence of the agent. You will have due regard in its location to its being made ultimately a farmhouse for the Indians. In its construction you will use economy, incurring no expense not absolutely necessary, erecting it in a cheap but substantial manner. If suitable timber is convenient, build it of logs--of this, however, you can better determine after having examined the premises.
    To ensure subsistence for the Indians the ensuing year, immediate steps should be taken to plant forty or fifty acres of potatoes, some corn, peas, pumpkins &c., and if possible ground should be prepared this fall and winter for sowing forty or fifty acres of wheat. It is believed a sufficient number of rails is already made to enclose this quantity of land. It may be found advisable to let by contract the preparation of ground for wheat, and also the erection of the contemplated buildings.
    It is expected that all the Indians residing within the limits of the purchase from the Rogue River tribe will reside upon the reserve, otherwise they will not be entitled to the benefit of the expenditures on account of that purchase.
    The outrages recently committed by members of Tipsey's band against the whites renders it important that those desiring to live at peace with us should at once remove to the reserve, as by mingling with the whites they are liable to be confounded with those guilty of crime and punished for acts committed by others.
    Should the treaty be ratified (of which there is little doubt) appropriations will of course be made to fully carry out its provisions, and in the event of its rejection we will have done nothing more for these people than what seemed absolutely necessary for the maintenance of peace.
    Acts of violence frequently committed by whites upon the Indians in your district demand that active measures be taken to bring to trial all persons charged with the commission of them, especially those charged with the treacherous and inhuman massacres last summer at Bates' and on Rogue River below Long's ferry (I allude to Johnson's party), together with those on Deer Creek last winter.
    A want of confidence in government agents has tended much to retard and embarrass our operations in the accomplishment of measures beneficial to the Indians and the absence of efforts on our part to bring to trial and punishment those white men guilty of the most atrocious and inhuman felonies against the Indians, while we demand of them a surrender of all charged with the perpetration of offenses against the whites may well incline them to distrust our sincerity. The want of confidence has undoubtedly a great influence in preventing Tipsey and his band from coming in and residing upon the reserve.
    There was a time when a majority of the people of your district were composed of transient persons, having no interest in common with the actual settlers. It may then have been impolitic to attempt the enforcement of a strict compliance with the intercourse laws and attempt the arrest of persons charged with the commission of offenses against the Indians, as no adequate force could be had to carry it into effect, but this state of affairs exists no longer, and a community having the power to enforce the laws of the country that quietly permits outrages so revolting, so entirely at variance with the common sentiments of civilization and humanity as those referred to above, to occur among them, without an effort to punish the perpetrators, do not deserve the protection of the government.
    The reasons assigned against the course I here recommend--that the attempt to bring these persons to trial will lead to excitement and danger, and further [omission] the community by provoking the commission of similar outrages upon the Indians, dictate a course so much in opposition to justice, humanity and the best interest of the settlers that they should not have the least influence in deterring agents of the government from the performance of a public duty. You will therefore at your earliest opportunity seek out and cause to be brought to trial in the respective counties in your district all persons suspected of being connected with the perpetration of those acts of violence, or any other outrages upon the Indians, in order that justice may be done them.
    I have no funds in my hands at present applicable to the payment of the contemplated expenditures, but they will be remitted at the earliest possible moment after their receipt.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Samuel H. Culver Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Fort Lane O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 134-137.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 619-625.



Instructions to Sub-Agt. Martin
Winchester Douglas County O.T.
    April 10th 1854
Sir,
    Your official bond and oath of office as sub-Indian agent for the tribes in Oregon Territory has been received and is approved, and at present you will continue to act as such in the valleys of Umpqua and Coos.
    It now becomes my duty to give you such additional instructions for your guidance in your official duties as the public service seems to demand.
    In passing through the Umpqua Valley I have visited a few of the bands of Indians residing in and claiming the country composing this part of your district.
    The destitute condition of these people demands that some relief be afforded them by the general government either as presents or in consideration for their lands, now occupied by the whites. The urgency of this matter is increased by the operation of an act of the territorial legislature passed at their late session prohibiting all persons from supplying the Indians with firearms and ammunition, which if enforced will deprive the Indians of their usual means of procuring food.
    You will therefore visit each band and inquire into their condition and afford them such relief as in your judgment their necessities imperiously demand. In doing this you will be cautious not to encourage a spirit of idleness and careless disregard for the future, but as a means of encouraging industrious habits you will select suitable spots of land unoccupied by white settlers, upon which the proper improvements may be made for putting in a crop of vegetables suited to their wants, and in the event they will agree to plant and cultivate such crops you will furnish them the necessary implements and seed.
    In making these temporary locations, due regard should be had to the feelings of the white settlers near whose tracts or on which their truck patches may be selected, and as the season is far advanced, it may be well if found practicable to obtain the consent of the respective settlers near their usual places of abode to allow them a small tract within their enclosures to plant crops for this season. In this, however, you will be governed by circumstances--such as the ability of the bands to make enclosures in time--the absence of suitable tracts unoccupied by whites &c.
    It is believed arrangements may be made with the farmers contiguous to each band to allow of such occupancy and plow up for them the requisite quantity of land.
    The interpretation of the law of Congress making donations of land to actual settlers by our courts precludes the possibility of securing to the Indians the right of occupying any tract of land desired by white settlers, and although there are many spots upon which they might be advantageously located temporarily, such is the grasping and uncharitable disposition of many of our citizens that the spots thus designated would be sought out and claimed by whites, and the Indians who have made improvements driven from their huts and enclosures, disheartened, and more fully impressed with the injustice of our laws. This has been fully demonstrated in your own neighborhood. I therefore in the absence of authority to enter into treaties of purchase, and to designate suitable and permanent homes for these bands, deem it best to provide temporarily small tracts within the acknowledged limits of some charitable and well-disposed settlers, upon which they can commence the cultivation of the soil.
    Upon the designation of such tracts, and their commencing to put in their crops if their necessities require it, you will while they are actually engaged in planting and attending their crops supply them with rations of flour or potatoes, corn or peas, and from time to time you supply them with a quantity of ammunition deemed by you sufficient to enable them to procure a supply of wild game for food, but they should be made to understand that the ammunition thus supplied is not to be traded, sold or given to other Indians, but is designed to enable them to procure their food, and that the seed, farming implements, clothing and other articles furnished by you is in part payment for their lands, and that the continuance of the encouragement and assistance afforded them by our great Chief--the President--depends upon their good conduct and industry, that we expect them to be good people and not steal nor otherwise interrupt the whites, that by and by we expect to see them and talk with them about the purchase of their lands.
    I have no funds in my hands applicable to the payment of such expenses as may be necessarily incurred in carrying out these instructions, but doubt not you will be able to procure the necessary means on credit until the requisite funds be remitted. You of course will use economy and incur as little expense as possible, encouraging among the Indians industrious habits and economy and a reliance on their own energies and labor in cultivating the soil, as the best means by which to supply their wants.
    In visiting those bands you will ascertain their numbers, designating the number of each sex, adults and children, the names of their head chief and subordinate chiefs in each band, giving the name of each tribe and band, the boundaries of the country claimed by them respectively, the quantity of land and the proportion as far as possible susceptible of cultivation, and in order to show more clearly the tracts claimed by the various bands and their relative position, you will accompany your report with a sketch or map defining the locality of their respective territories.
    I rely with much confidence upon the early action of Congress in the enactment of such laws and the appropriation of the requisite amount of funds to extinguish the Indian title to the lands in Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains and the establishment of some permanent system of policy for the management of those tribes as will secure peace and remove the many annoyances to which the settlers are daily subjected and the fulfillment of those obligations which justice and humanity demand towards these much-abused and waning tribes. Nearly everything done by us at this time must of necessity be of a temporary character, but all should be done with reference to their ultimate civilization and enlightenment.
    Endeavor to instill into the minds of the settlers a spirit of forbearance in their treatment of the Indians, and upon [minds of] the Indians that although we have among us persons who sometimes trespass upon their rights, yet our Great Chief the President and the Congress of the United States are governed by principles of justice and desire their good, and as a means of convincing them of this truth, and as a duty devolving on us as agents of the government designated [omission] the interest of these tribes, you will at the next term of the district court held in your county present to the grand jury all persons known or believed to have been engaged in violating the peace and laws of the country by killing the two Indians at Myrtle Creek last fall, the Indians and squaws on Cow Creek about the same time, and the Indian and squaw on Myrtle Creek sometime last winter. Mr. Wright, who resides at Myrtle Creek, will give you the names of several persons engaged in the murders at that place, and Mr. Nicholas Long on Cow Creek will inform you in relation to the murders there.
    You will also aid Mr. J. L. Parrish in causing to be brought to trial all persons engaged in killing the sixteen Indians on Coquille and the three killed on Coos River this spring, together with the one killed by Mr. Rowland on the Coquille. These violations of law, order and humanity loudly demand prompt action on our part, and you will take all necessary steps to cause the perpetrators of them to be arrested and tried according to the laws of the country.
    In order to ensure the allowance of your accounts for necessary expenses in the discharge of your duty, you will be careful to take vouchers for all expenditures. Each voucher should express on its face the objects for which the amount is paid, with the date of payment, and must be certified to by you as having been actually expended in the discharge of your official duties. You will make returns in abstract form to the office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs quarterly, of all expenses incurred, showing the date of payment--to whom paid--for what paid--number of voucher and amount. Blank forms will be furnished you by the Acting Superintendent, who will also supply you with a copy of the "Rules, Regulations &c. of the Indian Bureau," and a strict compliance with its requirements is expected.
    You will inform the Superintendent from time to time of the condition of the Indians in your district and give such information as may enable him to adopt such regulations as will carry out fully the humane policy of the government toward the Indian tribes and preserve peace.
    Should an emergency arise requiring additional instructions before my return, you will address the Acting Superintendent at Dayton, Yamhill County, O.T.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
William J. Martin Esq.
    Sub-Agent for Inds. &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 128-132.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 610-616



Department of the Interior
    Office Ind. Affrs.
        April 27th 1854
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the date of the 27th February last, respecting the unsettled condition of affairs within your Superintendency, and the irritated state of feeling among the Indian tribes, and urging the importance of taking immediate steps towards treating with them, also copies of letters to you from Agent Culver, and from John C. Danford and others, and a newspaper slip in reference to the same subject.
    As you were informed by a communication from this office, of the date of the 16th February last, your estimate of the funds necessary for treating with the Indians of Oregon, with the view of placing our relations with them upon a more pacific and satisfactory basis, was transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior, with the suggestion that he should recommend to Congress that the necessary appropriation be made.
    The Indian Appropriation Bill, in which is comprised an appropriation for this purpose, has passed the House of Representatives, and the appropriate committee of the Senate has recommended its passage by that body. There is therefore little doubt that, in a short time, it will become a law, but it is not deemed advisable that you should take any action in anticipation of its enactment. You will receive an official notification of the action of the Senate upon it, at as early a date thereafter as may be practicable, together with instructions for your guidance in the premises.
    In connection with this subject, I would state that the treaties concluded by you with the Cow Creek band of the Umpqua tribe, and with the Rogue River Indians, have been ratified by the Senate, with a single amendment to each, which, it is presumed, will not meet with any objection on the part of the Indians.
    It is expected that the appropriation for fulfilling the treaty will soon be made, and when placed at the disposal of the office, instructions will be given as to its disposition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Superintendent &c.
        Dayton Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Salem M. 4th Office Indian
    Agency O.T.
        1854
Recd. Mr. Geary
    Enclosed in duplicate vouchers of yr. ending 31 March / 54 also 1 that should have been in qr. ending Dec. 53 which I did not turn in [in] time. You will see that there is no abstract accompanying said duplicates as I always expect to [be] in debt to the clerk of the Supt.'s office while I am in service. I shall beg leave you will pardon me so far as to make said abstract or wait my return. You will also see no vouchers of last year's salary nor of last qr., all of which is due me which money my family will be in want of during my absence at Port Orford. I will execute a receipt and leave with Mrs. Parrish for two thousand dollars which she can send me by my little son Samuel and draw that amount on the return of Gen. Palmer. I also wish to notify the Department that I have appointed my former interpreter as interpreter of my agency. His appointment is from the 1st of April 1854. He will go with me to Port Orford. I now expect to leave for that place on Wednesday next 26th inst.
    In case Lorenzo does not come over in time to bring the bills of the good at Port Orford you will please forward them to me by mail at that place.
    With high esteem I have the honor to be
        Your obt. servant
            J. L. Parrish
                Indian Agt.
Recd. Mr. Geary, Acting
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton Oregon T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 54.



More Trouble with the Indians.
    HORRIBLE MURDER AND MUTILATION.--We have just been informed, by a gentleman lately arrived from Coos Bay, that the bodies of two men were discovered, a few days since, floating down the Coquille River, a few miles from the mouth. When brought ashore and examined by the miners, it was found that the head of one was perforated by a rifle ball, and the skull of the other broken by a blow from some heavy weapon. A rope was around the neck of each, and the assassins, not satisfied with depriving their unfortunate victims of life, mutilated their bodies in a horrible manner. From the information given by a squaw, it appears that the murderers, some seven or eight in number, and belonging to the Coquille tribe, have made their escape in the direction of Coos River. A party of whites are out in pursuit of them, and terrible will be the retribution should they overtake them. This is a bad state of affairs, and not likely to terminate very soon. We would advise travelers going down the Coquille River to be well armed and on their guard, as of late the Indians in that quarter have evinced anything but an amicable disposition towards the whites.
    P.S.--Since the above was set in type, we learn that the names of the unfortunate men were Raymond Venable and ----- Burton.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 5, 1854, page 2


Indian Affairs in Oregon.
    Gen. Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, has gone to the southern portion of the Territory on an official visit to the Rogue River tribes, and those living along the coast from the mouth of the Umpqua River south to the 42nd parallel, including the Coos, Coquille and Port Orford tribes. His object is first to visit those of the Upper Rogue River, who have a reserve of country by the treaty made last fall, near Table Rock, and endeavor to induce them to live together in harmony and commence the cultivation of their lands, and faithfully to observe the treaty, which, we have news from Washington, is about to be ratified. With this view he has taken with him a pack train loaded with seeds of various kinds, agricultural implements, &c. The natives in that section are the most intelligent and vigorous we have seen on the whole coast--mild and tractable when friendly, but in war as fierce as the Scythian, and ruthless as the Gaul. If this policy proves successful, we shall have peace on our southern borders for the future, which is much to be hoped for the good of all. Mr. Culver, the efficient agent for that district, has been very active and persevering in his endeavors to keep our Indian relations there in a satisfactory condition. The Superintendent will also visit the coast for the purpose of endeavoring to settle the existing difficulties between the Indians and the miners. He will explore the country in search of convenient "reserves," and, if possible, induce the wandering tribes to make their habitation within certain bounds. With this object, he has ordered some $20,000 worth of suitable goods to be forwarded to Port Orford on the next steamer, to be used in treating with these Indians. J. L. Parrish, Indian agent, also goes down to Port Orford to support the Superintendent in these movements. We are confident our fellow citizens in the south will render the government officers every assistance they can in establishing a good understanding with all the tribes, and maintaining peace within our borders.--Statesman.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 5, 1854, page 2



Indian Office
    Port Orford 6 May 1854

Dear General
    I arrived here this morning at 6 o'clock in pretty good health and spirits. I hasten a dispatch to Mr. B. Wright as you requested; hope he will do his best to meet you & help you on. I have learned that there is still trouble on the Coquille. I shall proceed to that place as soon as I can obtain a conveyance. Two white men have been found in the Coquille River who have been murdered by the Indians. The whites, I understand, are resolved to avenge their deaths; if not on the guilty they will kill the innocent. Be this as it may I expect to be there soon and see how they do matters up.
    I have some important letters for you, but from the probable unsafety of this trip I have not forwarded them to you. I believe you have quite a mail here. I presume I need not say anything to hasten you this way. I find on my arrival Mr. F. M. Smith Esqr. here in service. He is ready to assist me in all matters pertaining to duty.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servant
        J. L. Parrish
            Indian Agt.
Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affairs
    O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 51.



Office Supt. Indn. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. May 11th 1854
Sir
    The bonds of William J. Martin Esq. as sub-agent for the Indians in Oregon, executed on the 19th day of April 1854 and duly approved together with his official oath, has been filed in this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Edward R. Geary
            Actg. Supt.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 608-609.



    We learn from a gentleman recently arrived from Coos that the party who were in pursuit of the murderers of Venable and Burton captured three Indians at Coos Bay, and took them back to Randolph City, where they were tried. Two of them confessed that they were guilty of the crime, but stated that the third was innocent. These two were accordingly executed, and there being no evidence against the third, he was set at liberty.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 12, 1854, page 2


    KILLING OF INDIANS.--The Shasta Courier says that a party of miners went out about three weeks ago, and shot down 15 Indians who had stolen stock. During the last five months, 63 McCloud Indians and 40 Pit River Indians have been killed by the miners. On this last occasion, the white men surrounded the rancheria and killed the whole party, except a squaw and a child captured, and an Indian who escaped with a bullet hole through him.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 12, 1854, page 2




Port Orford Oregon Territory
    May 12th 1854
Sir,
    I am
engaged in making a tour through this portion of the country and endeavoring to enter into such conventional arrangements with the Indian tribes as will secure peace, but in order to enable me to do so it seems absolutely necessary that a military force should be stationed at this place to restrain lawless persons, and secure the fulfillment of such stipulations as may be entered into with them.
    There is not at present any civil authority sufficient to arrest and retain in custody those charged with offenses against the laws of the country, and outrages at variance with every principle of justice and revolting to humanity have been committed against the Indians in this district, and the perpetrators of those outrages are running at large against the remonstrances of many good and well-disposed persons and threaten to continue those practices & putting at defiance all authority. A few arrests would be a wholesome example, give confidence to the Indians in government agents, and tend to establish friendly relations, and in all probability avoid a large expenditure in military operations; a small force stationed here would have at present the desired effect, so that we could retain in custody those arrested until the sitting of the court, which I believe will be held in July next.
    My object in writing is to ascertain whether some arrangement may not be made by which a few troops of some kind can be sent immediately to this point. I find Lieut. Kautz with one sergeant stationed here, and I think with twenty or twenty-five men would be able to accomplish much good; in fact I almost despair of being able to maintain peace without them. The whole system of Indian warfare seems to be changed. How mortifying that we have so reckless a population as to demand the presence of troops to protect the natives against the barbarities of our own citizens.
    Scenes have been enacted by whites in this district against the Indians that would disgrace the most barbarous nations of the world, and the perpetration of these terrible outrages permitted to go unpunished.
    I feel confident in the assurance that you will aid us in our efforts to maintain peace, if within your power to do so, and hope you will advise me by return mail as to the result of my application, as it may have an influence in my operations in this district. I shall probably remain in this vicinity two weeks, and then continue my explorations along the coast north.
    Agent J. L. Parrish has been assigned to this district and is here with me.
I have the honor to be sir
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Major Gen. John Wool
    San Francisco
        Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Instructions to Agt. Parrish
Port Orford May 15th 1854
Dear sir,
    I have this moment received a letter from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs directing me not to incur any expense in the way of entering into treaty stipulations with the Indian tribes for the purchase of their lands until specific instructions are received from the Department.
    The condition of affairs in this district requires immediate efforts to conciliate the Indians, smarting from outrages inflicted on them by the settlers and miners. In the absence of a military force, it is apprehended little can be done to suppress acts of violence, and we can only hope to preserve peace by visiting and exhorting the whites to exercise forbearance and treat the Indians kindly, and by convincing the Indians of the utter fallacy of all attempts to redress their own wrongs, of our great desire to do them good, that the earliest steps possible will be taken to effect permanent arrangements for their welfare and protection, and to convince them of our good intentions, visit the tribes and bands in the district, and distribute a few goods suited to relieve their most pressing wants.
    The goods designed for your district are now in the care of Mr. F. M. Smith of Port Orford, who will deliver them to you. From information obtained since my arrival I am inclined to believe the Indians not in particular need of the entire amount of flour shipped, nor do they need the two barrels of pork, but inasmuch as the policy of the government in regard to these Indians may soon be made known, these articles may be retained for future use.
    In distributing the goods you will bear in mind that the practice so generally followed of making presents profusely to Indians is regarded as not conducing to their real advantage and permanent welfare. You will therefore let them understand that the goods are in consideration for the occupation of their lands by the whites, and in part payment for their country, and that our continued efforts for their protection depend on their good conduct, that in their receiving these articles we regard it as a pledge on their part that they will desist from all acts of violence against the whites and be guided by our counsel.
    To enable you to transport the goods to the several bands, and in the distribution of them, as also in gathering information beneficial to the service, I leave with you until my return from Dayton the party which accompanied me to this place, and also the horses and mules for riding and packing the goods. It is presumed that the larger proportion of the Indians reside on Rogue River, and you may find it necessary to hire the packing of a part of the goods to that point.
    As you must necessarily travel through the district on horseback, I would suggest the propriety of purchasing for your use two horses in addition to the one you already have, so that you may have a horse each for yourself and interpreter, and a pack animal, the purchase price of which will be allowed in the settlement of your accounts.
    Port Orford, being a central position and the only place where ocean steamers touch within your district, is consequently the most suitable point for the residence of the agent. You will therefore make Port Orford your headquarters.
    Chilliman, the Indian heretofore interpreter in this district, is, I believe, the most suitable person you can employ in that capacity, and as he has a family, suitable arrangements should be made for his residence near you, so that he may be always at your command.
    I wish you to give particular attention to ascertain the number of men, women and children, male and female, in each band, the name of the band and the tribe to which said band belongs, the location of each band, the number of their villages, the boundary of the country claimed by each band respectively, and their mode of subsistence. You will also designate their chiefs by name, whether they are friendly or hostile to the whites, and to other bands of Indians, the diseases prevalent among them, and their mode of treating disease, also the number of firearms owned by them, and any other information you may deem essential to enable the Indian Department to act advisedly in the adoption of measures to secure their peace, happiness and ultimate civilization and enlightenment.
    I desire you to use all possible diligence to acquire this information at the earliest possible moment, so as to enable me to report to the Indian Department at Washington at an early day.
    In visiting the Chetco Indians at the mouth of Chetco River, I think it will be well to inform them that they may expect pay for the loss of their lodges, burned by Miller and his party in February last. Justice seems to require this, and it will be difficult to convince them of our sincerity, as the burning was an outrage for which there is not, as I verily believe, the least shadow of justification.
    I have written to General Wool requesting that a small military force be sent up immediately, and in the event they arrive you will take immediate steps to cause the arrest of A. F. Miller, Cole Collier, John Metsker, ____ Powers, J. Wagoner, A. Shough and others engaged in killing the Indians at Chetco village and burning their lodges, and have them handed over to the civil authorities for trial at the next term of the court in this country.
    The procurement of funds and other duties call me to Dayton. I will probably return in two or three weeks to continue my explorations along the coast.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
       Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
J. L. Parrish Esquire
    Ind. Agent
        Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 138-141.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 629-633.



    MORE TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS ON THE COQUILLE.--From a Randolph City letter, dated May 15th, we learn that the Indians are congregating in great numbers at the forks of the Coquille River. Many consider this movement hostile, and preparatory to an attack on the whites.
    The gold claims on the beach are beginning to pay well. A number of them are yielding from $12 to $40 per day. Provisions can be had at Randolph City at moderate rates.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1854, page 2



Port Orford Oregon Territory
    May 20th 1854
Dear Sir
    Your letter of the 18th inst. addressed to J. L. Parrish upon the subject of Indian affairs has just been handed me, and as Mr. Parrish is absent on official business, I have deemed it but proper to reply to your letter.
    Great solicitations [sic] has been felt in relation to Indian affairs in this district and the unfortunate occurrence at Coquille during the winter and spring has tended to increase that anxiety.
    I am gratified to find peacemakers, and I trust by the aid of the settlers and others who have an interest in maintaining peace we will be able to do so. The arresting of the two guilty Indians, and the efforts to effect a reconciliation among the Indians who have been unjustly dealt with must have a good effect. Mr. Parrish will visit the Coquille country as soon as he returns from his trip south, which will probably be in some two weeks.
    I regret much that specific instructions have not been given authorizing the entering into treaty stipulations for the extinguishment of Indian title. As it is our efforts must necessarily be limited to the adoption of such measures as will tend to preserve peace, gather information as to the number of Indians, their location, condition, extent of country claimed by each band, their means of subsistence, the character of the country they inhabit, and such other information as will enable the Indian Department to act advisedly in our future intercourse with them.
    With reference to the articles mentioned in your letter as having been taken from the Indians by the party who preceded you, if it appears to be true, it is right and proper it should be restored, at least if no fault had been committed by these Indians, but I would suggest that other property be given in lieu of the revolvers and that the payment be deferred until the arrival of Mr. Parrish, when if the same articles cannot be procured he will be able to furnish other property instead thereof.
    I find the number of Indians in this district have been greatly exaggerated.
    It is greatly to be hoped that the citizens of Randolph and vicinity will unite their efforts with ours to maintain peace, and that there will be no further cause of those extreme measures so much at variance with our true interests, and [a] danger to the lives of innocent and defenseless settlers and miners.
    I am now awaiting the arrival of a steamer to take passage to Portland, but expect to return in three weeks to continue my explorations up the coast, when I shall be happy to see you and your colaborers at Randolph.
    I ask for Mr. Parrish your kind regards and solicit for him the aid of all good citizens in restoring and maintaining peace.
I have the honor to be dear sir
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
C. Ires Esqr.
    Randolph City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 43-44.



    Fifty-six warriors from Deschutes River arrived at Yreka on the 10th inst., with the intention of fighting the Shasta Indians.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 26, 1854, page 2




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. May 28th 1854
Sir,
    Inasmuch as there are many persons in each of the Indian tribes within your district who can speak the Chinook or jargon, it is deemed unnecessary that more than one interpreter be allowed, and as the amount of appropriations for pay of interpreters is limited to a specific amount, and the exploration of the country through tribes whose language is unknown to us renders it necessary to employ additional interpreters, I have to direct that from the 30th June next you employ but one interpreter.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
S. H. Culver Esq.
    Ind. Agt.
        Dardanelles
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



More Indian Difficulties.
    On Wednesday evening last, a gentleman of reliable veracity informed us that on the night previous five fine American horses, and one mule, had been stolen by the Indians near the Siskiyou Mountain, from some gentlemen who were driving them through from Oregon to the Sacramento. They were run off during the night. The Indians stopped within one-half mile of the camp of the whites, killed the mule, built a fire, roasted and ate part of his carcass, and left the remainder. The horses were choice American stock.
    Late in the evening, a gentleman arrived from Cottonwood with the melancholy information that the train of Messrs. Gates & Claymer had been taken. Mr. Claymer arrived at Cottonwood in the evening. He stated that he was at the head of his train of fourteen pack mules, on the way from Crescent City--that the Indians attacked them near the top of the Siskiyou Mountain--that he saw his partner, Mr. Gates, fall. They then fired at him. He fled, his mule fell, and he escaped to a log in the thicket, behind which he concealed himself until the Indians passed, when he made his escape to Cottonwood. He saw two men coming up the hill, and afterwards heard them hallo, and heard several reports from guns, which he supposes was the Indians killing them.
    On receiving this information from our Indian agent, Mr. Rosborough, [he] repaired to the camp of Charles Adams--who is a resident amongst the Deschutes Indians now on the war path against the Shastas. Adams informed him that the Deschutes Indians had removed their camp down the Shasta River to the crossing, in accordance with the request or orders of Lieut. Bonnycastle, now in command at Fort Jones.
    Mr. Rosborough informs us that Lieut. Bonnycastle was encamped between the Shasta and Klamath rivers on the evening of the day of this sad event, and that upon being informed of the same promised to proceed to the Siskiyou Mountain for the purpose of protecting the trail.
    Thursday Evening.--Lieut. Hood arrived, and reports that the Indian sent to the Cave by Lieut. Bonnycastle, to demand the perpetrator of the late crime on Shasta River, had not returned. The Deschutes Indians join Lieut. Bonnycastle on Friday and proceed against Tipsey and Bill, who are supposed to be combined. Lieut. Hood takes a plentiful supply of ammunition.
    Friday Morning.--The old Indian who was sent by Lieut. Bonnycastle to the Cave returned this morning. Tyee Bill came with him as far as Mr. Price's ranch, and says he is ready to give up the Indian who committed the depredation on the river to Lieut. Bonnycastle at any moment. He states that it was Tipsey's band who committed the recent murders and robbery on the mountains, and that Tipsey has been trying to persuade him to join against the whites, but that he wishes to be friendly.
    We believe it is the intention of Lieut. Bonnycastle to take the track of Tipsey where the recent murder was committed on the mountain, which he will be able to follow by the aid of the Deschutes Indians.
    Yesterday, about noon, Mr. Sanbauch, who resides at the Mountain House, on the new trail over the Siskiyou Mountain, arrived. Mr. S. says they found the body of Mr. Gage, and twelve of the sixteen mules which were stolen, with the greater portion of the cargo, a part of which only was destroyed. The Indians, it appears, were in search of some particular article, ammunition, perhaps. Mr. S. thinks the Indians went up the Klamath, and that they were part of Tipsey's band.
    A gentleman residing on the Shasta River has also arrived, who says some Indians came to his house and threatened his life last evening. Some excitement prevails amongst the people of our place, a party of whom, we believe, will accompany him to his house for the purpose of removing his effects to town and chastising the Indians if they remain in that neighborhood.--Yreka Herald.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, June 9, 1854, page 3



Yreka, Nov. 23rd 1857
C. S. Drew, Esqr.
    Dear Sir
        Elijah Steele, Esqr. has conveyed to me your request to state any facts within my knowledge tending to show a combined movement of the Indians of this region of the Pacific Coast towards a general outbreak against the whites in the year 1854. I was Special Indian Agent for Northern California at that time, having been appointed by Lieut. Beale, Superintendent of Indian Affairs and continued by Col. Henley (the present Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the state of California) until 1855.
    In June 1854, I was informed by several chiefs of the Scotts and Shasta Valley tribes that runners had been sent to their tribes to summon them to a general war council, to be held at a point on the Klamath called Horse Creek. I consulted with Lieutenant J. C. Bonnycastle U.S.A., then stationed at Fort Jones. He and myself concurred in the propriety of advising the chiefs who had reported the movement to attend the war council and report to us the whole proceedings.
   
The chiefs returned from the council and reported the tribes of Illinois River, Rogue River, and the Upper Klamath River and their tributaries represented in the council, and all but themselves (the chiefs that had reported the movement to me) were for combining and commencing in concert an indiscriminate slaughter of the whites. They reported that they were first importuned to join in the attack, and when they refused again and again they were threatened by the other tribes with extermination, upon which they withdrew, and the council broke up .in a row.
    The Scotts and Shasta Valley tribes remained steadfastly friendly, while the Illinois, Rogue & Upper Klamath River tribes commenced depredations and continued (at least a portion of them) until the latter part of the spring of 1856. (I am not certain of the date at which hostilities ceased.) However, you know more about what transpired on Rogue River & Illinois River in Oregon than I do, as it was out of my jurisdiction as Indian agent.
    The Upper Klamath or Klamath Lake Indians (with the exception of the tribe of which Lalakes is chief) commenced their depredations by killing whites and stealing stock, and a report was current among the friendly Indians that those hostile intended to destroy the emigrants as fast as they came from the valley of the Humboldt.
    The first I heard that there was a company of troops from Oregon out in the Klamath Lake country, on the emigrant road between this place and the Humboldt River, was a report brought me of the fact by the friendly Chief Lalakes (before mentioned). Lalakes informed me that the hostile Modoc chiefs were willing to cease hostilities and wished to make a treaty of friendship. He said that the Modocs were willing to pledge themselves to cease their attacks upon the emigrants if the company from Oregon would make a treaty with them. I wrote a few lines by Lalakes to the commander of the Oregon company, stating the proposition the hostile chiefs had made through Lalakes. I am not acquainted with the captain of the Oregon company, but Lalakes informed me that his name was Walker, and I so addressed him. Whether he got my letter or not I have never learned. I told Lalakes to inform the hostile Indians to keep away from the emigrant road and let the emigrants & their stock alone; and if they would do so it would be some evidence of their sincerity in desiring peace.
    I also wrote to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, informing him of the desire of the Indians to make a treaty. He replied to me that he had no power to make a treaty--that his authority was limited to removing Indians upon the reservations and subsisting them there until they could help to provide for themselves.
    In the winter of 1854 my duties called me to the vicinity of the mouth of the Klamath River, 150 miles west of this,where the large tribes had commenced hostilities by killing 7 or 8 whites; where I was detained about three months before the difficulty was completely settled. For this period I cannot speak, of my own knowledge, as to what occurred on Rogue River and the Upper Klamath. You can get information as to what transpired from those in the vicinity during that period. I believe I have answered as to events you inquire about during 1854.
A. M. Rosborough
Cayuse, Yakima and Rogue River Wars Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Bx47, Box 1, Folder 51.  This letter, and the one below, were written in 1857 but are placed here due to their relevance to events of 1854.



Dayton O.T. Dec. 17th 1857.
Dear Sir
    I acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 8th inst. upon the subject [of] the expedition sent out in 1854 to protect the emigrants coming to Oregon
by the southern route. You request me to give you a brief history of the lawless bands of Indians that have infested that road since I have been acquainted with them. It is perhaps enough for me to say in reply to this that that portion of the southern emigrant road between the headwaters of Humboldt River to the crossing of the Siskiyou Mountains has ever been infested by Indians who seldom allow an opportunity to pass without stealing, plundering and killing emigrants if they have the power to do so, and perhaps I cannot give you a more general idea of the estimation in which I hold those Indians than by taking a few extracts of my official letters and reports to the Indian Department at Washington City.
    In my report under date of 11th Sept. 1854, in speaking of the Indians who inhabit the eastern portion of Mr. Thompson's district, along Lewis' Fork of the Columbia, on Snake River and its tributaries, and urging the necessity of establishing military stations in the interior, I use the following language, which is equally applicable to the country and Indians along the southern emigrant road:
    "So long as these Indians remain occupants of that district, unrestrained by the military arm, we may expect robbery and bloodshed, as they increase yearly in skill and boldness, and are more abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition by improvident emigrants and reckless traders. Should it nevertheless be considered inadvisable to establish permanent posts so far inland, it would appear absolutely necessary to detail a company of mounted men each year to scour the country between Grand Ronde and Fort Hall, during the transit of the emigration.
    "East of the Cascade Mountains and south of the 44th parallel is a country not attached particularly to any agency. That portion at the eastern base of this range extending twenty-five or thirty miles east, and south to the California line, is the country of the Klamath Indians. East of this tribe, along our southern boundary and extending some distance into California, is the tribe known as the Modocs. They speak the same language as the Klamaths. East of these again, but extending further south, are the Moetwas (sometimes called Piutes). These two last named tribes have always evinced a deadly hostility to the whites, and have probably committed more outrages than any other interior tribe. The Modocs boast, the Klamaths told me, of having within the last four years murdered thirty-six whites.
    "East of these tribes, and extending to our eastern limits, are the Shoshones, Snakes or diggers. Little is known of their numbers or history. They are cowardly, but often attack weaker parties, and never fail to avail themselves of a favorable opportunity to plunder. Their country is a desert, with an occasional spot of verdure on the margins of lakes or in deep ravines or chasms."
    In August 1854 I visited the Indians inhabiting the country about Klamath Lake. That visit, and the presents distributed, the sending messengers to the Modocs, Moetwas, and Shoshones, together with the presence of a mounted and well-armed volunteer force in their country, contributed to restrain those lawless bands from committing their usual depredations.
    It was in 1846 that the first emigrating party came into Oregon by the southern road. And so far as I have been able to ascertain, but one person was murdered that year by the Indians. But in 1852, their depredations had become unendurable. A party was fitted out by the citizens of Yreka, under the command of Cpt. Benjamin Wright and sent to the relief of the emigrants. Another party, under the command of Cpt. Ross, was fitted out and dispatched for the same object by the citizens of Jackson County, southern Oregon, but before these parties could reach the emigrants, many of them had been murdered and robbed by those Indians. The company under Cpt. Wright found and buried 18 or 20 bodies, men, women,and children, who were generally horribly mutilated. The company under Cpt. Ross found and buried some dozen bodies in like condition, and it is presumed many others were murdered whose remains were left to bleach upon the plains.
    Lalakes, the head chief of the Klamaths, as indicated in the extract, stated that the Modocs boasted of having killed, in the last four years, thirty-six persons. The Moetwas, or Piutes, are equally numerous and hostile, and the Shoshones are known to have murdered several persons.
    I have never visited these tribes officially, as until recently it was supposed the country occupied by the Modocs and Moetwas was wholly within the limits of California.
    In the year 1853, the Indians along this route were kept in check by the presence of a detachment of U.S. dragoons from Fort Jones, and a volunteer force under Cpt. Miller, who was detailed for that service by Genl. Lane at the close of the Rogue River war.
    Previous to my expedition to the Klamath country, I had expected that a detachment of U.S. dragoons would be directed to scour the country between Fort Lane and Fort Boise, on Snake River, crossing the mountains on the emigrant road and passing through the country of the Modocs and Shoshones; but from some cause this was not done, and I presume the main one was the limited number of troops in that country and the frequent difficulties occurring between the miners and numerous Indians, requiring the presence of their entire force.
    There can be no doubt but that the presence of the volunteer force under Cpt. Walker, referred to in your letter, tended materially to render a safe conduct of the emigrants through the country occupied by these lawless tribes in 1854.
    If what I have said will be of any advantage to you, I shall be more than gratified.
I am sir very respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
B. F. Dowell Esq.
    Salem
        O.T.
Cayuse, Yakima and Rogue River Wars Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Bx47, Box 1, Folder 52.



    Account of property stolen and destroyed by the Rogue River Indians belonging to Virgil Quivey in the month of May A.D. 1851.
One horse worth ninety dollars $90.00
One horse worth one hundred and ten dollars 110.00
One mule worth one hundred and thirty dollars 130.00
Eight hundred pounds of flour worth seventy five cents the lb. in all six hundred dollars 600.00
Four pack saddles worth eight dollars each in all thirty two 32.00
One riding horse and bridle worth thirty dollars 30.00
Four lariats worth five dollars each 20.00
Four lash rolls worth three dollars each 12.00
Two pairs of blankets worth ten dollars per pair 20.00
Two pairs of pantaloons worth eight dollars each 16.00
One pair of boots worth eight dollars 8.00
One gun worth thirty dollars 30.00
Ten lbs. of salt worth one dollar per lb. 10.00
Ten lbs. of butter worth one dollar and twenty five cents per lb. 12.50
Ten lbs. of sugar worth one dollar per lb. 10.00
Five lbs. of saleratus one dollar per lb. 5.00
Three shirts worth two dollars each 6.00
One vest worth five dollars 5.00
One hat worth two dollars 2.00
Twenty dollars in gold dust 20.00
One tin pan worth three dollars 3.00
One frying pan worth two dollars 2.00
One coffee pot worth one dollar and fifty cts. 1.50
One horse worth one hundred and ten dollars 110.00
Personally appeared before me the undersigned and being first duly sworn deposes and says that he knows the contents of the above account by him made out and that it is just and true of his own knowledge and that he has received no payment on the same or any part thereof.
Virgil Quivey
Subscribed and sworn to before me a justice of the peace in and for the county of Yamhill and Territory of Oregon this 31st day of May A.D. 1854.
E. S. Stone
Justice of the Peace
Personally appeared before me the undersigned and being first duly sworn deposes and says that some time in the month of May A.D. 1851 (the precise day he cannot state but thinks on or about the 13th), himself and two comrades were camped in the Rogue River Valley on a branch of the Rogue River in the Territory of Oregon on their way to the California mines with provisions, and before daylight on said day while they were asleep they were attacked by the Rogue River Indians and one of his said comrades whose name was David Dilley was shot dead by his side while sleeping the other one John Ernest and himself were compelled to flee. Whereupon the said Rogue River Indians took or destroyed all that he had consisting principally in gold dust provisions clothing cooking utensils saddles and riggings horses and one mule to the amount of eleven hundred seventy five dollars or more - - - $1175.00
Virgil Quivey
Subscribed and sworn to before me a justice of the peace in and for the county of Yamhill and Territory of Oregon this first day of June A.D. 1854.
E. S. Stone
Justice of the Peace
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 707-710.




Fort Lane O.T.
    June 1st 1854
Dear Sir,
    On the 24th ult. Lieut. Radford took four men, two boys, some squaws & children, near the headwaters of Dry Creek. One is a very old man and can travel with difficulty, the other three are nearly grown but seem out of health. None of them had guns. The Lieut. surprised them, or partially so; some could have escaped and some could not, but they did not try. He sent them in the next day. Their history of what has transpired was that Tipsey came to their camp in the night and told them that they must go with him, that he had killed one man and that the whites would kill all Indians they saw, and the only thing they could do to save themselves was to go into the mountains with him, and further that in case they did not, he would kill them himself.
    They say they feared him, that he had in times past killed many of their people and for that reason (fear) alone they went. That they went to the camp found by yourself and Radford and there expected to remain, until they saw the soldiers close upon them, that they ran part with Tipsey and part in other directions. Radford has since found some others spoken of by them, two very old men with squaws and children. This first party spoken of went with Tipsey. They say he traveled towards the other side of the Siskiyou every day till he arrived there, stopping only at night. There he remained for several days, until one day a Shasta Indian saw and came to their camp. The next day many Shastas visited them. They told Tipsey they had suffered much injustice at the hands of the whites and would not tell where he was or deliver him up if he would cease to kill and steal, for they said you cannot indulge in it without involving war. To which Tipsey agreed. But he did not keep his word long. After a day or two he took his son Charley and two men, also two boys of twelve or fourteen years, all the males that belong to his band proper, except one man who was sick, and started to the mountains, as he said to hunt, but the sequel proves for another purpose. He went to the trail over the Siskiyou direct, attacked a train in charge of two men, killed one, a Mr. Yates, the other escaped, plundered the train and returned to the Shasta camp. The Shastas inquired how he came by so many things, when he told them all, and asked them to join him in further operations of the kind. The Shastas talked the matter over & sent for Bill, their chief. He came and it seems told his people to kill Tipsey, Charley, the two other men also--to take and tie the two boys, all of which they did the next morning, or rather tried to do; one man escaped wounded.
    What better evidence Bill and his people could have given of their friendship to the whites than the above it would be hard to tell. They had killed a set of desperadoes that we had hunted for months without success. They expressed a willingness to go to Fort Jones or any other place where they could be protected. Bill went to his people with three white men, Capt. Goodall, Mr. Mendenhall & Mr. Coffin, who were acting by authority of the Indian agent in Scotts Valley to collect and remove all of them to near Fort Jones, and Bill did start with all of his people towards that place, got as far as the ferry on Klamath, when the Cottonwood miners had the place surrounded. They murdered Bill and two of his men, the rest escaped.
    This chief Bill has stood between the Shastas and whites as Jo and Sam have between the Indians and whites here. In other words was our best friend.
    I thought a short time since if Tipsey was out of his way we had nothing to fear, and we would not, but for this outrage. We are worse off now than before. Tipsey had but few men; the Shastas are much more numerous. In case the Shastas come this side [of] the Siskiyou to take revenge no one can tell what may follow; they would be but too apt to involve the Indians here in it.
Yours very truly
    S. H. Culver
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer Supt. &c.
    Dayton Yamhill Co. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    
The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 67.




    According to the statements which appear in the Oregon papers, the extent of the Indian disturbances in that territory has been greatly exaggerated. We make the following extract:
    "Gen. Palmer, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon and Washington, has just returned from a visit of near two months [to] the Indians. He informs us that he succeeded in getting all the Indians in the Rogue River vicinity to go on to the reserves under the treaty, with the exception of Tipsu's band. From Deer Creek and Illinois River the Indians have all removed, and there is now no tribe or band between Jacksonville and Crescent City. He found the Indians on the coast rather quiet. On the Coquille River, however, there had been some disturbances, in which two whites and several Indians were killed. The real murderers were afterwards found, and after trial, hung. He left Mr. Parrish, Indian agent, with his party at Port Orford. He met two hundred Port Orford Indians in council. The chief complained that the whites ill treated their women, by coming about their lodges in the night, and, in case of denial, the whites would threaten to shoot them. At Gen. Palmer's request, Wool has detached twenty-four men for Port Orford to keep the rowdies quiet. He thinks the number of Indians in the Port Orford district does not exceed two thousand."
Evening Star, Washington, D.C., July 11, 1854, page 2





Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. June 7th 1854
Sir
    Transmitted herewith is the quarterly return of Agent Culver as to the manner in which the employees in his district have severally performed their duty during the quarter ending March 31st 1854.
    The state of affairs for some time seemed to require an additional interpreter in the Rogue River District, and I accordingly authorized Mr. Culver to have two in his employ, but since then the greater number of the Indians in the region of Illinois Creek have been induced to remove to the Indian reserve near Table Rock, and regarding a second interpreter as no longer required by the interests of the service, I have directed Mr. Culver after the 30th June next to employ but one interpreter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 634-635.




Linn County      )
Oregon Ter.       )  s.s.
    Personally appeared before me a justice of the peace in and for the county of Linn Royal Cottle who being duly sworn deposeth and says that he was acquainted with John Meldrum & Arthur Saltmarsh and was acquainted with them in California and worked with them in the mines during the summer of 1849 and was with them at the time they started to the Willamette Valley and I am known to their having eighty seven and a half oz. each in gold dust and Arthur Saltmarsh had one hundred dollars in coins and I am known to John Meldrum changing some one or two hundred dollars of gold dust for coin before starting home. Mr. Meldrum and Mr. Saltmarsh had two horses and saddles each Mr. Saltmarsh had one overcoat and each of them had blankets, the number I do not know. I also know of John Meldrum receiving five hundred dollars in gold dust from a young Waldo, to carry to his father living in Willamette Valley.
Royal Cottle
Sworn to and subscribed this 7th day of June 1854.
John W. Bell
Justice of the Peace
In and for the County of Linn
Territory of Oregon   )
County of Linn           )  s.s.
    I John H. Lines clerk of the District Court for said county do hereby certify that John W. Bell whose signature appears to the within affidavit was on the day of the date thereof and now is a justice of the peace in and for said county, duly elected and qualified and that full faith and credit are due and should be given to all his official acts.
    In testimony whereof I hereto set my hand and office of said court at my office at Takenah this 13th day of June A.D. 1854.
John H. Lines
(  seal  )                Clerk of said court
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 699-700.



Territory of Oregon   )
County of Lane           )  s.s.
    Personally appeared before the undersigned clerk of the District Court in and for said county Cyrenius Mulkey and being first duly sworn doth depose and say that he is personally acquainted with Arthur Saltmarsh, John Meldrum and traveled in company with them and four others in the year 1849 from California to the Willamette Valley in the Territory of Oregon and was with them at the time the company was attacked and robbed by the Rogue River Indians about three miles above what is commonly called Rock Point on Rogue River and knows the above named Saltmarsh and Meldrum were robbed at that time by the Indians of two horses saddles bridles and rigging for said horses, cash, together with their blankets and provisions.
Cyrenius Mulkey
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of June 1854.
Witness E. F. Skinner clerk
and the seal of court at office
in Eugene City this 9th day of June A.D. 1854
E. F. Skinner
(  seal  )                Clerk

Territory of Oregon   )
County of Lane           )  s.s.
    Personally appeared before the undersigned clerk of the District Court in and for the county of Lane and Territory aforesaid James M. McCuller who being duly sworn says that he is personally acquainted with Cyrenius Mulkey who says that he was robbed by the Rogue River Indians in August 1849 and knows that at the time that he left Redding's Springs in California in 1849 on his way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon Territory that he (said Mulkey) had two horses saddles and bridles fifty oz. in gold dust one brace of pistols three Spanish serapes four pairs of pants six shirts two sashes one hat and two pairs of boots worth at the time he left me at Redding's Springs the amt. charged in the annexed account fourteen hundred and ninety nine dollars.
                his
James M. X McCuller
               mark
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of June A.D. 1854.
Witness E. F. Skinner
Clerk and the seal of Court
at office in Eugene City this 9th
day of June A.D. 1854
(  seal  )                 E. F. Skinner, Clerk

List of property stolen by the Rogue River Indians in the month of August A.D. 1849 of Cyrenius Mulkey.
                Dr.
Two horses saddles and bridles $400.00
50 oz. gold dust $17 850.00
1 brace pistols 75.00
3 Spanish serapes $20 60.00
4 prs. pants $10 40.00
½ doz. shirts $3 18.00
2 sashes $8 16.00
1 hat $8 8.00
2 prs. boots $16        32.00
$1499.00
    Cr. by
1 horse $200.00
1 brace pistols 75.00
5 16/17 oz. gold   101.00   376.00
1123.00
    The above amt. of three hundred and seventy six dollars was recd. by me at the time Gen. Jos. Lane treated with the Rogue River Indians in the summer of 1850.
Cyrenius Mulkey
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of June A.D. 1854 at Eugene City Lane County, O.T.
E. F. Skinner
Clerk District Court
Lane County O.T.

Territory of Oregon   )
County of Lane           )  s.s.
    Personally appeared before the undersigned clerk of the District Court Arthur Saltmarsh who being first duly sworn says that he is personally acquainted with Cyrenius Mulkey and traveled in company with him and five others in the year 1849 from California to the Willamette Valley in Oregon Territory and was with him at the time that the company was robbed by the Rogue River Indians about three miles above what is commonly called Rock Point on Rogue River and knows that the Indians took from him at that time two horses saddles and bridles one brace of pistols three Spanish serapes one hat and two pairs of boots.
Arthur Saltmarsh
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of June 1854.
Witness E. F. Skinner
Clerk and the seal of Court
at office in Eugene City this 9
day of June A.D. 1854
(  seal  )                 E. F. Skinner, Clerk
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 690-695.



No. 3
Claim of Arthur Saltmarsh $2182.50
Account and Affidavit of Claimant June 14th 1854
    On or about the last of August A.D. one thousand eight hundred and forty nine John Meldrum, Mr. Kellison, William White, Cyrenius Mulkey, Mr. Wilkinson, William Gage, myself & an Indian boy (Calapooya) being upon our return from the mines in California we camped in the valley of Rogue River about three miles above what is commonly known as the Point of Rocks there being no disturbance during the night just as the light of day appeared the guard turned the horses loose to graze a body of mounted Indians charged and drove them off. The Indians the main body charged our camp after firing upon us with several guns besides a shower of arrows wounding Cyrenius Mulkey. Having but three of four serviceable guns and being so few in numbers we were compelled to make precipitate retreat leaving all to their mercy our provisions blankets and all of our clothing except what was on our persons. My loss consisted as follows
Eighty seven & ½ ounces of gold dust ounces 87½
One hundred dollars in coin $100.00
Two horses & saddles worth each 225 450.00
One overcoat worth twenty eight dollars 28.00
Four blankets worth eight dollars each $32.00
    I worked in company with John Meldrum in the mines; he knew that I had the above named articles and that I was robbed by the Rogue River Indians. I also knew that Mr. Meldrum had with him two horses a& saddles, fourteen hundred dollars in dust & coin besides five hundred dollars in gold dust which a young Mr. Waldo sent by Mr. Meldrum to his Waldo's father, all of which he lost at the same time.
    U. States of America
        to Arthur Saltmarsh                                               Dr.
to the above specified items
Eighty seven & half oz. gold dust worth seventeen dollars per oz. $1522.50
One hundred dollars in coin 100.00
Two horses & saddles worth each 225 450.00
One overcoat 28.00
4 blankets eight dollars each 32.00
My provisions at the time of being robbed by the Rogue River Indians worth      50.00
2182.50
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 696-698.



Fort Lane Oregon Ty.
    Sunday eve June 18, 1854
Dear Sir,
    I made my calculations to start down Rogue River tomorrow to go as far as the meadows. But I have this moment learned that the Shastas are on the Siskiyou Mountain, near the trail, and are determined to have revenge for the murder of their chief Bill. I have expected it. Will defer going down the river, and start for the Siskiyou in the morning. All I can expected to do will be to prevent them from killing persons in this valley or on the mountains. Shall not attempt to interfere with, or talk about their troubles, on the other side.
In haste
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 69.



Camp on Coquille June 28th 1854
Dear Sir,
    We arrived here this evening by 4 p.m., all well. The ferryman has informed me that he has a claim for medicine and attendance on the Indians who were wounded at the time of the attack upon them by the whites last winter. I do not now remember whether Mr. Smith has said anything in his report upon this subject.
    My object in writing is to request that you will investigate this claim, and if it be a just one to report it. It would seem but right if they had no hand in inflicting the wounds and injuring these Indians, that they should be paid for their kind attentions, but in justice it should be paid by those who made the attack. This I presume however cannot be expected.
    I find all the Indians belonging to this band still residing here. They are looking with considerable of anxiety for the "chiefs" and their share of goods. I have counted thirteen men; there is doubtless several others. I am informed the balance of the Indians are mostly on the south fork of the Coquille.
    Mr. Treacy's report is doubtless nearly correct as to number so far as it goes, but I think there is a small band on the head of the south fork not included in his estimate. They may be attached to Washington's tribe. There is probably another small band on the north fork, but whether they may be properly within this or the Umpqua district I am not able to say. Ascertain if possible whether their intercourse has been generally with the former or latter, and whether they speak Umpqua or the language spoken along this stream.
    Everything seems quiet in this vicinity, yet I would think it advisable to make a visit as soon as possible, but whether you may not find it necessary to make a visit below first in order to reconsider matters rendered uncertain by the turn of events in reference to those Indian prisoners, it may not cause an open rupture but cannot fail to make their confidence in our efforts to deal openly and justly with them, unless properly explained to them.
    I regard the affairs in this district as peculiarly critical at this time and calling for the greatest vigilance and sound discretion on the part of the agents, not only in reference to our dealings with the natives, but with the whites, and you are doubtless aware that there is not wanting persons in this district ready and seemingly desirous of misconstruing our every action, and if not promptly met, may excite the Indians to disaffection and tend greatly to embarrass all our efforts to maintain order.
    As I have no interpreter through whom the Indians can be made to understand any communication, I shall say but little to them, but shall give to the head chief a blanket as a token of my regard, the acceptance of which by him is held as a pledge that he will be a good man.
    The fact is I would write more, but the gnats and mosquitoes are so intolerable that I am compelled to desist. For your efforts to maintain peace, restore confidence among all parties, mete out justice to all and realize to the fullest extent our highest anticipations in the accomplishment of these objects for which you are assigned to this district is the earnest prayer of
Your obedient servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
J. L. Parrish Esqr.
    Indian Agent
P.S.
    You will ascertain if possible the number of lodges destroyed by whites belonging to these people, as well as other kinds of property and the cause thereof.
J.P.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 19-20.



List of articles expended during the quarter ending 30th June 1854
by S. H. Culver, Indian agent within the Rogue River Valley Agency

Articles How Expended
27 pounds tobacco issued during the quarter to Indians as they called at the agency
12 pounds rope worn out
19 ¼ pounds bacon subsistence for men working on Table Rock Indian Reserve farm
8 pounds beans subsistence for men working on Table Rock Indian Reserve farm
180 bushels potatoes planted on Indian reserve farm
700 pounds potatoes subsistence for Indians while removing to Table Rock Ind. Reserve
237 pounds flour subsistence for Indians while removing to Table Rock Ind. Reserve
50 pounds salt given to stock pertaining to Indian reserve farm
2000 pounds turnips subsistence to Indians while returning to Table Rock Ind. Reserve
500 pounds onions subsistence for men working on reserve farm
20 sacks worn out
69 ½ pounds sugar subsistence for men working on Ind. reserve farm
25 pounds coffee subsistence for men working on Ind. reserve farm
44 pounds butter subsistence for men working on Ind. reserve farm
994 pounds
fresh beef
294 for the men working on Ind. reserve farm
700 lbs. subsistence for Indians in Decr. 1853
see extract of purchases voucher No. 9
70 pounds
turnip seed
planted on reserve farm
    I certify, on honor, that the articles above enumerated have been actually & necessarily expended as indicated by the marginal remarks annexed to them.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 861-862.



Yoncalla Umpqua O.T.
    July 9, 1854
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            In the summer of 1851, an Indian named "Dick Johnson" settled upon and commenced cultivating a small tract of land lying in this county about eight miles south of this place. With the most commendable energy he has persevered until he now has 12 acres enclosed and in the best state of cultivation of any tract of similar size I have ever seen in the Territory. He has also made in addition between five and six thousand rails for fencing a pasture and built a good hewed-log house. He has provided himself with farming tools, a cow and work horses and is altogether better prepared for farming than one half the white settlers in the country.
    Dick has been personally known to me and to the people of this settlement for four or five years and his character for honesty and industry has invariably been good.
    Some twelve or eighteen months since, a Mr. Bean took a claim which included a little more than half of Dick's enclosure. He has had more or less difficulty with Dick ever since and about eight months since gave him a severe beating.
    A Mr. Kennedy about two weeks ago took a claim adjoining Bean which takes in Dick's house, spring, the remaining part of the field, and the ground which Dick has laid off for a pasture. Dick applied to the settlers of the neighborhood for assistance, and a number of them went to see Kennedy and endeavor to bring about some compromise or induce him to leave. Kennedy refused to leave, to pay Dick for his labor or make any other arrangement whatever, saying that the "law" would give him the place and that he intended "to have it anyhow."
    Dick then applied to Martin the Indian agent for this quarter for redress. Martin came in and saw Kennedy & Bean--advised them to remain and told Dick not to do any work outside of his field but to remain and occupy what he had already actually enclosed. It appears to me that Mr. Martin took an improper view of the case in considering the field the only land Dick had in possession, for the ground he had staked off for a pasture (having the rails already made to fence it) was certainly occupied by him as much as any of it, and although nominally he is permitted to retain the field he is practically cut off from the whole, for the spring from which he gets water, his firewood and timber are all given to Kennedy, and he is cut off entirely from grass for his animals. In fact, if he is cut down to the limits which Martin assigned him he cannot stay on the place.
    The labor and improvement which Dick has put upon the place together with his present crop are worth more than a thousand dollars, and it does appear to me that he should be protected in his right to it not only as an act of justice to him individually but on account of the good effect of his example upon the other Indians of the country, for so far as I know he is the only one of the natives who has made any attempt to make a living by the cultivation of the soil in the Territory.
    Public opinion is very strongly in Dick's favor, and there are not five men within ten miles of his place who would not sign a petition to have him protected in his possessions.
    I most sincerely hope you will give the case your attention and do something to secure justice to him.
    His situation if he is forced to leave the place is really deplorable, for when he commenced cultivating the soil, his people (the Klickitats) cast him off and will not permit him to come back to them, and if he is not suffered to remain among the whites his only chance is to go into the mountains and make his living by thieving.
I am sir very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Report of Agent J. L. Parrish
Indian Agency Port Orford
    July 10th 1854
To
    Joel Palmer Esqr.
        Supt. Indian Affairs O.T.
            Sir
                In obedience to your instructions dated May 15th 1854 I beg leave to submit the following report.
    In the Port Orford district, which includes all that part of Oregon south of the waters of Coos Bay and west of the summit of the Coast Range of mountains, I have found the natives all speaking one language, and from similarity of appearance, habit and pursuits consider them as being one nation or people, who from their language may be denominated Tututni, or To-tut-nah, the latter appellation being applied to them by their early visitors.
    They are divided into twelve bands. Eight of them are located on the coast--one on the forks of the Coquille and three on Rogue River. Each of these bands or villages acknowledge the authority of one or more chiefs and have their separate territories, but their political distinctions appear to extend no farther than their division of a state into several counties, migrations, intermarriage, a common language and common interest uniting [them] as a whole.
    The number and other statistics of the different bands of the Tututni Indians are exhibited in the following table.
Census of the Tututni Indians Port Orford district O.T.
Name of band No. of Men No. of Women No. Boys No. Girls No. Sick No. of Blind No. of Guns No. of Villages Names of Chiefs
Nas-o-mah 18 20 10 11 1 John
Choc-u-le-a-tin 30 40 18 17 1 Washington
Quar-to-mah
Co-sult-hou-ten
52
  9
45
  9
22
  6
23
  3
1 3 3
1
Ha-hul-te-lah
Tag-o-no-cia
Chas-tal-ka-kal-li-ah
Eu-qua-chee 24 41 18 19 1 1 Ah-ches-see
Tus-cul
Yah-shutes
Chet-less-eu-tun
39
16
45
15
24
11
12
  9
2
1
Sin-hus-chan
Eus-sea-see-sit
Eu-e-tus
Wisk-te-na-tin 18 26 13 10 2 1 Nal-yet-ah-tea-sha
Cha-hus-la
Tututni 39 47 23 12 3 3 1 Am-ne-at-te
Tal-ma-not-a-se
Che-at-tee
Mikonotunne
117
32
82
58
23
17
19
17
4 2  
1
To-husd-a-cue-less
Chitets
Tam-chutt
Shis-ta-koos-tee 53 61 23 16 1 1 1 Tal-la-al-tus
Ya-de-al-lee-a-sel
Ya-cham-sec
Koo-sa-yal
Total 448 490 205 168 9 13 14
Locations and Boundaries.
    The Nas-o-mah band reside on the coast, at or near the mouth of the Coquille River; their country is bounded north by the land claimed by the Coos or Co-ose Indians; east by that of the Choc-u-le-a-tin, and south by that of the Quah-to-mah. With the precise boundaries on the north and east I am unacquainted, but a small creek about two miles south of the Coquille River makes the boundary on the [south] side of the Qua-to-mah.
    The Choc-u-le-a-tin village is situated at the forks of the Coquille River, and makes the boundary on the side of the Qua-to-mah. Their lands are drained by the upper waters of that stream, there being mountain barriers between them and their neighbors, except at Coos. Their precise limits are unsettled.
    Proceeding southerly from the Coquille River along the coast, we find the first village of the Qua-to-mahs near the mouth of the large creek, called the Qua-to-mah or Horse Creek, the second at Sixes River, and the third at Port Orford, being seven or eight miles from the Coquille to the first village and the same distance intervening between the villages successively.
    Ha-hul-ta-lah, the principal chief, resides at Sixes River, and Tag-o-no-cia at Port Orford. This band claims also the country between the summit of the Coast Range and the coast from the south boundary of the Mos-o-maho to Humbug Mountain (a lofty headland about twelve miles below Port Orford) where the land of the Co-sult-hou-tens commences.
    The Cosulthouten village is at the mouth of a small stream which enters the ocean about five miles south of Humbug Mountain. Like their neighbors they claim to the summit of the Coast Range, and along the coast to a point on the coast marked by three large rocks in the sea, called by the whites the Three Sisters.
    The country of the Euquachees commences at the Three Sisters and extends along the coast to a point about three miles to the south of their village, which is on a stream which bears their name [Euchre Creek].
    The mining town of Elizabeth is about the southern boundary of the Euquachees and is called thirty miles from Port Orford. Next southward of the Euquachees are the Ya-shutes, whose village occupies both banks of the Tututni, or Rogue River, at its mouth. These people claim but about two and a half miles back from the coast, where the Tututni country commences.
    The Yah-shutes claim the coast to some remarkable headlands about six miles south of Rogue River.
    South of these headwaters are the Chet-less-eu-tuns; their village is north of but near the mouth of a stream bearing their name, but better known to the whites as Pistol River.
    The Chet-less-eu-tun claim but about eight miles of the coast, but as the country east of them is uninhabited, like others similarly situated their lands are supposed to extend to the summit of the mountains.
    Next to the Chetlesseutuns on the south are the Wisk-te-na-tins, whose village is at the mouth of a small creek bearing their name. They claim the country to a small trading post known as the Whales Head about twenty-seven miles south of the mouth of Rogue River.
    Next in order are the Che-at-tee or Chetco band, whose villages were situated on each side of the mouth and about six miles up a small river bearing their name, but their villages were burnt last February by the whites. They consisted of forty-two houses which were all destroyed, a loss which the scarcity of timber in their country makes serious. The lands of these people extend from Whales Head to the California line, and back from the coast indefinitely. The forty-two houses destroyed by fire, at the lowest estimate, were worth one hundred dollars each, for which I would here recommend that they receive a full indemnity.
    The Tututnis, from whom is derived the generic name of the whole people speaking the language, reside on the north bank of the Tututni River about four miles from its mouth. Their country extends from the east boundary of the Yah-shutes, a short distance below their village, up the stream about six miles where the fishing grounds of the Mac-a-no-tins commence.
    The Mac-a-no-tan village is about seven miles above that of the Tututnis and on the same side of the river. They claim about twelve miles of the stream.
    The Chas-ta-cos-tus succeed them; their village is on the north bank of Rogue River nearly opposite the confluence of the Illinois. These are the most easterly band within my district on the south.
    As the Indians derive but a small part of their subsistence from the country, they attach but little value to the surrounding mountains, for which reason their boundaries, except along the coast and streams, are in many cases undefined and in others vague and indefinite.
Face of the Country, its Extent and Value.
    Although the Port Orford district is but about one degree and twenty minutes in length, the line of coast will measure about one hundred fifty miles.
    Its eastern boundary is also very irregular but may average thirty miles from the coast, which will give an area of about three thousand square miles.
    Though much of this area is taken up by mountains, too steep and stony for cultivation, yet they are not entirely without their value to the white man.
    In the western and eastern portions a growth of valuable timber covers alike valley and summit, whilst along the coast and winding to the southward the timber is displaced by a most luxuriant growth of rich, nutritious grass, forming a region for grazing purposes scarcely surpassed. Stretching along many of the streams are found prairies of the richest alluvial formations, as well as plains of considerable extent, well adapted to the cultivation of grain and vegetables. I cannot here forbear to speak of the oasis in the wilderness, exhibited at almost all seasons of the year. Besides beautiful varieties of the rhododendrons, honeysuckle, acacia, tulip, lily, and many other flowering shrubs and plants common to the United States, there are others of surpassing beauty to which my knowledge of botany does not enable me to give a name.
    Being well stocked with nutritious roots and berries indigenous to Oregon, this region of country from the great variety of climate produced by the unevenness of its surface, or exposure to the sea, from the ripening of the early strawberry to the frosts of winter, the fields or forests at all times afford a bounty of berries, ripe and wholesome for food and of most delicious flavor.
    Though this region for its timber and agricultural productions may justly be regarded as valuable, yet when its mineral wealth is taken into consideration, its value in all other respects sinks into insignificance.
    The beach through the whole extent of this district is a deposit of precious metals and is already dotted with towns and villages of miners, and it has been recently discovered that its mountains abound in places equal in richness to those of California, whose fame has unsettled the world, and thousands are now rushing to offer their devotions at this nearer shrine of mammon.
Their Physical and Moral Condition.
    We find this tribe with a kind of patriarchal form of government particular not only to themselves, but to the most of the tribes west of the Rocky Mountains, and which is not very dissimilar to the tribes east, showing clearly one common origin.
    In their primitive state nature has supplied them with a liberal land, so that they may gather abundant subsistence.
    Their country abounds with wild game, the coast with a great variety of shellfish, together with the salmon and small fish with which their weirs are supplied if taken in the proper season render them an abundant supply of food.
    They seem to be free from disease, with the exception of sore eyes (which is confined exclusively to the women) and venereal which has been recently introduced among them by their white neighbors. They show evident marks of smallpox having been amongst them about thirty years ago, also the measles about eighteen years since, both of which was very destructive to them, from their mode of treatment.
    As to medicine for treating these diseases they have none; with their sick they practice necromancy, juggling and conjuring of evil spirits. They also, like all other tribes along the coast and the interior, practice sweating in houses built expressly for that purpose, and invariably when they sweat themselves by this process they immediately plunge into cold water; and in consequence of treating smallpox and measles in this manner it proves fatal to the most of them so that many of their once-populous villages are now left without a representative, and as by their present localities they are more or less exposed to the disease of smallpox by the landing of sea steamers at various points on the coast, I would therefore earnestly recommend that the children and youths be vaccinated at as early a day as possible.
    Their houses are constructed by excavating a hole in the ground twelve or sixteen feet square and four or five feet deep, inside of which puncheons, or split stuff, are set upright six or eight feet high; upon the top of this boards or thatch are placed for the roof.
    In the gable end a round hole is made sufficiently large for the [omission] of one person. The descent is made by passing down a pole upon which rude notches are cut, which serve for steps. Their houses are generally warm and smoky; from this and the careless habits of the women at certain periods I have no doubt arise the disease of sore eyes among them.
    In the spring season they gather the stalks of the wild sunflower and wild celery and eat them with avidity. Tobacco is the only article cultivated by them; I presume it is indigenous to this country, for they always speak of it as having been cultivated by their fathers; many of them are now desirous of cultivating the ground. Some few in the vicinity of Port Orford have fine patches of potatoes that bid fair to yield an abundant harvest. Some of the young men are employed by the whites as domestics, and they are generally active and please their employers in general. They are apt and attractive and I have no doubt if properly cared for they would be industrious and respectable.
    In a moral point of view, I cannot learn that they have any mode of religious worship. Their idea of a supreme being is extremely dark and vague--they are generally very superstitious.
    They are all friendly to the whites and friendly and hospitable among themselves.
    From the numerous miners and settlers that are pressing into this country, they are suffering many grievous wrongs that call for immediate interference of the government.
    Within the last six months four of their villages have been burned by the whites, the particulars of which and its connections with the arrest of persons I will send you in another report at an early day. Many of them have been killed merely on suspicion that they would arise and avenge their wrongs, or for petty threats that have been made against lawless white men for debauching their women, and I believe in no single instance have the Indians been the first aggressors.
    I would therefore recommend that the government treat them as wards, and as the guardian of the ward is expected to take charge of his estate, and place him under the best tuition possible to train or apprentice him in the acts of civilized life, that he may be able to act his part in the drama of human affairs when he ripens into manhood--so should the government at as early a day as possible treat with this people, purchase their possessions and remove them to some healthy part of the Territory, settle them upon land susceptible of cultivation, supply them with implements of industry, employ good men to assist them in opening small farms, to instruct them in the science of agriculture, erect them suitable mills, have them instructed in the mechanical arts, apprentice their young men and girls in a manual labor school, erect a hospital for their sick, and above all make them reasonable to the laws of the land (in which they may be instructed in a short time) so as to be able to appreciate their rights and the rights of their fellows, and entirely do away with all their rights [as a people] and form of government and as soon as consistent adopt them as citizens of the United States.
    When this is done there is hope of their salvation as a people, and not till then. And what is applicable to this tribe is in these aspects equally so to all the tribes west of the Cascade Mountains. Yet, I am aware, very unlike this has been the old plan of the government towards the Indian tribes.
    True, their rights in some respects as a people have been regarded. The government has treated with them and paid them for their lands, but the very money they have received has in general rendered them more wretched and miserable. They have been left with a nominal form of government of their own--left to roam at large, to follow their ways and war dances, to prey upon their fellow men wherever they have found them the weaker party, and thus in their untutored situation the very income they have received for their lands has proved a deadly canker to their best interests in time, and led to their eternal destruction in the world to come.
    What the value of this region may be to the government or what it may yield to the world's wealth, when tenanted and cultivated by enlightened industry, are questions which it may not be proper for me to introduce into this report. Its value to government may be inferred from what I have heretofore said of the inexhaustible mineral wealth of its mountain lands, and the adaptation of its plains and valleys to the agricultural pursuits of white men.
    In conclusion allow me to remark that I have personally visited these bands, have taken a correct census of their numbers, and from personal observation I am led to the conclusion that their woes are daily multiplying in their present condition. Surrounded as they are by the influence of bad white men, who are daily making inroads upon them, and prostrating their highest virtue.
    I would therefore beseech the government in their behalf that the most efficient measures should be taken for their speedy removal to a place of quiet and if possible to one of safety, in order to instruct them in the arts of civilized life.
All of which is respectfully submitted
    with high esteem I have the honor to be
        Your obedient servant
            J. L. Parrish
                Indian Agent
                    Port Orford District
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 29-34.   Names of chiefs and tribes are unclear; spelling variations within the letter are in the original.



Fort Lane July 18th 1854           
Dear Sir,
    Your two notes of 25th May were received on the 30th June. I should have answered them sooner only that there was a misunderstanding as to the time the mail would arrive & depart that grew out of the arrangements under the new contract, by which I was misled until it was too late. The next time I was absent to the Siskiyou Mountains. The Shasta Indians, those that belong at the bar, stole some stock this side of the mountains and I could not lose a moment in trying to get it back and put a stop to such acts, for long as a thing of the kind is recurring here nothing is safe. The stock is delivered up and I am in hope to be able to make them keep quiet.
    To the letter in which you refer to what Chilliman says about his salary, I have only to say that I not only paid him in full, but overpaid him from $35 to $40, all of which he knows perfectly well.
    When he says he has received little or nothing he makes a statement that bears its falsity on its face--for pray what did he live upon; where did he get his clothes, blankets & all that he had while there? He was as destitute of even decent clothes when I took him as the day he was born.
    I took him to a store at Astoria and dressed him from hat to boots, and bought an extra suit for him that I took along. I also purchased blankets for him to sleep upon. Also while at Astoria he asked me for money, as he said, to pay some debts, which I gave him. I do not now remember the amount, but it was enough for him to get drunk upon. Whether he paid the debts or not I do not know. I was compelled to hire two Indians to find [him] and bring him to me, that I might not be compelled to go without him, as the steamer was hourly expected down. When I arrived at Port Orford I was compelled to provide for him, for he had nothing on which to keep himself.
    While there he was constantly wanting something, & despite of my remonstrances that it was impossible for me to get and let him have so much, as the department had provided no money as yet to pay him--that unless I was fortunate enough to get means before spring I would not be able to buy food to live upon & further that unless he got along with less, he would use up his pay as fast as he earned it. To which he invariably replied "What do I want of money but to buy things with. If I had the money all at once I would fool it away in a few days & then be destitute." He said that if I would get those things he would want no more for a long time, and perhaps before the week was out he would repeat it. He had not been there long before he wanted to buy a wife, which he did, and after lavishing much more upon her than he could afford, she left him. In a short time he got another and the same thing was gone through with except that she continued, short intervals excepted, to live with him. He seemed in constant fear that she also would leave him & tried to retain her by acts of generosity to her friends. He gave all that he had and could get--these friends must be fed. I frequently told him that my pay would not warrant such expenses, nor my purse such a drain long, for living was high. I raised nothing & was compelled to buy all. He said that all he wanted was to keep within his pay. At first I did not think of charging him for his board, but I soon found that it would not do. I then kept a strict account of what it took to keep them for two months in succession.
    The result was that Chilliman and his wife would eat and give away a trifle more than three dollars per week each of potatoes alone at $4 per bushel--to say nothing of coffee, sugar &c. From these two months I made an estimate of the cost of their living--I kept an exact account of the clothes, blankets &c. had by him which I brought up to & left at Oregon City.
    The trunk has since been sent to me here, but I do not see this account--it is either here or has been taken out by my brother at Oregon City. Probably it is misplaced, and now in my trunk, though I have been unable to find it. In July a short time before I left I looked over to see how he stood & found that to the 31st July he was paid within $18. But he wanted a fine black coat, the only one I had, that cost thirty-five dollars. It was entirely new; I let him have it and used a thing made of a common blanket to wear myself. I also let him have two pairs pants & some blankets and other things that made him overpaid some thirty dollars. Before I left I found a small store bill against him, that I did not know of before, which I paid making in all 35 or 40 dollars that he was overpaid. I have written to my brother concerning the account spoken of, and in justice to myself as well as to Chilliman I will be compelled to demand the repayment to me of the amount that he was overpaid. If the sum had been three times as great I would not have thought of such a thing, but since he has displayed such rank ingratitude, justice requires it. I believe he never asked me for a thing in his life but that he got it. But if there was a chance even that he was laboring under a mistake I should feel differently, but I know that he is not. There is not an extenuating circumstance. I never spoke an unkind word to him in my life, though on more occasions than one he deserved it. But enough. I have written much more upon the subject than I expected when I commenced it.
Yours very truly
    S. H. Culver
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Dayton Yamhill Co. Oregon Territory.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 77.



Winchester July 19th 1854
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Sir, you will find enclosed a list of the tribe of Umpqua Indians also the number of men, women and children of the same, all of whom have settled in small bands as you may see from the list all over the country, each band claiming a small tract of land, which tracts of land I have not made an estimation of the size and quantity of each tract claimed by each band, but I will give a minute sketch of the amount of country claimed by them, which amount of country in my belief will not exceed twelve hundred full sections, of which about one-fourth of the amount may be arable land. I have tried to ascertain of the Indians the amount of land claimed by each band but was not able as they have some conflicting lines with each other. There seems to have never been any dividing line between them. Therefore I think the best course to pursue would be to make all purchases from the whole Umpqua tribes at once, as it would be an endless task treating with each band separately.
    The difficulty existing heretofore with the Indian Dick Johnson is still progressing. I have been to see the parties concerned and find that it is not in my power to satisfy them. As the Indian is under the impression that he has the right to hold three hundred and twenty acres of land, which I have no doubt, but he has been told that he could hold it.
    There was on Monday 17th a large party of some forty men collected on the residence of Dick Johnson for the purpose of moving the man who has settled near to the enclosures open on the land claimed by the Indian, but after more than six hours discussion of the question before them, they came to the conclusion that they were probably acting in collision of the law and finally came to the conclusion to abandon the action of removal and ended in a petition to the President for the removal of one sub-Indian agent Wm. J. Martin from office, for which purpose they stated negligence and insufficiency of the fulfillment of the duties of the office, which I believe was only done in a point of political view.
    The petition received its origin by the hands of one Doctor Baker, who is a political enemy of mine, and who has been for the last two years as soon as the convening of the Legislature presented petition after petition thereto for the consideration of a division of the county of Douglas, of which petitions I believe there has not been the first one which has been acting upon and passed. I think if all things permits me I will start down to Dayton on Monday next
Yours respectfully
    Wm. J. Martin
        Sub-Indn. Agent
To Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indn. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 75.



Agt. J. L. Parrish's Report of the Chetco Umpqua
Office Indian Affairs
    Port Orford July 20th, 1854
Sir,
    In obedience to my promise of July 10th in my quarterly report I hasten to lay before you some of the particulars touching the burning and massacre at Chetco in February last, together with the arrest of Augustus F. Miller and three Indians who were charged with the murder of a German by the name of Antoine Wort.
    On my arrival at Chetco on the fifth of June last I was creditably informed that the massacre of six Indians, three of which were shot and three burned to death in their houses, and the burning of forty-two Indian houses (which composed these villages), that one Augustus F. Miller was the chief instigator in the bloody tragedy. I also learned that the Indians fled to the woods immediately after the destruction of their villages, and that they had not dared to appear out from that time until my arrival, neither did they gather shellfish from the coast, only in the night.
    Their complaints against Miller were many and severe, and they stated, contrary to their wishes, he had built his house in their village, that he had kept a public house for miners and travelers, and that many of them were bad men that stopped at his house, and that they gave them no rest, but every night these bad men would come into their houses, drag out by force their women, and girls, and debauch them in the most brutal manner, and if the husbands of the women or parents of the girls attempted to interfere they would knock them down and nearly take their lives. The Indians stated that they had after expostulated with Miller and the only reply they got from him was if they did not keep quiet he would drive them off, and that Miller in consequence of their dissatisfaction and fault finding sent to Crescent City and raised a party of desperate Indian killers, that they came and in the first place proposed to purchase their guns, which guns they sold to the party, for they apprehended no hostility on the part of the whites, neither did they threaten hostilities against Miller, for they did not want to harm him, or they would not have sold their guns. The Indians also state that this party stayed some two weeks at Miller's and abused their women, as other bad white men have done, and then one morning about daylight when they were all quiet, asleep in their houses, they were attacked by this party, who shot three of their men, killing them dead on the spot, then set their houses on fire over their heads and burned three of them alive, and wounded others, all of which statements were corroborated by a number of the white settlers in their immediate neighborhood.
    I therefore according to your instructions arrested said A. F. Miller, put him in the hands of Capt. Ben Wright (my guide) and required him to deliver said Miller into the hands of the military at Port Orford, and in order that he might be conducted safely to that place I hired three white men, with the double purpose of assisting Capt. Wright, and also to assist Capt. Wright in conducting three Indians [of] which I expected arrest also at Chetco. I could not find but two of said Indians here, the other having gone up the Rogue River. Said Indian I succeeded in arresting a few days afterwards, and succeeded in delivering said Miller and the three Indians into the hands of the military at Port Orford.
    Since which time Miller had his examination before a justice of the peace and was discharged. He obtained witnesses from California, some of the very men that were connected with him in the desperate outrage, and here allow me to express an opinion that Miller nor no other man can be convicted of any crime against the Indians however murderous and criminal.
    On the examination of Miller it was proven by his witnesses an open state of warfare existed between the whites and Indians sometime before and after the attack upon the Chetco Indians, and in consequence of this the three Indians were discharged that killed Wort. Miller's counsel made some threats against the Indian Department for the arrest of Miller and his confinement. What this will result in I am not able to say, but as time is the discloser of  hearts, we shall see.
    The three Indians that were released some of the murderous whites say they shall yet be killed, and here allow me to remark that it was to save the lives of these Indians, and more calamity from befalling these people that I arrested the Indians, for I deduced a fact that they had killed Wort in the time of open hostilities between them and the whites, they having killed him after the attack upon them and the burning of the Chetco villages, and I have no doubt their arrest has produced a good effect both upon the whites and Indians.
    In making distribution to the Chetcos I gave them a greater amount of goods than the others in proportion to their number, in view of their loss as you instructed me, but I have already stated in my former report that they should be fully indemnified for their loss at as early a day as possible, or they must suffer.
    I left them in a state of quiet and presume they will remain so unless disturbed by the whites. Lieut. Kautz has called upon me for pay for the subsistence of Miller and the three Indians. His voucher will be forwarded herewith for payment. The magistrate refuses to hold the county responsible for the subsistence of these prisoners.
All of which is respectfully submitted
    Your obedient servant
        J. L. Parrish
            Indian Agent
                Port Orford District
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 35-36.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, Nos. 148 and 149.



Report of Agent S. H. Culver
Rogue River Valley O.T.
    Indian Agency
        July 20th 1854
Sir,
    I have the honor in accordance with instructions to forward to you my annual report.
    I entered upon the discharge of my duties as Indian agent for this district on the first day of August 1853 and arrived at this place on the fourth day of September following.
    The state of things existing here, as I found them, it will not now be necessary to describe, as they are familiar to you from personal observation, also to the public through the press. Suffice it to say that there had been a general war between the whites and Indians since the fourth of August preceding my arrival, in which the lives of many of both parties had been sacrificed and a large amount of property destroyed.
    It is not my purpose to enter into a detail of the series of difficulties and misunderstandings which produced the war, only so far as may be necessary to a proper understanding of the causes generally operating in such cases, with a view to prevent, if possible, similar calamities in the future.
    The feeling of hostility displayed by each party it would be almost impossible to realize, except from personal observation. And as this feeling might seriously affect our relations hereafter, the question as to how it became engendered was a matter both interesting and necessary to ascertain. That there were extraordinary causes, and different from those growing out of an open war, was clear, for men of standing and those in all respects worthy entertained sentiments of the most bitter and deadly hostility, entirely at variance with their general disposition which existed before the commencement, and continues comparatively unabated since the cessation of open hostilities.
    Many and perhaps most persons then in this valley had been attracted hither m advance of the settlement to any considerable extent of the country by the rich gold discoveries made in the valley, and were actuated by the same laudable motive of gain as miners generally, without the intention of remaining in the country, and alike without a wish to sow the seeds of future discord between the natives and our own people, to the injury of those of their friends who might wish to reside permanently in the valley.
    Their minds were upon the one object; they did not care about or think of Indians. But, as they say, during the whole period of our sojourn here previous to the commencement of the war alluded to, it has been an unending series of disasters to us and our associates, caused by Indians. Perhaps in one night was destroyed what had cost us months or years of labor to accumulate, or maybe a relative or friend had been brutally murdered who never entertained a feeling towards the Indians but of kindness and sympathy. They, too, had at times escaped massacre as by a miracle, and from the effect of the war they had again lost almost everything, and others of their friends or relations killed.
    On the other hand, the Indians complained that the white people had come to their country, taking their homes, destroyed their means of subsistence, and shot down their people, until with the uncertainty of food and of life which surrounded them, and the agonies of continual mourning, life had become almost a burden.
    Both these statements are true; as before remarked, a majority of persons came to this country with a kind feeling towards the Indians, and without a wish or intent in their hearts to injure or molest them, but unfortunately there were some entertaining opposite sentiments, previously acquired elsewhere, and it was by these, or by Indians bearing a similar relation to the majority of their people, that the first outrages were committed. If by one of the latter, it was probably unknown to the better and larger portion of his people. But the whites in chastising them for it, made for the want of a correct understanding of the facts, no discrimination, or if the injury was inflicted on the Indians by unprincipled whites, the better and also larger portion of our people knew nothing of it, either at the time or perhaps ever.
    The first fruits in return was the killing of unoffending citizens. The friends know nothing of the original injury, and suppose the Indians to have been unprovoked, whereas it was in fact a retaliatory act. The unprincipled of either party commit the first outrages, while the better portion almost invariably reap the bitter fruits of the unprovoked assault, for the wrong-doers, conscious of their offense and the revengeful nature of the Indians, are on their guard, and the unoffending remain equally ignorant of the injury inflicted and of their danger. Hence the bitter feeling of kind and good men before spoken of. They only think and know that on all occasions they have been friends to the Indians, and that in return they deal out death and destruction to them and their associates.
    Eight years since, emigrants first commenced coming to the Willamette Valley by the southern route, which passes through the Rogue River country. With the first emigration hostilities commenced, which were continued by both parties from year to year, owing to this mutual misunderstanding, until 1850, when General Lane undertook the very difficult task of making peace with these bands, in which he succeeded. But it had become so much a habit with each to shoot the other at sight, that all were not able or did not wish to resist what seemed to have grown into a temptation. Early the next summer hostilities again began, and it has so continued since, with each year one or more serious encounters taking place, until the summer of 1853, when the loss of life and destruction of property was indeed terrible.
    It will thus be seen that since these Indians first came in contact with the whites, they have from causes imperfectly set forth been unfriendly, continuing for a series of years, thus alienating them in feeling, and by the almost constant experience they have had are now transformed into the best of mountain soldiers. Thus experience teaches, together with the remarkable country they have to operate in, renders them formidable, and none are better aware of the advantage they possess in this respect than themselves. The country is composed of narrow valleys and mountains covered with timber and an undergrowth so dense that they can conceal themselves within a few yards of persons passing or pursuing, shoot them with impunity, and make their escape unseen and almost certain. The valleys are narrow, so much so that the Indians can quit their hiding places in the shade of evening, have time to reach any of the settlements, do their work of destruction, plunder and perhaps murder, and return to their secure retreat before morning. The miners are quite as much or even more exposed than the settlers, generally working, as they do in the mountains, in narrow gulches, and are therefore liable to be shot down at any moment. From this description of the country it will be readily understood why so many lives were lost in the war of last summer, and so large an amount of property destroyed with such comparative impunity.
    The number of Indians in this district is not large; it is as follows. The band immediately under Joe, the principal chief, and Sam, his brother, are 26 men, 21 women and 19 children. Tyee John's band, 18 men, 21 women and 14 children, Limpy & George's band, 30 men, 28 women and 23 children. Jim's band (Umpquas), 34 men, 29 women and 24 children. Total amount 108 men, 109 women and 83 children.
    The foregoing are the bands with whom the treaty was made on the 10th September last at Table Rock. The number in these bands has diminished since that time not less than twenty-five per cent. The other bands in this district, not included in that purchase, are as follows. Elijah's band 32 men, 34 women, 28 children. Those known as the ancient Applegates number 10 men, 15 women, 14 children. Taylor's band and those on Jump off Joe, 14 men, 27 women, 19 children, Illinois 16 men, 14 women and 17 children. Total 72 men, 90 women and 78 children.
    Whole number in this district, of men 180, women 199, children158. The foregoing are the Indians that properly belong in what is known as the Rogue River Valley, though about one-quarter may be added to cover the number of transient Indians generally in the country. Sometimes the number of non-residents is probably greater than the one-fourth mentioned, at other times less.
    I have ascertained that these transient Indians have been, and still are, in the habit of taking advantage of the bad repute in which those belonging here are held, to come into their country for the purpose of committing depredations, which are charged to those permanently residing here, for generally the settlers are not aware of the fact even that strange Indians are or have been in their midst. At the present time there is a party of Shasta Indians in the mountains, not more than thirty miles from this agency, who belong in California. They have already stolen five horses, and before they can be found and hunted out may steal and destroy much more.
    These parties are very liable to involve the Indians that properly belong in this country in difficulties, and it is doubtless their intention to do so now, as they have done formerly, that they may plunder and murder during the general misunderstanding, but so far this season they have not been able to accomplish their purpose. On all such occasions I spare no necessary trouble or expense to ascertain who the authors of the depredations are, and prevent them from making a difficulty general. Up to the present time much the largest portion of the outrages committed upon the whites have been the work of these migrating bands of ungovernable Indians. It was by such a party that the war in this valley last summer was caused; from the want of correct information of the real authors of the outrages done them, our citizens prosecuted a vigorous warfare against the Indians of this valley for depredations in the commission of which they bore no part. The Indians were compelled reluctantly, as I am informed, to take up arms in self-defense, and were even ignorant at first of the reasons why they were pursued; while our own people supposed themselves also to be prosecuting a defensive war.
    To avoid at all times misapprehensions so disastrous is difficult, owing to the want of information as to who the real authors of the injuries are, and consequent infliction of chastisements upon innocent Indians, and the difficulty of correcting misunderstandings on account of the imperfect manner in which people generally are able to converse with them. It requires constant vigilance and attention. Early last spring I collected all the bands included in the treaty of purchase before spoken of, and moved them onto the reserve at Table Rock, also most of the members of the other bands before referred to, not included in the treaty.
    The latter were brought onto the reserve with the consent of the former, that they might be more perfectly controlled during the summer, but unfortunately they had not long been collected together before sickness, a bloody flux and an intermittent fever, began to prevail among them, to such an extent as to render it impossible to keep them together. Upon becoming satisfied of this fact, I gave them permits or leaves of absence, for a short time, with the understanding that in case hostile Indians were liable to involve them and us in another difficulty they would, upon notice from me, hasten to the reserve.
    It was and is now a general belief among settlers in the valley that a war with the Indians here this summer is inevitable; and on two or three occasions it appeared as though such a calamity was indeed near at hand, but by prompt attention, aided by the generous forbearance of our citizens, and when necessary the immediate and vigorous assistance given by Capt. A. J. Smith, commanding officer at Fort Lane, peace has so far been preserved.
    The food of the Indians consist of deer, elk and bear meat, with fish of several kinds, principally salmon, and a great variety of roots They cannot supply themselves by the chase for want of ammunition, as there is a territorial statute prohibiting the sale of it to them, and were it otherwise it would not be prudent to give them much at this time. They take more or less salmon during five months in the year; formerly they subsisted in the main upon roots, of which there was a great variety and quantity; each kind had its locality and time of ripening or becoming fit for use, but the whites have nearly destroyed this kind of food by plowing the ground and crowding the Indians from localities where it once could be procured. They did not find these roots upon any one tract of country, but there would be an abundance in one locality one month and of another variety at another place during the ensuing year. The settlers have interfered, by the cultivation of the soil in the valleys with the obtaining of this species of food to such an extent that while they can get plenty during certain seasons of the year, they will at other times be in a starving condition.
    Under these circumstances it was deemed necessary to anticipate the ratification of the treaty and put in a crop of potatoes sufficient to prevent them from suffering, and perhaps starving, the coming winter; also on account of the influence it would have in keeping them under control during the summer. Humanity, too, seemed to require it, for our people had taken from them their means of subsistence, and ought at least in return to see that they did not starve before they received an equivalent for the territory relinquished by them, for, as they say, promises do not stop hunger. Unless a crop was put in the past spring, of course it could not be done until the next, which would allow more than two years to elapse from the date of the treaty of purchase until they realized an equivalent in the way of provisions, unless obtained sooner for them by purchase, and the annuity is not sufficient even to keep them alive if invested in that manner. The chiefs urged it and said [that] although they would like clothes and blankets for their comfort, yet something upon which life could be sustained ought first to be looked to; and further they urged that it was a thing impossible to control their people with certain famine staring them in the face.
    They express a willingness to try to imitate the whites, and raise something to sustain themselves whenever the means for so doing is furnished them, and to do all in their power to induce their people to do the same; and I have strong hopes that nearly all can be persuaded to do so.
    The foregoing brief and imperfect report has been hastily prepared amidst engagements and official duties which could not be neglected or postponed and which denied me the time and attention necessary to a full exposition in detail of the affairs connected with this agency. It is believed, however, that in an imperfect manner all the essential facts are set forth to give you a general understanding of the past and present condition of the Indians within the limits of this district which, together with your own personal observation in this section the present season, will enable you to form a correct judgment concerning them, their feelings towards the settlers, and their future wants.
I am with respect,
    Your obedient servant
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O. T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 17-22.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 68.  A copy can also be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 347-359.





Office Indian Affairs
    Port Orford 21st July / 54
Dear Sir
    It has been impossible for me to go to Coquille as was anticipated when you left. Many difficulties have been among the whites and Indians. And I had to make my report, and all connected therewith I am now sent for to go to Elizabethtown, which will take me at least three days.
    So it will be impossible for me to attend the court at Empire City. Should you reach that place I hope you will have Miller indicted.
    He had his examination [by] Justice Sutton and been discharged through California witnesses that testified, yea, swore to all he wanted, and as I have already wrote you that I deem it impossible to convict him, yet I hope he may be indicted for liquor selling, for murder and house burning. I shall proceed to Coquille immediately on my return from below and then proceed to Salem as soon as possible.
    I have suffered much for want of funds in the Department since you left, and what I am to do for money to accomplish what I have to do I cannot tell. I failed to get any money from Portland so here I am in trouble called in almost every direction and no means to help myself and far from home. I will not say that I am discouraged, for this word is not in my book, but things are very dark. Money cannot be had here. Many of the whites on this coast seem to have lost nearly all sense of humanity, and they are ready to butcher an Indian for the smallest offense. If you reach Empire City I hope to meet you there on my way from Coquille.
Yours truly
    J. L. Parrish
        Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Empire City Coos
        County O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 78.



Jacksonville O.T. July 23rd 1854
Dear General
    I see from the papers that Congress has ratified the treaty you made with the Indians for their lands in Rogue River Valley, and as my claim was included in the Reserve and the houses not destroyed by fire, I think the Indians should pay for the improvements, as it will save the expense of putting up other buildings for them. My property was appraised at two hundred dollars by the commissioners appointed by yourself, for which you gave me a certificate. Please write me by the return mail if you will pay it, and if so I will send you a receipt for the same. Our friend Culver is getting along well with the Indians, and there appears to be no disposition on the part of the Indians to violate the treaty.
Your obedient servant
    R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 16.




Port Orford 25 July 1854
    Office Indian Affairs
Dear Sir
    Herewith I send you a copy of a letter which I wrote to you to Empire City.
    I expect to leave here tomorrow or next day morning for Coquille--from thence home which place I hope to reach in 20 days or less if possible. I leave business here in an unsettled state, for I have had no money to do anything with.
    I have been cramped in on every hand. I hope you may have some [money] to supply this place on my reaching Salem. The Peytona is now here & almost ready to start.
Yours in haste
    J. L. Parrish
        Ind. Agt.
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.    The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 82.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 25th 1854
Sir
    I herewith enclose my quarterly abstract of disbursements in this Superintendency in the quarter ending June 30th 1854 and accompanying vouchers, also an account current for the same quarter. My visit to the various Indian tribes, and explorations lately completed, have occasioned a larger expenditure in this quarter than usual, the purchase of horses and other articles of outfit, presents for the Indians, as well as the hire of a number of employees being requisite to the accomplishment of the enterprise. The abstract shows an aggregate amount disbursed of sixteen thousand two hundred fifty-two dollars and eighty-six cents. Over five thousand dollars of this amount were for liabilities incurred in former quarters.
    The following explanations of several items of disbursement may be deemed necessary.
    Disbursements for horses, saddles and bridles, which are to be accounted for in property returns and receipts of agents, for horse shoeing, ferriages and the like, not otherwise arranged, as also for wages of employees connected with my late expedition, are placed to the account of "Traveling Expenses." Articles furnished the Rogue River band are placed under the head of "Treaty Stipulations," but the cost of their transportation (vouchers Nos. 12-13-17-18-24-31-39) under "Contingent Expenses" not being regarded as payment of the stipulated annuity. The price of transporting the flour was at the rates then charged for similar services.
    The Indians, deprived to a great extent of guns and ammunition, and restricted to inadequate sources of supply, were in a starving condition, and subsistence from government resources seemed imperatively necessary, not only to relieve their wants, but to prevent a hostile outbreak.
    The expense of preliminary negotiations with the Applegate and Illinois Creek bands of Shasta Indians, who have united with the Rogue River Indians and removed to the Table Rock Reserve, is covered by vouchers No. 40; voucher 6 abstract "A" to be forwarded, shows the articles given these Indians, and voucher No. 2, abstract "B," the pay of messenger sent to collect them. This council being held whilst on my way to Port Orford, no other expenditures were incurred chargeable to "Treaty Expenses." The expenses of their removal to the reserve remain unpaid; the details of a treaty are left for future action.
    The Indian, the price of whose passage from Port Orford to Portland is covered by voucher No. 52, became sick while in my employ, and being unable to ride on horseback I deemed it proper to convey him home by steamer.
    Voucher No. 65, $36.50 carried to "Contingent Account" excepted, embraces goods purchased for and distributed among the Indians of Port Orford District. The Indians were made to understand the giving of these goods to be a consideration for the occupancy of their country by the whites and that they would be regarded as part payment when we should purchase their lands and that the reception of these goods was a guarantee of peace and friendship on their part.
    The pay of T. K. Williams, special agent assisting P. F. Thompson, late sub-agent, while in temporary charge of the Utilla Agency (vouchers nos. 71 & 73) is carried in pay of sub-agents, the service being similar, and the appropriation being sufficient (the list of sub-agents not being full) to cover the expense. $53 voucher No. 77 is carried to "Traveling Expenses," the articles being used en route to Port Orford, and accounted for in "Property Return" $142.75 same voucher, is placed under "Presents and Provisions" for Indians, the goods to that amount being turned over to agents for that use. $80.93 voucher No. 84 was allowed the late sub-agent Thompson for extra services in Utilla Agency, per agreement referred to in my letter of June 23rd 1853, it being agreed that while in actual charge of that agency he should have the pay of a full agent. Voucher No. 85 is for advances made by said sub-agent, as per sub-vouchers enclosed, a certificate appended to No. 7 he was too feeble to sign but asserted it to be correct. Of this voucher $107.66 is carried to "Traveling Expense," $12.50 to "Contingent" and $10 to "Presents & Provisions." Voucher No. 86 transportation of goods to Utilla in July 1853 exhibits I believe the rates of freight usual at that time.
    The amount expended on account of my son in vouchers Nos. 97, 88 and 96 is the only consideration asked for his services as herdsman on my return from Port Orford to Dayton.
    The amount of voucher No. 47 for the same reason as that of vouchers No. 71 & 73 is carried to pay of sub-agents. Voucher 109 expense of negotiations with the Tualatin band of Calapooia Indians is carried to "Treaty Expenses." The pay of Cris Taylor Esq. for No. 117 is placed in equal parts under "Clerk Hire" and "Contingent Expenses," his duties during my trip being those of clerk and assistant in the distribution of goods to Indians and in taking the census of the several tribes and bands, as well as in the purchase and preparation of articles for the use of the Superintendency generally.
    John Flett & Ben Wright (vouchers Nos. 118 & 119) served as interpreters and packers--the latter as guide, they finding their own horses. Their accounts are arranged under the heads of "Pay of Interpreters" & "Traveling Expenses." In anticipation of collecting the Indians of Port Orford District (as a means of allaying the excitement and preventing the recurrence of the unhappy excesses which had been so frequent) at points where subsistence could not be immediately obtained I shipped 6000 lbs. flour (voucher No. 124). But on visiting them I concluded it best to allow them to remain for a time in their respective districts. A considerable portion of the flour is consequently on hand for use as necessity may require. Some articles bought for Indian use have been applied to pay expenses, ferries and as supplies for my party. The amount thus used will be shown in abstract "B" & accompanying vouchers and will be charged in the proper account and placed to the credit of "Presents & Provisions." Voucher 125 was mislaid and therefore not entered till now.
Respectfully your obedient servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner I. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 654-658.




Port Orford July 27th 1854
    Office Indian
        Affairs
Dear sir
    Herewith is forwarded to you my report on the Chetco Indians, burning of their houses &c. Also a voucher from Chilliman for qr. ending 30 June 1854.
    1 of Pratt & Eddy for purchase [for] American mare 2 for flour delivered to the baker for bread furnished 1 for provisions delivered to Chilliman and 1 from Lieut. Kautz for subsisting the 3 Chetco Indians who were accused with killing Wort and Miller who was accused with burning the houses of the Chetco Indians and kill[ing] a number of them. There will be a small amount more due to Lieut. Kautz for subsisting those men which will come in the next quarter. I now expect to leave here tomorrow and hope to close all my business with the Coquilles in about 6 days and then reach Salem as soon as possible.
I have the honor to be &c.
    J. L. Parrish
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 84.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 3-4.


.


Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 29, 1854
Dear Sir
    In reply to your inquiry as to what course you will pursue in relation to the matter in dispute between Mr. Kennedy and Indian Dick Johnson I have to say that after a careful investigation from all the information in my possession I am of opinion that the Indian's right to occupy that particular tract must not only be regarded by us as valid and secured to him by law as against this man Kennedy, but in equity. I do not doubt but that Kennedy may hold the claim as against any white man, but his right can by no means take precedence of Johnson's who had resided on and cultivated said tract for several years prior to Kennedy's setting up a claim to it.
    The act of Congress of 14th August 1848 in the first section provides as follows, "That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to impair the rights of person or property now pertaining to the Indians in said Territory, so long as such right shall remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians." This provision clearly acknowledged the rights of the Indians, and although the act making donation to settlers passed subsequently, I think it cannot be maintained that it repealed any part of this provision. Surely the humane policy of the government toward these Indian tribes could not have contemplated in the enactment of this law the right to dispossess the Indians of the spots of ground upon which their dwellings were situated; such a construction seems to be subversion of every principle of justice and at variance with previous enactments. If they have the right to occupy their dwellings, it carries with it such rights as would enable them to gain subsistence.
    The general interpretation of Indian rights is that they consist in fishing, hunting &c., but I think the action of the government and the principles of justice and humanity would give it a broader construction.
    The Indians in this country, as elsewhere, when first visited by the whites obtained their food by hunting, fishing, roots and berries, but as the white settlements advance these once-abundant resources diminish and are sometimes wholly exhausted. In this and in Umpqua Valley where a few years since wild game was so abundant and so easily taken as of itself to yield means of subsistence for the entire Indian population, it has now, in some districts, wholly disappeared; in others, the presence of the white man and the heavy draws by the early settlers upon it has rendered it timid and wild, and only to be taken with firearms.
    The recent legislative enactments prohibiting the sale of arms and ammunition to Indians has also to some extent diminished the means of gaining subsistence. The occupancy by whites of many districts heretofore yielding an abundant supply of nutritious roots used by them for food has destroyed the hope of longer subsisting themselves in that way, and the comparatively few residing in the valley of Umpqua who are able to take fish, and the scanty and inadequate supply of berries taken together, leaves them no alternative but either to follow the pursuits of the whites in cultivating the soil or to starve. A few have chosen to engage in agriculture; among these is the Indian Dick Johnson. He is represented as being honest and industrious, has made improvements comparing favorably with those of our white population, and if encouraged would exert a favorable influence among his red brethren, by inclining them to follow his example.
    Aside from the equity in the case, by driving this Indian from his premises we would destroy the only avenue by which we can hope to lead them from their former mode of life. His rights then, so far as the action of this department is concerned, must be respected; and those rights cannot fairly be restricted to the spot on which his dwelling and enclosure are situated, but [to] such an extent as would pertain to a settler, taking into consideration the size of his family, his means of improvement, amount of stock &c. From the evidence it appears the Indian has had possession for three years, whilst Mr. Kennedy only claims possession from April or May last. By what show of right then can Kennedy dispossess Johnson? I have written to Mr. Kennedy and explained in substance the contents of this letter. If an amicable adjustment could be made by which Kennedy might hold the claim, so that ultimately when the Indian right is purchased by the government he could be secured in it, it would be better for all parties. It cannot but be regarded however as a very unsafe method for him, for in the event the policy of the government should be changed so as to adopt the plan proposed by the chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs in the House of Representatives in Congress, this tract of land may be designated as a permanent home for the Indian, and while Kennedy might be waiting and spending his means in useless litigation he would lose the opportunity of taking a claim elsewhere, and as a matter of safety and economy to him he would do well to abandon all pretensions to this land.
    I desire you will proceed at once and settle this matter, and if no amicable arrangement can be made by the parties, you will mark off suitable boundaries for this Indian's claim, being governed in your acts as indicated.
Respectfully your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Wm. J. Martin Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Umpqua
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. July 30, 1854
Dear Sir,
    I have been called on by your son William in reference to the rights of an Indian claiming possession of a tract of land, which he informs me you have taken under the law making donations to settlers. I have also had referred to me by William J. Martin, Sub-Indian Agent of that district, a petition signed by sundry citizens of Umpqua Valley setting forth the matter in dispute, and upon investigation of the matter as far as my limited time would permit, I am of opinion that although your right to make a claim under the donation act may justify you in holding this tract of land as against any other white man, it can by no means take precedence or be regarded as superior to that of the Indian who had possession, occupied and cultivated the same for several years prior to your removal to it. I am aware the general impression is that an Indian can lay no claim to land, and hold it as against a white man, and that the donation act secures to the latter any tract he may designate although occupied by an Indian. I do not so regard it. The act of Congress on the 14th August 1848 declares "That nothing in this act shall be construed to impair the rights of person or property now pertaining to the Indians in said Territory, so long as such rights shall remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians."
    This provision clearly acknowledges the rights of Indians, and no act of Congress has subsequently passed repealing this provision, for all subsequent acts have been in accordance and not in contrarity to that act.
    No treaty has yet been made with the Indians claiming that country, and while I would not desire to throw obstacles in the way of whites claiming all lands not actually in possession of Indians, a sense of duty as an agent of the government and guardian of the Indians' rights would impose on me the duty of taking measures securing to them those rights. The only matter of difference is as to what those rights are. I believe the general interpretation is that it consists in fishing, hunting &c., but I think the policy and action of the government as well as the principles of justice warrant a broader construction.
    In Oregon as elsewhere, the Indians when first visited by white men obtained their subsistence by hunting, fishing, roots and berries, but as the white settlements advance, these abundant resources diminish, and are sometimes wholly exhausted. In this country when but a few years since wild game was so abundant and so easily taken, as of itself to yield means of subsistence to the entire Indian population, it has now in some districts wholly disappeared; in others the white settlers have made such heavy draws upon it and have chased it from place to place till what little remains is exceedingly timid and wild and can only be taken by the skillful use of firearms.
    The recent legislative enactments prohibiting the sale of firearms and ammunition to the Indians has also to some extent diminished the means of gaining subsistence.
    The occupancy by whites of a large proportion of their country heretofore affording an abundant supply of nutritious roots used by them for food has destroyed the hope of longer subsisting themselves in that way, and the comparatively few residing in the valley of the Umpqua who are able to take fish, and the scanty and almost useless dependence on berries, taken altogether leaves them no alternative but either to follow the practice of the whites by cultivating the soil or to starve. A few have recently turned their attention to agriculture and among them Dick Johnson, of whom you complain.
    He is represented as being an honest & industrious Indian, & to have made improvements comparing favorably with those of the whites, and if encouraged he would exert an influence of a salutary character over his red brethren by inclining them to follow his example.
    Aside from the equity of the case a decision that would drive him from his improvements would destroy the only avenue by which we can hope to draw them from their present mode of life. His rights then so far as the action of this Superintendency is concerned must be respected, and the right cannot fairly be limited to the precise spot covered by his house of even by his enclosure, but to such a tract as would naturally pertain to a settler.
    I am not prepared to name the number of acres of land to which he may lay claim and occupy, but he should be restricted according to the size of his family, his wants, his means of improving &c.
    Agent Wm. J. Martin has been directed to visit the premises and designate and mark out the boundaries of his claim, without reference to claimants who have taken claims subsequently to his. In doing this he will be governed by what he considers just and proper in the premises, and should his action interfere at all with privileges pertaining to white settlers, I hope it may be met in a spirit of forbearance and kindness, as it is not intended as any infringement of the rights of settlers, but as a means of securing to these people those privileges and rights which justice and humanity would seem to dictate.
    Should we err in the matter the judiciary will doubtless determine the question according to law.
Your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Mr. Kennedy
    Umpqua Valley
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Jacksonville O.T. July 30th / 54
Dear General
    I see from the papers that Congress has ratified the treaty you made with the Indians for their lands in Rogue River Valley, and as my claim was included in the reserve and the houses not destroyed by fire, I think the Indians should pay for the improvements, as it will save the expense of putting up other buildings for them. My property was appraised at two hundred dollars by the commissioners appointed by yourself, for which you gave me a certificate. Please write me by the return mail if you will pay it, and if so I will send you a receipt for the same. Our friend Culver is getting along well with the Indians, and there appears to be no disposition on the part of the Indians to violate the treaty.
Your obt. servant
    R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 92.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. July 31, 1854
Dear Sir
    On my return from Port Orford I learned that letters I had intended were not written directing you to return to this valley for the purpose of settling your accounts, and taking supplies to the Indians in your district. But as we have been disappointed in not receiving the requisite funds, I presume it can cause but little additional vexation or harm, as to make a settlement without the means of liquidating the claims would be but of little benefit to anyone, and besides, were you to come in and return to your post without any definite understanding as to what aid could be given the Rogue River Indians or those in other parts of your district it might be attended by no little hazard, and lead to serious difficulties, as they would undoubtedly anticipate much from your visit here. I am at this late date as far from being able to inform you what we may be able to do for the Indians as when at Fort Lane. The treaty as you are aware has been ratified, but I am not advised whether any appropriation has yet been made to carry out its provisions. Probably the next mail may bring something definite.
    I am intending to start on a tour east of the Cascade Mountains on Thursday next to be about four or five weeks, and in the event of any definite information as to what we are to do for the people of your district, reaching this office, Mr. Geary will inform you of it. The delays attending my late trip and the non-arrival of instructions from Washington have induced me to vary my movements in regard to the trip east of the mountains. My route will now be over the Cascades by the way of Mount Hood; thence south to the head of Deschutes River, thence to Klamath Lake, where I expect to meet the Indians of that district. I may then travel farther east and return by way of Natural Bridge and Rogue River settlements. Or I may proceed from Klamath Lake south to some favorable point and strike through to Pitt's Peak and thence to Fort Lane, and reach home by way of the head of Umpqua; or from Klamath Lake. I may return by way of the Middle Oregon road to the head of the valley. Circumstances I am now unable to predict will decide the route I shall take. Arrangements have been made with a Klamath chief to collect his people at Klamath Lake; that will of course be my principal point. I have not yet been informed as to the movement of troops in your valley, or whether any have visited or are likely to visit the emigrant roads this season. This knowledge might direct me to some extent in my route. The presence of troops on the trail would render my visit farther east than Klamath Lake unnecessary so far as the safety of emigrants is concerned, but if time permitted I would like to go as far as the head of Goose Creek and on to Fort Hall and to return by way of the Bannock villages, Fort Boise and head of John Day's River, Utilla &c. Time and means however will not permit of such a trip.
    I desire if it be practicable that you will send a messenger so as to meet me at Klamath Lake between the 12th and 17th of August, and advise me of the movement of the troops, give information relative to the Southern Road, and the condition of Indians in your district. Also whether any definite information has reached you descriptive of the country about Pitt's Peak and the head of the northern fork of Rogue River.
    My party will consist of 8 persons.
Your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
S. H. Culver Esq.
    Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.



Attorney General's Office
    2nd August 1854
Sir:
    I have the honor to state in answer to the inquiries in your letter of the 27th instant that in my opinion the acts of Congress for regulating intercourse with the Indians are in full force in the Territory of Oregon, and no further legislation upon that subject is needed at the present time.
    I propose at an early day to enter into full exposition of the erroneousness of the dicta upon this point which have fallen from certain judges in that Territory, but cannot conveniently do this until after the adjournment of Congress.
I am very respectfully
    C. Cushing
Hon. Robert McClelland
    Secretary of the Interior
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 76.  A copy of this letter can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 338-339.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Aug. 7th 1854
Sir,
    In accordance with the instructions of the Superintendent, now en route east of the Cascade Mountains to meet the Klamath Indians in council, I herewith transmit with accompanying vouchers an account current, showing the state of the fund transmitted to this office on the 31st Jany. last, to pay the expenses of Courtney M. Walker and others employed in quelling disturbances existing among the Rogue River tribe of Indians in Oregon Territory in 1851.
    The accounts have been paid to the order of Courtney M. Walker, as directed in your letter of the 26th Jany. last, and the accts., orders, assignments and other papers relating to these claims are on file in this office and will be transmitted to the Indian Bureau when a final disposition of the matter is made.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Edward R. Geary
            Act. Supt. &c.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 650-651.



Fort Lane Aug. 10, 1854.
Dear Gen.
    Mr. Huddleston doubtless told you that an Indian had been killed at Galice Creek. It proves true. The sheriff arrested the supposed murderer, but unfortunately he afterwards escaped. His name was Binns, "a gambler." After trying twice I found the Indians. They will remain quiet.
    I start tomorrow for Sailor Diggings. "Bob Williams" killed an Indian in that vicinity a few days since. I sent a deputy sheriff after him but he had fled to California. I shall remain in that vicinity for two or three weeks. The Indians very much dissatisfied.
    I divided the last money I had with Mr. Huddleston to enable him to get down to Dayton, of course I am now out. How I can get along is more than I can tell unless I receive money soon. I hope provision has been made for making more treaties. If there is a prospect that the first annuity will be paid soon please let me know that I can take advantage of it to restrain them. In haste
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
To Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton, Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 85.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 4-5.



Washington City
    August 11 1854
Commissioner Indian Affrs.
    Sir
        Herewith enclosed I send you a communication from B. F. Harding Esqr. of Salem, Oregon, enclosing affidavits in relation to Indian depredations. Have the kindness to examine them, and if nothing can be done for the claimants, please return the affidavits to B. F. Harding and enclose his letter to me [at the] House p. office, as I shall be absent from the city for a few days.
I am sir with much
    Respect your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 476-477.  Manypenny's response is below, dated August 18.




Winchester August 12th 1854       
Sir
    In accordance with your instructions, I have visited the residence of Dick Johnson and Messrs. Kennedy & Bean, and then not being able to get the parties to come to any conclusion, as Dick Johnson was fully in the determination of holding about three sections of land--the being the greater portion hills--while Kennedy and Bean were willing to leave Dick Johnson in the possession of a better claim than either of them had, and accordingly I proceeded and marked off three hundred and twenty acres of land, which I deemed sufficient for the support of him and his family, and directed him not to interfere with Messrs. Kennedy and Bean. And likewise I have the assurance of Kennedy and Bean that they will not molest or interfere with Dick Johnson, or his claims, but they are under the impression that they can hold the land by the donation law and accordingly they will still try to hold the land.
    Dick Johnson has a fair average claim for Umpqua Valley, and is worth in my estimation at least one thousand dollars.
    Dick is not disposed to listen to anything short of the unconditional removal of Messrs. Kennedy and Bean, and likewise one Mr. Allen, who lives about one and a half miles from Dick's house, against whom complaint has just lately been made by Dick. Dick says that he wants Allan's claim for his father, to which complaint I paid no attention. I have fulfilled my utmost endeavors to settle the difficulty incumbent on Dick by the burning of Kennedy's house. Dick says that the whites told him to burn the house, but I think differently, as I am well convinced that Dick has no great regard for the truth.
    I have not had Dick's claim surveyed, as it would cost some fifteen dollars to make the survey, but if you desire the survey to be made you will please instruct me to have it done.
Yours truly
    W. J. Martin
        Sub Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 4; Letter Books C:10.   The original can be found on Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 88.




Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        August 15th 1854
Sir
    You have been designated by the President of the United States as the officer of the Indian Department to negotiate treaties of peace and acquisition with the Indian tribes in Oregon as provided for by a clause of the 1st section of the act of Congress approved July 31st 1854, entitled "An Act Making Appropriations for the Current and Contingent Expenses of the Indian Department" &c.
    The clause referred to is as follows: "For the expenses of negotiating treaties with and making presents of goods and provisions to the Indian tribes in the Territory of Oregon, $68,000."
    This appropriation was based on an estimate submitted by this Department to Congress, and as estimated for it was believed that that sum would be sufficient to defray the expenses of making conventional arrangements of a permanent character with all the tribes and fragments of tribes within your Superintendency and paying them the first installment of the amounts stipulated by the treaties as estimated by you.
    To enable you at once to enter upon the discharge of the duties of this appointment the sum of $1200 will be immediately remitted to you out of the appropriation named, as applicable to the expenses of all the arrangements and purchases necessary to the commencement and prosecution of the negotiations contemplated.
    Having formed the opinion from information deemed reliable that Indian goods in considerable quantities and of the best qualities cannot advantageously and readily be bought in Oregon, I have determined to procure from the contractors with this Department in the Atlantic cities a quantity of the best and leading articles of Indian goods of about $15,000 in value, invoices of which when purchased will at once be sent you, and the goods, which is expected will be shipped from New York by the 1st proximo, will probably reach you in ample time for use in the early spring.
    In this connection I take occasion to state that in my opinion it is of great importance, if not absolutely necessary, that in entering into articles of conventions with Indian tribes in Oregon and designating temporary or permanent reservations for their occupancy, the numerous small bands or fragments of tribes be united into tribes and concentrated upon reservations as limited in number as possible. The formation of distinct relations with each of the fifty or sixty separate bands thus would not be as likely to promote the best interests of the white settlers, or the Indians, as if the latter could all be concentrated in a limited number of reservations contiguous to each other in a limited number of districts of country apart from the settlements of the whites. Unless this end can probably [sic] be effected, you will at present only conclude treaties with those tribes or bands immediately adjacent to the settlements of the whites,and between whom and the whites animosities prevail and disturbances of the peace are reasonably apprehended, and in entering on the execution of the duties with which you are hereby charged you will commence negotiations with tribes of this description.
    As to the details of treaties, it is not deemed necessary to give you specific instructions.
    I herewith send you printed copies of treaties recently concluded with the Ottoe & Missouria and Omaha tribes of Indians now residing on the western frontiers of Iowa, from which you will gather some useful suggestions as to the policy of the government in regard to the ultimate civilization of the Indian tribes, the graduation of payments to them, the extinguishment of permanent annuities, the encouragement of missions and education, the control reserved to the President in determining the manner in which their annuity moneys shall be applied for their benefit, the exclusion of ardent spirits, the right to construct highways and railroads and the security of annuities against being misapplied or paid for national debts or attorneys' claims. (The quantity of land provided for the residence of each Indian family is much larger than necessary or would be proper in Oregon.)
    I would remark that where the number of Indian bands is so numerous as in Oregon, unless they can be united into a small number of tribes, it will be highly desirable that the stipulations for annual payments shall be few, and the Department retain the authority to apply the funds to a variety of objects such as the circumstances of the Indians at the time of payment require. You will regard this suggestion in the negotiations upon which you are now instructed to enter.
    It may be proper to state that the amounts secured to tribes in Nebraska will not be any criterion for you in regard to the amount of any annual or other payments to be made by the stipulations of the proposed treaties. These Indians had a definite location on lands made very valuable by reason of their close proximity to the marts of commerce in the States, whilst the claims of tribes in Oregon to title are based on occupancy alone, and that occupancy of a nature not very fixed and well defined by boundaries. In regard to the amounts of payments, the treaties negotiated by you in September last form a more correct basis, and it is my expectation that you will be able to arrange for annual payments for a limited period--not exceeding twenty years in any case--and in the aggregate not exceeding annually the amount of the estimates submitted by you with your annual report as the probable amount of first payment of such annuities.
    It will be well to insert in all the treaties you may conclude an article similar in its import to the amendment made by the Senate to the treaty with the Rogue River Indians, and I take occasion to add that both the treaties negotiated by you in September last may be properly taken as outlines of those now to be negotiated, on which you will be enabled to engraft provisions in accordance with the foregoing instructions. You will perceive by reference to my annual report and the last annual report of the Secretary of the Interior that it is regarded by the Department as proper generally to avoid the payment of annuities in money and to substitute implements of agriculture, stock and articles necessary to the comfort and civilization of Indian tribes.
    Remembering the great distance which separates you from the Capitol, and the time that is likely to elapse from the negotiation of treaties until you hear of the action of the Senate thereon, you will caution the Indians against expecting the first payments of annuities until after the ratification of treaties. The goods presented to them at the time of negotiations will form a part of the payment for the acquisition of their claims to lands, even though they do not appear on the face of the treaties as the whole or part of the payment of the first installment of annuities.
    The goods now proposed to be purchased and shipped to you will be sent to the care of the collector of customs at San Francisco, with whom if necessary you will communicate immediately in order to advise them at what point or points in Oregon you may desire to have them left--and they will be divided into two equal lots for your convenience in case you should wish them left at different points on the Columbia River.
    I hope to receive some reports and estimates from you before determining what further purchases of goods or remittances of money shall be made from the appropriation referred to.
    You will furnish me with a skeleton map of Oregon Territory showing the location of the different Indian tribes with the extent of country claimed by each and the nature of the tenure or claim, and as treaties are made, designate the reserve provided for Indian use, with such precision that it may be laid down on the map here.
    With these general views you will nevertheless exercise a sound discretion where the circumstances are such as to require a departure from them, and you will take care in all treaties made to leave no question open out of which difficulties may hereafter arise or by means of which the Treasury may be approached, but adjust and close all matters of this kind if any there be.
    It is expected that a due regard to economy will govern all your actions herein, and that you will promptly report progress in execution of the trust now confided to you.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 34-38.



Dayton 16th August 1854
Recd. Mr. Geary
    My Dear Sir
        I came over hoping to see you with reference to a number of things respecting myself and the Port Orford agency but finding you absent I write thus.
    Is there any money in hand for the payment of Port Orford Indian agency expenses? When will General Palmer return? Will you please furnish me with a copy of my report of Port Orford agency dated 10th July for quarter ending 30th Jan. / 54? Said report I closed at so late a day that I had no time to copy before it was sent by the mail, so that the office is without a copy. Please send me the amount of dollars due on abstracts & vouchers I have furnished from said agency.
    All the above papers were forwarded so soon after they were closed that I have no minutes of them. I would also love to know whether there is any funds on my own salary a/c. Will you do me the favor to send me an answer at an early day & [soon] as possible. I would remain here until tomorrow but I must return to Salem this evening and start to Portland tomorrow morning. I would be glad to have all particulars respecting our Indian business that is right for me to be informed of. I reached home a week last night by land. I came up the coast to Umpqua thence east to Salem. I left all matters in a state of quiet in respect to Indians.
    I expected to have found the general at home on my arrival from Port Orford. I am much disappointed. There are many important things I wished to consult him about.
    When you write me if the mail is not going immediately to Salem will it be consistent for Lorenzo to come over to Salem & bring over some communication. I expect to return from Portland within 3 days.
Yours truly
    J. L. Parrish
        Ind. Agt.
Recd. Mr. Geary
    Assistant Supt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 83.



Port Orford Aug. 17th 1854
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Superintendent &c.
        Dear Sir    Your communication dated July 18th did not come to hand
until last evening. In compliance with your request I have to state that I was merely a witness to the signature or mark of Chilliman. No money was paid to Chilliman in my presence.
    I do not believe that Chilliman understood that object for which his signature was obtained, or that it would be an evidence of his having received the amount therein expressed. As far as myself is concerned I did not think that Chilliman had received the money at the time of signature.
I am dear sir
    Your obt. servant
        James S. Gamble
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 22-23.



Port Orford O.T.
    August 17th 1854
Dear Sir
    Your letter has just reached me. I hasten to discover that I signed Chilliman's voucher simply as evidence of his signature--no money was passed at the time, nor did I ever see Mr. Culver pay him even one farthing.
Truly your obt. servant
    F. M. Smith
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 23.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        August 18th 1854.
Sir:
    Your letter of the 11th instant enclosing a communication from B. F. Harding Esqr. of Salem, Oregon, with accompanying affidavits respecting Indian depredations, has been received.
    In compliance with your request, I have examined said papers and herewith return the same that they may be forwarded to Superintendent Palmer or Samuel H. Culver, agent of the Rogue River Indians, that such action may be taken in the premises as indicated by the 17th section of the Intercourse Act of the 30th of June 1834.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Charles E. Mix
            Acting Commissioner
Hon. Joseph Lane
    Washington,
        D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 480-481.



Yoncalla Umpqua O.T.
    August 18th 1854
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir
            In accordance with the conversation I had with you concerning the situation and wants of these Indians, in which we agreed they ought to be set to cultivating the soil, and any arrangements I should agree on for that purpose with Mr. Martin would be sanctioned by you, when I saw Mr. Martin I proposed to enter into a contract with him for that purpose of carrying out this matter, to which he agreed, and promised he would call on me and enter into negotiations on the part of the United States.
    Without delay I went to putting into order for planting the amount of ground which Mr. Martin promised to rent, fearing the whole matter was liable to fall through if I delayed until the contract was entered into, for the spring season was fast approaching. Mr. Martin finally called on me at my house and negotiated in substance about as follows, viz. He on the part of the United States would rent of me four acres of land more or less, which I was to have planted by the Indians, he furnishing hoes to work with; also he was going to deposit powder and other ammunition with me which I was to be instructed to distribute to them as their wants required. He was going to give them more flour. I was to see that the Indians cultivated their crop, should take care of the crop when made and distribute it to them as they should need it, and as compensation for my trouble I should have one hundred dollars. All of these things he was to set forth in a contract, giving me a letter of instructions. Mr. Martin then left, telling me that he would make out my papers shortly.
    He promised to come and see how the matter went on, which up to this time [he] has neglected to do, having passed several times near without calling. I feel that he has no interest in the business and is trying to treat it all with contempt.
    After a while Mr. Martin sent me a paper of advice, instruction, request and authority, all purporting to be founded upon his professing to know my friendly feeling toward the Indians in my "settlement." This I felt was straying from the subject. It mentions something about some of the items of the contract which [he] was in process of making, which very likely never has been written. If it has been I ought to have seen it, undoubtedly making mention, too, of some kind of reward, forfeiture and the other matters necessary to make some kind of business appearance. This document, which I look up on as a farce or a jumble, is dated April 31st, with which unaccountable extension of the month of April it harmonizes in all its features, and is undoubtedly a good argument, writing on that last day of the month.
    Notwithstanding this I went on, made the Indians plant the ground and cultivate their crop. This was complying on my part, but the hoes Mr. Martin was to send never came, articles in which the Indians stood in need, being compelled by the disappointment to work with spades &c. The Indians say they saw Mr. Martin passing along the road, and upon his being asked about the hoes, he answered that they would work their ground with their fingers. If he answered thus, which I have no reason to doubt, I look upon it as great encouragement on the part of the United States.
    This instruction I believe to be in good keeping with the general manner in which he discharges the duties of his office, which any man of reason would readily admit when he comes to look along his path. Let me refer you to the case of Dick Johnson, a case in which the abilities and justice of Mr. Martin were called for, yea prayed for, and a critical analysis of his operations throughout would show the specific gravity of the above-mentioned elements.
    I have been considerably interested in the welfare of this Indian Dick Johnson, having induced him to cultivate the soil. When I began it, I thought I would undoubtedly have our magnanimous government by my side, but how I was mistaken, for under the circumstances the government proved a kind of shelter for the villains who tried to rob him. As far as the government has been embodied in Martin, it has been a great nuisance, and of his operations you can be informed. But it is enough to be generally known that the citizens bore the Indian through and settled all difficulty. Now the only thing remaining to be done is to inform the government that the Indian may get a grant of land to cover his improvements. The government will have no excuse not to do so when it boasts of its disposition to encourage progression, and he has rose from a wandering homeless savage to a respectable man, and that without costing the government one cent; it only has to give him his home or more properly permit him to keep it, "the government will do it." It has given less deserving a home, the matter only has to be taken [care] of, and if the Indian Department do not, I presume the citizens will. I glory in the spirit already manifested by the citizens, for it was manifested by actions in the cause of justice and humanity. I had the satisfaction of witnessing the last line marked last evening after sundown, and a general peace proclaimed.
    But in conclusion of my business I have to inform you that there is a petition being signed by the people of both parties for the removal of Martin from his office, and having understood as I have previously mentioned that you would concur in those operations for the good of the Indians, and I consider it nonsense to look to Martin for countenance or remuneration, he having acted as I have stated, I will henceforth refer my business to you and not consider it necessary to go to the trouble of writing and fixing the business in style. I will trust in the honor of a gentleman which is better than the notes and bonds on those who are not deserving of that distinction. The smallness of the business is no honor to the government, nor is it so small that men might act dishonorable over it. The little remuneration even which I was to receive I consider was of importance enough to be mentioned at least, when it is taken into consideration that what I am doing for the Indians is of more real and solid benefit than remembering and promising to pay them a thousand times. Please answer this.
Yours respectfully
    Lindsay Applegate
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 13-16.



Fort Lane O.T.
    August 20th, 1854
Dear sir
    Yours of July 31st was received an hour since. At the close you say "I wish you, if practicable, to send a messenger to meet me at Klamath Lake between the 12th & 17th of August & inform me of the movements of troops relative to the Southern Road, and the state of the Indians in your district. And also whether any definite information has reached you descriptive of the country about Pitt's Peak and the head of the north fork of Rogue River &c. As will be seen I did not receive it until this the 20th at evening.
    It is both unpleasant & useless to dwell upon the subject of Oregon mails. The only thing certain connected with them is that no reliance can be placed in them. Fortunately some volunteer troops were at Klamath Lake about the time you mentioned & they can give you most of the information desired.
    The Indians are as well disposed as could be expected after two of their number have been murdered. Some person or persons may be killed in consequence, but there will not be a general war.
In haste,
    S. H. Culver
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton, Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 96.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 20-21.



Klamath Lake August 24th 1854
Dear Sir
    At the request of Wa-lup-tu-leke, one of the Cayuse chiefs residing in the Tygh Valley, I apprise you of the result of an investigation touching the veracity of Charles Adams, who had represented that the "chief" had told him that the Klamaths had in their possession several of the horses lost by you between this and River Deschutes some time since. The whole matter was fully canvassed in my presence and made apparent that the Klamaths had not found any of them, and that none had ever been turned over to the said chief, and that the mule spoken of was one originally stolen by the Moetwas tribe of Indians, traded by them to the Modocs, and by them to the Klamaths. It is evident that the said Adams has been guilty of falsehood and a desire to profit by your losses as a consideration for this mule which he claimed as belonging to him, with threats if other horses were not given to him on his return he would arrest some of them and take them to the settlements.
I have the honor to be dear sir your
    Obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Capt. Pierce
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 5.



Jacksonville O.T. Aug. 25th / 54
Dear General
    I wrote to you some weeks since by mail relative to the claims I have against the Indian Department, but the mails are so uncertain I suppose you did not get the letter. I now send the certificate you gave me by express, and truly hope you will be able to furnish me with the money, as I am very much in want of it to buy wheat. I understood you to say you would pay it as soon as the treaty was ratified. You remember my property was not destroyed during the war and the Indians are now living in the house. Please write to me by the first opportunity.
Your most obt. servant
    R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 104.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 28.



Camas Valley Aug. 31st 1854
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Sir--The undersigned citizens of a small valley situated upon the headwaters of the Coquille River desire to represent to you that by your permission the Klickitat Indians are allowed to roam over this region with their horses, eating out our grass and destroying our game--that twice this year they have been thus quartered upon us for weeks at a time--that they have been for months hunting farther down this stream, killing large numbers of deer and nearly one hundred elk--leaving most of their carcasses to rot upon the ground (their denial of the fact to the contrary notwithstanding)--that they are treacherous and disagreeable neighbors, one of their number--"We-an-a-shit"--having used insulting and defiant language until he found us united and that they are in fact like a wandering band of "Arabs" subsisting upon the inheritance of others.
    The native Indians are as much opposed to their coming as we are. Many of them intend to return this fall. We advise you to prohibit them doing so. We cannot say they shall not come or that they shall not commit wholesale slaughter among the game in our region simply for their skins. But this much we can and do say, and we say it with courtesy yet with firmness, they shall remain in our neighborhood no more.
    The above sentiments are the feelings of all the settlers wherever these Indians roam, and if you have regard for our interests and those of the native Indians, you will prevent any more of their piratical incursions amongst us. (signed by)
    C. B. Rawson, A. Martindale, J. A. Dryer, F. J. Higginson, F. Spencer, Alex Reid, John Day, G. W. Day, John Allen, W. P. Day, Abraham Patterson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 27-28.



Fort Lane Oregon Territory
    August 31st 1854
Dear Sir
    I received my commission as appointed "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" on the 31st May, also a form of the within bond, with instructions to fill out, forward &c. There was no U.S. judge or district attorney near here to approve it until the last term of court, which accounts for the delay.
Yours very truly
    S. H. Culver
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 21.



Fort Lane Oregon Ty.
    August 31st 1854.
Dear sir,
    Circular from Department of the Interior under date of 11th April 1854 also copy of ours from same Department, Office Indian Affairs of 10th May, and circular Office Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T. July 31st were received on the 20th inst.
    They require "a report to you with what depositary they (agents) propose to deposit, and if the use of any of the Assistant Treasurers of the United States is not practicable they will report to that effect, and the reasons on which they base their opinion."
    The nearest Assistant Treasurer of the United States is at San Francisco, a distance between four and five hundred miles. I deem it impracticable to deposit at that office on account of the great distance, as a large amount must be brought at a time, or to go for it frequently would consume too much time.
    I would propose to deposit with one of the two express companies in Jacksonville, Jackson County, Oregon Ty. One is known as Rhodes & Co., a well-known house in San Francisco. The other is known as Cram, Rogers & Co. This company connect with Adams & Co., also a well-known house in San Francisco. I do not know of any difference in the facilities offered by the two firms. Both have the reputation of being good and responsible houses. Large sums are frequently deposited with and transported by them. In this connection I might say that the quartermaster and commissary at this post (Fort Lane) receives his money from San Francisco through one of these houses.
    I would then respectfully suggest that Cram, Rogers & Company, Jacksonville, Jackson Co., O.T. be selected as a place to deposit for this agency.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton, Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 98.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 21-22.



Umpqua Valley Septr. 1854
Sir
    I have the honor herewith to forward the account current and abstract of disbursements for the quarter ending 30th Sept. / 54.
    The goods purchased of Bradbury were distributed among the Coquille Indians during the difficulties which occurred last summer, and the ammunition, some of which still remains on hand, has been given to the Umpqua Indians to enable them to hunt. Messrs. Wilson and Applegate have each, according to your instructions, raised a crop for the use of the Indians of this valley, as specified in the abstract of disbursements, which is now stored for them and will be distributed from time to time. Since my last visit to Dick Johnson, when I staked him off a piece of land, I have heard nothing more with relation to his claim.
    The Indians of this district are still quiet and disposed to sell their land.
Yours respectfully
    Wm. J. Martin
        Sub-Indian Agent
Joel Palmer, Esqr.
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 115.  A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 102.




Fort Lane O.T.
    Sept. 1st 1854
Dear Gen.
    When you were here last I thought it would do for me to go to the Willamette in the month of August. But I afterwards found that it would not be prudent to leave here so soon. I now think it would do to start by the first of October, and hope to receive instructions to that effect.
    I think to take two or three of the Indian chiefs along, that they may know from personal observation the strength of the whites; [it] would be productive of much good to both parties. I hope to hear from you upon the subject by return mail.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
To Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton, Yamhill Co.
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 97.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 22.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. September 2nd 1854
Sir,
    Your letter of the 25th ultimo by the hand of Mr. Huddleston was found in this office on my arrival on Wednesday last. The horse, saddle and bridle were delivered according to your direction. I have also to acknowledge the receipt of your letter explanatory of Chilliman's account, and your annual report. The statements of the former are strangely in contrast with the complaints of Chilliman, and necessarily involve questions the result of which made apparent would subject the party in fault to dismissal from the service. In the latter I find just and proper views, calculated to be useful in our intercourse with these people. It will accompany my annual report, now in progress of preparation.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
S. H. Culver Esqr.
    Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 8-9.



Office Superintendent of Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. September 2nd 1854
Sir
    It appears, by the public prints, that much excitement exists among the settlers and Indians in the Rogue River Valley, and I learn from Mr. Huddleston that serious apprehensions are entertained of the breaking out of another Indian war.
    How deplorable such an event would be when war with these tribes, with all its horrible consequences, exists by acts of aggression wholly on the part of the Indians, we may all without reluctance join against such an enemy, but when the fault lies at our own door, what a fearful responsibility is involved.
    Among the mass of whites thrown into proximity with the Indians are many evil-disposed persons whose acts of aggression and barbarity are calculated to arouse the bitterest feelings of savage vengeances, and I fear that the acts of some in official station may have contributed no little to disturb the harmony and good feeling so desirable to have exist between the Indians and settlers. I refer particularly to the bartering connected with the cutting of hay on the Reserve, and if my information be correct, and I have no reason to doubt the veracity of Mr. Huddleston, your acts in relation to the purchase of the privilege of cutting hay has contributed as much as anything else to create the present excitement among the Indians and lead them to doubt the sincerity of the government and its agents in their dealings with them.
    The information referred to is as follows: that you had early in the season contracted with the Indians residing on Table Rock Reserve (among them Sam) for the privilege of cutting hay, for which you were to pay them $250, that on or about the tenth of June, Mr. Huddleston and two sons by your order commenced mowing hay, that they continued so cutting and putting up until about the last of June, that then the two young men commenced hauling the hay to Fort Lane and continued until about twenty or more tons were delivered at that point, using for its transport the team belonging to the tribe, that during or before the time of cutting you sold out this privilege of gathering the hay to one Bruce, reserving for yourself the right of cutting as much as you might want, he paying you the same price that you were to have paid the Indians originally, and that on this agreement Bruce employed hands and cut about one hundred tons, fifty tons of which he sold and delivered at Fort Lane at $33 per ton, that after a considerable quantity had been cut the Indians forbade their cutting any more, alleging it was taking the seed upon which they relied for food, that after some delay Sam agreed that if Bruce would give a mule saddle and bridle he might go ahead, that he did so and proceeded to cut more hay, that the Indians, finally seeing the removal of the hay was taking so much of their accustomed food, again stopped them, but not till you had removed your twenty tons and Bruce his fifty tons of hay, leaving the remaining fifty tons of hay on the ground, that the Indians had expressed a willingness to permit the removal of the hay, provided as much flour should be given them as would compensate for the seed destroyed, that representations had been made to the tribe that they had been cheated in the original contract, and that consequently universal excitement existed among them.
    Now, sir, if these statements be true, it shows a proceeding at variance with the duties of an agent, for it cannot be regarded in any other light than taking advantage of their inexperience and ignorance in dealing with whites.
    If upon learning that their meadow grounds and clover patches situated on their Reserve could be made to yield a revenue, warranting the cutting and hauling to market, instead of being seized as a matter of speculation by the government, the agent, or other persons through him, it should have been secured and the whole proceeds applied to the use and benefit of the Indians residing on the Reserve. For by a solemn compact between the United States and this tribe there is secured to those Indians, for a time at least, the exclusive use and benefit of this Reserve, and it is the duty of the agent to see that their rights are maintained.
    These three men (the Huddlestons) were employed to labor on the Reserve for the benefit of these Indians, the amount of their labor to be paid out of the Indian annuity, and they were entitled to the full benefit of their labor. It was expected that as soon as the season had passed for putting in the spring crops, they would be engaged in hauling rails for enclosing them, in erecting suitable buildings, and in preparing ground for wheat. If during the proper season their labor could be usefully turned to saving hay upon which to subsist the oxen and other stock belonging to the Indians or for sale, it was well thus to employ them, but in such a case the hay designed for their use should have been kept on the Reserve and the proceeds of the part sold employed for their benefit. The team of oxen and wagons with which these twenty tons of hay were hauled to Fort Lane belong to the tribe, as the cost is taken from their annuity, and they should therefore be used wholly for their benefit.
    To permit other persons to cut and remove hay from the Reserve, under pretense of a privilege secured for yourself, would naturally be regarded by them as at variance with the principles of fair dealing, for we know they are not always able to comprehend fully the force of contracts. Unacquainted with our mode of saving hay, they probably had no thought that it would destroy the seed with which it is mixed, and on which they rely for a considerable portion of their food, nor could they imagine that so great a quantity would be taken, or that it was of so much value when delivered at Fort Lane. But whatever may have been their understanding of the matter, the agent sent among them to watch over, aid and protect them should have striven to realize the greatest possible amount for their benefit from any natural advantages afforded by their location.
    I am informed that part of the rails made by [the] original claimants on the Reserve, to pay for which provision was made in the treaty, have been hauled away and appropriated by settlers living near, and that the remainder lie rotting in the woods, while the crops planted this spring remain unenclosed, and that nothing has been done towards making a shelter for men employed on the Reserve, or for securing goods, tools and agricultural implements &c. designed for the use of the tribe, and that the team, tools &c. have been entirely removed from the Reserve, that during the entire season of planting and cutting hay the agent was not on the Reserve among the hands engaged in the work to exceed four times, indicating surely a remissness in duty, when it is recollected that his place of residence is within four or five miles of the point at which the work has been done.
    It was expected in the spring that you would remove from Fort Lane and make your headquarters on the Reserve so as to superintend the farming operations, and by your presence and counsel give the Indians assurance of our intention to carry out fully the stipulations of the treaty.
    I feel myself constrained by a sense of public duty to express my entire disapprobation, and that this system of dealing with Indians and permitting persons to speculate on and profit by their inexperience and ignorance cannot for a moment be tolerated.
    The critical time too, at which this affair has taken place, when the utmost caution and vigilance on the part of the agent is required to prevent the breaking out of a war that must result in their extermination, renders your course the more to be regretted. Everything tending to excite their fears or weaken their confidence in the good intentions of the agents of the government should have been carefully avoided. The great length of time intervening between the date of the treaty and its ratification, and the absence of funds to carry into effect its stipulations, naturally lead them to question our sincerity, when too they are daily exposed to the threats and violence of reckless men, who shoot them down with impunity, and with scarcely an effort to bring them to justice, how great should be our efforts to conciliate and relieve them.
    The apparent indifference of the agent in regard to Louis the interpreter, who took sick and died in the camp of those working on the Reserve, he remaining some two weeks without any other shelter than that of a tree, was strongly in contrast with the protestations made them, and gave them an idea of what they might expect at our hands. It would be strange indeed if peace could be maintained with a people who had been so greatly injured.
    In conclusion, under a deep sense of great responsibility and my obligation to perform the duties devolved on me "without fear, favor or affection," I am compelled to exercise the power vested in me by suspending your functions as Indian agent till the will of the President be known, and I shall claim the privilege of taking steps to secure to the Indians the full value of the hay taken from the Reserve, deducting therefrom a reasonable amount for cutting and delivering, when done by those not employed to work on the Reserve, and in the event this cannot otherwise be realized, I will feel warranted in withholding an amount from your salary account to cover its value, should there be so much due.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
S. H. Culver Esqr.
    Fort Lane O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 9-12.  Copies can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 408-415 and 681-687.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 4th 1854
Dear Sir
    The resignation of the office of Indian agent by J. L. Parrish Esqr. renders it necessary for me to designate a suitable person as special agent in the district of Port Orford.
    My official [duties] will not at this time permit me to visit that district in person. I therefore request that you will act as special agent therein until one be regularly appointed by the authorities at Washington City.
    I can only promise you the salary of a sub-agent, $750 per year, and your necessary traveling expenses and those incurred for lights and stationery.
    An interpreter is allowed, whose salary by law is $500 per year and necessary traveling expenses.
    To ensure the payment of accounts, vouchers or receipts are required setting forth the time of payment, and to whom and for what payment is made. The books, papers and other property of that district are in the possession of J. L. Parrish Esqr., now in this valley, but he informed me that the books, papers &c. are in his office at Port Orford.
    You will call on F. M. Smith, who will give you such information as will enable you to obtain such papers and instructions as you may find necessary.
    Instructions will be made out and forwarded by next steamer. In the meantime you will enter on the discharge of your duties and endeavor to preserve amicable relations between the whites and Indians and among the Indians themselves.
    Your district will extend from our southern boundary to and include the Indians on Flores Creek north and east to the summit of the Coast Mountains, leaving those on Coquille to be attached to the Umpqua district, of whom Edwin P. Drew will be the special agent, and with him you will confer from time to time so as to mutually aid and assist each other in the discharge of your public duties.
I have the honor to be
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Benjamin Wright Esqr.
    Special Sub-Ind. Agent
        Port Orford O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 26-27.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1043-1044.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 5th 1854
Dear Sir
    Your letter of the 30th ultimo has this moment been received, and in reply [I] would state that there is no funds in my hands applicable to the payment of the character of claims referred to in your letter. I have received official notice of the ratification of the treaty made with the Rogue River Indians, but up to my latest dates no appropriation had been made to carry into effect its provisions, but the bill making such appropriations had passed the House and had been favorably reported by the proper committee in the Senate, and no doubt would soon become a law, but it must necessarily take some time before the amounts can be realized by the respective claimants. So soon however as funds are received you will be apprised of it.
    I am glad to hear from you the expression of confidence that the Indians do not appear disposed to violate the treaty, as from reports recently received at this office I had feared a different state of things. I wish they could comprehend how much I desire them to remain at peace and what efforts are being made to promote their interests.
    From Mr. Huddleston, one of the men who has been employed on the reserve, I have learned the particulars of their swindling hay operation, and I [which] presume may be the means of losing the agent his position as such. So far as I am concerned I am determined to not permit anyone holding a position who will connive or permit any to take advantage of their ignorance and inexperience, but they shall be secured in whatever belongs to them, and encouraged to well doing.
    It is possible that I may find it necessary to visit your neighborhood in a few weeks; if so, I shall be glad to see you.
I am sir very respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
R. B. Metcalfe
    Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 16-17.




Dayton Sept. 8th 1854
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
        Dear Sir
            I beg leave through you respectfully to tender to the President of the United States the resignation of my commission as agent for the Indians in Oregon, which I had the honor recently to receive from him--to take effect immediately.
    In resigning so soon after its acceptance a commission by which I have been advanced to a position in the department more prominent than that I have for several years held, it may not be deemed improper to say that I am led to this step by the constant embarrassment experienced in the discharge of my duties from the absence of adequate funds, to meet the current expenses of my office.
    I have never hesitated during the five years I have served in this department promptly and to the best of my ability to perform the duties required by my superior officers, or demanded by the exigencies of the service.
    This has occasioned a heavy and almost constant drain upon my private resources, which with the great delay attending the payment of accounts has often been a source of great embarrassment and vexation.
    Nothing but a sense of duty and strong desire, if possible, to aid in improving the condition of the red man could have induced me, under the pecuniary difficulties experienced, to continue so long in this service, and a sense of the obligation I owe my family now leads me to the step taken. I would not submit these remarks on my own account, but only with the hope that the attention of the government may be especially directed to the importance of more adequate appropriations and the more prompt transmission of funds to meet the demands of the Indian Department in Oregon in order to secure success to the efforts of its officers and give that relief and secure those blessings to the aborigines which it will become our great and prosperous nation to confer.
    With sentiments of high regard and friendship
I am dear sir
    Your obt. servant
        J. L. Parrish
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 94.  A transcription can also be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 18.



Mansineta Sept. 9th 1854
Genl. L. Palmer
    Dear Sir
        Time and circumstance compel me to inquire as to the probable time of receiving the little that is due me from the Department over which you preside. I have seen and talked with Mr. Culver several times in relation to the matter, but he could give me no definite idea as to the time it would be received. I saw and conversed with the young man who came out with you last spring; he told me he had got his pay by sending his a/c to his father.
    I furnished Indians with seed then plowed and planted and was to pay when the appropriation arrived to about the amount of thirty dollars. These are small sums, "but small kicks help in fights."
    I am just recovering from a spell of bilious fever as well as may I am [sic], my wife and child, through you will remember us to our friends in general--to Mr. Cris & wife in particular.
    Please let me hear from you upon the receipt of this .
Truly yours
    L. A. Rice
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 32. Mansineta (Manzanita) was the township of today's Central Point area.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 11th 1854
Sir
    I herewith transmit a letter from J. L. Parrish Esqr. tendering his resignation of the office of Indian agent in this Superintendency.
    His private affairs appear to interfere materially with the duties of an agent. I therefore ask his resignation may be accepted, and would respectfully submit the name of Nathaniel Olney Esqr., of the Dalles of the Columbia, as a suitable person to fill the vacancy.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. George W. Manypenny
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 18-19.



Annual Report of Superintendent for the Year Ending June 30th 1854.
Superintendency of Indian Affairs O.T.
    Dayton September 11th 1854
Sir,
    I respectfully submit the following report of affairs during the past year in this Superintendency.
    With a few exceptions the Indians remain in a condition differing little from that exhibited in my last report.
    Much excitement has existed at various times among the settlers and miners in the southern and southwestern districts, of which my former communications to some extent advised you. Outrages in which the whites and Indians were in turn the aggressors have occurred, resulting in the death of a few of our citizens and many of the natives.
    These occurrences, especially the massacre of the natives at Coquille and Chetco, caused serious apprehensions of a general outbreak of hostilities in Port Orford District.
    Frequent acts of violence during the winter--the sufferings of the Indians on the reserve from disease and want--the refusal of Tipsey and his band to come upon the reserve, and other causes, produced a state of affairs equally threatening in the Rogue River country.
    I determined at the close of the rainy season to visit the scene of these disturbances and also if the condition of affairs permitted carry out my plans of exploration, which I have heretofore commenced.
    Accordingly about the first of April I set out with a small party, and a few pack animals, conveying besides the necessary equipage of the expedition some farming utensils and supplies for the tribes treated with in September last, and a few presents for other Indians. I had before leaving home purchased and shipped a considerable quantity of Indian goods to Port Orford to await my arrival at that point.
    On my route I visited several bands of the Umpquas. I found many of them wretched, sickly, and almost starving; their habits being exceedingly improvident, and the winter unusually severe, they had been kept from perishing by the limited assistance afforded by a few humane settlers.
    Through the operation of the law lately enacted, prohibiting the sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians, they can no longer procure game, rendered scarce and timid by the presence of the white man; and the cultivation of the soil, together with the grazing of large herds of domestic animals has greatly diminished the subsistence derived from native roots and seeds.
    They said, truly, that they were once numerous and powerful, but now few and weak; that they had always been friendly to the whites, and desired them to occupy their lands; that they wanted but a small spot on which they might live in quiet. Many of their number, they said, had been killed by the whites, in retaliation for wrongs committed by other tribes, and that they had offered no violence in return. They claim that it is but just that in exchange for lands once yielding them abundant supplies, they should receive the means of subsistence for the few years they will exist.
    A few presents were made them, and sub-agent Martin instructed to secure them small tracts of land, on which I learn they are now cultivating potatoes, corn, peas and other vegetables, giving promise that under the wise and fostering care of government they may become a domestic and agricultural people.
    The country of the Umpquas is bounded east by the Cascade Mountains, west by the Umpqua Mountains and coast, the Calapooia Mountains on the north, and south by Grave Creek and Rogue River--an area of not less than 3600 square miles, much of which is already settled by the whites. The Indian title is extinguished to eight hundred square miles by the treaty with the Cow Creek band.
    Near the Grave Creek Hills resides the feeble remnant of several bands, once numerous and warlike. Their constant aggressions and treacherous conduct has brought upon them the heavy hand of vengeance, both of the whites and Indians.
    They speak the Umpqua language, and, though so different in character may be regarded as belonging to that tribe. I declined making them any presents, and told them to expect nothing until they should merit it by their good conduct.
    I found the Indians of the Rogue River Valley excited and unsettled. The hostilities of last summer had prevented the storing of the usual quantities of food; the occupation of their best root grounds by the whites greatly abridged that source of subsistence; their scanty supplies and the unusual severity of the winter had induced disease, and death had swept away nearly one-fifth of those residing on the reserve. Consternation and dismay prevailed--many had fled, and others were preparing to fly to the mountains for security.
    Tipsey, the chief of the party visited by General Lane at the close of the war, who, with the consent of the Rogue Rivers had agreed to remove his band to the reserve, and had accordingly received a part of the goods distributed in pursuance of the treaty, now refused peremptorily to come in, and his people showed their hostility and malignant temper by the murder of an inoffensive settler, taking his arms and ammunition, and laying his body with that of his dog at his own door. The principal actor in this tragedy was Tipsey's son, who boasted of the deed to other Indians, and declared his determination to continue his atrocities, having already with his party stolen a number of horses, destroyed cattle and robbed houses.
    An ingenious plan was laid to combine the Indians in a hostile movement. This was to secretly kill Jim, a Rogue River chief, who had been very active in discovering and arresting Indians committing depredations on the whites, and controlled much the largest band in the tribe, and to fix the suspicion of his death on the whites, which would entirely destroy the confidence of the Indians in our professions, and unite them in seeking revenge.
    The plan was carried out so far as the murder of the chief. He was shot from a house in Jacksonville occupied by whites who were then from home. The perpetrator, a young Indian, instantly fled, but fortunately was seen leaving the house by the friends of the chief. Thus the perfidious scheme was frustrated. Such have been the efforts on the part of the unfriendly Indians to break the late treaty and plunge us back into war; and it is feared that white persons have not been wanting who, from revengeful or mercenary motives, have attempted to effect the same object.
    Prior to my arrival, Agent Culver, accompanied by Captain Smith with a command of thirty soldiers, had scoured the country occupied by the bands of Limpy, John, Elijah and Tipsey, and succeeded in inducing Elijah's band to start for the reserve, but near Jacksonville they nearly all dispersed and fled to the mountains. A few families remained with the chief among the miners.
    I proceeded with Mr. Culver to Elijah's camp, and after a talk messengers were dispatched to collect the fugitives and the families present put on their march to the reserve, where a few days afterwards the chief was joined by his entire band.
    Lieutenant Bradford with forty dragoons was sent in pursuit of Tipsey, to bring him and his murderous band, if possible, to justice. I accompanied the command for five days without success, when, called by other duties, I returned to Fort Lane, leaving the detachment still in pursuit.
    I may here say that Tipsey, after repeated acts of robbery and the murder of a white man on the Siskiyou Mountain, was, it is said, slain, together with his son, by the Shasta Indians, and his bands dispersed, some of whom are probably yet prowling among the mountains.
    I next visited the Etch-kah-tau-nah, or Applegate Creek, and the Haw-quo-e-huo-tooks, or Illinois Creek bands, usually called the Shasta band of Rogue Rivers. At the time of my arrival, great consternation prevailed from intelligence that the miners from Althouse and Sailor Diggins were about to come down and wipe them out. The bloody attack upon them last winter, in which seven squaws and two children were killed, and several men and children wounded, gave them but too much cause to be alarmed by this report. They consequently fled from their camps to the mountains.
    Some boys of this band, residing with a gentleman named Moony on Deer Creek, were dispatched with him to the Indians with a request to meet me in council. On the second day after, I had the satisfaction of seeing them generally come in, and arrangements made for their immediate removal to the reserve, the consent of the Rogue Rivers being previously obtained. The details of a treaty were left for subsequent action. The same day, under the escort of Mr. Moony, they were on their way to the reserve.
    A portion of the country claimed by the Applegate band was included in the treaty of purchase in September last, at Table Rock, but a considerable tract lay west of the country ceded, and John, the patriarch of this band, who came in after the signing of the treaty and received a portion of the goods, had returned to this branch of his family.
    For reasons set forth in Agent Culver's report, these Indians have since been permitted to return to their old homes, where they still remain.
    With the exception of a few lodges near the mouth of Illinois Creek, and Limpy's and George's bands near the mouth of Applegate Creek, these bands have the controlling influence over all the Indians between Rogue River on the north, the territorial boundary south, the Coast Mountains west, and Applegate Creek east.
    I continued my route up Illinois Creek to its head, across the divide to Smith's River in California, down Smith's River to within ten or twelve miles of Crescent City, thence S.W. to the coast, thence on the coast to our southern boundary, recrossing Smith's River fifteen miles north of Crescent City.
    On Illinois Creek and its tributaries there is considerable good farming land, and a few claims are already taken. From this creek to Smith's River, the country is mountainous and barren, with a growth of scrubby pine and spruce, and a variety of underbrush, and wholly unsuited to agriculture. But the entire country from Jacksonville to the coast is a mining region, sown with gold, and as such is now extensively occupied. On the trail, being the great thoroughfare from Jacksonville to Crescent City, there are houses at convenient distances for the accommodation of travelers. Near the coast and along Smith's River are tracts of excellent land, much of it covered with a dense forest of redwood. Some trees are over twenty feet in diameter. There are a few prairies of great fertility and abounding in various kinds of luxuriant grass. About three miles north of our boundary line a stream empties into the ocean, designated on the map of the coast survey as Illinois River, the Indian name Chetco.
    Here are many indications of having once resided a numerous people. In the fall of 1853, one Miller and several associates located land claims in this vicinity. They first built their houses about a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the river, to which the Indians made no objections. Subsequently, knowing that the newly discovered mines would attract a large population, they projected a town speculation, formed an association, and selected a site at the mouth of Chetco River. The face of the country is such that the crossing must be at the mouth of the river by a ferry. Here were two Indian villages on the opposite banks of the river, of twenty lodges each. This ferry was of no small importance. The new town site included one of the villages, and when preparations were made to erect a house within its limits, the Indians strongly protested; but at last acquiescing, the cabin was built and occupied by Miller.
    Hitherto the Indians had enjoyed the benefits of the ferry, but now Miller informed them that they must no longer ferry white people [sic--the Indians must stop competing with Miller's ferry]. They, however, sometimes did so, and were threatened with the destruction of their lodges unless they desisted.
    In February last, the misunderstanding grew to such a pitch, that several of the men who had been engaged in fighting Indians on Smith's River were called in by Miller and quartered in his house for nearly two weeks. Becoming unwilling to tarry longer, they were about to return to their homes. Miller objected to their leaving him till they had accomplished something for his relief, as on their departure he would be subject to the same annoyance as before. Accordingly, the next morning at daylight the party, consisting of eight or nine men, well armed, attacked the village, and as the Indians came from their lodges they were shot dead by these monsters. The women and children were permitted to escape.
    Three men remained in the lodges and returned the fire with bows and arrows. Being unable to get a sight at these Indians, they ordered two squaws, pets in the family of Miller, to set fire to their lodges.
    Two were consumed in the conflagration, and the third, while raising his head through the flames and smoke for breath, was shot dead. What adds to the atrocity of the deed is that shortly before the massacre the Indians were induced to sell the whites their guns, under the pretext that friendly relations were firmly established. The Indians kept up a random fire from the opposite village without effect during the day and at night fled to the mountains. The next day all the lodges on the north bank were burned, and the day following, all on the south, two excepted, belonging to the friends of an Indian who acted with Miller and his party. This horrid tragedy was enacted about the 15th of February, and on my arrival on the 8th of May the place was in the peaceable possession of Miller. Seeing a few Indians on an island in the river, I took a boat and proceeded to that point, with a view of holding a talk. All, except an old woman and a small boy, fled on my approach. With these we could only converse by signs. I gave them some presents, and sent the boy to persuade the Indians to return. Another boy alone accompanied him back.
    I gave each a shirt, and sent them again, but no others could be induced to approach us. I left with a settler who could converse with them a few shirts, and some tobacco for the chiefs, and directed him to tell them that I would soon send an agent .to see them.
    After the massacre, the Indians several times approached the settlement, robbed houses, and once attacked a party of three men, but succeeded in killing none. Twenty-three Indians and several squaws were killed prior to my arrival.
    Miller was subsequently arrested and placed in the custody of the military at Port Orford; but on his examination before a justice of the peace was set at large on the ground of justification and want of sufficient evidence to commit.
    The details of a similar occurrence at Coquille have been laid before you in a copy of the report of Special Agent F. M. Smith, of the circumstantial truthfulness of which I am fully satisfied.
    These narratives will give you some idea of the state of affairs in the mining districts on this coast. Arrests are evidently useless, as no act of a white man against an Indian, however atrocious, can be followed by a conviction.
    A detailed statement of Indian affairs in the Port Orford district will be found in the accompanying report of Agent Parrish. He enumerates twelve distinct bands with an aggregate population of one thousand three hundred and eleven souls, and includes them all in. the Tututni tribe. These bands, however, speak at least four distinct languages, and but few in each band can converse with members of another. Those grouped as one band often reside in several villages. These bands are scattered over a great extent of country, along the coast and upon the small streams from California to twenty miles north of the Coquille, and from the ocean to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains. I visited several bands in person and directed Mr. Taylor to accompany and assist the agent in ascertaining the numbers of the remainder. Excepting the Chetcos and Coquilles, I found these Indians at peace with the whites and among themselves. They are willing the whites should occupy their lands, provided they are permitted to retain their fisheries, from which they mainly derive their subsistence.
    The chiefs wish their people to be instructed in agriculture, and a few have this season planted patches of potatoes. Tobacco has long been cultivated by the bands on Rogue River. It is well attended, grows luxuriantly, and is of a fine quality.
    These Indians are an athletic and robust race. The women perform much of the manual labor. Since the coming of the whites, many of the men have entered their employ, and prove faithful and industrious. Chastity was formerly a marked trait of this tribe, and its violation on the part of the female was punished by cutting off the ears, putting out the eyes, and even death. Sad changes have however taken place in this regard, and many . serious difficulties have had their origin in the licentious conduct of the miners.
    The country along the coast from Umpqua River to the Na-ches-na River, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, is occupied by five bands of the Tillamook tribe. They reside near the principal streams, and all speak the same language. They are peaceable, healthy and well clad, assimilating to the whites in dress, obtained from other Indians and in their occasional visits to the settlements.
    The Siuslaw band, instructed by a Frenchman residing among them, have commenced the cultivation of the soil, and have several well-tended patches of potatoes. Polygamy is common among them, one chief having eight and another six wives. Their wives are usually purchased from other bands, and often reside in several distant villages. A few presents to this people gave them much satisfaction.
    These bands, with proper care, would soon become an industrious and happy community.
    Of the streams on this part of the coast the Ya-quo-nah is the only one that appears accessible from the ocean, and this under the most favorable conditions of wind and tide. All the streams spread out near their mouth into considerable bays. Small steamers might ascend the Yaquonah and Siuslaw for twenty-five or thirty miles, the Alsea eighteen or twenty miles, to the head of tidewater.
    The Siuslaw rises in a spur of the Cascade Range connected with the Calapooia Mountains, and breaking through the [Coast] Range reaches the ocean. The source of the Yaquonah is near Mary's Peak, and I think the course of this river affords the best communication between the southern part of the Willamette Valley and the coast. On the headwaters of the Alsea and Siletz are several small fertile prairies, embosomed in the mountains, where a few white settlers have already erected their cabins.
    I have in a former communication spoken of a part of the region occupied by these bands as well suited for the colonization of the Indians found west of the Cascade Range, including the Umpquas. But since my visit I am less favorably impressed. Except a few narrow margins on the coast, bays and streams, and some small islands, the entire country is a dense forest. Within a few years much of the timber has been destroyed by fire, and an almost impenetrable undergrowth has arisen in its stead. The valleys are narrow and, hemmed in by precipitous spurs of the Coast Range, render communication between them extremely difficult. Much of the upland is sufficiently even to admit of cultivation and has a fertile soil, but the skill, enterprise and wealth of advanced civilization alone could develop its resources.
    To a sparse, roaming, savage population, no portion of Oregon yields a greater abundance and variety of spontaneous products for their sustenance.
    The rocks arising from the ocean along the coast are deeply encased with mussels; several species of clams abound on the beach, and crabs in the bays, while salmon, herrings, sardines and other fish, in perpetual succession, visit the streams. The mountains yield a profusion of berries, and the lowlands, in the proper season, swarm with wildfowl.
    Between the Siuslaw and Neachesna [is] a country large enough to settle all the Indians in the Willamette and Umpqua valleys and on the coast, but they would be required to live in small detached communities, in scarcely accessible valleys, and a great number of farmers, mechanics, teachers and agents would be required for their proper instruction and control.
    The transfer of Mr. Parrish to the Port Orford district leaves the Willamette Valley without an agent, and the care of the district has fallen directly on this office. My explorations in other portions of the Territory prevented my visiting all the bands within its limits, but their condition has changed but little since last report.
    A treaty of purchase negotiated with the Tualatin band of Calapooias on the 25th of March last has been transmitted, accompanied by a letter explaining the causes which led to such action.
    Aided by the articles supplied in pursuance of this treaty, this band put in crops, which compared favorably with those of their white neighbors; but unfortunately, owing to insufficient fencing, during their absence gathering berries the hogs broke in and destroyed a large part. Among other resulting benefits I might mention that these Indians have ceased in a great measure their rambling over the country; bickerings between them and the whites seldom occur, and amicable relations generally exist.
    The liberal provisions of this treaty have contributed much to incline the other tribes of this valley to enter into similar negotiations, and little difficulty will attend treaties of purchase whenever authorized.
    For the condition of the Indians in the sub-agency of Astoria, you are referred to the two accompanying reports of sub-agent Raymond.
    The desire of the few Indians on Clatsop Plains to remove farther south, and the fact that the great body of the Indians under his care reside on Ne-ha-lem River and about Tillamook Bay, have led me to permit the sub-agent to remove to the latter point, and to extend his district farther down the coast. 
    The report of agent R. R. Thompson, enclosing that of the Catholic mission at the Dalles of the Columbia, is so minute and full as to render additional remarks necessary.
    A map prepared by Major Haller, U.S. [army], shows the location and extent of country occupied by the various tribes of this district.
    I fully concur in the suggestions of Mr. Thompson in regard to the importance of increasing the present military force in Middle Oregon by a body of dragoons, so stationed as to move with celerity upon any point threatened with hostilities. To this end I would respectfully recommend that a military post be established as far east as Boise River. The security it would afford travelers passing through that region; its proximity to the numerous bands inhabiting the country along Lewis' Fork, or Snake River, and its tributaries; its being near the forks of the road diverging into northern and Middle Oregon; and the probability of a third road on the north side of Snake River, passing through the valley of Salmon River, into the Nez Perces' country and Washington Territory, render this, in a military point of view, an important position.
    Extensive meadows on Boise River would afford abundant supplies of grass and hay for whatever amount of stock might be brought into requisition, and it is believed that the soil, besides producing the usual varieties of cereal grains, is well adapted to the growth of vegetables usual in the northern States.
    Cavalry alone can be efficiently used in the required service. The expense of this class of troops, at so remote a point, will be great, but this certainly will not be regarded as a serious objection, when it affords the only means of securing the lives and property of our citizens from the violence and cupidity of the ruthless savage.
    So long as these Indians remain occupants of that district unrestrained by its military arm, we may expect robbery and bloodshed, as they increase yearly in skill and boldness, and are more abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition by imprudent emigrants and reckless traders.
    Should it nevertheless be considered inadvisable to establish a permanent post so far in the interior, it would appear absolutely necessary to detail a company of mounted men each year to scour the country between Grande Ronde and Fort Hall during the transit of the immigration.
    Official information has been received that an emigrant train has been cut off this season by these savages; eight men have been murdered, and four women and a number of children taken captive, to endure sufferings and linger out an existence more terrible than death. Of this party a lad, wounded and left for dead by the Indians, alone survives; other trains may meet a similar fate, and none left to tell the tale.
    East of the Cascade Mountains, and south of the 44th parallel, is a country not attached particularly to any agency.
    That portion at the eastern base of this range, extending twenty-five or thirty miles east, and south to the California line, is the country of the Klamath Indians. East of this tribe, along our southern boundary, and extending some distance into California, is a tribe known as the Modoc. They speak the same language as the Klamaths. East of these again, but extending further south, are the Mo-e-twas.
    These two last named tribes have always evinced a deadly hostility to the whites and have probably committed more outrages than any other tribe of the interior. The Modocs boast, the Klamaths told me, of having within the last four years murdered thirty-six whites.
    East of these tribes and extending to our eastern limits are the Sho-sho-nes, Snakes or Diggers. Little is known of their numbers or history.
    They are cowardly, but often attack weaker parties, and never fail to avail themselves of a favorable opportunity for plunder. Their country is a desert, with an occasional spot of verdure on the margins of lakes or in deep ravines or chasms.
    Dry sandy plains of artemisia, lofty, rugged, barren mountains, and chasms of fearful depth, threaded by rivers, are the prominent features of this region.
    Though uninviting and unsuited for the abode of man or animal, the romance and novelty may allure some western adventurer to fix his domicile in these wastes, and afford shelter and protection to the weary wayfarer to these western shores.
    On a recent visit to Klamath Lake I assembled a considerable portion of the Klamaths, and entered into a conventional arrangement or treaty of peace, which I believe them inclined to observe. Every manifestation was given by them that such was their desire. Messengers were sent to the Modocs, Mo-e-twas, and to the Snakes bordering these tribes, and I confidently believe little trouble will this year be given the emigration in that quarter.
    The Klamaths were once numerous, but wars with the surrounding tribes, and conflicts among themselves, have rendered them weak. They new number four hundred and fifteen souls. Seven villages are around Klamath Lake, two on a stream called Pli-ack Creek, east of the lake, three on Toqua Lake, and one on Co-as-ta Lake. Their lodges are generally mere temporary structures, scarcely sheltering them from the pelting storm. Some of them have visited the settlements and obtained tents, camp equipage, and clothing. They possess a few horses, and among them I saw four guns, but they had no ammunition, the bow and arrow, the knife and war club constitute their weapons.
    In one of their lodges I noticed an elk skin shield, so constructed as to be impervious to the sharpest arrow.
    Their principal food is the camas root and the seed obtained from a plant growing in the marshes of the lake, resembling before hulled a broom corn seed. This seed is encased in a pod of the shape and size of the bell pepper. It is gathered in great quantities.
    Klamath Lake or marsh affords no fish, but Toqua Lake, and the stream draining Klamath below the falls, fifteen miles distant, abounds in suckers of a fine quality. A few antelope are found on the plains and mountains around.
    Yellow and sugar pine with spruce constitutes the principal varieties of timber--the two former sometimes of immense size. On the elevated table lands skirting the base of the Cascade Range, extending south from the Ta-ih more than a hundred miles, the juniper, yielding vast quantities of berries, abounds.
    Klamath Lake has been represented as the source of Des Chutes or Fall River, and also of a stream flowing south into the Bay of San Francisco. None of the waters flow north. A high timbered plain of more than twenty miles in width, strewn with pumice stone, extending from the Cascade Mountains eastwardly a great distance, intervenes between this lake or marsh and the Des Chutes. The last-named river has its source in the mountains twenty or thirty miles northwest of Klamath Lake.
    The waters of this lake from its outlet have a southerly course for about twenty-five miles, where they expand into Toqua Lake, a large sheet of water bordered by beautiful meadows and having an arm extending some miles to the northwest called Lake Co-as-ta.
    Leaving Toqua Lake the course of the river is east of south twenty or twenty-five miles, into a lake called by the Indians An-coose. This lake, margined by extensive tule marshes, lies east of the course of the stream known thence as the Klamath River. Its course is first northwesterly, then west through the Shasta country to the ocean.
    It is thought the forty-second parallel of latitude lies between Toqua and An-coose lakes.
    The stream on which is the natural bridge, improperly so called, being a large rock rising in the deep channel and forming a ford, over which the southern Oregon road passes, heads east of Toqua Lake, is called by the Indians Tah-a-licks. It empties into the Modoc, o, as called by the whites Tule Lake, which, like many others in this region, has no visible outlet. From the natural bridge the road passes around the southern end of An-coose Lake, where it forks, the one road leading northerly across Klamath River, over the mountains, to the settlements near the head of Bear or Stuart's Creek in the Rogue River Valley, the other to Y-re-ka, in California.
    The country around An-coose and Modoc lakes is claimed and occupied by the Modoc Indians, the Klamaths seldom traveling so far south.
    A partial examination of the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes and their tributaries, has impressed me favorably with the region as suited to the colonization of the Indians of the Willamette and Umpqua valleys. The only obstacles to be apprehended are the severity of the winters and the depth of the snows, resulting from its elevation.
    These may not prove serious. No white man has, I believe, wintered there, but the frail, open huts in which the natives reside indicate a favorable climate.
    An abundance of nutritious grasses border these lakes and streams, a few specimens of which have been sent to your office. The soil is rich and appears suited to the growth of the cereals and the usual productions of the garden. These fertile plots probably embrace an area of one hundred and fifty square miles, being ample to sustain, besides the native bands, the entire Indian population of these two valleys. Isolated and remote from other tracts adapted to settlement, this region seems peculiarly marked out as the asylum of these remnants of the aborigines. On the north and east, and on the south, a few fertile spots excepted, lies a vast barren waste. On the west rises a lofty range of mountains, often towering above the line of perpetual snow, only to be traversed in the summer months, and then with great danger and toil.
    All necessary supplies could, at the proper season, be transported from the Willamette Valley over the mountains, by the middle road, to the crossing of the Des Chutes, whence a good wagon road may be easily opened to Klamath Lake, distant about forty miles.
    The Indians of the two valleys have heretofore generally expressed a decided opposition to removing east of the Cascade Mountains, but I am persuaded their consent can now be easily obtained, should such become the policy of the government, and proper guarantees of sustenance and protection be given. 
    The district recommended is not so remote as to prevent their occasional visits to the settlements--a privation which, having become accustomed to mingle with the whites, they would regard as a great calamity.
    In my first annual report I recommended the appointment of three agents and four sub-agents. I am deeply impressed with the necessity for at least this number in order properly to occupy the field of duty.
    One of the sub-agents should as heretofore have charge of the Indians in the Willamette Valley and those on the southern bank of the Columbia from the Cascade Falls to Oak Point; the other three should be stationed at eligible points on the coast. Our Pacific border is not less than three hundred and fifty miles in extent. With occasional intervals of not more than twenty miles in a place the whole is occupied by Indians
    The whites are also established at several points along this coast, engaged in mining, commerce and agriculture, and between them and the natives difficulties often arise requiring the prompt intervention of an agent.
    The ruggedness of the country and distance to he traveled render a less number on the coast wholly inadequate to efficient action.
    The Umpqua Valley should be reannexed to the agency of Rogue River; the country east of the Cascade Range erected into two agency districts, divided by the 44th parallel of latitude. The extent of the territory, the hostile character of the Indians, and the fact that three routes of emigration to our shores traverse almost the entire distance from east to west, render the establishment of two agencies in that part of Oregon, in my opinion, very important. The agent for the southeastern district should for the present reside in the vicinity of Klamath Lake.
    Should the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes be designated as an Indian settlement, the establishment for a few years of an efficient force of mounted men, within a convenient distance to afford security to the agent and other employees, as well as those passing through the country, and to enforce obedience to the laws and regulations of the government, would be indispensable. But should a military post be established on Boise River, as suggested, and an adequate force stationed at Fort Lane, small parties of soldiers traversing the country between these points during the summer months, diverging occasionally to the right and left of the road, would, it is believed, be sufficient to secure safety and order.
    Treaties for the purchase of the country of the more numerous and warlike tribes of this Territory, and the removal and concentration of all at suitable and convenient points, where the agents of the government can watch over, instruct and protect them, and thus convince them of our humane institutions, can alone secure peace while they exist, or elevate them in the social scale above their present savage state.
    When thus collected and colonized, Congress should enact a wise and equitable, yet stringent code of laws for their government, at first to be wholly administered by citizens of the United States. But as the Indians advance in civilization and intelligence, let the administration of the laws pass into their own hands, and so also the other powers of government, until they should at last be vested with power to enact and administer all their local and municipal regulations.
    Such a code as I have recommended, superseding chieftain rule, their tribal distinctions, and savage customs, will alone be of permanent advantage and restrain them from petty thefts, plunder and violence, deeds which their savage minds regard as tending to ennoble rather than degrade.
    I have been unable to prepare an entirely accurate enumeration of all the tribes and bands in this Superintendency, but the accompanying table is believed to approximate very nearly the actual number of Indians in this Territory. I also transmit a table showing the size and other characteristics of Indians with remarks taken by Mr. Cris Taylor in the Port Orford district, also a list of many words in the language of the Rogue River tribe.
    A map showing the boundaries of the several districts and the location of the tribes and bands, is in progress of preparation, and will be transmitted to you at an early day.
    The whole amount of receipts for current expenses in this Superintendency within the year ending June 30, 1854, is $28,230.77.
    The disbursements from June 23, 1853, to June 30th 1854  is 34,014.22⅓.
    Leaving an excess of disbursements over receipts of 5,783.45⅓.
    The amount of liabilities in this Superintendency for salaries, presents, traveling and incidental expenses, up to the 30th of June last, will exceed eight thousand dollars over and above the claims referred to in a letter from this office dated July 25th 1854.
    The following estimates are submitted for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1856.
Salary of Superintendent and three agents $7,000.00
Salary of four sub-agents & ten interpreters 8,000.00
Clerk hire, house and office rent, lights and stationery of Superintendent and office rent for agents and sub-agents 4,000.00
Contingent and incidental expenses 4,000.00
Presents and provisions for Indians 3,000.00
For building two agents' houses and offices, the one in Rogue River district and the other in the southeastern district (proposed) 3,000.00
Traveling expenses of Superintendent and agents 6,500.00
Payment of annuities to Rogue River and Cow Creek bands 3,050.00
Farm house and other buildings on Table Rock Reserve 2,000.00
Pay of farmers on Table Rock Reserve 1,000.00
For erection of smith shop, purchase of iron and tools for same and pay of smith 1,050.00
$43,600.00
    In reference to the Superintendency house at Milwaukie, I would reiterate the language of my letter of the 27th of May 1853.
    "The present building, in construction and style of finish, is fitted only for a private residence, and possesses none of the conveniences suitable for an office. This house is so constructed as to require, in order to furnish it suitably, an outlay of means unwarranted by the limited salary of the Superintendent.
    "I feel quite confident that a location more central and much more convenient for the Superintendent, agents, and Indians who may visit the Superintendency, can be made, and that the necessary buildings--dwelling-house, office, warehouse and other conveniences--can be erected at a less cost than that incurred in the erection of this house alone."
    I would therefore recommend the sale of said building, and the lot of four acres of land whereon it is erected, and the application of the proceeds to the erection of suitable buildings for the use of the Superintendency, at some point hereafter to be selected.
Respectfully submitted
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Hon. Geo W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 40-54.  Compare with the early draft here.



Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 12th 1854
Dear Sir
    Circumstances have recently transpired rendering it necessary to call Mr. Culver from his post in the Rogue River Indian Agency District.
    I have therefore deemed it proper to ask that you will accept the office of special agent for the Indians in that district till my arrival, which will be in about two weeks from this date.
    I may find it necessary to designate you as the agent for those tribes and recommend your appointment by the President. Of this however I cannot say till I confer with you and understand fully the necessity for an additional agent. Should you feel willing to accept the temporary appointment till my arrival you will call on Mr. Culver for such papers of instructions and other documents belonging to the office as may not be needed in the settlement of his accounts, together with all property belonging to the government now in his hands, receipting to him therefor as special agent, which property and effects you will take charge of for the uses for which it has been designed.
    You will then proceed to visit the Indians on the Reserve and give them to understand that you have been appointed by me as their agent for a time and endeavor if possible to keep them quiet. You will then visit all the Indians contiguous to the Reserve to the end that peace may be maintained. I have purchased a few horses for this people and shall send them out soon, and as soon as funds arrive shall forward them other articles. The enclosed order present [to] Mr. Culver. I will write more fully by the next mail.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
John F. Miller Esqr.
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 23-24.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 416-417.



Office Superintendent of Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 12th 1854
Sir,   
    The enclosed copy of a letter to S. H. Culver Esq., agent for the Indians in Rogue River Valley, explains the causes in part which have led to the suspension of his official functions, a measure regarded as absolutely necessary to ensure the faithful performance of duty, as well as preserve peace with the Indians of that district.
    My knowledge of Mr. Huddleston, from whom my information has been obtained, is such as to justify me, I am persuaded, in presuming it to be correct, and although there may be extenuating circumstances rendering a part of his acts less objectionable than appears on the first view, yet I have deemed the information in the case so authenticated as to call for immediate action without waiting to carry on a tedious and useless correspondence with Mr. Culver.
    In general I have heretofore found but little to complain of in the official conduct of Mr. Culver, but too often have persons appointed to office on this coast appeared to regard their place as a sinecure and official duties as of a secondary importance, to yield precedence when brought in conflict with private or personal interests.
    I desire not to attach an unwarranted degree of culpability in this case, but it appears so contrary to sound policy and fair dealing as to require from me a decided and exemplary expression of disapprobation.
    Probably Mr. Culver contemplated using the 20 tons of hay delivered at Fort Lane in feeding the horses belonging to the Agency and the ox team of the Indians, and if so used by the agent they were entitled to remuneration therefor.
    The men who by the orders of the agent cut and put up the hay were employed to work on the Reserve for the benefit of the Indians, and as the vouchers in this office transmitted by Mr. Culver show, their time is accounted for as spent in laboring on the Table Rock farm, while in fact they were from the 10th to the 20th of June engaged in cutting and curing this hay, and afterwards in hauling it to Fort Lane, for which last service no account is yet received.
    Of the 100 tons cut by Bruce, 50 were sold at $33 per ton, and the remaining fifty tons if permitted to be removed would probably command the same price, making the sum of $3,300. $12 per ton would amply pay for cutting and delivery, which deducted leaves a clear profit of $2000. Add to this the net value of the 20 tons taken by the agent as estimated $420 and we have an aggregate of $2270 clear profits, deducting the $250 originally invested by the agent for the privilege of cutting the grass $2270 filched from the Indians and pocketed by those engaged in the speculation. Had this operation been prudently and honestly managed for the benefit of the Indians on the Reserve, much would have been accomplished to ameliorate their condition and reconcile them to their new mode of living to confirm their confidence in the good intentions of the government and rendered negatory the efforts of surrounding tribes opposed to the treaty to alienate their friendship and draw them into a hostile coalition against the whites.
    The small amount advanced on their annuity added to what might have been realized for the hay would have made the improvement of their condition so apparent as to fully convince them that it was [in] their interest to be our friends, be guided by our counsel and follow our example.
    Another reason for suspecting the correctness and fidelity of this agent is his loose manner of discharging his duties while in charge of the district of Port Orford, which has but lately come to my knowledge. It appears that while sub-agent at Port Orford, he had a gold claim at or near that point, on which he and his interpreter--an Indian--were much of their time employed, Mr. Culver receiving the profits of their joint labor, both at the same time drawing salaries from the United States. The Indian moreover complains that he has never received his salary from Culver as interpreter, though the latter has from time to time sent up the vouchers properly signed and witnessed, on which he has drawn the full amount. Chilliman the interpreter, when asked why he made his mark if not paid, states that Culver desired him to do so "that the great chief might see his signature." The witnesses when interrogated declared that they witnessed his signing at the request of Culver, and in the presence of Chilliman, he declaring it to be his remark, but they saw no money paid, nor do they know whether he received it or not. Chilliman alleges that all he has received of Culver was in consideration for his services in mining and nothing for interpreting.
    It is evident that this officer greatly neglected the duties for which he had been designated, as there were several bands and tribes of Indians in his district, and at no great distance, not visited by him, and in estimating the numbers of the several bands he did it at random instead of examining for himself as is evident from his exaggerated statement of the existence of five thousand souls where an accurate enumeration finds less than fourteen hundred.
    I have visited several of these bands in person this season, and all others have been visited by persons specifically instructed to make a careful enumeration, and I therefore speak advisedly.
    It is however due to Mr. Culver to say that he alleges the overpayment of Chilliman thirty or forty dollars. These statements being contradictory, I am as yet unable to determine between them.
    Should the reasons assigned for suspending Mr. Culver's official functions be deemed by you sufficient to justify his removal from office, it is important that another be immediately appointed to succeed him. I am however not yet prepared to recommend anyone for that post, as it is important that the appointee should actually reside on the Table Rock Reserve, and devote his whole time to the business connected with that office. A special agent will be appointed to duty there, of which you will be immediately informed, so soon as one can be found suitable for the station. I am now engaged preparing my annual report, and after its completion I will at once proceed to that district and if possible arrest the calamity of another Indian war.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 6-8.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 677-680.



Port Orford
    Sept. 17th 1854
Dear Sir
    Having heard nothing from you since I left Dayton, although I should have written sooner myself, but had neglected until now, I did not see Mr. Parrish on his return. As I understand he sent by way of Scottsburg and I came by, or down Coquille, but I think it would be better for him to return soon, as there is likely to be difficulty again with the Chetco Indians; so I have learned from both whites and Indians. Both parties say that there has been three Indians killed. They say some of the Illinois or Deer Creek Indians had come down on the coast and joined the Chetcos. The Indians also say that there is some of them in their country.
    I see one of the chiefs from Chetco, their head chief having been killed, they came right to me wishing me to advise them what course to pursue. The only advice I could give them was to keep out of the way of the whites and not fight them. As they said, they had been governed entirely by what I had before told them, which was to take to the mountains when the whites commenced killing them. The Indians' story runs thus: Some five or six of them went into the house of a settler where there was some three or four men drinking or drunk. The Indians, being unarmed and not suspecting danger, entered the house and the men drew their revolvers and the scene commenced. The Indians fled, leaving three of their number, and ask me what they should do, and all I can say to them is to keep out of the way.
    Such is the yarn the Indians tell, yet it may not be as they state it. From what I have learned from the whites, they say the Indians threatened to kill some of the settlers. I will learn the particulars and inform you. I took the responsibility of advising in the matter and shall probably start in the morning myself on my own responsibility, as I have seen Lieut. Kautz and he cannot attend to the matter on account of business and also considered it foreign from his duty, when he had duty of his own to perform. I shall do nothing more than investigate the matter as lightly as I can and keep all parties concerned at peace until the arrival of a higher power, but if [I] see there is likely to be difficulty and it is in my power to prevent it I shall merely watch the matter, and if it needs attention, act, and shall always and with discretion and do all in my power to keep peace at all times. Such is the only principle which I shall act upon and hope it will meet your approbation. With this exception there is at present peace throughout the district.
    I expect an answer soon, and will then inform you what I do if anything.
My respects to all
    Yours truly
        Ben Wright
Genl. Joel Palmer
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 70-71.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1046-1047.



Oregon City O.T.
    Sept. 21st, 1854--
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Sir,--
            By information received yesterday I learned that Mr. Saml. H. Culver, Indian agent for and now in the Rogue River country, O.T., has been by an order issuing from Superintendent Palmer suspended from duty and charges preferred against him for misconduct in office. The object of this is to ask you to take no immediate action in the premises, for I feel entire confidence that no wrong whatever has been done by Mr. Culver, and that this will be abundantly manifest to all as soon as he can know that charges are preferred against him and have a few days to collect the proper facts and transmit them to you through the Superintendent.
    Mr. Culver I have known from childhood. His character, as at all times heretofore developed, has been of the most elevated and honorable kind, and while his efficiency & usefulness to the country in the office he fills has been a matter of common praise with all, his friends are mortified enough to learn that the Supt. deemed it his duty to take towards him the hasty course he has without first giving him an intimation of some kind that the propriety of his acts was questioned, and thus enable him to be heard from in explanation or answer before condemnation. And now, inasmuch as this could not be or rather was not the case, I beg that you will not deem it right to adjudge the charges until at least he can be heard after receiving notice of his suspension and the alleged causes of it. It will be impossible to hear from him immediately. His post or place where situated is more than 350 miles from that of the Supt. and fully 380 miles from this point, and the only mode of travel to him is on horseback. Gen. Palmer, the Supt., tells me that he sent him information (for the first time) of the charges on Tuesday the 12th inst., and of course no reply can be expected in return before about the 12th Oct. Hence you can see the justice of a little delay. If Mr. C.'s conduct turns out to have been culpable, or in any respect unworthy of the place he fills, neither I nor any of his friends desire to maintain him in office for a day even, but not doubting that you as well as the Supt. himself will fully approve his conduct on investigation it is not thought improper to ask thus much.
    I merely ask as his friend in his absence a little and necessary delay for the object suggested. Without this if official action is prematurely had no good end will be attained, and only prejudice follow. Grant me this favor if agreeable to you & oblige
Yours very respectfully
    O. C. Pratt
   
P.S.
    Not knowing you personally & most likely being entirely unknown to you, I beg to refer to Hon. P. G. Washington, who is near to you, or to Hon. Joseph Lane, if in Washington.
Yours &c., O. C. Pratt
   
Oregon City Oregon Territory
    Sept. 22nd 1854.
Hon. Peter G. Washington
    My Dear Sir,
        I had occasion to write yesterday to the Comr. of Ind. Affairs, and as I am an utter stranger to him I beg you to call in & simply say that you know me &c. &c. Gen. Lane will be quite likely to be absent from W. when this reaches you or I would not put you to the trouble to call to see the Commissioner. The subject of my communication to him is a certain case of alleged official misconduct about which the Superintendent has just written the Indian Bureau, for I feel entire confidence that the action of the Supt. was hasty & premature & that in a few days, as soon as the party implicated can be heard from, it will be manifest to all that he has been assailed without any justification.
    Please say to the Comr. that I write to him in the premises without other object or motive than that justice may be done to all concerned. A little delay is all that is wanted.
Truly your friend, O. C. Pratt
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 691-695.



Oregon City Oregon Territory
    Sept. 22nd 1854.
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,--
            The subject and circumstances compelling me to write this letter must furnish an apology for communicating with you at all, an utter stranger as I am.
    Gen. Palmer, Supt. Ind. Affairs for this Territory, has just informed me that he has preferred charges against, and sent an order suspending from duty, my brother Samuel H. Culver, an agent on duty in the Indian country near 400 miles south of this place. He further tells me that he has sent off a letter to you respecting it and that my brother will receive, at the same time he learns that charges are preferred, a copy of his official dispatch to you on the subject! This has greatly surprised me, as may well be supposed, for it looks much like conviction before a hearing. Then, too, he cannot be heard from for several weeks in exculpation, on account of the great distance. The mail which will carry the Superintendent's communication to you is just leaving for the States, and I feel much worried at the probable effect upon your mind which its unexplained statements may produce. Excuse me, then, for troubling you, and allow me to say that I beg [that] no precipitate action at your Department may take place in the case of my brother. Only let him be heard from is all I ask, and if he cannot at once successfully vindicate himself to the entire satisfaction of the Indian Bureau touching all his official acts, then I shall be quite content to see condemnation and disgrace follow any wrongful or injudicious conduct he may have committed. Entire confidence is entertained by all his friends down in this quarter of the country (& while numerous, they are composed of the best men
of the Territory) that no intentional wrong has been committed, and that on proper inquiry, all, including the Supt. even himself, will be compelled to admit that he has not been so much as guilty of an error of judgment--much less of intention in the matter of complaint laid before you.
    The Supt. tells me that he acted in the premises upon information derived from one Huddleston, a laborer lately employed by my brother to work on the reservation, and who has lately come down from the Indian country bringing reports to his prejudice.
    It surprises us greatly that Gen. P. could have acted thus suddenly, and upon such information, and that too coming from a source which on its face--a discharged employee of the agent accused--carries with it anything but ready credit. I am very confident Gen. Palmer, the Supt., has been imposed upon in this matter by a bad but plausible man, and has acted while doubtless from a too credulous sense of duty yet with a degree of haste and assumption of guilt or bad judgment on the part of my brother, which will not merely do injustice to a faithful officer and an honest man but eventuate in harm to the efficiency and usefulness of the Indian service in Oregon.
    A Mr. Ish just down from the neighborhood of the Indian agency in the Rogue River country, and who is a gentleman entirely worthy of credit, brings a statement of the "hay affair" as follows. He says that on the reservation there was growing this year a quantity of wild grass which it was thought by the agent would be well to make a source of revenue to the Indians, however small, rather than to let it be uncut & of no use to anybody--that he had neither hands to cut it himself nor money to hire them, and in this state of things, after securing by his own labor and that of two employees about 20 tons for the use of the government teams used at the reservation, he let to a Mr. Bruce at a public letting for $250 (to be paid for the use of the Indians) the privilege of cutting the balance of the growing grass. That $250 was the highest offer the agent could get bid for it, and although Mr. Bruce afterwards sold 50 tons for something like $30 a ton, yet the price he gave for it while growing was all it was worth or would bring in that condition at the time of the sale, that the agent was not thought or charged by any respectable person in that country with either error of judgment, much less corruption, in that or any of his acts towards the Indians, and while it was true a few evil-disposed persons had tried to excite the jealousy of the Indians by telling them the agent had done wrong in selling the grass, and thus for a few days stirred up a little feeling, yet it was at once dispelled the earliest moment it came to my brother's knowledge that such efforts were making.
    It is not pretended, I believe, that anything corrupt attended that transaction, but that it was erroneous policy to pursue by the agent. About that I know nothing except through information derived from others like Mr. Ish, who lives near the spot & can judge the premises far better than either Gen. Palmer or myself. From information thus derived I am told that as the Indians had no stock to eat it, the growing grass was only valuable to them for a few seeds growing amongst it and by them sometimes, in the absence of anything else, used for food, but that the $250 obtained for it by the agent for their use would buy more useful food than all the wild seeds of the Territory.
    I am further credibly informed that the price paid by the agent for breaking prairie, plowing, furnishing seed and the labor of planting potatoes, which is thought by the Supt. to have been too high, was in fact, on the contrary, a losing business for the contractor, and done at the lowest figure which at the time and under the circumstances (delay of many months for the pay) could be obtained. One thing is certain, my brother was neither interested in the "hay contract" or the "potato contract" or in any other connected with or growing out of the Indian service in Oregon. No one pretends that he is or has been. Then I beg to insist that it is due to private justice and to official integrity that he be no further injured or condemned in his absence without waiting for a voice in explanation or a hearing. My brother has not a dollar of public funds in his hands, not so much even as the salary due him, nor has he had since his appointment. It is conceded by all that he has worked hard and traveled almost incessantly from point to point through his extensive and dangerous district to keep down outbreaks and to preserve the peace, all of which has been successfully accomplished through untiring exertions whilst feebly sustained by troops, and without money. Now then to be disgraced and stricken down unheard, and while over 350 miles away from his accuser and wholly unapprised of the blow, mortifies me, as it must him, exceedingly!
    But I am confident now you will see that he has a chance to preserve the honor untarnished which he carried into the public service. Let him be heard. We ask no more.
Yours very respectfully
    C. P. Culver
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 342-346.




Instructions to Special Agent E. P. Drew
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Sept. 30th 1854
Sir,
    My letter of yesterday informed you of your designation as a special agent for the Indians in Oregon. You are assigned to the district of Umpqua, the boundaries of which are as follows: The coast from the mouth of the Coquille northward so far as to include the Siuslaw bands of Indians; thence eastward to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains; thence southward so as to include all the bands of Indians below the Umpqua Valley proper; thence to the headwaters of the Coquille; thence to the coast so as to include all the bands residing along the waters of Coquille.
    The tribes within this district are the Siuslaws, Lower Umpquas, Coos Bay Indians and Coquilles.
    Of these bands, the Coquilles are the only ones between which and our citizens difficulties have occurred; with these difficulties you are fully acquainted.
    Your main object will be to adopt and carry out such measures as will secure peace between our citizens and the Indians and among the Indians themselves, and I am well satisfied that a very effectual way of securing this desirable end is to visit the Indians often, manifest a desire for their welfare & settle on fair and equitable terms all disputes occurring between them and our citizens, thus teaching and encouraging them to rely with confidence on the agent to redress all the wrongs and injuries they may sustain from reckless persons, and to feel that justice will be done them without resort to retaliatory measures on their part.
    You will be equally prompt and impartial in exacting reparation for wrongs done them.
    It is not infrequent that petty and trifling difficulties, deemed unworthy of notice at first, produce irritated and revengeful feelings both in the savage and the white man, which a very little attention on the part of the agent at the proper time might have prevented. Among instances of this kind that might be cited is that which happened on Coquille, and terminated in the bloody and disgraceful tragedy to which I have already referred.
    You may not be able wholly to prevent wrongs nor to remedy injuries, but the constant exercise of a prudent vigilance and sound discretion on your part will not only greatly lessen the amount of evil, but make it apparent to the world that our honest endeavors have been exerted to promote the well-being of both races.
    It will be important that you make yourself thoroughly acquainted with the rights recognized by our government as belonging to the Indians, and with the humane policy which has so amply provided for the security of these rights, and also with the details of duty as set forth in the "laws and regulations of the Indian Bureau," a copy of which is transmitted to you. The rights of the Indians do not necessarily conflict with those of the citizen, yet intermingled as the two races now are, questions will not infrequently arise which will require your careful discrimination in order to prevent evil results and do justice to all parties.
    The policy of the government in regard to the Indians in Oregon is to extinguish their title to the country and colonize them on suitable reserves. You will therefore on all proper occasions impress the Indians with the importance and necessity of a settlement more remote from the whites where they can be protected and instructed in the arts of civilization and receive such supplies as their necessities demand. You will endeavor to obtain their full consent to remove to such points as may be determined on.
    I intend if practicable to visit your district this winter, and will enter upon the negotiation of treaties at as early a day as possible.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Edwin P. Drew Esq.
    Special Agent
        Umpqua District
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 179-181.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 713-715.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. October 2nd 1854
Sir,
    By reference to your letter of August 11th last, explaining the manner of accounting for funds transmitted and of objects to which they are to be applied. I observe that no part of the appropriation to pay for improvements of claimants on the Table Rock Reserve, for agricultural implements &c. as per 3rd article of treaty with Rogue River tribe of 10th Sept. 1853 has been remitted; the clause referred to in this article is as follows:
    "Five thousand dollars to be expended in the purchase of agricultural implements, blankets, clothing and such other goods, as may be deemed by the Superintendent or agent most conducive to the comfort and necessities of said tribe, on or before the first day of September 1854, and for the payment of such permanent improvements
as may have been made by land claimants on the aforesaid reserve, the value of which to be ascertained by three persons appointed by the said Superintendent."
    The last clause of this paragraph was so far complied with as that I appointed three persons to appraise the property at the date of the treaty; a copy of this appraisement bill with certificate is herewith transmitted. This appraisement will be revised according to your instructions by the board of commissioners now to be appointed, but it is not likely the amount will be increased. The amount of this appraisement is $1062.78, leaving a balance of $3937.22/100 to be expended in the purchase of farming implements, blankets &c.
    The suffering condition of the Indians on the reservation and the general disaffection among them demanded aid, and I accordingly purchased blankets, clothing and provisions and supplied their most pressing wants, and in the spring made provision for putting in a crop of potatoes, the expense of which, supplies and labor, is to be paid out of this fund of $5000.
    It is therefore important that this sum be remitted in order to meet these liabilities thus incurred and make additional purchases for the more successfully carrying on farming operations among them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 727-729.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 2nd 1854
Sir,
    I herewith enclose a copy of advertisement for proposals for furnishing and delivering merchandise to pay first annuities to Rogue River and Cow Creek Indians.
    The necessities of those bands, the dissatisfaction of the Rogue Rivers occasioned by various causes, and the near approach of the rainy season, when it will be very difficult and expensive, if not impracticable, to transport the goods to the Indian reserve, has led me after some hesitation to take measures for the purchase of the articles needed in anticipation of the assent of the respective bands to the Senate's amendment. Their acquiescence however will be obtained prior to the delivery of the goods. The fact that awaiting the assent of the Indians to the amendment before taking the initiatory steps to procure their supplies would probably have prevented their delivery before next spring, occasioning suffering among the Indians and endangering the peace of the country, will I trust be deemed a sufficient justification of my course.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 720-722.





Jacksonville Oregon Territory Oct. 6th 1854
Sir
    I as one of the committee at their request forward you the enclosed report that will explain itself. The letter mentioned in the report [illegible] 1854 will be forwarded by the next mail. As to the reliance that should be put in those persons whose names are attached to this report, I would respectfully refer you to Gen. Joseph Lane, the Delegate now in Congress from Oregon Territory.
Lycurgus Jackson
George W. Manypenny
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Department of the Interior
            Washington D.C.
   

Jackson County Oregon Territory
    August 31st 1854
    The undersigned, a committee of citizens owning property & some of us having families in the Rogue River Valley & having a deep interest in all affairs affecting the relations existing between the whites & the Indians, acting on the request of Mr. S. H. Culver Esq., our present Indian agent, have used the best means within our reach to ascertain the character of certain facts on which have been founded grave charges of peculation & neglect of official duty, of which he is the subject, & which form the body of your note to him bearing date Sept. 2, 1854, & to say that you have been totally misled in all the premises, is what we believe to be only the most charitable form in which our conclusions can be presented. We are satisfied that the representations by which you have been misled, & by which you have felt compelled to suspend Mr. Culver, temporarily, from the discharge of his duties, wherever they may have originated, are a tissue of falsehoods, having no color of fact to sustain them, & exhibiting a departure from truth which can only be explained on the presumption of the grossest malice on the part of those who made them.
    We have looked for information only to those who were presumed to have the best knowledge of the facts, & whose character for veracity is certainly beyond suspicion, & who to remove all doubts in the minds of persons at a distance kindly consented to make their asseverations under oath. The committee have conversed with other persons besides those who came personally before them, & whose acquaintance with the isolated facts in the chain of evidence, & the perfect corroboration furnished to the statements of those whose names appear in this examination, contribute an amount of harmonious proof that establishes beyond all doubt & all cavil the utter falsehood of all the representations made to you, & abundantly sustain the official character of Mr. Culver at every point at which it has been attacked by your informants.
    The information on which you have acted, as repeated to Mr. Culver, is on the first charge as follows--
    "That early in the season he contracted with Indians residing on Table Rock Reserve (among the number Sam) for the privilege of cutting hay, for which he was to pay them $250; That on or about the 10th of June Mr. Huddleston & his two sons, by his order, commenced mowing the hay; That they continued so cutting & putting up till about the last of June; That then the two young men commenced hauling the hay to Fort Lane & continued till about twenty or more tons were delivered at that point using for its transportation the team belonging to the tribe; That during or before the time of cutting he sold out this privilege of gathering the hay to one Bruce, reserving to himself the right of cutting as much as he might want, he, Bruce, paying him the same price that he was to have paid the Indians originally & that on this agreement Bruce employed hands & cut about 100 tons, 50 tons of which he sold & delivered at Fort Lane at $33 per ton; That after a considerable quantity had been cut the Indians forbid their cutting any more, alleging it was taking the seed on which they relied for food; That after some delay Sam agreed that if Bruce would give a mule, saddle & bridle he might go ahead; That he did so & proceeded to cut more hay; That the Indians finally seeing that the removal of the hay was taking so much of their accustomed food, again stopped them, but not till he, Culver, had removed his 20 tons & Bruce his 50 tons of hay, leaving the remaining 50 tons on the ground; That the Indians had expressed a willingness to permit the removal of the hay, provided as much flour should be given them as would compensate for seed destroyed; That representations had been made to the tribe that they had been cheated in the original contract & that consequently universal excitement existed among them."
    The information upon the second charge is
    "That a portion of the rails made by original claimants on the reserve, to pay for which provision was made in the treaty, have been hauled away & appropriated by settlers living near, & that the remaining portion lie rotting in the woods, while the crops planted this spring remain unenclosed, & that nothing has been done towards making a shelter for men employed on the reserve, or for securing goods, tools & agricultural implements designed for the use of the tribe, & that the teams, tools, &c. have been entirely removed from the reserve; That during the entire season of planting & cutting hay, the agent was not on the reserve among the hands engaged in the work to exceed four times."
    The information closes with an allusion to the "apparent indifference of the agent in regard to Lewis the interpreter, who took sick & died in the camp of these working on the reserve, he remaining some two weeks without any other shelter than that of a tree."
    Walter R. Davis, Esq., being sworn, says, in regard to these representations, that he was partner with Mr. Bruce in the matter of the hay, that they went in the first place & saw the Indians for the purpose of obtaining the privilege of cutting what they wanted up to 100 tons on the reserve, that the Indians would make no bargain, saying that Mr. Culver knew all about it, that he made all their bargains & he would do better for them than they could do for themselves, & expressing the most unbounded confidence in him. Witness then left the matter with Mr. Bruce to arrange, as he lived nearer by, & Bruce agreed with Mr. Culver to pay $250, first offering $200 & Mr. Culver asking $300. When witness came to see the hay, & the difficulty of access, he was satisfied that they were paying $100 too much, & $100 more than he would have agreed to. When the contract to supply Fort Lane was let, theirs was the only bid, & by that means they effected a sale at a high price & saved themselves from loss, & except for this their hay in the market would not have paid for the privilege & expenses of cutting & marketing. Soon after this the chief Sam made an effort to obtain the $250, or a portion of it, for his own benefit. This attempt Mr. Culver resisted, on the ground that it belonged to the tribe & must be added to their annuity, & peremptorily refused to let it go to any other purpose. Sam tried unsuccessfully to disaffect some Indians on account of the removal of the seed--but the tribe were satisfied & pleased by the sale & by Mr. Culver's resistance of the Chief's demand. And finally as the contractors had gone too far to abandon their contract without loss & to quiet Sam they gave him the mule, saddle & bridle. So far from the Indians stopping them when they had obtained 50 tons, they got the whole 100 tons of their contract. On one occasion they were disturbed in their operations & the facts were that being advised in friendship, on behalf of the tribe, that some Indians in consequence of difficulty among themselves, had gone out by way of the meadows & that possibly white men were not safe there, they left their work for one day, & one day only, & then went on with their work. And the witness & others say that so far from the Indians needing the seed in that locality for food, it was several miles from their camps & beyond where they went to gather it & that there is more seed growing on the reserve than all the Indians of Oregon could gather. The witness knows from the statements of Mr. Culver & the Indians that the contract was for the sole benefit of the tribe, & that the Indians were satisfied with its terms. And he knows that it was well understood that the hay cut by the Huddlestons was for the use of the Agency & not for the benefit of Mr. Culver. The witness always understood from the Huddlestons that they had plenty of provisions, seed, implements &c. They seemed comfortable, at least they said they "lived like fighting cocks." Seemed to be in want of nothing but time enough to sleep. The 20 tons of hay they cut & hauled to Fort Lane for the Agency was 6 tons at the highest mark--witness would not take it for that. Five of the contractor's men put up as much hay in a day as the Huddlestons did in a month, & under great disadvantages. He says that Lewis, the interpreter, was well cared for during his sickness, & that every provision was made for his comfort. When he wanted an Indian doctor one was sent for & obtained. During the haying season Mr. Culver was often on the reserve, oftener than he needed to be. The land was too dry at the close of haying to admit of its being plowed. Plowing cannot be done here at that time of the year. There was no need of a fence around the crops, for there was nothing in the neighborhood to injure them. Mr. Culver could obtain provisions & other stores for use on the reserve only by getting them on his own personal account--has heard several merchants refuse to take the government credit for anything required at the Agency.
    A. J. Smith, Captain U.S.A. commanding Fort Lane, being sworn, says the contract about the hay was talked over among the Indians & between them & Mr. Culver, & it was fully understood that Messrs. Bruce & Davis were buying the hay of Mr. Culver, as the agent, & for their exclusive benefit. Never heard of such a thing as that Mr. Culver was to derive any benefit from the transaction, nor that he had any individual interest in the matter. The hay cut & drawn by the Huddlestons was for the Agency & has been used for its purposes up to this time. Never knew of any "excitement" among the Indians on account of the hay. On the contract for hay to supply Fort Lane there was but one bid--that of Messrs. Bruce & Davis, & they were obliged to accept it, & so the contractors were enabled to save themselves from loss by the high price they received. During planting & haying the agent was often on the reserve. He was called away a great deal by distant Indian affairs, & when his duties admitted of his being near the reserve he was there oftener than was necessary. Does not know what more Mr. Culver could have done than he had Mr. Culver was not supplied with funds by the government & was obliged to hire men & buy stores in his own name. Witness would not have done it so long as Mr. Culver did, nor have had the Huddlestons so long employed in the Agency as they were. Does not know what Mr. Culver could have done that he had not, regards him as an agent of unusual efficiency. Lewis, the interpreter, was well provided for during his sickness. Lewis & John, another interpreter, were sick & died at the Fort. They were both cared for as tenderly as children by Mr. Culver. They had horses constantly at their disposal, dined at the same table with the agent & the officers & had any sleeping conveniences that the quarters afforded. John died in the office, & Lewis would also but chose to die under a tree, where at his own choice he often slept when the weather was pleasant. Lewis had all the medical aid that could be obtained, more than he wanted. As he refused the advice of the white physician & requested one of his own people, his wish was gratified. It was not practicable nor advisable for the agent to go over & reside on the reserve. Every consideration of convenience & policy required that he should reside at the fort. The witness says that the sale of the hay was talked of among the Indians months before it was made & they wished Mr. Culver to effect such a thing if he could, when the proper time came, that their annuity might be increased, & that Sam was present when it was sold & assisted to promote the transaction & was pleased with the terms.
    Thomas Pyle, Sheriff of Jackson County, one of the committee, being sworn, says he has had much intercourse with the Indians during the summer & has always heard them express satisfaction at the sale of the hay, & understood from them that it was at their request--that the stir made by Sam about it was only to obtain something for himself, that the agent had the highest confidence of the Indians, & that they relied implicitly upon him to preserve peace with the whites & extend to them protection & security & to promote their good in every way in which it could be properly done. Knows little of the Huddlestons--only saw them once & then they were busy, not at the scythe, but at the card table. Knows the rails that were taken away--they were enough to make spokes for a wagon wheel which a man broke when teaming near them. The hay cut by the Huddlestons was not over 5 or 6 tons--would not buy it for more than 5 [tons]. Has been much over the country embraced in the limits of the Agency & knows that in the judgment of those conversant with our Indian affairs, a war with the Indians has been undoubtedly prevented by the prudence, vigor & untiring industry of Mr. Culver & is himself satisfied that that impression is correct. The witness knows that it has been Mr. Culver's practice to obtain stores for the Agency on his own credit & that merchants refuse to sell on the faith of the government. During the haying season & since, the price of hay in market was from $15 to $20 per ton & it could not be sold in Jacksonville at a price sufficient to cover the cost of cutting & hauling from the reserve.
    Geo. H. Ambrose, one of the committee, being sworn, says that he lives near the Indians & sees much of them & knows they were satisfied with the sale of the hay & that they understood the transaction to have been made by Mr. Culver entirely for their good. Knows they have high confidence in Mr. Culver & that they are satisfied with his administration of their affairs. Heard Sam talk about the hay trade & understood him to be perfectly satisfied, only that he wanted the benefit of it himself, while Mr. Culver insisted upon giving the benefit to the tribe. Sam got the mule to quiet him. The hay was sold at a very high price--no man could have paid any more for it. Nothing but a very favorable sale could have saved the contractors from loss. Saw Lewis often when sick--always saw him have a horse--never saw him in an uncared-for condition when sick. The Huddlestons said they got their supplies on Mr. Culver's individual responsibility--always understood that he could obtain necessaries for the use of the Agency only on his own credit. After the time of planting & haying, it would be out of the question for plowing to be done on the reserve. Plowing cannot be done at that season of the year here. Saw the Huddlestons sometimes, never saw them in a hurry. It is entirely inexpedient & impracticable for the agent to reside on the reserve. The best place, in every view, is Fort Lane, where Mr. Culver resides. Thinks Mr. Culver one of the most industrious & efficient Indian agents he ever saw & that the preservation of peaceful relations with the Indians is the result of the prudent & vigorous management of the affairs of the Agency. Knows that Mr. Culver was often on the reserve--oftener than he needed to be--& very attentive to the business going on there.
    And in addition to the authority of the gentlemen whose names have been given, the committee have the united authority of several other persons--men of high character--who were more or less conversant with the facts in question, all of whom, without exception & without qualification, corroborate the statements here presented. We are fully assured, both from our own knowledge & the statements of those who are in any degree cognizant of the matter, that the version of facts given by your informant is entirely unknown here & entirely without foundation in truth. Whatever may be the standing of the Huddlestons in the community in which you reside, we know that they obtained none of the respect or confidence of those with whom they became acquainted here, & we know that their word would not be regarded as authority for any doubtful fact, much less as authority against the private or official character of any person. We know, too, that as a matter of common notoriety, the pecuniary condition of the Agency has been such as entirely to preclude the possibility of improvements in the way of plowing, fencing &c. on the reserve & that Mr. Culver has been obliged to use his individual credit to the extent of thousands of dollars in maintaining the existence of the Agency & executing measures vitally essential to the preservation of amity with the Indians. In consequence of the heterogeneous character of the Indians embraced in the terms of the treaty & the consequent necessary huddling together of mutually hostile bands on the reserve in close proximity to each other, where old feuds were sure, in spite of every possible precaution, to ripen into a bloody collision among themselves, & if the highly irritable condition of feeling on the part of the Indians & whites, provoked by the excesses of the war of 1853 & kept alive by further excesses of reckless persons in both races, who have a mutual revenge to gratify & nothing to lose by further disturbances of the public peace & of the utter inadequacy of the funds of the Agency to meet & carry out the measures necessary to satisfy the expectations of the Indians--the country has been constantly threatened by another disastrous war, which it required consummate skill & the most judicious, vigorous & industrious possible efforts to avert & which a single blunder on the part of the agent might at almost any hour have precipitated upon us. And yet in spite of all the numerous causes of collision & in spite of all the embarrassments under which Mr. Culver has labored he has carried the country through the "war season" without a single serious disturbance of the public quiet & established what we had hoped might prove to be permanent peaceful relations between the two races. The wisdom shown in the conception of his policy & the skill & efficiency manifested in its execution as well as the high integrity of motive exhibited in his conduct as a citizen & a public officer place him beyond the reach of all common calumnies, whether aimed at his private or official character. In consequence of the danger yet hanging over the property & perhaps the lives of many of our citizens in exposed localities, & the detriment that might result to our general relations with the Indians by any disturbance of the administration of the Agency, we have felt that we could not discharge our duty to ourselves & all others interested without earnestly requesting Mr. Culver, as we have, to continue in the discharge of his duties until the result of his temporary suspension may be more fully determined & whether he have an official authority left him or not he has consented to give his personal influence & interest & his comfort & time, for the present at least as he has heretofore to the promotion of the public welfare.
    The committee cannot conclude without an assurance of their confidence that your high sense of justice will, as you become satisfied of the facts in the case, prove a sufficient guarantee for a full reparation for the injury with which Mr. Culver is threatened & that you will restore him to the full exercise of his official duties with as little delay as the integrity of the public service will permit. And we have the honor to subscribe ourselves.
Yours &c.
    John F. Miller Chairman
    S. H. Taylor Sec.
    Thomas Pyle
    Lycurgus Jackson
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Committee
To
    Hon. Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
            Indian Affairs
                O.T.
The other members of this committee cannot forgo this opportunity to testify to testify their great confidence in the ability, integrity & official capacity of the temporary appointee Hon. John F. Miller & the pleasure with which they would under any ordinary circumstances regard his appointment to any place in the gift of the government & their high appreciation of the generosity he has exhibited by declining the acceptance of an appointment under circumstances of injustice to Mr. Culver
S. H. Taylor
Thomas Pyle
Lycurgus Jackson
Geo. H. Ambrose
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency, 1853-55, frames 394-406.  An inaccurate copy of the committee's letter, dated September 30, 1854, can be found on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 111.



Instructions to Spl. Agt. Ben Wright
Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 14th 1854
Sir
    Your letter of the 17th ultimo was received by the last mail. Previous to its reception I had forwarded you an appointment as special Indian agent which I presume ere this you have received. I had intended giving you instructions in detail before this, but owing to the crowd of business accumulating in the office during my absence I have not been able to do so, nor have I time now to go into details. Your acquaintance with the Indians in that district and your general knowledge of Indian character will enable you to act efficiently in absence of instructions from this office. Our main object at present will be directed to such measures as are most likely to preserve peace between whites and Indians, and in order to do this in your district it will require the greatest vigilance and promptness on the part of the agent. Frequent visits among them, counseling and advising them, settling on fair and equitable principles disputes arising between them and the whites, inducing them to rely with certainty on the action of the agent, without resorting to retaliatory steps, and above all in convincing them of the utter fallacy of attempting to redress their own wrongs; in also counseling the whites, prevailing on them to use forbearance and treat the Indians kindly and to put up with the annoyance a little longer. But where there is a determination on the part of the whites to treat them wrongfully and they do an unlawful act, cause them to be arrested, and if there be no tribunal in your county before whom such offenders can be arraigned, send them to Portland by steamer, or to this place by land, with such evidence as will be sure to convict them, otherwise it would be useless to make arrests. In like manner when a wrong act is done by an Indian be sure to follow it up that he may be punished. Inattention to little matters of this kind often lead to serious consequences, which by timely action on the part of the agent may be amicably settled.
    I hope your fears in reference to another difficulty in Chetco may be groundless, but they doubtless have great cause of complaint. Try if possible and ferret out these disturbers of the peace.
    I have just received instructions to enter on the duties of treating with the various tribes, but one condition is that they may be concentrated and located so contiguous as to avoid too great a number of agents, farmers, mechanics, teachers &c.
    Some place must be adopted to unite all the coast Indians, or all south of Siuslaw, and settle them in one district if possible. My first movement will be in the southern portion of our Territory--Deer Creek & Illinois River, Grave Creek &c.--to unite these with the Rogue Rivers and locate them on the Table Rock Reserve. I start to that point in a few days. On my way back I purpose treating with the Umpquas or those in that valley above Scottsburg.
    I shall then probably treat with those in this valley, and by that time the goods which have been shipped at New York will have arrived and a portion of them landed at Port Orford preparatory to treating with those in your district. This may be done during the winter, provided we can prevail on them to unite and remove to such points as may be selected when they can be instructed, aided and enlightened. In the selection of this place due regard will be had to their future well-being. And if we can but convince them that it is [in] their interest to be governed by our counsel, we shall accomplish much good for them. Otherwise they will soon pass away and be known only as the things that were.
    I have just completed the purchase of the annuity goods for the Rogue Rivers and Cow Creek band of Umpquas, and start with them on Wednesday next, taking with me goods for the purpose of treating with the Illinois Creek Indians, Deer Creek, Grave Creek & Galice Creek and all those on Rogue River above the Great Bend, or such of them as do not properly belong to the bands in the vicinity of Great Bend.
    On my next visit to your district I purpose ascending the Rogue River to the Great Bend, and if there be a country of sufficient extent upon which to locate all from Siuslaw to Chetco, I will make it a reserve from your place to above the Great Bend; if there is not, I am unable to say where it will be selected.
    So far as treating and our future policy are concerned, it may be well not to say much about it to the whites, but prepare the minds of the Indians and convince them that we wish to do them good.
    I shall rely much on your discretion, judgment and good conduct, promptness and tact in managing Indians, to maintain order, preserve peace and ultimately establish such relations with these tribes as will tend to their civilization and enlightenment.
    Your salary will be one thousand dollars per annum and all necessary and actual traveling expenses.
    Use economy in all things.
Yours
    Joel Palmer
Benj. Wright Esq.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 182-184.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, November 2nd 1854.
Sir:
    I have to request that you will prepare a commission for Edwin P. Drew of Scottsburg, Oregon Territory, as Indian sub-agent in place of Philip F. Thompson, deceased, and transmit the same to him, if possible, by the steamer of the 5th inst.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Yr. obt. servant
            R. McClelland
                Secretary
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Comr. of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 392-323.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, November 3rd 1854.
Sir:
    Having submitted the papers transmitted with your letter of the 31st ult. to the President, it was deemed best under all the circumstances to remove Agent Culver. Mr. Geo. H. Ambrose has been appointed to succeed him, and his commission was sent to you on yesterday, and likewise one for Nathan Olney in place of J. L. Parrish resigned, in order that they might be transmitted to them by the steamer of the 5th inst.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servant
        R. McClelland, Secretary
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. of Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 390-391.



Port Orford O.T.
    Nov. 5th 1854
Hon. Sir
    It is
now near five months since you left our place, and although you at that time confidently believed that you would be able to close my accounts within the next thirty days, I have not had one word from you. I feel confident that this vexatious delay is not occasioned by you, yet it would be greatly gratifying to me to hear from you on this subject, though it be but to inform me that government had not provided for the payment of my salary. Aided by my distress in not receiving my pay, I am continually harassed with duns for the payment of the note given by you to the boatmen. It is with great reluctance that I write you upon this subject, because I am well aware that you have already done much more for government in the way of advances than is required by the duties of your office. My great distress must be, as it is, my excuse. Please let me hear from you at your earliest convenience.
Sincerely your friend
    And ob. servt.
        F. M. Smith
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 142.



Jacksonville O.T. Nov. 8th 1854
Sir
    My communication covering a copy of a letter to Agent Culver dated Sept. 22nd last informed you of grave charges, derived from sources then regarded by me as most reliable, of official misconduct on the part of that gentleman, characterized by flagrant injustice to the Rogue River Indians with whom we had treated and which unless speedily disavowed and rectified would most probably involve the settlers in that portion of our Territory in the calamities of another savage war, and that under a sense of official responsibility, in view of serious nature of the accusations and the consequences likely to result, I had suspended him from the functions of his office until his conduct could be investigated.
    I hastened to Mr. Culver's district as soon as the interests of the general service would permit and made a careful personal investigation of his conduct in the premises, and am happy to say that no testimony has been adduced to sustain the charges of misconduct alleged against him in the discharge of the duties of his present agency, nor warranting the continuance of his suspension. I have therefore restored him to the exercise of his official functions, and recommend his continuance in his present position.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Washington City
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 751-752.



Jacksonville Nov. 11th 1854
Dear Sir
    I understand that in the report of the committee who met to investigate the charges against Mr. Culver I represented as the statement of Mr. Davis that he and Mr. Bruce purchased the hay on the Indian reserve to the amount of 100 tons. I think I have a distinct recollection that the maximum stated by him was not 100 tons, but all the hay on the meadows except 25 tons or thereabouts, wanted by Mr. Culver for the use of the agency. I recollect that whatever the amount was, it appeared from Mr. Davis' and other persons' statements that they did not get all the amount they purchased the privilege of cutting. The evidence taken was not reduced to form until a day or two after it was taken, and I supposed the unimportance of the fact to the matter then under consideration induced the carelessness on my part, which I cannot otherwise understand, but of which I feel morally sure. Before the committee I recollect having drawn an inference that the maximum was 100 tons, and asking Mr. Davis if that was the amount, and he replied they were to have all Mr. Culver did not want, though it did not appear so in the report, as the minutes were not corrected.
    You will accept assurances of the high regard of
Yours &c.
    In haste
        S. H. Taylor
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 859.



    Articles of agreement entered into and concluded this fifteenth day of November one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four between Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, and the chiefs and headmen of the Rogue River tribe of Indians on the part of said tribe.
    Article First.--It is agreed on the part of said tribe that the Table Rock Reserve described in the treaty of the 10th September 1853, between the United States and the Rogue River tribe, shall be possessed and occupied jointly by said tribe and such other tribes and bands of Indians as the United States shall agree with by treaty stipulations, or the President of the United States shall direct to reside thereupon, the place of residence of each tribe, part of a tribe or band on said reserve to be designated by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs or Indian agent, that the tribes and bands hereafter to be settled on said reserve shall enjoy equal rights and privileges with the Rogue River tribe, and that the annuities paid to the Indians now residing, or hereafter to reside, on said reserve shall be shared by all alike, from and after said residence thereon, provided that the annuity of the Rogue River tribe as agreed on in the treaty of the 10th September 1853 shall not be diminished or in any way impaired thereby. It is also agreed that the United States shall have the right to make such roads, highways and railroads through said reserve as the public good may from time to time require, a just compensation being made therefor.
    Article Second.--In consideration of the foregoing stipulations, it is agreed on the part of the United States to pay to the Rogue River tribe as soon as practicable after the signing of this agreement two thousand one hundred and fifty dollars in the following articles: twelve horses, one beef, two yokes of oxen, with yokes and chains, one wagon, one hundred men's coats, fifty pairs of pantaloons and fifty hickory shirts, also that in the treaties to be made with other tribes and bands hereafter to be located on said reserve that provision shall be made for the creation of two smith shops, for tools, iron and blacksmiths for the same, for opening farms and employing farmers, for a hospital, medicines and a physician, and for one or more schools, the uses and benefits of all which shall be secured to said Rogue River tribe equally with the tribes and bands treated with, all the improvements made and schools, hospital and shops erected to be conducted in accordance with such laws, rules and regulations as the Congress or the President of the United States may prescribe.
    Article Third.--It is further agreed that when at any time hereafter the Indians residing on this reserve shall be removed to another reserve, or shall be elsewhere provided for, that the fifteen thousand dollars thereafter to be paid the said Rogue River [tribe] as specified in the treaty of the 10th September 1853 shall be shared alike by the members of all the tribes and bands that are or hereafter shall be located on the said Table Rock Reserve.
    Article Fourth.--It is also further provided that in the event that this agreement shall not be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States, or that no other tribe or band shall be located on said reserve, the two thousand one hundred and fifty dollars stipulated in article second of this agreement to be paid said Rogue River tribe shall be deducted from their annuities hereafter to be paid said Indians.
    In testimony whereof the said Joel Palmer, Superintendent, as aforesaid and the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the Rogue River tribe of Indians have hereunto set their hands and seals at Evans Creek on Table Rock Reservation on the day and year hereinbefore written.
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
Ap sa ka hah or Jo first chief
Ke-ko-ha-wah or Sam second chief
Sambo third chief
Te-cum-tum or John fourth chief
Te-mak-hait or Elijah
Cho-cul-tah or George
Telam-whah or Bill
Hart-tish or Applegate John
Qua-chis or Jake
Tom
Henry
Jim
Executed in presence of
Edward R. Geary, secy.
Cris Taylor
John Flett, interpreter
R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 28, Records of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Records Pertaining to Relations with the Indians.



Yoncalla Umpqua O.T.
    November 16th 1854
Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Sir
        I received your note
in which you mention about "Tom's" wanting to cultivate some land, and your desire that I should rent some to the government for his benefit. Having the proper enclosure I have set "Tom" to business, calculating to let him have about as much land as the tribe had last year.
    Tom is almost the only one of his tribe that is desirous of cultivating land; consequently he will no doubt have all the work to do. If so, he undoubtedly ought to have the proceeds exclusively.
    I send you an order for the amount of money promised me by the Department for services I have rendered to that Department.
Yours
    Lindsay Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 130.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        November 16th 1854
Sir,
    Your letter of the 2nd ultimo in regard to the appropriation of $5000 made at the last session of Congress for "agricultural implements &c." and "payment for improvements on lands" as per 3rd article of the treaty with the Rogue River Indians, and enclosing a copy of the appraisement made on the 13th of September 1853, has been received.
    In view of the explanations now presented by you, I have this day requested the Secretary of the Interior to cause the sum of three thousand dollars to be remitted to you from the appropriation named, and for which you will account under the proper head.
    This remittance is not designed to cover payments to the claimants for improvements on lands, at least before all the claims have been acted on fully by the board of commissioners.
    In view of the amount heretofore remitted you to liquidate the liabilities incurred in the negotiation of the Rogue River Treaty, the amount now named is supposed, with also the first annuity payment, to be ample for effecting the settlement of the Indians, as contemplated by the treaty, and it is conceived that in case the awards for improvements do not exceed the amount ($1,026 78/100) of the appraisement of the 13th September 1853, it will be good policy to retain some portion of the appropriation in question, to be expended for agricultural implements &c. &c. during the next year, but should it appear otherwise to you, you will report more fully on the receipt of this communication.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton
            Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 14.


Scotans, Shastas & Grave Creeks.
    Articles
of a convention and agreement made and concluded at the council grounds opposite the mouth of Applegate  Creek on Rogue River in the Territory of Oregon on the eighteenth day of November, one thousand and eight hundred and fifty-four, by Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, and the chiefs and headmen of the Quil-si-ie-ton and Na-hel-ta bands of the Shasta tribe of Indians, the Cow-nan-ti-co, Ia-cher-i-ton and Na-al-ye bands of Scotans and the Grave Creek band of Umpquas, to wit: Ieo-tal-tat or Little Chief, Ko-ne-che-quot or Bill, Se-sel-chel-el or Salmon Fisher, Kul-ki-ami-na or Bushland, Te-po-kon-ta or Sam and Jo, they being duly authorized thereto by said united bands.
    Article First. The aforesaid united bands cede to the United States all their country bounded as follows:
    Commencing at a point in the middle of Rogue River one mile below the mouth of Applegate Creek, thence northerly on the western boundary of the country heretofore purchased of the Rogue River tribe by the United States, to the headwaters of Jump-off Joe Creek, thence westerly to the extreme southeastern limit of the country purchased of the Cow Creek band of Umpquas, thence along that boundary to its extreme southwestern limit, thence due west to a point from which a line running due south would cross Rogue River midway between the mouth of Grave Creek and the Great Bend of Rogue River, thence south to the southern boundary of Oregon, thence east along said boundary to the summit of the main ridge of the Siskiyou Mountains, or until this line reaches the boundary of the country purchased of the Rogue River tribe, thence northerly along the western boundary of said purchase to the place of beginning.
    Article Second. The said united bands agree that as soon after the ratification of this convention as practicable, they will remove to such portion of the Table Rock Reserve as may be assigned them by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs or agent, or to whatsoever other reserve the President of the United States may at any time hereafter direct.
    Article Third. In consideration of and payment for the country herein ceded, the United States agree to pay to the said united bands the sum of two thousand dollars annuity for fifteen years from and after the first day of September one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, which annuities shall be added to those secured to the Rogue River tribe by the treaty of the 10th September 1853, and the amount shared by the members of the united bands and of the Rogue River tribe jointly and alike, said annuities to be expended for the use and benefit of said bands and tribe in such manner as the President may from time to time prescribe for provisions, clothing and merchandise, for buildings, opening and fencing farms, breaking land, providing stock, agricultural implements, tools, seeds and such other objects as will in his judgment promote the comfort and advance the prosperity and civilization of said Indians. The United States also agree to appropriate the additional sum of five thousand dollars for the payment of the claims of persons whose property has been stolen or destroyed by any of the said united bands of Indians since the first day of January 1849, such claims to be audited and adjusted in such manner as the President may prescribe.
    Article Fourth. When said united bands shall be required to remove to the Table Rock Reserve or elsewhere as the President may direct, the further sum of six thousand five hundred dollars shall be expended  by the United States for provisions to aid in their subsistence during the first year they shall reside thereon, for the erecting of necessary buildings and the breaking and fencing of fifty acres of land and providing seed to plant the same for their use and benefit in common with the other Indians on the reserve.
    Article Fifth. The United States engage that the following provisions for the use and benefit of all the Indians residing on the reserve shall be made.
    An experienced farmer shall be employed to aid and instruct the Indians in agriculture for the term of fifteen years.
    Two blacksmith shops shall be erected at convenient points on the reserve and furnished with tools and the necessary stock, and skillful smiths employed for the same for five years.
    A hospital shall be erected and proper provision made for medical purposes and the care of the sick for ten years.
    School houses shall be erected and qualified teachers employed to instruct the children on the reserve, and books and stationery furnished for fifteen years--all of which provisions shall be controlled by such laws, rules or regulations as Congress may enact or the President prescribe.
    Article Sixth. The President may from time to time, at his discretion, direct the surveying of a part or all of the agricultural lands on said reserve, divide the same into small farms of from twenty to eighty acres, according to the number of persons in a family, and assign them to such Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege and locate thereon as a permanent home, and to grant them a patent therefor under such laws and regulations as may hereafter be enacted or prescribed.
    Article Seventh. The annuities of the Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.
    Article Eighth. The said united bands acknowledge themselves subject to the government of the United States and engage to live in amity with the citizens thereof, and to commit no depredations on the property of said citizens, and should any Indian or Indians violate this pledge and the fact be satisfactorily proven, the property shall be returned, or if not returned, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made therefor out of their annuities. They also pledge themselves to live peaceably with one another, and with other Indians, to abstain from war and private acts of revenge, and to submit all matters of difference between themselves and Indians of other tribes and bands to the decision of the United States or the agent, and to abide thereby. It is also agreed that if any individual shall be found guilty of bringing liquor into their country or drinking the same, his or her annuity may be withheld during the pleasure of the President.
    Article Ninth. This convention shall be obligatory on the contracting parties from and after its ratification by the President and Senate of the United States.
   

    In testimony whereof Joel Palmer, Superintendent aforesaid, and the undersigned chiefs and headmen of said united bands, have hereunto set their hands and seals at the place and on the day and year herein written.
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
Ieo-tul-tut or Little Chief
Ko-ne-cho-quot or Bill
Se-sel-che-ll
Basta-chin-for
Kul-ki-am-i-na or Bushland
Te-pe-kou-ta or Sam
Jo (chief of Grave Creeks)
Executed in the presence of  us.
Edward R. Geary, secy.
John Flett, interpreter
Cris Taylor
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 28, Records of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Records Pertaining to Relations with the Indians.



Port Orford Nov. 19th 1854
Sir
    I received my appointment dated Sept. 14th, also forms of the 14th October, and would have written before this but have been absent on the arrival of the steamer going up and have neglected until now on that account. Since I have received your first, I have been busily engaged in investigating matters in this district, which has consumed all my time, but have at last succeeded, and everything goes on well at present.
    The Indians have been having some difficulty among themselves in relation to their women. First the Quartoes and Yah-shutes, 
which resulted in wounding slightly one Indian. This happened some two weeks before I received my appointment. They have tried since to have another meeting of the same nature, but I interfered and it resulted in an amicable settlement. About the same time a difficulty arose between the Euchres and Tututni bands which commenced thus: Two Indians of the Euchre band went at night and fired into a lodge in the Tututni village, killing one woman belonging to that band. The next day the Tututni band went in search of the party, found and killed them, which was likely to bring the two bands together in a war, but I arrived in time to prevent it, and made them settle the affair amicably according to their own custom, which is now satisfactory to all parties.
    When I visited Chetco I found things in a bad state; the Indians were scattered and living in great fear, and driven from their fisheries. I talked with the whites concerning it, one of which was Mr. Miller. He said that they were all willing that the Indians should come back, which I induced them to do. I also told them to rebuild their houses and prepare for winter, which they set about doing. Mr. Miller is quite a different man. He offers to assist them in building, or anything else they may desire, and defend them to the last. He says they have been shamefully treated, "but it is not his fault," and I find everyone speaks well of him except those who were against him before, which in my opinion was for private reasons to injure him. His enemies was all who did speak at that time, which there is only one left, a Mr. Tuttle, who is certainly the meanest man in existence, he being the person to have Miller arrested, and then committed a worse deed than ever has been done in the country before or since. I will give you the case as related by Mr. Miller and others. There was an Indian from Illinois Valley, belonging to Mr. Culver's district, came on a visit, being related to the Chetco Indians, and was stopping with them for a time, stole a powder horn belonging to Mr. Tuttle. They caught the Indian and whipped him. Shortly after a friend of the Indian who was whipped from Illinois Valley went to the house of Mr. Tuttle's in company with two Chetco Indians, one of which was a chief. When they arrived at the house, Mr. Tuttle said that the Illinois Valley Indian had threatened to kill him, and he intended to kill him, and closed the door and commenced disarming them. Mr. James Haggart, being present, told Mr. Tuttle not to kill the Chetco Indians, when Mr. Tuttle replied that he intended to kill them all. The Chetco chief started to follow Mr. Haggart out and Mr. Tuttle pushed him back and remarked, "You d----d old rascal, you have got to die, too," and did kill them all after disarming them. The Indians did not offer to resort, but fled to the hills, and came to see me to know what to do. At the time 1 had no authority to do anything, and the matter rests in that way.
    The Indians say they are content if I say so, but I intend visiting them again shortly with authority to do something for them if possible. It is my opinion that the most of the Indians in this district will be short of provisions if it should be a hard winter, as the rain fell early, in the midst of their fishing season, destroying all their dams and fisheries on the rivers. They also have not the same number of canoes, and not the same perseverance which they formerly bad. They devote too much of their time among the whites, working for clothing and articles of not so much value as provisions to them, but you cannot get them them to look forward--only for the present; every day provides for itself is their doctrine.
    I shall endeavor to do the best I can, and obey your instructions, and exercise my own judgment when required. I have employed my whole time in seeing to the Indians since my return from the valley or your place. When I received my appointment, by the instruction of F. M. Smith I came to Port Orford, rented a house, and took all the government stores and property belonging to the Department that I could find, and am living in the house and attending to my duty as well as I can. I am always ready in a few moments" warning to make a trip to any part of the district when required. Such is the course I have pursued up to this time, which remains for you to say whether I have done right or not.
    I find an Indian agent has no credit in this town with what few persons there is left, though the place is nearly deserted at present. I am frequently asked the question when the Department intends paying their old debts contracted by Mr. Parrish.
    You must tell me when I am required to make out my report, and all concerning such matters as that which I am not posted up in. The rougher work I am best capable of doing, but am willing to try my hand at anything, but as far as peace between the whites and Indians is concerned, that shall be, and is, what I consider of most importance, although a little funds to distribute among the citizens of this district on old accounts is needed, but that is your own business, not mine.
Yours truly
    Ben Wright
        Sub Ind. Agent
            Port Orford District
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
P.S. I shall write every mail although the steamer lands very irregular in the winter season at this place.
Ben Wright
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 72-74.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1048-1051.



To the Honorable Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon Territory
    The undersigned inhabitants of Applegate Creek and branches feeling disappointed in having the Indians remain on this creek contrary to our expectation and the stipulations of the late treaty and much to our damage, we being not sufficiently compact for self-protection, we live in constant fear for our families, ourselves and our property. We don't feel warranted in making permanent improvements, which we desire to do; the early settlers have suffered quite too much in the past from the depredations of the Indians on this creek. This season twenty or more farming claims have been made, and many more wishing to settle in this valley. Families are not considered safe in open day; our gardens [are] robbed as soon [as] or before matured, our houses robbed and spoiled &c. Now if not for the watchfulness and oft-repeated councils of the present agent, it would be impossible for us to remain in peace.
    The undersigned believe this to be a true representation of facts as they now exist. We beg leave to call your early attention to their removal and save us the necessity of protecting ourselves.
            Applegate Creek Nov. 20th 1854
   

Two of the above petitions were received and signed by fifty-one persons.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 119.


Umpquas
    Articles
of agreement and convention made and concluded at Calapooia Creek
, Douglas County, Oregon Territory, this twenty-ninth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, and the following named chiefs and heads of the confederated bands of the Umpqua tribe of Indians, and of the Calapooias residing in Umpqua Valley, to wit: Napesa or Louis, head chief; Peter or Injice, Tasyah or General Jackson, Bogus, Nessick, Et-na-ma or William, Cheen-len-ten or George, Nasyah or John, Ab-sa-quil or Chenook, Jo and Tom, they being assembled in council with their respective bands.
    Article First. The confederated bands of Umpqua and Calapooia Indians cede to the United States all their country included within the following limits, to wit: Commencing at the northwest corner of the country purchased of the Galice Creek and Illinois River Indians on the 18th day of November 1854, and running thence east to the boundary of the Cow Creek purchase, thence northerly along said boundary to its northeastern extremity, thence east to the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains, thence northerly to the main falls of the North Umpqua River, thence to Scott's Peak, bearing easterly from the headwaters of Calapooia Creek, thence northerly to the connection of the Calapooia Mountains with the Cascade Range, thence westerly along the summit of the Calapooia Mountains to a point whence a due south line would cross Umpqua River at the head of tide water, thence on that line to the dividing ridge between the waters of Umpqua and Coos rivers, thence along that ridge and the divide between Coquille and Umpqua rivers to the western boundary of the country purchased of the Galice Creek Indians or of the Cow Creek Indians, as the case may be, and thence to the place of beginning.
    Provided, however, that so much of the lands as are embraced within the following limits shall be held by said confederated bands and such other bands as may be designated to reside thereupon as an Indian reservation, to wit: Commencing at a point three miles due south of the mouth of a small creek emptying into the Umpqua River near the western boundary of John Churchill's land claim at the lower end of Cole's Valley; thence north to the middle of the channel of Umpqua River; thence up said river to a point due south of the highest peak of the ridge immediately west of Allan Hubbard's land claim, thence to said peak, thence along the summit of the ridge dividing the waters to its termination at or near the mouth of Little Canyon Creek, thence crossing the Umpqua River in a westerly direction to the highlands opposite the mouth of said creek, thence following the divide until it reaches a point whence a line drawn to the place of beginning will run three miles south of the extreme southern bend in the Umpqua River between these two points, and thence to the place of beginning. And should the President at any time believe it demanded by the public good and promotive of the best interests of said Indians to be located elsewhere, the said Indians agree peaceably and without additional expense to the government of the United States to remove to such reserve as may be selected, provided that a delegation of three or more of the principal men of said bands selected by them shall concur with the authorized agent or agents of the United States in the selection of said new reserve. And when said removal shall take place, the particular tracts then actually occupied by said Indians on the reserve herein described, according to the provisions of this treaty, and those occupied by Indians of other bands that may be located thereon, shall be sold by order of the President of the United States, and the proceeds of such sales expended in permanent improvements on the new reserve, for the use and benefit of the holders of said tracts respectively.
    Article Second. The confederated bands agree that as soon after the United States shall make the necessary provision for fulfilling the stipulations of this treaty as they conveniently can, and not to exceed one year after such provision is made, they will vacate the ceded territory and remove to the lands herein reserved for them.
    Article Third. In consideration of and payment for the country herein ceded, the United States agree to pay the said confederated bands the several sums of money following, to wit:
    First. Three thousand dollars per annum for the term of five years, commencing on the first day of September, 1855.
    Second. Two thousand three hundred dollars per annum for the term of five years next succeeding the first five.
    Third. One thousand seven hundred dollars per annum for the term of five years next succeeding the second five years.
    Fourth. One thousand dollars per annum for the term of five years next succeeding the third five years.
    All of which several sums of money shall be expended for the use and benefit of the confederated bands, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time, at his discretion, determine what proportion shall be expended for such beneficial objects as in his judgment will be calculated to advance them in civilization; for their moral improvement and education; for buildings, opening farms, fencing, breaking land, providing stock, agricultural implements, seeds &c., for clothing, provisions and merchandise; for iron, steel, arms and ammunition, for mechanics and tools, and for medical purposes.
    Article Fourth. In order to enable the said Indians to remove to their new home and subsist themselves for one year thereafter (and which they agree to do without further expense to the United States) and to provide for the breaking up and fencing of fifty acres of land and the erection of buildings on the reserve, the purchase of teams, farming utensils, tools &c., and for other purposes necessary to their comfort and subsistence, they shall receive from the United States the further sum of ten thousand dollars, to be paid out and expended under the direction of the President, and in such manner as he shall approve.
    Article Fifth. The President may from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or such portion of the land hereby reserved as he may think proper, or of such other land as may be selected in lieu thereof, as provided for in the first article, to be surveyed into lots, and assign to such Indian or Indians of said confederated bands as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and who will locate thereon as a permanent home, if a single person over twenty-one years of age twenty acres, to each family of two persons forty acres, to each family of three and not exceeding five persons sixty acres, to each family of six and not exceeding ten persons eighty acres, and to each family over ten in number forty acres for each additional five members. And the President may provide such rules and regulations as will secure to the family, in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession and enjoyment of such permanent home and the improvements thereon, and he may at any time, at his discretion, after such person or family has made location on the land assigned for a permanent home, issue a patent to such person or family for such assigned land, conditioned that the tract shall not be aliened or leased for a longer term than two years and shall be exempt from levy, sale or forfeiture, which conditions shall continue in force until a state constitution, embracing such lands within its boundaries, shall have been formed, and the legislature of the state shall remove the restrictions. And if any such family shall at any time neglect or refuse to occupy or till a portion of the land assigned, and on which they have located, or shall rove from place to place, the President may, if the patent shall have been issued, revoke the same, or if not issued cancel the assignment, and may also withhold from such person or family their proportion of the annuities or other moneys due them until they shall have returned to such permanent home and resumed the pursuits of industry, and in default of their return the tract may be declared abandoned and thereafter assigned to some other person or family of the Indians residing on the reserve.
    No state legislature shall remove the restrictions herein provided for, without the consent of Congress.
    Article Sixth. The United States agree to erect for said Indians a good blacksmith-shop, furnish it with tools, and keep it in repair for ten years, and provide a competent blacksmith for the same period, to erect suitable buildings for a hospital, supply medicines and provide an experienced physician for fifteen years, to provide a competent farmer to instruct the Indians in agriculture for ten years, and to erect a school house and provide books, stationery and a properly qualified teacher for twenty years.
    Article Seventh. The annuities of the Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.
    Article Eighth. The said confederated bands acknowledge their dependence on the government of the United States and promise to be friendly with all the citizens thereof, and pledge themselves to commit no depredations on the property of such citizens. And should any one or more of the Indians violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proven before the agent, the property shall be returned, or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the government out of their annuities. Nor will they make war on any other tribe except in self-defense, but will submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the government of the United States or its agent for decision, and abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians commit any depredations on any other Indians, the same rule shall prevail as that prescribed in this article in case of any depredations against citizens. Said Indians further engage to submit to and observe all laws, rules and regulations which may be prescribed by the United States for the government of said Indians.
    Article Ninth. It is hereby provided, in order to prevent the evils of intemperance among said Indians that any one of them who shall be guilty of bringing liquor into their reserve, or shall drink liquor, may have his or her proportion of the annuities withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.
    Article Tenth. The said confederate bands agree that all the necessary roads, highways and railroads which may be constructed as the country improves, the lines of which may run through the reservation of said Indians, shall have the right of way therein, a just compensation being made therefor.
    Article Eleventh. The merchandise distributed to the members of the said confederated bands at the negotiation of this treaty shall be considered in part payment of the annuities herein provided.
    Article Twelfth. This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.
   

    In testimony whereof, the said Joel Palmer, on the part of the United States as aforesaid, and the undersigned chiefs and heads of the said confederated bands of Umpquas and Calapooias, have hereunto set their hands and seals at the place and on the day and year heretofore written.
Joel Palmer, Superintendent
Napesa or Louis
Injice or Peter
Tasyah or General Jackson
Bogus
Nessick
Et-na-ma or William
Cleen-len-ten or George
Nas-yah or John
Al-sa-quil or Chenook
Jo
Tom
Executed in the presence of us
Edward R. Geary, secy.
Cris Taylor
["Ratified 10 April 1855" added in a different hand]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 28, Records of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Records Pertaining to Relations with the Indians



Douglas County Oregon Territory Dec. 9th 1854
To Mr. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
        Dear Sir
            We the subscribed inhabitants of Douglas and Umpqua counties in the Territory of Oregon, having land claims adjoining and in the immediate vicinity of the Indian reserve proposed for the Umpqua Indians, would respectfully represent to you our interest in relation to the location of the line of said reserve on the side adjoining our claims or the settlement called Coles Valley, and would respectfully request you to change the location of said line accordingly. As the line is now located a portion of one or two persons' claims is included in the reserve. And furthermore this whole settlement or nearly so is dependent entirely upon the sides of the mountain adjoining our claims or this settlement for timber for fencing and building purposes, which are now included in the reserve as the line is now located.
    Therefore we would respectfully and earnestly request that you change the location of said line so as to give us access to said timber and would suggest the following location, viz: Beginning on the line as now located in the middle of the Umpqua River at the lowest point of said line in said river, thence down the middle of the channel of said river to a certain fall in said river about one-fourth of a mile below the mouth of Two Mile Creek, thence in a southwestern direction, or running about one-fourth of a mile west of said creek.
Respectfully submitted
    F. H. Marsh, K. W. Bradley, P. G. Pierce, David Ridenour, Ashford
    Clayton, Burnetta Churchill, Elisha Ping, Thomas Thrasher, James G.
    Patton, P. P. Palmer, C. P. Stratton, David Evans, John Emmett,
    Willoughby Churchill, Jesse Cadwallader.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 89.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Dec. 9th 1854
Dear Sir
    On my return from the south today, after an absence of over six weeks, I find on my table your letter of the 5th ultimo. And in reply [I] have to say that the funds with which to pay your salary and incidental account, whilst acting as special sub-Indian agent, was received prior to my leaving home, but I had no favorable opportunity of sending it to you.
    I am told there is considerable uncertainty about the steamer landing at Port Orford at this season of the year. I am at a loss to know how to forward the amount. I had intended coming down before this but shall not be able to do so until about the first of February. In the meantime if an opportunity occurs I will forward the amount of your claim and to pay other liabilities of my own contracting.
    On my way down I saw Mr. Parrish. His family is much afflicted; his wife is deranged, and his son Norman has had a severe turn of sickness. He expressed great uneasiness about his matters at Port Orford, but does not know when he can be there.
    Power has been conferred, and I have entered on the duties of extinguishing Indian title. I have already entered into treaties and purchased the entire country between the Calapooia Mountains and our southern boundary, and between the summit of Coast and Cascade mountains.
    I expect to meet the chiefs and headmen of the tribes and bands in this valley early in January, and shall next come to Port Orford with a view of extinguishing Indian title to the bands along the coast.
    Goods have been shipped from New York, and I shall direct a portion of them to your care at Port Orford and wish you to receive and store them.
I am dear sir
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
F. M. Smith Esqr.
    Port Orford
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 77.



Umpqua City Oregon
    Dec. 9th 1854.
Sir--
    Enclosed please find the bill of goods purchased in Scottsburg, also abstracts. There being no coarse shoes in the market I purchased boots instead, which increased the cost slightly. The goods were purchased at cost prices as you will please notice. I have bargained for two mules, which I will "turn over" to the Department if you think proper. I shall visit the Coos & Coquille bands of Indians next week, which will be an expensive trip, therefore should you have funds on hand at the receipt of this belonging to the Department & it is your custom to advance monies before the expiration of the year, it would suit my present case. My brother, (J. W. Drew) will be in Salem "by the time" this is received & has full power to receipt in my name. Or you can send a small draft on some express company payable in San Francisco.
    Please instruct me in regard to the mules & also if I must get the vouchers for the enclosed bill of goods in your name or in my own.
Yours
    With much respt.
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Dayton Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1854, No. 125.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 106.



Washington, D.C.
    December 12th 1854
My Dear Sir:
    I received yours of Oct. 22nd by last mail, and regretted much to learn that there is dissatisfaction growing out of the conduct of the officers of the Territory in relation to the late massacre of the Snake Indians. No man deplores that massacre more than I do; no man can feel a greater desire to see the perpetrators punished. But, my dear sir, you must bear in mind in forming your judgment of this matter that Mr. Curry had no funds at his command with which to pay troops and purchase supplies, and he has no authority to pledge the credit of the general government. Still he might have proceeded on the supposition that the general government would pay all expenses, if there were not another and insuperable difficulty in the way. I mean the utter impracticability, in the opinion of all military men here and elsewhere, of a successful campaign against the Indians in the winter season. You know the native of the country inhabited by the Snake Indians, its elevation, the extreme rigor of its climate, its destitution of all natural products capable of sustaining man and beast under the hardships and privations of a campaign in the dead of winter. I appeal to your good understanding and ask you whether in view of these facts it would not be most judicious to wait for a more propitious season, when the Indians can be more easily found, and subsistence for men and horses can be more easily procured. Besides, by waiting till spring the volunteers from Oregon will have the cooperation of U.S. troops which the Secretary of War has promised to send at the earliest practicable moment. These troops will reach Oregon early in the spring, when, with their cooperation, we may be able to strike a blow which will prevent any massacres hereafter. I say we will strike a blow. By this I mean to say that I shall be on hand, and if my services are wanted, I wish to be considered enlisted for the war. The Indians must & shall be punished, and when the proper time arrives we must all strike together. The wise man has said there is a time for all things. The return of spring will be the time for inflicting a terrible chastisement on the bloodthirsty savages. I trust that all in Oregon will be as active in preparing for the contest as I am here in stimulating the authorities by showing them the urgency of the duty of sending a force adequate to the exigency of the occasion.
    With regard to sending you documents, you may rest assured I will send you as many as possible.
Truly your friend
    [Joseph Lane]
Robert Gilliam, Esq.
    Dallas, Polk Co.
        Oregon
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters


Indian Matters South.
    Gen. Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, arrived here Thursday night, returning from a trip south, where he had been to pay the Indians in that quarter their annuities, and make further treaties with them.
    The Rogue River and Cow Creek tribes were persuaded to accede to the Senate's amendments to their treaties. He has also made an agreement with the Rogue Rivers by which he is at liberty to move other Indians upon their reserve to share the improvements, if he sees fit. He has entered into treaties with the various tribes by which the Indian title is extinguished to all the country lying between the Calapooia Mountains and our southern boundary, and between the summits of the Coast and Cascade ranges. The lands cost between four and five cents an acre, to be paid in twenty annual installments, in goods. All the Rogue River tribes are consolidated into one, and all are to share alike in the reservation and the annuities. They have also agreed to remove to other reservations when it shall be deemed desirable to have them do so.
    " Joe," the somewhat noted Rogue River chief, died about three weeks ago, of pulmonary complaint, and the tribe is now without a chief. The son of "Joe," a lad of 17 years, who was given to General Lane as a hostage, and by him brought to the valley, is entitled to the election by hereditary right, in a measure acknowledged among them. There is some talk of continuing him chief, but it is feared that he is too young. They do not scruple to disregard hereditary right, when it is deemed advantageous to do so.
    Gen. Palmer says no man has so great an influence over the Indians as Jo. Lane. They inquire for him with eagerness, and he is their standard of goodness and justice for the white man. When they wish to say a man is very good, and worthy of confidence, "kahkwa Jo Lane" ["like Jo Lane"] is their phrase.
    The Umpquas have a reservation on the Umpqua between Cole's Valley and what is called "Little Kenyon" on the Umpqua. They likewise agree to remove when it shall be thought proper, their chiefs to unite with the agents in selecting the place to which they shall remove. The Superintendent entertains hopes that they will consent to remove to the Upper Klamath country, far from white settlements, as their head chief favors such removal. He has spent one season in that country.
    A blacksmith's shop, school house and hospital are to be erected upon such reservation, and a smith, teacher and surgeon to be employed for a limited time. Upon the Rogue River reservation there are to be two blacksmith shops for five years. Farms are also to be kept up on the reservations by the government.
    General Palmer says he had great difficulty in getting the Indians to consent to leave their country.
    The country covered by these recent treaties comprises upwards of seven thousand square miles, over much of which settlements are already scattered.
    The superintendent has sent out messengers to collect the representatives of the Willamette bands, to assemble on the 1st of January, with a view of purchasing the lands in this valley. The Indian title has not been extinguished to an acre of land here, the treaties formed by Skinner, Alden and Gaines having all been rejected by the Senate. After treating with the Indians here, Gen. Palmer will go down the coast to the California line and endeavor to treat with all the Indians to the Columbia River, and soon hopes to have purchased all the lands east or the Cascades.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 12, 1854, page 2



Department of the Interior
    Washington, Dec. 13th 1854.
Sir,
    You are requested to appoint Robert B. Metcalfe, of Jacksonville, Oregon, Indian sub-agent in Oregon, in the place of William J. Martin resigned.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 418-419.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. Dec. 22nd 1854
Sir
    At the date of my letter informing you that I had suspended Mr. Culver from his duties as an agent I anticipated a visit to this district at an early day, but from various causes I did not reach Fort Lane till early in November. Previous to my arrival, a committee of gentlemen at the request of Mr. Culver met at Jacksonville and investigated the allegations of official misconduct by this officer contained in my letter to him, of which a copy was transmitted to your office. Witnesses brought forward by Mr. Culver were examined under oath, and the committee were satisfied that the alleged misconduct was a fabrication of reckless and ill-disposed persons, entitled to no credit, with a design to injure the agent on account of his having discharged them from his service.
    A detailed report of this committee was sent to my office and copies to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Genl. Lane. I did not, however, see their proceedings until after my arrival at the fort. Mr. Huddleston being gone to the States, I immediately inquired of persons whom I presumed to be acquainted with the facts who almost unanimously declared their conviction of the correctness and efficiency of Mr. Culver in the discharge of his duties. Mr. Culver also alleged the ill feeling of Mr. Huddleston towards him. These statements induced me to doubt the correctness of my opinion in regard to the reliability of Huddleston's statement and to believe that Mr. Culver had been misrepresented.
    These considerations and the respectability of the investigating committee induced me to give credence to their version of matters.
    Mr. Huddleston had stated that he believed about twenty tons of hay had been cut by order of Mr. Culver for his use &c., and while the stack said to contain the whole amount cut by his order could not exceed more than 7 or 8 tons.
    Upon the whole I felt that possibly great injustice had been done Mr. Culver, and desiring to give him the benefit of every doubt I did not feel warranted in insisting on a continuance of his suspension. Accordingly I directed to Mr. Geary, my secretary, to inform you that I was unable to obtain positive evidence to sustain those charges and that I had accordingly reinstated him in his former position. This occurred on the 7th of November at Jacksonville, and having a previous engagement to meet on the reserve on that day, I requested Mr. Geary as before remarked to write the letter and accordingly signed a blank sheet.
    On seeing the copy I found it a little stronger than I had desired but hoped it might prove correct.
    I proceeded to visit the reserve and on my way and while there learned more of the charges, and other matters connected with his duties as an agent.
    One of the charges originally made against Mr. Culver was that persons residing contiguous to the reserve were permitted to remove the rails made by claimants &c. This charge was answered by saying that some persons had taken one or two rails for an axletree or ax handle or spokes for a wagon wheel, but that none had been used for fencing. On a personal examination but few rails could be found; when, where or by whom they were taken I did not learn, but on passing along the northeastern boundary of the reserve I observed several wagon roads leading to the timbered land on the reserve, and on inquiry found they had been made by land claimants adjoining thereto. Among the persons who had thus trespassed on the reserve is this man Bruce, who has figured in the hay transaction. He has during the past season taken from the reserve cedar and sugar pine timber enough to fence in two separate eighty-acre fields, and an adjoining claimant had drawn from the same source to fence about ninety acres.
    I visited them both; they acknowledged the fact and promised to pay a fair valuation for the timber. In a subsequent conversation with Mr. Culver on this subject, he alleged entire ignorance of the matter, although a frequent visitor of Mr. Bruce. The timber taken was from points of easiest access for a considerable portion of agricultural lands on the reserve. In passing along the border of the reserve on the river, I found that the grass had been cut at various points by the neighboring citizens. This was done by permission of Mr. Culver.
    When the persons cutting this grass were interrogated by the Indians as to their authority, they were told that they were authorized by the agent, and when they inquired of him why they cut their grass he replied he did not know, that he would know by and by, giving them no satisfaction as to how or when they were to be remunerated therefor, or whether they were to be paid at all. This last information I obtained from Mary, daughter of the head chief and a very influential person in the tribe. Her father "Jo" I found so much reduced by sickness as not to be able to converse much, but that little indicated his want of confidence in the agent.
    The second chief, Sam, was absent in the mountains and I did not see him until the 9th of November. His statements were so explicit and so apparently correct as to induce me to continue the investigation.
    I at length found Sam and Mr. Bruce together, and the former made a statement of the hay deal, that Bruce declared perfectly correct so far as the deal between them. Bruce however alleges that he purchased originally of Culver the privilege of cutting all the hay on the reserve that Culver did not want, admitting at the same time that by an arrangement between Sam and him certain portions of the prairie had been designated and marked off by them both as containing a large proportion of seed used by the Indians for food, which was not to be cut, but that while the chief was absent an additional number of mowers came and against the remonstrance of Sam's family and others of his band these reserve patches were cut down.
    On the chief's return he stopped the mowers from cutting, being incensed at such a violation of faith, he having especially cautioned the mowers before leaving home in regard to those reserved spots on which they depended for a considerable portion of their winter's provisions. Sam alleged that no opposition to the cutting [of] the grass would have been offered if they had left those spots which produced but little grass and a large amount of seed.
    Mr. Culver was finally sent for. On his arrival he manifested great displeasure at the chief, and told him that he had no right to say anything about it, that his interference was the same as stealing from Bruce, who had bought the privilege of cutting it all if he desired to do so. This the chief denied, but finally said ironically, "Take all away, all our food, and next winter when our women are hungry and take potatoes from the whites you will say nothing about it." Mr. Culver went away and the same language was repeated to Bruce, but Bruce said he would take no more hay without his consent and proposed paying him ten sacks of flour for [the] privilege to go on as before. But the chief refused and contended for a mule saddle and bridle. Bruce finally consented and both went to Jacksonville, where the articles were obtained and given to the chief. Bruce then continued cutting until he obtained all he desired. These statements were made by Sam and assented to by Bruce in presence of several persons, and are detailed here that you may be able to judge of the motives of the agent. The mule saddle and bridle were evidently given Sam by Bruce to reconcile and quiet him, and in addition to the original contract price Capt. Smith so understands the matter and expressed surprise that an effort should be made to consider it a part of the original two hundred and fifty dollars. On interrogating Mr. Culver as to the mode of payment of this amount as the price of the grass between him and Bruce, he stated that Bruce paid him one hundred dollars in money, that he had told Sam the price agreed on should be added to the annuity of the Indians, but he declared that Sam had no right to demand the mule, and that he consequently determined to deduct one hundred and fifty dollars, the price which Bruce valued the mule saddle and bridle from the original purchase price, and retain the one hundred dollars to be paid the Indians this winter when they will need it most.
    Mr. Culver, when interrogated as to the privilege granted settlers along the river to cut hay on the reserve, and as to the consideration received he replied that Chief Jo and his family had been sick a long time, and that some of those people had assisted them, that a part would be applied for this service and that the balance would be paid them this winter. On my suggestion that a knowledge of the time and manner of payment would have quieted the apprehensions of the Indians, he replied that no trouble existed on that account that Sam desired all for himself, and did not care for others, but that Jo wished it applied to help the aged and infirm this winter, but from Jo's statement to my interpreter he was as ignorant of its application as others, for he had sent directly to Mr. Culver to learn whether he had given those persons permission to cut the grass, and that Mr. Culver had refused to give them any information about the matter. This is Indian testimony, but I nevertheless believe it true.
    The apparent indifference to their interests and feelings aroused their suspicions and shook their confidence in the agent.
    Mr. Culver's first representations to me was that Sam objected to the further cutting of the hay, because he would not pay him the purchase price instead of retaining it for the tribe, but this is denied by Sam, who alleges that he only wanted pay for the damage done his seed ground.
    Other portions of the tribe might not have objected to the cutting of the entire crop, but Sam's band residing there and accustomed yearly to gather these seeds are much enraged and loud in their denunciations of Bruce's conduct in cutting their seed.
    It seemed to me singular that Mr. Culver should be so resolved to secure Bruce, and so earnestly insist that the mule saddle and bridle should be regarded as in part payment of the original contract price which had been arranged by himself, while the whole matter in regard to the mule was between Bruce and the chief without Culver's concurrence and wholly another bargain.
    In the mode and circumstances attending the sale of the privilege of cutting the hay, there appears in my judgment an evident intention on the part of the agent to take advantage of the Indians, whether for his own benefit or that of his friends is left to conjecture.
    Notice had been given that proposals [were made] up to a certain date to supply Fort Lane with one hundred tons of hay. Nowhere in the valley were such facilities afforded for cutting that amount of hay as on this part of the reserve, it being isolated from the settlement and remote from the usual range of stock and distant about four or five miles from the fort. It was evident that whoever secured the privilege of cutting hay on the reserve would be most likely to obtain this contract, several persons had an eye on it.
    Mr. Culver conversed with Sam about the matter and advised him to permit him to dispose of the grass as he understood dealing with the whites and remarked it was well to increase their annuities, as it would be of no use to them if left on the ground. To this the chief assented. Mr. Culver himself informed me of this arrangement. Subsequently Bruce called on Sam to purchase the right of cutting the hay, who directed him to call on Mr. Culver. Bruce did so, and others did the same. Among the applicants for himself and others was a Mr. Brownlee, whom Culver informed that he was under some obligations to another, but he desired to get the highest possible price, that he could not then enter into a contract, but would let him know before it was disposed of. Brownlee called several times and received nearly the same answers. He finally learned that it had been sold to Bruce & Davis, who each desired the army contract and finally entered into partnership.
    In contracting for the grass they were particular to have it understood that no person was permitted to cut grass on that part of the reserve but themselves, though Bruce admits that three or four hundred tons might have been cut.
    The sale of this privilege to Bruce & Davis was well known before the closing of the army contract, and the result was that but one bid, that of Bruce & Davis, was made for delivering the hay at the fort. The contract was awarded them at thirty-two dollars and fifty cents per ton for fifty tons, which was filled, and fifty tons more cut and sold to other pers