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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1855
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Port Orford O.T.
    January 8th 1855
Dear Sir
    I have delayed my correspondence until the latest moment so as to give you all the late particulars. I started to Chetco on the third of December and returned to this place on the thirtieth, having been detained at Rogue River eight days on account of sickness, and am yet but just able to attend to business, though I shall have to start again on tomorrow morning to Chetco.
    I secured intelligence from Crescent City to say that the companies of "Crescent City militia" are commissioned by the State of California, some eighty or a hundred men, in two companies, and they have commenced killing all the Indians near their place, and up as far as Smith's River. Report says they have killed since sixty, thirty of which were on Smith River, and were only waiting for the weather to moderate; they then intend coming up as Pistol River and whipping them all out as they come, which they will undoubtedly do if they are not prevented.
    As I am personally acquainted with the leaders, and know them to be destitute of all honor and principle in regard to such matters. They already attach the blame to the Chetco bands and contend that they have hung one of the Chetco band, one of three which were hung for the murder of French Louie six weeks since at Crescent City. The Chetco Indians say he was not one of their people, and it [is] on that, that they are now killing the Indians and pay of five dollars per day. Though I shall defend the line or my side of it to the best of my ability, and can do no other than exercise my own judgment, as I have never had a copy of the laws or regulations, nothing but my own judgment, which I have exercised to the satisfaction of all parties. So far as I know, all are satisfied with the course I have pursued.
    There has been some difficulty among the Indians themselves, and [I] have ascertained the cause originated through Chilliman, the former interpreter. I have been suspicious of him for some time, and have watched him closely, and I first learned that he went to the Tututni village and ordered them to give him all the otter skins they had and stated that I had sent him for that purpose. Some of them however refused. He then told them that he would send for me and force them to give him what he wanted. He did send word to me and I went down; the word was that he wanted me to come and prevent the Chetco Indians from fighting the Tututnis, but the matter was all settled before my arrival. The Indians had given him the property, and I was told that he had settled the matter himself, though with him all that was required was to obtain the property and deceive me. I then learned that they always supposed his power to be unlimited and even superior to that of an agent, and that he had been in the habit of making demands in that way, and when one refused he would go to the agent and charge him with some crime and have him punished. I also learned that he had made them pay for the goods that were distributed last summer. And I at once discharged him to the great satisfaction of all the Indians, and who would kill him if I would allow them, but I have given them positive orders not to harm him, and since I have the management myself things go on well.
    I have another interpreter which I think I can depend on. I keep traveling so much I cannot get much time to write, and the mail is very irregular. I have received nothing from you since the 10th of October. I shall leave this to go by the first steamer which calls here, and shall write again at Chetco and try the Crescent City mail, and in that I shall give the state of affairs in that part of the district. But if I can keep those volunteers out of my district I am satisfied that I can always keep peace, with both whites and Indians.
Respectfully yours
    Benj. Wright
        Sub-Indian Agent
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 128-129.


Office Superintendent of Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. January 12, 1855.
Sir
    I herewith submit schedules of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for use in the erection of agency buildings on Table Rock Reserve.
    Also, such as will be required in erecting the buildings in pursuance of the treaties entered into on the 18th and 29th November last respectively, and lists of tools and materials for furnishing shops &c., as provided for in said treaties.
    In addition to the usual variety of blacksmith's tools I have placed on the list "tools for tin shop and material for same."
    The smallness of the annuities provided for in these treaties demands the greatest economy in procuring the necessary articles for their use, and the transportation of tin ware and camp equipage would probably equal the first cost of the materials.
    These shops are to be kept up by the general government for a limited period, and it is important that the greatest possible facilities should be given these Indians for acquiring a knowledge of the various mechanical branches in that line; by employing a smith acquainted with the tinning business, he might superintend both shops, or, for the first year, and until a partial supply of farming implements and ware should be manufactured it would justify taking from their annuity sufficient to pay a tinner, and several young men from among these bands might be engaged in each shop as apprentices. These apprentices might at the expiration of the time fixed by the treaty for the support of the shops by the government, and probably sooner, be competent to manage a shop for themselves. The first cost of tools and materials bears no proportion to the advantages to be derived from their obtaining a knowledge of those branches.
    I would also favor the introduction of shoemaking, wagon- and plow-making, taking apprentices to each, and the benefits derived from the saving of annuity for other objects would be trifling compared with that of giving them a knowledge of these branches. It would also give confidence to the Indians, and an interest to the reserve and make it a place of attraction rather than aversion, as it is now considered by many.
    In the construction of the buildings to be constructed by the government I would chiefly employ the natives instead of letting the work by contract, as besides the consideration given them for services they would acquire a knowledge of building which would be useful in the erection of their own dwellings, and they would while at work draw around them friends who would otherwise object to residing on the reserve.
    I would recommend the commencement of the requisite buildings on the Table Rock Reserve, and in the event of selecting a reserve elsewhere, the improvements on this reserve would then undoubtedly sell for an amount equal to the first cost.
    An estimate of the cost of constructing the requisite buildings on this reserve is herewith submitted, and should these treaties be ratified by the present Congress, it is hoped that remittances may be forwarded in time to complete a part of the buildings during the ensuing summer and fall.
    In reference to the Umpqua Reserve, it may be proper to state that it is highly probable that the Umpqua Indians may be induced to remove east of the Cascade Mountains. But a commencement of settlement on the reserve, by which system might be introduced among them, and confidence established by convincing them of our intentions, and ability to improve their condition, would do much to incline them to give a favoring ear to our propositions. They need to be made sensible that this change is for their benefit, by a visible demonstration of the utility of the contemplated improvements. Accustomed but little to look beyond the present, the consideration of future benefits to be possessed and enjoyed have but little influence upon them.
    The outlay of a few thousand dollars in improvement on this reserve, even though another should hereafter be selected, would not be thrown away. A shop, hospital, school and farm houses, built in a cheap but substantial manner, would in all probability sell for quite its original cost. The length of time necessary to be consumed in treating with other tribes and exploring the country so as to judge correctly of its adaption for an Indian settlement will prolong the stay of these Indians in the settlements longer than desired by the whites or profitable to themselves. The policy of the government and the welfare of these Indians demand early provisions for their settlement on the reserve.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner of Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 103-104.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 890-893.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. January 12th 1855.
Sir
    I herewith transmit an abstract with accompanying schedules of merchandise to be purchased in the eastern markets for paying Indian annuities for the year 1855 in this Superintendency.
    No. 1 is for second payment of an annuity to the Rogue River tribe. This annuity is too small to afford the tribe adequate supplies. But should the treaty of the 18th November last be ratified and appropriations made to carry it into effect it is believed that with the proceeds of their own labor and the unexpended portion of the five thousand dollars appropriated in the treaty of the 10th Sept. 1853, a sufficiency may be obtained to provide for their actual necessities, and much be accomplished towards preparing them for self-sustenance.
    The outlay of five hundred dollars in the spring to purchase seed, and aid in putting in crops, is greatly demanded and the appropriation referred to is thought sufficient for the object. These Indians do not all reside on the reserve, and it would doubtless take several years to provide comfortable quarters for them all thereon. But little improvement can be expected unless they are encouraged by the residence of an agent and farmer among them, when they may be induced to do much for themselves.
    No. 2 Second payment of annuity to Cow Creek band. It is contemplated that this band will be located on the Umpqua Reserve with those treated on the 29th November last, and thus the deficiencies in their limited provision may be to some extent supplied. The addition of several families to this band gathered in from remote districts, where they had been for some time residing, leaves their annuity insufficient to supply them with the actual necessaries of life. But when located with other bands so as to realize the benefit of shops, farmers, schools &c., it will with care be sufficient connected with the proceeds of their own labor to support them comfortably. The articles for this band will cost nearly the entire amount of their annuity. Should it be sufficient however I would suggest the purchase of a few rifles, and some ammunition, which they greatly need.
    In connection with this subject I would suggest the propriety of furnishing this Superintendency with from four to five hundred stand of arms, to be given to the various bands as circumstances may warrant in payment of annuities. In fact no species of property would be more acceptable as a first payment than arms and ammunition. The few now possessed by them are generally old and worn out and insufficient to enable them to procure wild game, upon which they must mainly for some years depend for food.
    It is highly probable that an abundant supply might be obtained from some of the animals of a style and finish suited to these Indians, regarded by the War Department as almost valueless in the service. In the mountain districts rifles are best suited to their wants, but along the coast fowling pieces or shotguns would generally be preferred. No danger need be apprehended from supplying these arms to the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains.
    No. 3. Articles designed for the Shasta and Scotan tribes and Grave Creek band of Umpquas, treated with on the 18th day of November last, confederating these bands with those embraced in the treaty of the 10th November 1853 and providing for the erection and maintenance of smith shops, schools, hospital, the employment of farmers, and the expenditure of $6,500 in improvements, stock, subsistence &c., will place all these bands in a condition much better than was possible with the limited amount afforded by the treaty referred to. These bands also stand in need of a few firearms, and I have accordingly entered on the list one box of rifles and ammunition. It may be proper here to state that it was understood at the time of the treaty that in the event of an individual setting upon and cultivating any particular tract which might be designated, he was to be supplied with a gun on account of annuity if he had none. No provision is made in the treaty for the erection of mills, as it was presumed settlers residing adjacent would erect such improvements. But it may ultimately be found advantageous to erect them. It would be very desirable if found practicable to have the tools shipped in time for using them in gathering the next harvest. All goods designed for Indian use should reach our place in April, May or June, that they may be transported to the respective districts during the summer months or before the commencement of the rainy season. The chiefs and headmen of these bands greatly desire a few horses, which can be purchased in this country.
    No. 4 is for the confederated bands of the Umpquas and Calapooias, treated with on the 29th November last. In addition to the articles embraced in the list for other tribes, this calls for the purchase of materials for supplying the smith shop which by the treaty with them will be paid for out of the annuity, while by the treaties with the other bands the materials are to be paid for out of specific appropriations. To the usual materials for supplying the smith shop I have added materials for manufacturing their own tinware and camp equipage, and for repairing their firearms, making their plows &c. In another communication I have given my reasons at some length for adopting this policy.
    Embraced in these lists are many articles which at certain periods might advantageously be purchased in Oregon. But the fluctuating prices and the inferior quality of the greater portion of such goods shipped to this coast renders it too uncertain to rely on this market; besides, the annuities are too small to justify the additional tax with percent insurance &c. of transportation.
    The article of coats I have omitted in all these lists, and yet they are greatly desired by the Indians. But until permanently located on their reserves, and other essential provisions for their comfort and convenience are made, I have thought it best not to draw too heavily from their annuity by supplying this article. There are instances in which an Indian would prefer a coat to all other articles, and it might be well that a limited supply of coats, vests, hats and boots were placed at the disposal of this office to meet such cases.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 107-109.



Territory of Oregon   )
County of Jackson     )   ss.
    I, Robert B. Metcalfe of said county, a surveyor appointed to survey and mark certain boundaries of lands in said county, assigned as a reservation to the Rogue River tribe of Indians by the treaty made with said tribe on the 10th day of September A.D. 1852, do solemnly swear that as such surveyor I will faithfully and correctly survey, mark and measure said boundaries and note the connections of the same with the surveys of the United States heretofore made, and true report make thereof to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon to the best of my abilities, so help me God.
Sworn to and subscribed
this 15th day of January A.D. 1855
as witness my hand and seal (signed) R. B. Metcalfe
the day and year before written.
L. F. Grover
Notary Public
for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Document A of No. 391.  The original can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 1086.




    A copy of an article in the treaty with the Rogue River tribe of Indians, made with the said tribe of Indians on the 10th day of September 1853, assigning to the Rogue River tribe of Indians a certain tract of land as a reservation in Jackson County, Oregon Territory.
    "Commencing on the north side of Rogue River, [at] the mouth of Evans Creek, thence up said creek to the upper end of a small prairie, [bearing in] a northwesterly [direction] from Table Mountain or Upper Table Rock, thence through the gap to the south side of the cliff of the said mountain; thence on a line to Rogue River striking the southern base of Lower Table Rock, thence down said river to the place of beginning."
    Notes of the survey of the east and south boundaries of the same.
    Beginning at a large pine tree at the upper end of a prairie on the south bank of Evans Creek, thence south 19º east, at 165 chs. intersecting with the north boundary line of T35S R2W 30 chs. east of the N.W. corner of Section 4 in said T35S R2W, continued at 8475 chs. intersecting with the south line of Section 4 T35S R2W 22 chs. west of the northeast corner of Section 9 T35S R2W, continued at 84.75 chs. intersecting with the south line of Section 10, T35S R2W [5.68 chs. east of the N.W. corner of Section 15 T35S R2W], continued at 84.50 chs. intersecting with the south line of Section 15,
T35S R2W 33.82 chs. east of the southwest corner of Section 15 T35S R2W, continued at 84.40 chs. intersecting with the south line of Section 22, T35S R2W 18.48 chains west of the northeast corner of Section 27, T35S R2W continued at 84.60 chs. intersecting with the south line of Section 26, T35S R2W east to the N.W. corner of Section 35, T35S R2W 8.20 chs. at the base of Upper Table Mountain, continued, commenced to ascend the mountain or Upper Table Rock, continued, the surface being level, at 38 chs. commenced, descend the southern slope that leads down into the canyon or gap of said mountain, continued along the east side of the gap, at 52 chs. came to the southern base of Upper Table Rock or mountain, set a post [from] which the cliff of Upper Table Rock bears north 70º west. Thence south 54½º west at 66 chs. intersecting with the west line of Section 11, T36S R2W 1511 chs. south of the northeast corner of Section 10, T36S R2W, continued at 98.75 chs. intersecting with the west line of Section 10, T36S R2W 7.27 chs. north of the southeast corner of Section 9, T36S R2W, continued at 55.33 chs. came to the north bank of Rogue River at the southern base of Lower Table Rock in section 16, T36S R2W. Set a post from which a black oak tree 13 inches in diameter bears west 13 links distant a maple tree 10 inches in diameter bears north 24º east from the same 8 links distant. The mouth of Evans Creek bears north 22º west from ¼ post between Section 21 and 22, T36S R4W 45.10 chs. distant.
R. B. Metcalfe
    Surveyor
   
Territory of Oregon   )
County of Jackson     )   ss.
    John G. [sic] Firestine and Oliver Firestine of said county being duly sworn says, we have acted as chain bearers in measuring the lines of the survey set forth in the annexed notes of the survey, that we leveled the chain at every length of the same on even ground and doubled and leveled the same on uneven ground, and in all particulars performed our duties as such chain bearers honestly and faithfully, according to the best of our abilities.
Subscribed and sworn to
before me at Jacksonville
this 22nd day of January
A.D. 1855
John J. [sic] Firestine
Oliver Firestine
Witness my hand and seal
L. F. Grover
Notary Public
for Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Document B of No. 391.  The original can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1083-1085.




Oregon City, Oregon Territory
    January 27th 1855
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir,
            You are of course aware of the removal of myself from the office of Indian agent for this Territory, and of the extraordinary circumstances attending that removal, and while I write not for the purpose of complaining to your Dept., I would feel deeply indebted to you if I could be furnished from your office with a copy of the official correspondence of Gen. Palmer with your Dept. on which action in regard to my removal was based.
    I have endeavored to obtain from the office of the Supt. of Ind. Affairs for this Territory on several occasions a copy of the Supt's. correspondence on the subject of his charges against me, but have not been able to obtain it, hence the above request is made of your Dept.
I have the honor to remain
    Yours respectfully
        S. H. Culver
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 782-783.



Yoncalla Oregon Territory
    February 4th 1855
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
        Sir
            The Indian "Dick Johnson" and his father "Mummy," who are farming in this vicinity under your protection, have today applied to purchase each a rifle.
    Not knowing whether the permission have had the kindness to grant to sell the Indians ammunition would justify the sale, I have ventured to lay the case before you, not that the trade with Indians is of sufficient amount to be of any profit, but as a favor to the Indians themselves.
    They from habit depend much for both provisions and clothing upon the chase, and many of them, as in the case of the two Indians named, are not provided with arms suitable to make your grant of ammunition of any value. In this, knowing both the Indians to be trustworthy, I have permitted them to use and return the rifles if you object to the purchase.
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 129.



Port Orford February 5th 1855
Honored Sir
    According to promise on my return with pleasure I now make known to you the present state of affairs within this district. I am happy to inform you that everything goes on well at present and a prospect of continuing so for a time at least. I returned from Chetco and arrived at this place on the 29th January. On my return trip I visited all the different bands from Chetco to this place and found them all well disposed and peaceable. I found matters at Chetco in rather a confused state, but not so bad as they might have been by delay, as the exterminators had not yet crossed the line. They had killed some forty Indians on the lagoon near Smith's River, where they were stopped by the authorities of Crescent City. Some of the party then wanted to cross the line, as some of them had heard that the Chetco Indians were preparing for war, or that they did not go about [i.e., among] the whites as usual and there must be something wrong with them. They thought if they were not guilty of some crime they would not be so much afraid as they were.
    On my arrival I first visited the Indians, found them wiling to do anything to preserve their lives and expressed great joy on my arrival, as they thought themselves saved from the fate they so much dreaded. The settlers in that vicinity have no complaints more than their being sly since the difficulty below, which was easily settled by explaining the cause which was plain enough.
    I then visited the exterminating party, who were then located on Smith's River eight miles from Chetco. I also met some of the committee who was investigating the matter and cause of the Indians being killed on the California side of the line. It was ascertained to be unfounded, only a cause trumped up by the party themselves in this form--A settler from Smith's River Valley came into Crescent City and stated that the Indians came to his house and ordered him to leave within three days--if not he and all the settlers in the valley would be killed, as the Indians from Rogue River and Chetco and other bands up the coast was coming to assist them. The same man now denies the charge and says it is their own invention.
    I cautioned them against even attempting to cross the line, as it was now my district, and should they ever cross and commit any depredations it would be followed by fearful consequences to them and that I claimed to have the management of the Indians in my own district and that the Indians should not cross the line and commit any depredations on them--and should they do it at any time to make it known to me that I was always ready and willing to attend to such matters--and it was my duty to do so--and a right that legally belonged to no other person at present.
    On my return to Chetco I gave the Indians positive orders not to cross the line on no occasion whatever on which they promised faithfully to take my advice in regard to that and all other matters. I took this opportunity to show and explain to them the advantage of the protection they received from government, as there was no agent at Crescent City, therefore no protection for the Indians south of the line to keep them from being killed without a cause. They appeared at once to see their advantage and to appreciate it highly.
    I then broached the subject of a removal should government ever advise it. This is something that the majority all throughout the district appear to be unsettled as to a reply.
    I have always endeavored to show to them that government feels interested in their welfare and how necessary it is for them to be advised as well as protected from that source--and also to show what would be their condition without that aid which they cannot fail to see by seeing or knowing how things are conducted south of the line, where the whites are allowed to kill the Indians without any restraint. Though my opinion is that the Indians on the coast will be much harder to persuade to give up their homes and country than those in the interior, from the fact of their traveling so seldom and never more than thirty or forty miles, therefore their knowledge of any other place is limited. The idea of leaving the homes where they were born in and the stream where they have fished in all their lives for a home only a short distance from them would be something that with their limited knowledge they would not readily sanction. Unlike those of the interior who have fought their way through and traveled from one valley to another, their homes sometimes in the mountains and sometimes on the rivers and not permanent at any time. I have never spoke to them on positive terms concerning their removal, only that it might be proposed to them and how much it would be to their advantage to have a country to themselves, where they can be unmolested by the whites.
    I first tried to persuade them to request you through me to have a country set apart for them. They like the idea but differ in regard to the point as to where it shall be, each band having their choice. The two most prominent points with them is Chetco or Rogue River, but I have never been able to tell them where or anything in relation to it, but have always told them that that power lay in you alone, and that you was devoting your whole time for the welfare of the different tribes of Indians, and them among the rest, and that when you arrived I wished them to be ready to do anything which you might propose, as it will be to their advantage. They are all "very" anxious to see you. They are also very anxious to engage in farming the coming spring, and wish me to assist them. I have always told them that everything depended on their
own conduct, that they had to arrive at a certain point towards civilization before they could receive any assistance from government in that way, and that when you visited them that would be your business to see whether they were willing to be governed by your advice and whether they were enlightened enough to engage in farming and other pursuits they wished for, and if you thought they were you would give them all the assistance they required, and if not they would have to wait until they had become sufficiently enlightened.
    This policy I adopted because I did not know whether there would be any steps taken by government toward colonizing them the coming spring or not, and should it not be done they will think the fault is their own instead of neglect or inability on the part of government and will induce them to keep trying.
    I find the Chetco Indians very easily controlled notwithstanding the loss of their favorite chief, who was killed by Mr. Tuttle and Mr. Henry Powell, who is now in Marysville, Oregon--"a saddler." I have let the matter rest and intend doing so until you arrive, and
ascertained on my trip to Chetco that it was through that circumstance that Mr. French of Crescent City was killed, for which these Indians was hung. One was a Chetco Indian who was greatly attached to the chief who was killed. He then said he would kill a white man. The present Chetco chief, a brother to the one who was killed, followed the Indian intending to kill him to preserve peace. The Indian crossed the line and dare not come back; he then employed the others to assist him in killing French and so fulfilled his threat--the present chief is a peace man and has great respect for this side of the line.
    From what I can learn there is a man in this vicinity who is making it his business to trade firearms and ammunition to the Indians--as I have no law to be governed by I do not know what course to pursue, or how far to go in such a matter. He binds the Indians to secrecy, but they can keep no secrets from me since I have changed interpreters.
    I find the Indians both talk and act different and are much better satisfied than they formerly were, and are gaining confidence in government because they understand what is said to them instead of hearing probably the reverse. I now get along
very well with the Indians and am trying to control some of the whites. I released two men from the guardhouse today who have been there six days on bread and water for maltreating Indians and forcibly taking their women. They came out docile.
    I have so far attended every call,
whether made by whites or Indians, and can say that they are numerous and that it keeps me busy, though I believe so far I have given satisfaction to all parties which is more than I ever expected to do.
    F. M. Smith returned on the last steamer [and] speaks of seeing you and Cris, though I received no mail--none since October. I am always anxious to hear from you and still more anxious to see you, as I want to know what is to be done in this district. Anything you wish me to do shall be done if in my power. All I want is to be instructed how to do and I will try. My last letter was only half finished, as I was too unwell to write at all at the time.
    Please write to me as often as convenient. My respects to all.
Your obt. servant
    Ben Wright
        Spl. Sub-Indian Agent
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 144-147.

Jacksonville O.T. Feb. 10th 1855
Dear General,
    I received by the last mail the appointment of sub-agent in the place of William Martin, resigned, of which you have doubtless been informed before this. I hardly know what to say in relation to it; the salary of a sub-agent is so small that it is a question with me whether I would not come out in debt at the end of the year. I do not know whether an agent is furnished or not, independent of his salary. If I have to furnish myself out of my salary, please say to the Department that I cannot accept the appointment, but if I am furnished horses to ride, bed and board, with extra expenses whilst traveling around discharging the duties of the office, so I can have my salary clear at the end of the year, you may take this as my acceptance, and I will send you my bond and report myself ready for duty and to go to any place you may assign me. I will write you more at length when I hear from you.
I remain your most obt.
    And humble servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 10.  A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 141.




Jacksonville O.T. February 10, 1855
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Oregon Territory    Dear Sir
            This day the commissioners close their labors in Jacksonville, and you may expect a communication from me. I feel disposed to write for a number of other reasons.
    1st. I took a trip to Sailor Diggings, a distance of 60 miles, to circulate notices of our meeting, and gained considerable information concerning Indian affairs in that direction and am sorry to say they are in an unsettled state. Large amounts of property have been destroyed by the Indians and that they are continually stealing something. This provokes the settlers and they wish the Indians kept in check or removed, and pay for what property has been destroyed.
    Some settlers say the Indians are obliged to go on the reserve--the Indians say not. Considering all the facts and circumstances, I think much care and attention will be required on the part of agents during the coming spring and summer to keep down open hostilities between the whites and Indians.
    I learn with pleasure that Robt. B. Metcalfe has been appointed sub-Indian agent and I hope he will be stationed in the Rogue River country, as I believe there will be more to do here than can be accomplished by any one person.
    Dr. Ambrose's appointment is well received here, and all agree that he will make an efficient officer.
    I think of taking up my residence in this country next summer, which perhaps makes me feel a rather deeper interest in the subject.
    We were much disappointed in not receiving the money to pay our expenses and salary, and have been obliged to borrow money.
    I hope you will pay Mr. Grover the balance due me at your earliest convenience, and he will forward the same to me.
Very respectfully your friend
    and obedient servant
        A. C. Gibbs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 141-142.



Jacksonville O.T.
    February 10th 1855
Dear Genl.
    The commissioners have this morning closed their business as you will see by their report.
    And I avail myself of the opportunity to send by the hand of Mr. Grover a few lines to you. I have written twice to you without receiving an answer, which I suppose is alone attributable to the irregularity of our mails; we have had but two arrivals of the mail this winter.
    Since I last wrote you there has been some difficulty with the Indians on Applegate, but I trust not of a serious character. Upon hearing of it, I immediately dispatched Metcalfe to endeavor to adjust it if possible. The circumstances of the case are, as I learn from Metcalfe, as follows. A person by the name of Worthington passing along the road on his way to Althouse driving a loose horse was met by some Indians, who he supposed were going to kill him. One of the Indians, being a little drunk, accosted him in rather a saucy manner, and stepping in the road immediately before him in rather an impudent manner, increased the fear of Mr. Worthington, who thought it the best policy to leave as fast as possible, in doing of which he lost his loose animal. The Indians took it and delivered it up to the white man at the ferry without any design to keep the horse whatever. It however engendered a very unfriendly feeling upon the part of several white persons living in the vicinity of Applegate. They seem to think that unless the Indians are removed there will be some serious difficulty, and that quite early in the spring. I am not prepared to venture an opinion myself, but Metcalfe entertains that opinion, which event would be much to be regretted.
    I see that Metcalfe has received the appointment of sub-agent, but do not know for what district. I would regret to lose his services here. They are of more importance on the reserve than two ordinary men. He keeps constantly employed some four or five Indians, who have learned to work very well and are of infinite advantage on the farm.
    I have written you once in relation to instructions but believe I did not name anything about an interpreter, which I supposed will be allowed me. I would like to know what salary I would be justified in giving & if it would be best to employ a white man or an Indian. I had thought some of getting Metcalfe to act in that capacity if the salary allowed the agency would be sufficiently large. I also feel desirous to know what condition the finances of the Department are in, and if there is a probability of there being funds enough to furnish the agency with a sufficiency to defray the actual expenses during the coming summer. The late agent made several contracts for which he promised immediate payment; failing to do so has impaired the credit of the agency to such an extent that it is now impossible to procure a dollar's worth of anything for the agency without the money.
    I have just learned this evening of a petition in circulation to remove the Indians to the reserve. I would like some instructions in regard to that matter. Ever since my appointment, or as soon at least as the Indians learned that I was their agent, I have had to discharge the duties of the office, which however have not been very onerous.
    Mr. Grover has defrayed the expenses of the commission leaving the salary alone unpaid, which I trust you will adjust at the first favorable opportunity. I have signed a back voucher for you to fill up so that the whole matter could be closed as soon as Mr. Grover could make the report.
   

"Private."
    I wrote you in my last communication some statements about your connection with the "Know Nothings," which I would rather you would observe confidential, as I know of no good that could result by their publicity. If I hear anything of importance you may expect to learn the fact immediately.
Fraternally yours
    Geo. H. Ambrose
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Dayton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 9.   A copy of all but the "private" paragraph can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 150-151.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. February 14th 1855
Sir
    Your communication of the 4th inst. in reference to selling arms to Indians has been received, and in reply would state--when you are personally acquainted with the Indians and know them to be trustworthy, or when they come vouched for by reliable and responsible persons, as such you are permitted and authorized to sell them firearms for their own use or that of the band to which they belong, but not to be traded by them to other Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Jesse Applegate Esqr.
    Yoncalla O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 130.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Feby. 15th 1855
Dear Sir,
    I have to request that you will unite with R. B. Metcalfe in making a survey of the ground on the Table Rock Reserve planted by contract last season by Brownlee & co. and with Dr. Miller & send me a certified report at the earliest moment.
    Mr. Culver's return represents that Wm.
M. Hughes put in the crop of seventeen and a half acres and Dr. Miller a crop of seventeen acres, all at forty-five dollars per acre.
    My understanding is that Brownlee & co. put in the crop credited to Hughes, but there is nothing among the papers showing it to be so. Mr. Brownlee is here claiming the compensation due for these services, but until I have some official evidence of his being entitled thereto I cannot pay him. I desire you therefore to ascertain from Hughes (if he is in the country) whether he has any claim and why he stands credited with the
amt. if Brownlee performed the work. It may be necessary to have Culver's certificate in order to enable those who performed the services to receive the compensation.
    Enclosed I send you forms of receipt to be signed by those Indians of the Rogue River tribe to whom you may deliver the goods recently sent out. These goods are in consideration of the right granted to the other Indians of Rogue River Valley to reside on the reserve, as per agreement of the 13th November last, and are to be so distributed as to make up the deficiency in the supply from the annuity goods. They are sufficient to supply each adult male who did not receive similar articles at the former distribution. I have written to Mr. Metcalfe directing him to aid you in the distribution of these goods. You will be very careful that the goods be delivered to those for whom they are particularly designed. Preferences should, however, be made in favor of those residing on the reserve, while all should be treated kindly and receive your care and protection. It may be proper also to make a judicious discrimination in favor of such as you may thus induce to remove to and reside upon the reserve.
    The peace of the country and the welfare of the Indians depends much upon their removal to the point selected, and as soon as
means can be obtained for their subsistence on the reserve they shall be removed there.
    It is yet unknown whether the late treaties will be ratified or not during the present session of Congress, and as it is of the utmost importance that every Indian if possible should be induced to cultivate a small spot of ground, to enable them to do so I would recommend that you visit them and designate the particular spot on the reserve to be used by each one you can
prevail upon to engage in its cultivation. The teams now in the service will be able to break up enough land, with that already plowed, for the purpose indicated.
    Their annuities are insufficient to supply them even with the necessaries of life without their labor being superadded.
    The exorbitant prices allowed for the planting of the potatoes last season and other expenses incurred by Mr. Culver, to be paid for as provided for by treaty, will absorb
nearly or quite all that may be left after paying for the improvements made by original claimants on the reserve.
    I send herewith an order on Mr. Culver for all books, papers and property belonging to government that may be
his possession in virtue of his office. Be particular to take correct and full schedules of every species of property and see that it is of the kind and value receipted for, as all coming into your hands will be charged against you, and you will be held accountable therefor.
    I hope you will not fail to have your bond filled at the earliest moment and forwarded to this office. I would suggest that having your bond properly executed, and the oath of office taken before the clerk of the court, you forward the same to Judge Deady for his certificate of the sufficiency of the securities, with instructions to have it sent without delay to this office.
Very respectfully & truly yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Ind. Agt.
        Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 132-133.



Douglas County O.T. Feby. 15, 1855
Genl. J. Palmer
    Sir
        I should like to learn something from you relative to the Indian reserve on the Umpqua River below the mouth of the Calapooia Creek, being aware that there will have to be buildings put up and
various other improvements done and not knowing in what way or manner they are to be erected, contracted for or whether they will be built under the superintendence of some person or not, I ask the favor of you to write to me soon and please give me the particulars and also relative to the appointment of an Indian agent for this district.
Very respectfully
    Joseph Knott
Direct to
    Winchester
        Douglas County O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 142.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        Feby. 15th 1855
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 25th Dec. last, transmitting an agreement with the Rogue River Indians, made on the 15th Nov. 1854.
    The said agreement has been referred to the Secretary of the Interior to be sent to the President, and if approved by him, for transmission to the Senate for its constitutional action thereon.
    You will take no steps respecting the fulfillment of the stipulations thereof until you have been notified of their ratification and the requisite appropriations for consummating the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. &c.
        Dayton Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 162.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Feby. 16th 1855
Sir
    In my letter of yesterday I omitted to state that I desired you to proceed at once and survey or measure the land planted by Brownlee & co. and also that planted by Dr. Miller. You will be very particular and include all the land planted by each, and not embrace any spot however small not planted. The measure should be in such manner as to enable you and the chain carriers to qualify to its correctness.
    I have written to Agent Ambrose on the subject and directed him to assist in the matter. The Huddleston boys will be very suitable persons to inform you as to the particular spots planted by Brownlee and co. so that you may not get the matter confounded with the ground planted by them, or leave out of the measurement any planted by the contractors.
    You of course will accept the appointment of sub-agent, but until matters are finally arranged I desire you to remain in that district and aid Mr. Ambrose. It is not at all improbable that a combined effort may be made on the part of disaffected persons with the more
reckless outlaws prowling about the settlements to arouse among the Indians and settlers such a feeling as will eventuate in another Indian war, if for no other reason than to create an impression that the late agent's influence had been very great with the Indians, and that he had been a very efficient agent. For the peace of our country and safety of remote settlements, as well as the good of these Indians, I hope such an event may be arrested.
    I have received petitions from the citizens relative to the removal of Indians from Applegate and Butte Creek. Do try and appease those people until the ratification of the late treaties, when if appropriations be made we will be able to subsist them on the reserve.
    I trust you and Agent Ambrose will be able to frustrate all schemes calculated to disturb the peace and harmony of that settlement .
    I wish you to aid Agent Ambrose in the distribution of the goods recently sent out.
    On the delivery of these goods it will be a favorable opportunity to impress on the minds of the Indians the necessity of maintaining peace and abstaining from any act of wrongdoing against the whites.
Respectfully hours
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Robert B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 134.



To the Honorable James A. Palmer [sic]
United States agent for Indian affairs in Oregon
    William Gage your memorialist would most respectfully represent that he is a sufferer by Indian depredations committed upon him and his property at Rocky Point on Rogue River in Jackson County Oregon on the 29th day of August A.D. 1849 by the Rogue River Indians and the facts and circumstances were as follows:
    That he in company with William W. Wilkinson, William H. White, William Kellison, John Meldrum, Cyrenius Mulkey, a Mr. Saltmarsh and an Indian boy of the Calapooya nation. Returning from California to Oregon and on the said 29th day of August at Rocky Point aforesaid they were attacked by the said Indians to the number of one hundred and fifty or more armed with bows & arrows and some guns and commenced the attack between daylight and sunrise by advancing from a thicket and a canyon within twenty steps of our camp and a discharge of their guns and arrows accompanied with hooping and yelling in savage style. At the first onset Mulkey was wounded severely by an arrow and the rest of the company except Kellison & White who were out after the animals defended ourselves until resistance became impossible and after a struggle of some two hours and after the Indians had robbed us of all our clothing blankets provisions cooking utensils horses and money excepting the clothes on our backs and each man a rifle the ammunition attached to our persons and some of the company a small amount of change in their pockets we retreated and the Indians followed and continued a sort of running fight until two o'clock in the afternoon that he your memorialist was at the time some two hundred miles from home and compelled to travel by night and conceal ourselves in the daytime and at one time three days and nights without any kind of provision and sick with the ague all the time. Your memorialist William Gage had at the time of the encounter taken from by the Indians
One horse worth $200.00
One half of a horse the other owned by Wm. W. Wilkinson 87.00
Clothing provisions saddles bridles ropes blankets cooking utensils and camp equipage worth 162.00
449.00
Your memorialist would most respectfully call your attention to the subject and earnestly request that you in your judgment make such an arrangement of the claim of your memorialist as shall guarantee to him the benefits of treaty stipulations entered into between the United States and the Rogue River Indians and your memorialist in duty bound will ever pray.
              his
William X Gage
             mark
In support of which he makes the following affidavit.
Territory of Oregon   )
County of Polk           )  s.s.
    William Gage of said county being duly sworn says that in relation to the foregoing memorial the facts & circumstances therein stated are correct and true and the value of the property above stated is in the judgment of the affiant the actual cash value of said property at the time and place of the encounter with the Indians at Rocky Point.
              his
William X Gage
             mark
Subscribed and sworn before me Feb. 19th A.D. 1855.
James Taylor, judge of probate for Polk County Oregon
Territory of Oregon   )
County of Polk           )  s.s.
    William W. Wilkinson of Benton County Oregon being duly sworn says that he was present on the 29th day of August A.D. 1849 at Rocky Point as stated in the foregoing memorial of William Gage and knows that the skirmish was commenced and continued and resulted as is stated in his said memorial and further sayeth not.
Wm. W. Wilkinson
Subscribed and sworn to before me Feb. 19th A.D. 1855.
James Taylor judge of probate for Polk County Oregon
Territory of Oregon   )
County of Polk           )  s.s.
    I James Taylor judge of the probate court within and for Polk County Oregon do hereby certify that the within affidavits of William Gage and William Wilkinson were subscribed and sworn to before me at Luckiamute in said county Feb. 19th A.D. 1855.
    In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of said county the 19th of Feb. A.D. 1855.
(  seal  )                          James Taylor judge of probate
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 702-706.




Washington Co March 2 [1855]
Genl Palmer
    Dear Sir
        I do not know whether this will please you or not; it may not be my business to say any [thing] for the Indians at present, but hoping for the better, as I have nothing to do with them.
    I have been gone for four days. They have not sent you anywhere, and part of them came last evening to see me, and this morning old Six came and insisted on me to write you informing you as their chief and their great friend that Jam and the rest of the Indians below has made up friends by Jam paying one horse to the husband of the woman. Six wants you to ask Dave if Che-hi-ell had not employed Dave to stab him, as it is reported among them that Dave had told some of the boys so, and if so Dave will only pay him one horse and the horse that Jam pays Six don't want that it shall be for Dave himself. He wishes you answer by the bearer if you please and so greatly oblige.
    P.S. Old Six buys 2 bushels of oats. He will never drink rum anymore if you should send an order for the same. He could get it here some please.
    I was down at Columbia Co. and just arrived home. Our old friend Jo [Lane] is in the lead of Pratt. Campbell of Portland told me on Monday that five counties have given in the majority to Lane. I have been busy while I was down, and I succeeded in getting more votes for him than I [knew] existed. Please to let me know in the answer of the above whether I should say anything to those Indians. I don't want to mix myself where I am not wanted--and oblige
Your humble
    Servant John Flett
Joseph Lane Papers



Office Indian Agency
    Rogue River March 3 / 55
Dear Sir
    I hereby acknowledge the receipt of your communication of Febry. 19th. Yours of the 15th has not come to hand. I learned today by a gentleman from your vicinity that you had entrusted to him some communications designed for this office, which he has lost. I trust you will supply the deficiency at the earliest opportunity. I have received the bill of goods, and as soon as the Indians can be collected together on the reserve shall distribute them according to your instructions. I have not seen the goods yet but learn from Mr. Jewett they were at his house. I have been on the reserve for several days past, and am forced to say things are not progressing as well as could be wished. Some ten days since Mr. Metcalfe went up the valley on a surveying expedition and has not returned yet. I procured a man to go and work in his stead. I did not see him before he left, but understand he assigned as a cause for leaving [that] he was compelled to make some money. I found he had not sown more than twenty-five acres of wheat. I have had some ten acres more sown since, and there remains wheat enough to sow about five acres more.
    This is about all the preparation I have seen for farming, which will not be adequate to the wants of the Indians, and unless this should be enclosed by a good fence it will be wholly destroyed, and I see no preparation being made to fence it yet. I understood from Metcalfe that he made some few rails, but not enough to fence it. And in this connection permit me to say that unless there is funds to pay, the people of this valley will neither work nor sell one dollar's worth on the credit of the government. Those of our citizens who furnished seed (and that at a low rate) one year ago have not received any compensation yet, which will deter others from being similarly caught. If it be in the power of the Superintendent to plant them a field of potatoes, it should by all means be done, but I doubt if any quantity of seed could be procured in this valley as many of the potatoes used about Jacksonville during the past winter were packed in from Umpqua on mules and sold at from 8 to 10 cts. per lb. As that esculent forms their principal article of diet, it would be a source of regret to have to deprive them of it.
    In conclusion I will say that I apprehend no fear of any Indian difficulties if our government will only go to a small expense to provide for them some of the actual necessaries of life. I have seen the Applegate Indians. They are willing to go and live on the reserve if they had any assurance of receiving assistance towards their support. They say they would most certainly starve to death if they had to remain on the reserve all the time, and not suffered to resort to their usual hunting grounds. The settlers on Applegate are very apprehensive of danger [during] the coming summer and are constantly raising some exciting story, but I found the Indians peaceably disposed and desirous of living in good faith according to the terms of the treaty.
Very respectfully
    Fraternally yours
        Geo. H. Ambrose
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 21.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 148-149.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 3rd 1855
Dear Sir
    Your favor of the 10th ultimo by the hand of Mr. Grover reached this office during my absence, and I have been until now prevented [from] answering it.
    The difficulty spoken of on Applegate Creek I hope may not disturb the harmony of the settlement. The determination of the settlers to cause the immediate removal of the Indians to the reserve is much regretted, as with [the] limited amount of their annuity it would be utterly impossible to subsist them. In my recent letter to you I spoke of this matter and expressed a hope that the Indians would be permitted to remain at points where they can procure food. This is particularly desirable until we know the action of the Senate on the late treaty with them. Should it be ratified, of which I have no doubt, and appropriations made to carry it into effect, we can then provide means of subsistence for the Indians on the reserve.
    In reply to your inquiry as to the prospect of funds to meet current expenses, I have to say that I anticipate the arrival of funds to meet the current expenses of this Superintendency for the half year ending 30th June next by the next or following mail, and immediately on the receipt you will be supplied with an amount deemed sufficient to meet your liabilities.
    The outstanding claims in your district are mostly chargeable to treaty stipulations, and to be paid out of an appropriation made as per second clause, article third of treaty of 10 Sept. 1853. No part of this appropriation has reached me. Notice has been given that a warrant for three thousand dollars of that appropriation had been drawn by the Secretary of the Interior on the Treasury Department. The draft has not been received; it is presumed it was lost with the mail on the ill-fated Southerner. The value of improvements made by land claimants on the reserve is to be paid out of this five thousand-dollar appropriation . Not having received the report of the commissioners, I am unable to determine the proportions required for that object. A considerable amount has already been advanced the Indians as a loan from other appropriations which must be refunded out [of] the first remittances for that object. It is hoped, however, an amount may be left sufficient to pay all legitimate claims.
    I have not yet determined the district to which I shall assign Mr. Metcalfe. In the meantime he will remain with you as farmer for the Indians until definite arrangements are made. The regulations provide the assigning to duty as sub-agent in the district designated and assigned to an agent. His present salary being the same as that of sub-agent, it will be unimportant  to him. The interpreter's salary is fixed by law at five hundred dollars per annum and is designed to cover all expenses as such as are actually incurred whilst traveling in the discharge of duty.
    The regulations also require that preferences should be given to Indians if these can be found competent and trustworthy. This will apply as well to interpreters as to all other employees.
    You of course will be allowed one interpreter. The affixed copy of Revised Regulations which will be turned over to you by Mr. Culver will exhibit the forms of vouchers, abstracts &c. You will also receive circulars directing agents to make monthly reports of the condition of their agency &c. Abstracts and vouchers in duplicate for each quarter's expenditures with account current will be sent up to this office at the close of each quarter. Be particularly cautious and incur no expense not absolutely demanded as a means of maintaining peace.
    As far as possible encourage the Indians to labor on the reserve in such manner as to secure them means of subsistence for the coming winter. Teach them to rely on their own labor as the surest guarantee of guarding against want. They need not expect the government to pay for all the labor done on the reserver. There can be no objection to them working for the settlers, and often in fact this should be encouraged, but the agent should see that they are paid a fair consideration for such labor.
    It has occurred to me by a little management the Indians might be induced to reside on the reserve if encouragement were held out by supplying them with tools and suitable implements for mining, the expense of which to be paid out of the proceeds of their labor. There is but little doubt that points may be selected on the reserve which would pay liberally and by selecting a suitable person to superintend the business they may be comfortably provided for.
    The business might be managed in such a way as to expend the amount of proceeds for such objects as would tend to encourage them in remaining on the reserve, subsisting their families, erecting buildings, purchasing stock &c.
    I submit these suggestions for your considerations. If you could even prevail on one band to make the trial, I should not doubt its success in ultimately bringing them all into it.
    It is of the utmost importance that the twentieth and twenty-first sections of the Intercourse Act of 1834 be rigidly enforced. This as you will notice has reference to prohibiting the sale of spirits to Indians.
    I am now awaiting the arrival of funds to enable me to proceed with treaties. My first movement will be in the Port Orford district.
Respectfully your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Geo. H. Ambrose Esqr.
    Indian Agent
        Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 151-153.



Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 8th 1855
Dear Sir
    Your letter of the 15th ultimo making inquiry relative to the mode in which the improvements on the Umpqua River were to be made, whether by contractor or otherwise, has been received, and in reply I have to say that till advised of the ratification of the treaty by the President and Senate of the United States and appropriations made to carry it into effect no definite information can be given. It is presumed however that the improvements will be made under the superintendence of persons selected for that object, as by such an arrangement very much of the labor could be performed by the Indians, who would then have a stimulus and inducement to remove to and reside on the reserve. For beside the advantage of experience in thus laboring, they would be paid a fair value for such labor, and thus make the reserve a place of attraction rather than otherwise.
    In reply to your inquiry relative to an agent for that district, I would say that the Umpqua District is attached to the Rogue River Agency, and it is not likely that there will be a necessity for the appointment of an agent or sub-agent specially for the Umpqua Valley.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Joseph Knott Esq.
    Winchester Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 142-143.



    Robert J. Metcalfe, of Jackson County, has been appointed Indian agent, in place of Wm. J. Martin, resigned.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, March 10, 1855, page 2


The Rogue River Indians
        to Schieffelin & Walker
1854
August 14 to 1   blanket 5.00
     "   " 3 lbs. bread .75
     "   " 10   " flour 1.60
     " 15 3   " bread .75
     "   " cash to buy medicine 4.00
     " 16 [lbs.] sugar 1.35
     "   " 2   " bread .50
     " 17 3   " coffee 1.12
     " 19 2   " sugar .60
     "   " 1   " tobacco 1.00
Sept. 11 7   " flour 1.50
     "   " ¼ tea .25
     "   " coffee .60
     " thread .25
     " 12 1 pint molasses .50
     "   " 3 lbs. bread .75
     "   " 1   " sugar .25
     " 14 1   " beans .25
     "   " 3   " bread .75
     " 15 3     " .75
     "   " coffee .60
     " 16 3   " bread .75
     "   " 2   " sugar .50
     "   "   " tea .50
     " 18 1   " rice .37
     " 20 1 blanket 4.00
Oct.   8 2   " sugar .60
     " 20 1   " dried apples .30
     " 26 18   " beef   3.60
34.59
$34
    Received at Schieffelin & Walker's ranch Jackson Co. Oregon T. of S. H. Culver thirty four dollars, in full of the above account which were furnished to Jo the principal chief of the Rogue River Valley Indians & his family at the dates mentioned in the above account.
C. Schieffelin
Joseph C. Walker
March 10, 1855
    The undersigned state on honor that they reside in the Rogue River Valley and adjoining the Indian reserve; that the said Schieffelin & Walker did furnish provisions to the said chief and his family, on Mr. Culver's order, at the time mentioned. That said chief and family were sick and in a destitute condition; that in the time mentioned his wife & two daughters died. And that we believe the above amount was expended in a humane and judicious manner.
Milo Caton
James Savage
N. F. McCord [?]
D. N. Birdseye
Wm. Miller
I. Young
    I certify, on honor, that the within account is correct & just; that said chief and three members of his family were sick at the time they were furnished and in a destitute condition; that the Indians requested that their chief might be provided for out of the proceeds of grass cut on their Reserve.
S. H. Culver
Late Indian Agent
$100
    Received at Schieffelin's and Walker's ranch Jackson County Oregon T. this 10th day of March 1855 of S. H. Culver one hundred dollars in full for building and completing a house on the Indian Reserve at or near Evans Creek for Jo late principal chief of the Rogue River tribe of Indians and family.
C. Schieffelin
Joseph C. Walker
(Duplicate)
    The undersigned state, on honor, that they reside in the Rogue River Valley and adjoining the Indian Reserve; that they know the house referred to in the above receipt to have been built; that it was contracted for by Mr. Culver while the above named Indian chief Jo was living & while he was very sick. That the said chief was suffering for want of a shelter; that the Indians were anxious to have a house built for their sick chief and that we believe the above amount was expended in a manner humane and judicious.

Milo Caton
James Savage
N. F. McCord
D. N. Birdseye
Wm. Miller
I. Young
    I certify on honor that the house referred to in the above receipt was built at the request of the said Indian chief Jo and all of his people; that said chief was very sick at the time and would suffer for want of shelter unless it was built. That early in the year 1854 said chief and his people requested me to sell grass that grew on their Reserve and the said chief frequently said that he preferred to have the proceeds used to relieve Indians that might, by sickness or otherwise, be in in a suffering condition. And as he and his family was soon reduced to such a condition, after having been of great service to both races in keeping peace, the public good and humanity required that he should be provided for out of this fund.
S. H. Culver
Late Indian Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 40-46.



Rogue River Valley O.T.
    March 13th 1855
General Palmer
    Dr. Sir
        When you were here last fall you requested me to administer medicine to Chief Jo and his family when sick. Since that time I have been called on by others for medical aid, but in almost every case I have refused for the reason that I have had no assurance that I should get any compensation. I have no objection to rendering them such medical aid as may be useful to them, provided I can have an assurance from you that I shall be paid for it.
    Suffer me if you please to inquire of you whether it is possible for you to make any arrangement by which money can be obtained to pay off the claims standing against the Indian funds for planting potatoes. I know not the condition of others, but as for myself I am suffering great loss for the want of my money. I am now compelled to pay five % per month in consequence of not getting the money that is due me for what I did for the Indians last summer. I hope you will find it convenient to pay over the money soon inasmuch as by doing it you will confer a favor that will be remembered, by doing it you will enable me to release myself from obligation to others from whom I bought seed potatoes. They also need their money very badly and would be much relieved by getting it.
    I hope you will favorably entertain these requests and oblige me.
Yours truly
    Wm. Miller
P.S. Please write immediately.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 167-168.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 16th 1855
Sir
    I have omitted at the proper date to report for the quarter ending 31st December 1854 the manner in which the agents and sub-agents within this Superintendency have discharged their duties.
    Agent R. R. Thompson of the northeastern or Umatilla Agency District appears to be a faithful and efficient officer. The enclosed reports and letters marked A. B. C. were received at this office much later than their dates would seem to indicate. An absence of any regular mail facilities may account in part at least for the lateness of their reception.
    Agent Nathan Olney received his appointment as special agent Oct. 14th, 1854 and his commission as Indian agent December 16th, 1854. The enclosed letters marked D. & E. are the only official communications pertaining to that quarter. I regard him a faithful and efficient agent.
    Late agent S. H. Culver claims salary for this quarter, but having been suspended for reasons previously assigned is regarded as not being entitled to it.
    Sub-agent W. W. Raymond has failed to make reports at the proper dates, on account of his omission to obtain the proper vouchers. His accounts in part remain unsettled since entering on the duties of his office.
    He is reported an honest man, but lacks that energy of character deemed requisite to ensure a faithful performance of duty. The district of Astoria in which he is located is less important than any other in this Superintendency, and it is believed so soon as treaties are entered into with the bands in that district no injury would result to the public service by abolishing that sub-agency.
    Edwin P. Drew, special sub-agent, and subsequently sub-agent by appointment, has discharged his duties with efficiency.
    Special sub-agent Benjamin Wright, assigned to duty in the Port Orford District, is quite a useful man in that district and has done much to restrain reckless persons and maintain peace. A copy of my communication assigning him to duty is herewith enclosed, marked F. Copies of his letters to me 17th September and November 19th are also enclosed marked G. and H. Other letters have subsequently been received which will be noticed in my next report, indicating a state of quietness.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1004-1006.



Rogue River Valley March 16 / 55
Dear Sir
    I am informed that it is your intention to visit the Indians in this valley sometime this present spring. My object in troubling you with this letter is to request you to inform me whether it will not be possible at the time you visit the valley to make such arrangements as to be enabled to pay me that part of my salary as Ind. agent yet due & about which there is no difference of opinion as to my right to receive it. I presume there has been during the past session of Congress an appropriation made to meet the arrearages of the Ind. Department in Oregon. If such is the case, my pecuniary obligations are such that before the appropriation will probably be forwarded here I shall be under the necessity of selling all my personal property at a very great sacrifice to meet my liabilities. In fact, unless I can get a part that is due me from government within the next two months I shall be entirely used up. If you can possibly assist me you will confer a very great favor & place me under lasting obligations.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esq. Supt. &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 20.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 167.



Office Superintendent Indian Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. March 16th 1855
Dear Sir
    In your communication of the 3rd inst. you suggest the necessity of planting a potato crop, but that it will be difficult to obtain the requisite seed. I had expected that a quantity sufficient for such purposes had been saved from the crop raised on the reserve, as I especially charged the matter to Mr. Metcalfe and urged its necessity and doubt not but that on inquiry you will find it has been done.
    In the absence of funds, I am really at a loss to determine on the course to pursue in regard to fencing the wheat crop. It will not do to depend upon amounts from former appropriations to meet such expenditures; it must either come out of [the] next annuity or be done by the Indians themselves--unless the recent arrangement with them and the treaty with the Illinois and Deer Creek bands should be ratified and appropriations made by Congress to carry them into effect; in that event such improvements might be paid for out of that appropriation. I hope to be advised as to the action upon those treaties by the first of April, but in the meantime the crops must be enclosed or the amount already expended will be valueless, and I think it will be well to obtain the assent of the chiefs to permit a part of the next annuity to be expended in the fencing [of] the crops. Should this be obtained you might employ one white man to take the lead in the matter and hire the Indians to do the balance, agreeing to pay them according to the value of labor performed by them, payment to be made as soon as remittances are forwarded.
    As a matter of course it will be difficult getting any white man to perform the labor unless means are placed in your hands to pay promptly, and equally unreasonably to expect Indians to do such labor unless provided with means of subsistence whilst engaged in it. Our zeal in providing for the welfare of the Indians have induced the contracting liabilities in the accomplishment of that object, in advance of the reception of requisite funds--and in order to cut off all further necessity for such expenditures I think it will be well to divide out among such of the different members of the bands treated with on the 10th Sept. 1853 as will agree to fence and secure the wheat sown or ground plowed--each family to have the benefit of that portion of the crop assigned and secured by them respectively. It might be well, however, to retain as much as will be required for seed, the expense of securing which to be paid out of annuity.
    In order to arrive at and make an equitable decision, it would be necessary to ascertain how many are willing and will enter upon the work. The Indians have often been told that whatever proportion of the annuity was expended in farming operations would be alone shared by those residing on the reserve, and by dividing out the crop as indicated either to individuals or bands as you  may think proper may be a stimulus sufficient to induce them to aid in procuring means of subsistence. There may be remnants of bands or families who are utterly unable to perform the requisite labor whom if residents on the reserve should be provided for by the field retained under the control of the agent.
    The use of teams and tools belonging to the tribe should be shared equitably among them. The Indians who have performed labor in putting in this crop will of course be paid out of the common fund.
    The suggestions here thrown out are submitted for your consideration, and if you deem the plan a feasible one you will act upon it, and upon the whole it may be found much easier dividing out the ground than the crop after it is gathered, besides it will throw the responsibility of securing the crop on their own shoulders, and leave to the extent of this expenditure to be yet incurred in fencing and gathering the harvest to be expended in providing other necessaries for the tribe.
    It is a very natural conclusion that Metcalfe would seek other means of obtaining the necessaries of life than that afforded by laboring on the reserve, as no funds have come into my hands from which I could make him a remittance. I did anticipate something by last mail, but I am entirely without funds; no portion of the funds for the half year ending 30th June next has been remitted, and we are now nearly to the end of the first quarter.
    I fear the movement of leading men in the Territory to cause my removal may have its influence in causing this delay. In addition to the liabilities already incurred in this quarter there is a large amount of deficiencies in former quarters unprovided for that should have been long since remitted. It is presumed a deficiency bill will have passed Congress to meet these expenditures, and in such an event it will relieve this office from great embarrassment.
    Upon an examination of Mr. Culver's papers I find a credit given to Mr. Drew for certain articles furnished the Indian Department in 1853, but there are no prices attached to the articles so as to enable me to arrive at the amount due him. Among the articles I notice jerked beef, which I am of opinion was jerked from that bought by me of Mr. Ross, at the time of holding the treaty at Table Rock. I paid him for two and a half beeves, the half beef being used at Fort Alden, a portion of which was jerked; the other half of this beef was to be paid for by the quartermaster, as it was used at Fort Alden by the officers quartered at that station, with whom I boarded whilst there.
    If Mr. Culver made arrangements for provisions for his own use and interpreters after I left the camp, it was upon his own responsibility, unless indeed it was used whilst traveling in the discharge of his official duties. The flour, soap &c. was not used at the time of holding the treaty--as none was given to the Indians--but Culver may have given some after I left; if so, he must produce the proper certificate. As yet it is only certified by himself--wanting the signatures of interpreter and other responsible witnesses as required by the regulations.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Geo. H. Ambrose Esqr.
    Indian Agent
        Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 154-156.



Port Orford O.T.
    March 20th 1855
Dear Sir
    Yours of the 14th of February came to hand on the 11th instant, accompanied by a copy of the laws and regulations, though previously I had arrested Mr. H. C. Irish for trading arms, ammunition and liquor to Indians, which was creating a great disturbance both among whites and Indians. He resided at Cape Blanco, which place he had deserted and was on his way to Crescent City. I followed him to Rogue River, where I arrested him and gave him into the hands of the sheriff to guard at night, from whom he escaped and had gone out on the Galice Creek trail up Rogue River, where in all probability he will perish; at all events he is out of this country.
    At present everything throughout the district goes on peaceably, and I have always endeavored to do justice to both whites and Indians, and punish wrongdoers as they merited without showing partiality. I however have had little to do in that way, as there is seldom any complaint. I do not think that the amount stolen or destroyed by Indians throughout this district since last fall would exceed twenty dollars, and in all cases where property has been taken or destroyed it has been returned or paid for by them or their people voluntarily, so I think they are improving rapidly and with proper management will eventually become an honorable people.
    Many of them have been short of provisions and have had many temptations set before them--quite a number wish to engage in farming this spring and imitate the whites, and to live as they do is their greatest desire, and some say they would prefer living among them rather than have a country to themselves and live among their own people and have to give up their old homes.
    I have always endeavored to convince them that it would be to their advantage to have a home of their own separate from the whites, and where the whites would not be allowed to intrude on them. Many of them agree with me, but had much rather have the whites removed than to remove themselves. Such is their argument generally--each little band appears to be so strongly attached to the small spot they now occupy and think they could not live in any other place--no matter only a few miles from their present homes--would suit them, only in certain seasons of the year, and for a short time only. Such is their ideas, which amounts almost to superstition, concerning their old villages which is all to them that they desire, rather than be deprived of them. But they may think better of it in time.
    I shall start in a few days to the southern part of the district, and do everything in my power to induce them to accept any proposition you may make them, and particularly concerning their removal and shall be with them all the time until you arrive, and I think by using every exertion they may be induced to accept a proposition of removal, though I think it depends something on the country as to whether it would suit them or not, as they cannot break off from their old customs of living.
    I expect to see you soon, and in the meantime I will be busy.
Your obedient servant
    Ben Wright
        Spl. Indian Agent
            Port Orford
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 238-239.



Jacksonville O.T. March 28th 1855
Dear General,
    Yours of March 3rd has just been received which gives me entire satisfaction in regard to the salary expenses &c. and I have concluded to accept the appointment. I have taken the oath of office and had my bond filled, which has yet to be signed by a U.S. judge "according to my instructions," who has to certify that the sureties are good.
    Capt. L. F. Mosher will hand you the bond. He will be at the convention as one of the delegates from Jackson Co. Our whole delegation go for Lane. If Pratt should be nominated he will not get fifty votes in Jackson County.
    I had to leave the reserve to make money to buy provisions but am now at work on the reserve where I will remain until I hear from you. I should like to visit your part of the country, and if you will advise it I will come down at once. I should be pleased to accompany you this summer, but am perfectly willing to go to any station you may assign me; I have about thirty-five acres of wheat on the upper end of the reserve, which was sown previous to the 20th of February and is now growing finely. I have been making rails but in doing so I am neglecting the potato crop, which should be planted early. I hired a man by the consent and approbation of Dr. Ambrose to go down on the lower end of the reserve to put in a crop of wheat and potatoes, which will make about fifty acres of wheat. He works at sixty dollars per month and boards himself. He will either fence it by the job or by the month, as the agent may think best. Help is indispensable on the upper end of the reserve, for I cannot plant the potatoes and fence it in time. I have about 85 or 100 bushels of seed potatoes in good order.
    Capt. Smith thinks I should be allowed the salary of agent there from the time Culver left up to the time Dr. Ambrose accepted the appointment, as I had all the duty of the agent to attend to. I made four or five trips to Applegate and elsewhere and actually expended about sixty dollars of my own money, but this is with you, and I ask nothing more than just what I paid out unless you are disposed to allow it. Culver is working like a horse for Pratt but his labor is all in vain. He is not the man to accomplish anything.
Your most obt. servt.
    R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 24.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 168-169.



Reserve Rogue River April 3rd 1855
    Survey of the land broken on Reserve for potatoes in the summer of 1854 by Brownlee and others.
    The piece next to my house or the most northerly piece, measured 5 chains wide, and 18 chains long, contains 9 acres; the next two pieces measured as follows, that lying on the west side of the branch measured 20 chains long and 6.50 chains wide, contains 13 acres; that on the east side of the branch measured 18.50 chains long and 7 chains wide 12 acres, 3 roods and 32 rods. Total amount broken at Table Rock, 34 a., 3 r., 32 rods. That broken at the mouth of Evans Creek measured 23 acres. Total broken on the Reserve 57 acres, 3 roods and 32 rods.
R. B. Metcalfe
    Surveyor
"A true copy."
    C.F.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Document E of No. 391.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1081-1082.




Port Orford April the 6th / 55
Dear Sir,
    The steamer has just arrived. In haste I write a line. I have just returned from below and have everything right with the Indians. They say they are ready and willing at present to vacate their present homes for any that may be chosen for them. This is the case with the majority, and there now remains only the fewest number who say positively that they will never leave. But I think that they will think differently when I can be able to tell them what will be done, and what will not be done, that is, with a thorough explanation they will be perfectly satisfied with the course which will be taken, whereas yet they have nothing positive, only that removal in time is certain, and I think that everything will be right by the time that you arrive, which I am in hopes will be soon.
In haste yours truly
    Ben Wright
        Sub-Indian Agent
            Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 187.



Winchester April 9, 1855
Mr. Palmer,
    Sir,
        The reason that I address these lines to you is this, the Indian agent for this part of the country. I know not who he is or where he holds forth. I have made some inquiries and have been told by some that it was a Mr. Drew living at the mouth of the Umpqua, and by others that it was a Bob Metcalfe, a miner near Jacksonville. Under these circumstances I came to the conclusion to drop a few lines to you.
    Four weeks ago yesterday I was riding and looking up my cattle and came upon three Indians in the act of killing one of my calves. I hit one on the head with my gun and told him to leave this part of the wigwam [sic--"Umpqua"?]. I noticed one of my calves yesterday very much injured on the back and leg. From all appearances it has been done by foul play. I want to know if there is no law to prevent Indians from committing depredations on our property. If there is no law and no way to get recompense for our property, we will have to take the remedy into our own hands. Governments are set up to protect the rights of the people, and when it fails the people have to protect themselves.
    Some of my neighbors wanted to take summary vengeance on the insolent natives. My advice was to keep cool and see if the proper authorities will attend to their cases. Mr. Huntley that lives four miles above me on the Umpqua says he has reason to believe that the Indians have killed several of his stock. Please write me that I may know how long we are to be left without any protection for our property and whether there is any chance to get recompense for loss sustained from the Indians.
Daniel Stewart
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 207.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        April 10 1855
Sir:
    Your letters of the 12th and 23rd January last and enclosures, relative to the purchase of additional goods in the Atlantic cities for shipment to Oregon, having been considered, I have now to inform you that instructions have been given to have the articles for presents at negotiations called for by your said letter of the 23rd purchased at once. The route by which they will be forwarded will depend on the relative expense of the different routes, as compared with the time required for effecting the transportation.
    If the annuity goods of 1853 for the Rogue Rivers and the Indians parties to the treaties of 18th and 29th November last can be forwarded so rapidly as to reach you in June, or by July 1st, I shall give further consideration to the proposition to procure the articles scheduled by you, as per your letter of January 12th.
    The late appropriations having been made for the fiscal year beginning the 1st July next, the Department might be hereafter involved in difficulty if they are used now, as the subsequent appropriations might not be made so early in the year as to be available for confirming the annuity payments regularly hereafter at the same time in each year.
    The appropriation for "negotiating" &c. being also applicable for "paying the first installment of annuities," could you not make proper arrangements, so that of the amounts appropriated by act of the 3rd of March, for the Indians party to the treaties, be invested by the 1st September and the annuity goods shipped to reach you early in the spring; the payments could be made to the Indians during the seasons of the year at which the inland transportation could be conveniently effected?
    You will respond to this inquiry immediately on the receipt of this letter.
    As you have asked in another letter of the 12th January, for the purchase of nails, glass, locks, hinges and sets of tools for the erection &c. of the shops and buildings on the reserves, as per treaties of the 18th and 29th November last, and it is presumed they cannot easily be had with you at fair prices, I have also directed that they be bought and sent to you with the articles for presents at negotiations.
    Of the appropriation of $17,300 made for buildings &c. under the treaty of 18th November and $7,620 for same objects under the treaty of the 29th November, I have this day requested the Secretary of the Interior to cause the following terms to be remitted to you, for which you will account under heads of appropriations, as follows:
    "For fulfilling the articles negotiated November 18th 1854, with certain bands of Shasta Scotans and Umpqua Indians" seven thousand dollars, $7,000."
    "For fulfilling the articles with the Umpquas & Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley, Oregon, of the 29th November, 1854, $3,000."
Very respectfully
    Yr. obdt. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Dayton, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 47.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley
        April 10th '55
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to transmit to you the following report of the condition of this agency for the quarter ending March 31, 1855. You will see by the returns and accompanying papers a correct statement of the amounts of property received, disbursed and on hand.
    Our relations with the Indians are of the most peaceful kind, and I have no doubt of its continuance. They seem to be well pleased with the interest and care manifested by our government in their behalf. They are quite delighted with the agricultural improvements which are being made for their benefit, and already prefer the fruits of the husbandman to their once precarious mode of obtaining a livelihood. It would certainly be for the benefit of the tribe (if their annuities would admit it) to farm on a much larger scale. If a sufficiency could be raised on their reserve to keep them well fed we need never apprehend any fears of Indian troubles. The present year they will have about forty acres of wheat, which now looks well. I shall endeavor during the coming month to plant them a crop of potatoes and corn, which will be all that can be done with [the] limited amount of money at my disposal.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Geo. H. Ambrose
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 203.  A copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1119-1121.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. April 13th 1855
Dear Sir
    I notice by the returns of late Indian Agent S. H. Culver that you have in numerous instances signed the vouchers transmitted to this office as a witness to the payment of money to interpreters, to Indians for services, and the delivery of goods to Indians on account of treaty stipulations &c.
    My object in addressing you is to inquire whether in signing the papers you actually saw the amounts paid and articles delivered at the dates specified, to the persons named, or whether you merely witnessed the signatures of the persons on their acknowledgment that it was their marks.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Jno. S. Chamberlin Esqr.
    Fort Lane
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 174.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. April 13th 1855
Dear Sir
    In examining the abstracts and vouchers, quarterly returns &c. of Agent Culver I notice a large majority of such papers as require a witness signed by Jno. S. Chamberlin. I write you for the purpose of ascertaining the character and standing of Mr. Chamberlin and whether his statements can be relied upon.
    The manner in which Mr. Culver has distributed annuity goods to Indians, especially the flour and a few other articles, and his mode of paying his interpreters has induced me to address Mr. Chamberlin with a view of ascertaining whether he has actually seen the articles delivered, or merely witnessed the signatures of the parties.
    Presuming that Mr. Chamberlin was in the service under your command, I beg the favor of a reply at your earliest convenience.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Capt. A. J. Smith
    Comdr. Fort Lane
        Jackson Co. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 175.



Office Indian Agent
    April 14th 1855
Dear Sir
    Since I last wrote you I have been kept quite busy indeed, attending to calls from Applegate and Galice Creek. Although nothing serious has occurred, and I do believe there is no harm meditated against the whites by them, a company had organized at Galice Creek to chastise the Indians. Fortunately Captain Smith and myself arrived in time to have a talk with the Indians which explained things satisfactorily. It seems that two white men had induced the Indians to rob a camp of Chinese in hopes that that would drive the Chinese away, in doing of which the Indians obtained some good revolvers which alarmed some of the miners, who supposed they were stolen to be used against them. They accordingly went in pursuit of the Indians. The matter was finally compromised by Chief George whipping the Indians who committed the theft and the whites driving away the two white men who had been the cause of the difficulty. A similar case took place on Applegate Creek which resulted in Tyee Bill being shot in the shoulder, though not serious. The matter was amicably settled and the Indians agreed to leave Applegate and remain for the present in Illinois Valley & on Deer Creek. They cannot be induced to stay on the reserve without being furnished food & in fact I believe at this season of the year if they were compelled to stay on the reserve they would most certainly starve to death.
    I transmit to you a survey of the grounds broken by Brownlee, Miller & others. There are no papers in the office showing who was the original contractor, but I learn that Hughes (who owns the mill near the reserve) was the first contractor and that he employed Brownlee to do the work, he (Hughes) furnishing the team and seed.
    The horses turned over by Mr. Culver, late agent, are worthless. One--the little gray--was shoulder strained last fall, from which he has not recovered; the other has been used up by the Indians. I have endeavored to do something with them but cannot. I have turned them out on the reserve and am using my own.
Respectfully yours
    Geo. H. Ambrose
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 193-194.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1110-1113.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. April 18th 1855
Sir,
    I send by today's mail a tin case containing a map of Oregon Territory which I have had executed.
    This map of course is not presumed to be accurate in all respects, but it approximates as near to correctness as the means in our possession would permit.
    The portions within the limits of the actual surveys may be regarded as accurate, Mr. Belden, the projector, having access to all the plots of surveys in the office of the Surveyor General. Other portions are in accordance with the most reliable information, but actual surveys may prove many inaccuracies.
    The boundaries of the several tribes from their rude and indefinite manner of fixing boundaries can only approximate correctness.
    I have delineated on the map the boundary of the proposed reserve on the coast north of Umpqua River designed for the Indians of the entire seaboard of Oregon, those of this valley and perhaps of Umpqua Valley.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1002-1003.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. April 19th 1855
Dear Sir
    I desire you to visit me at my office at the earliest possible moment. It is likely however that you can return prior to the first of June, but of this I cannot speak positive, as I shall be governed by the character of instructions which I anticipate by the next mail.
    It is possible that I shall require you to accompany me to the interior. The 20th May has been fixed upon for holding treaty with the tribes in Middle Oregon, after which I may proceed to the Blackfeet country on the headwaters of the Missouri River. I have not yet determined whether to have you accompany me, or remain in this valley, but I shall determine by the time you arrive here. You may possibly meet my messenger, whom I shall send out with funds.
    General Lane informs me that my treaties have been ratified, but I have received no official notice of that fact. I hope indeed it is so, and that appropriations have been made to carry them into effect. I expect Ambrose will be able to keep quiet the Indians of that valley.
    If you can obtain me any information relative to the claimants for property of whites located on the reserve I wish you to do so. Why should a man be allowed one hundred and twenty dollars for ten tons of hay merely cut and cocked on the reserve and the quantity guessed at. The amount awarded Evans for his fence and field near Joe's camp appears to me an outrage. Three hundred and fifty dollars for a little pale fence. I want all the information you are in possession of in reference to the value of all the improvements on the reserve. I am fearful the liberality of awards made by the commissioners will endanger the payment of them all, but the province of passing upon them does not belong to me, and I feel greatly relieved, for I do regard some of them as an outrage and a species of public plunder, unwarranted by even the color of justice. In saying this I do not wish to impugn the motives and acts of the commissioners, as they were undoubtedly governed by the evidence before them. This whole proceeding has astonished me. My impression is that the whole batch will be repudiated, but of this you need not speak, as it will be of no service to have my opinion known among your neighbors, but I am fearful there has been a screw loose.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
R. B. Metcalfe Esqr.
    Sub-Indian Agent
        Jacksonville
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 251-252.




Office Indian Agent
    April 21 1855
Dear Genl
    I had confidently hoped to meet with you in Salem on the 11th inst. but sickness in my family will prevent it, and as we have no mail again for two weeks I avail myself of this opportunity to send a few hastily written lines by private conveyance. All is peace and quiet.
    Metcalfe has returned, and gone to work on the reserve, and will survey the potato ground next week. I will send you the result by next mail. He had put away seed potatoes, nothing more. If it is possible for you to send me some funds do so by Capt. Ish & Miller. I would like if it would be
convenient for you to send that which is due me as commissioner at any rate. Metcalfe says he cannot possibly stay on the reserve longer than a return answer if he is not furnished with funds. Copies of your communication dated Feb. 15 came to hand; the original has never reached me, nor Metcalfe either. I must close, for Mr. Miller is in quite a hurry.
Respectfully yours
    Geo. H. Ambrose
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 25.



Salem 27th April 1855
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs O.T.
        Dear Sir,
            I have been informed that there was a claim of deceased Dr. Robert W. Rose, who was murdered by the Rogue River Indians on the eve of the Rogue River war. Said allowance was for money which was on his person at the time he was murdered, and for articles stolen from his house after his death. I am also informed that a man by the name of Peter Miller is endeavoring to obtain the amount so allowed or a part of it. I therefore wish to inform you and the Department that the amount allowed is claimed by his widowed wife and heirs, and that I am their authorized agent in this country to settle said Rose's estate and collect all moneys due him. You will please inform me when the money arrives which was allowed said estate that I may take the proper measures to obtain the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. L. Parrish
(Original transmitted to Comr. Ind. Affrs.)
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 208.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1101-1103.



Office Sub-Ind. Agt.
    Umpqua City, O.T. May 1st '55
Sir
    Representatives of most of the tribes within the bounds of Umpqua District have visited this agency within the past months anticipating seeing you & entering into treaties which they seem anxious to do in discernible terms. From the fact that they were disappointed it became necessary to purchase some goods which I did to the amount of some two hundred dollars to present to them from time to time.
    According to verbal instructions from you through my brother I shall remain at the agency at present.
Yours
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 41.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River May 4th
Dear Sir,
    An incident occurred a few days ago which I deem it my duty to lay before you at the earliest opportunity. A white person by the name of J. H. Miller shot an Indian under very aggravated circumstances. It seems from the Indian account of the affray that Miller came to their ranch in a very good humor as they supposed, and got in a scuffle with one of their number by the name of Jim. Jim proved to be the better man and threw him down, after which he got up, returned to the camp of some packers, got a revolver, immediately returned and deliberately shot the Indian and fled.
    I succeeded in taking him prisoner after several days search, and delivered him up to the sheriff, and as court is now in session I presume his trial will come off immediately. Although no white man witnessed the transaction, if our laws do not punish such offenders it will be impossible to prevent the Indians from committing some serious depredations.
    The difficulty occurred on Illinois River near sixty miles from Jacksonville. I necessarily incurred some expense in taking and conveying the prisoner to the proper authorities, which I trust the Department will have no hesitancy in allowing. It was absolutely necessary for the continuance of our peaceful relations that no pains should be spared for the apprehension of the offender, as those Illinois Indians are partially disaffected and but await a pretext to commence hostilities against the whites. I prevailed on the chief to accompany me and witness for himself that we were determined to do justice, and would treat white men who killed Indians as we did Indians who had killed white men.
    In conclusion allow me to say that if this treaty is observed in good faith by the whites, we have nothing to fear from the Indians. But this act of aggression committed by this individual is an isolated case, and there are certainly but few such individuals living, I trust none in this community. Millar [sic] had but recently arrived here. I will inform you of the result as soon as he may have his trial.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 201-202.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1122-1124.



INDIAN RESERVATION.
    Notice is hereby given that I have designated as an Indian reservation for the Coast and Willamette tribes, and such others as may hereafter be located thereon, the following described district of country, to wit:
    Beginning on the shore of the Pacific Ocean, at the mouth of a small stream about midway between the Umpqua and Siuslaw rivers, thence easterly to the ridge dividing the waters of these streams, and along said ridge on high land to the western boundary of the eighth range of townships west of the Willamette meridian, thence north on said boundary to a point due east of Cape Lookout, thence west to the ocean, and thence along [to] the place of beginning.
    The tract described presents few attractions to the white settler, while it is believed to be better adapted to the colonization of the Indians than any other portion of territory west of the Cascade Mountains affording so few facilities of settlement to our citizens.
    The object of this notice is to inform the public that this reservation will not be subject to settlement by whites.
JOEL PALMER,
    Supt. Indian Affairs.
Dayton, O.T., April 17, 1856.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 12, 1855, page 3



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley
        May 12, 1855
Dear Sir
    The person on trial for killing an Indian has been found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to two years imprisonment in the penitentiary. This was not entirely satisfactory to the Indians, but they express a willingness to abide the decision and suppose it is right.
    If it is the intention of the superintendent that the hay on the reserve should be sold, I desire to know in what manner it had better be disposed of, if by public notice to receive bids or by private sale. I have received several applications to sell, and as the haying season will soon be here I would like an answer to this immediately.
Yours respectfully
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 203.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1129-1130.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. May 14 1855
Sir,
    As directed by General Palmer, who set out yesterday for Middle Oregon, where he and Governor Stevens expect to meet the several tribes of Indians bordering the line dividing the two territories in council on the 20 inst., I transmit you by Colonel J. Taylor of Clatsop Plains the sum of seventeen hundred and sixty-five dollars and forty-five cents ($1765.45), which you will account for under the following heads:
      Salary of agent in Rogue River District $573.97
Salary of interpreter 191.50
Incidental expenses 1000.00
The amount will pay your own salary and that of your interpreter up to the 30th June next and will probably be ample for incidental expenses incurred by you within the same period.
    Enclosed are forms of receipt which you will sign and return to this office by Col. Taylor.
    You will accompany the vouchers covering salary of interpreter with the duplicate receipts of your interpreter for each quarter.
    No part of this remittance is applicable to the payment of the liabilities of the agency incurred during Mr. Culver's official term. Those claims will receive the attention of the Superintendent immediately on his return from the interior, which will probably occur about the first of June next.
    The appropriation for the erection of the three chiefs' houses on the reserve has been received. You are directed by the Superintendent to have the confederated bands & tribes interested in the reserve to concur in the selection of three principal chiefs for whom the houses will be at an early day erected. You however will take no steps in the erection of said buildings till further advised.
    You will be gratified to learn that all the treaties made by Gen. Palmer in Rogue River, Umpqua and Willamette valleys during last fall and winter have been ratified and the appropriations necessary for carrying them into effect made. No remittances for these objects however are yet received.
    You will render promptly full monthly returns of the condition of the Indians in your agency as required by the instructions of the Indian Bureau.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Edward R. Geary
            Clk. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 188-189.



Jackson County
    May 19, 1855
Dear Sir
    Some five or six weeks since I wrote you with reference to the claim I have against the government of the U.S. but have not received an answer.
    Will you do me the favor to write me at your earliest convenience, and inform me whether there was an appropriation made at the last session [of] Congress to pay off the indebtedness of the Ind. Department in Oregon. And what the prospect is of C. B. Gray, the late interpreter of this agency, and myself getting the money due us from government.
    Mr. Gray was appointed by me Oct. 15, 1851 and confirmed by the government Jany. 1, 1852 & served all the time I acted as agent & has never received any part of his salary. If we are never to get our pay it would be of a good deal of service to know the fact.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Superintendent &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 42.



Jackson County
    May 19, 1855
Dear Sir,
    Some five or six weeks since I wrote you with reference to the claim I have against the government of the U.S. but have not received an answer.
    Will you do me the favor to write me at your earliest convenience and inform me whether there was an appropriation made at the last session of Congress to pay off the indebtedness of the Indian Department in Oregon, and what the prospect is of C. B. Gray, the late interpreter of this agency, and myself getting the money due us from government.
    Mr. Gray was appointed by me Oct. 15, 1851 and confirmed by the government Jany. 1, 1852, and served all the time I acted as agent & has never received any part of his salary. If we are never to get our pay it would be of a good deal of service to know the fact.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Superintendent &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 208.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River May 21st 1855
Sir,
    I received your communication by the hand of Colonel Taylor, also the sum of seventeen hundred and sixty-five dollars and forty-seven cents ($1465.47), for which I have receipted.
    My interpreter is away from home at this time, and as the Colonel is [in] no hurry to return I will have to return your vouchers unaccompanied by the receipts of my interpreter. I will probably be able to get them this evening and transmit them to you by mail.
    On my quarterly return you will observe that my salary claimed amounts to two hundred dollars. If I have erred you will please correct my returns and inform me, and I will make the correction on the papers retained in this office.
    Also I wish you to inform me how to account for an overplus send me as pay for an interpreter. I employed him on the first of March from which date his salary commenced instead of the 10th of February for which I have receipted.
    Again the instructions sent me last spring in relation to the distribution of the annuities failed to reach me in time. The Indians were suffering severely for want of their clothing. I accordingly distributed them and the receipts which I took are not of the form which you afterwards sent me, nor do they call for the same amount. There was one coat less than the bill which I received called for (cost $5.92); other articles were on the bill unaccompanied by any price which I presume you understood. I merely mention the fact to know if the difference in the receipts which I took of the chiefs and those sent me from your office may not have occurred in this way. If it is at all important to change the form of the receipts, I will immediately do so by getting their signatures to the receipts sent me for forms, and transmit them to you by mail. I would of course supply the missing coat, and would prefer to do so rather than cause you any trouble in altering your accounts. I should be pleased to hear from you.
Very respectfully yours
    George H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
E. R. Geary
    Clk. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 209-210.



Department of the Interior
    Office Ind. Affairs
        May 23rd 1855.
Sir:
    Referring to my letter to you of the 10th ultimo, I have now to inform you that it was not found practicable to forward the annuity goods for 1855, for the Rogue River Indians and the tribes parties to the treaties of the 18th & 29th November last, from the Atlantic Coast.
    I now enclose to you duplicate of contents of packages, which also serves as an invoice of goods just purchased in Boston for the service of negotiating treaties &c. &c. under the act of 31st July 1854, amounting to $6,406.56, and in New York $802.25. I also enclose to you schedules of articles bought, as requested in your letter and enclosures, of January 12th, 1855.
                            The Table Rock Reserve, viz.                    
Building purposes $180.48
Tools 808.60
    For the Umpqua Reserve
Building purposes 180.36
Tools &c. 216.45
    I also enclose bill of lading evidencing the shipment of all the above goods per ship Competitor from Boston, bound for San Francisco, the goods addressed to you at Dayton, care of the Collector of the Port at San Francisco.
    You will take such steps as are necessary in regard to the transportation of the articles shipped from San Francisco to such destinations as you may determine, and for payment of the charges thereof you observe that the bill for freight to San Francisco will be paid here.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer, Esq.
    Supt. &c.
        Dayton
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 56.



Notice
    Notice is hereby given that sealed proposals will be received at the office of Indian agent for the Rogue River Agency district until the 1st day of June 1855 for the privilege of cutting the grass on the Indian reserve.
    The bidder is requested to state the price per ton which he is willing to pay, the quantity of hay which he wants and designate the piece of ground over which he wishes to cut.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
May 25th 1855
   

    A copy of notice for the sale of the hay on the Indian reserve.
G. H. A.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Indian Agent Rogue River
    May 31st 1855
Dear Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit to you the following monthly report for the month ending May 31st, 1855.
    Since my last communication, you will observe that my anticipations in relation to all future difficulties have not been entirely realized, although I am fully satisfied yet that there is no premeditated design on the part of the Indians to violate the treaty of peace.
    The difficulties which have recently occurred are no doubt the result of misunderstandings which are of frequent occurrence in consequence of the language being but imperfectly understood by both parties. Hence it frequently happens that contradictory statements are made which is immediately taken as evidence of guilt.
    In my last report to you, I gave you an account of a difficulty with the Illinois Indians in which one was killed by an individual by the name of Miller, of his trial, conviction and sentence to the penitentiary for the term of two years. This it seems did not satisfy the relations of the murdered man. A few months previous it seems some of the same tribe had gone on a visit to the Klamath country and happened to arrive about the beginning of an Indian war and were amongst the killed. About the same time or shortly after their chief "Gulliver" went on a visit to the coast and arrived just in time to lose his life in the first outbreak in that quarter, which with the one that Miller had killed makes seven of their number who have lost their lives within the space of as many months, and the Indians complain that all this was done without their having violated the treaty of peace. Their appearance amongst those hostile bands may have been accidental. Of this I am not able to say, but being caught in bad company, they were treated accordingly.
    They appealed to Bill, chief of the "Deer Creeks," to revolt and assist them in avenging their wrongs, as they considered they had been wronged. Bill refused, and they immediately left the country, and I have but little doubt of their being the principal perpetrators of the Indian Creek murder, the particulars of which I have not learned.
    From the best information I can get it seems that about one month ago there was a man by the name of Hills murdered in his house on Indian Creek, a tributary of the Klamath River, in California. The trail from the cabin of the murdered man led over towards the headwaters of Illinois, which it seems satisfied the persons in pursuit of the Indians that it was the Illinois or Deer Creek Indians, and they made a descent in that valley with a determination to kill every Indian they could find. Unfortunately the first Indian they saw was a son of "old chief John," who was engaged in assisting some white men in packing. He was fired at by the party and wounded, but made his escape. Upon his arrival in the Indian camp he reported the proceedings of the white men, which very much frightened the Indians, and they fled to the mountains for safety. They informed me they had not fired at any white persons, nor did not intend to, only in defense. I found them quite willing to remove to the lands which had been assigned them as a reservation. They expressed some fears of not being able to procure a living on the reserve, until their crops would mature. They were out of provisions and already in a suffering condition, and as it was absolutely necessary to remove them in order to avert a war, I procured them such provisions as their actual wants required while on their journey, and a sufficiency to last them a few days in their new home.
    A few of the Illinois Indians I fear were concerned in the murder of Hills; I have not been able to talk with them yet from the fact that I could not find them. Captain Smith of the U.S.A. has been in search of them for ten days past, and will continue the search until they are found and brought to justice. Some three or four head of cattle have been killed by them in Illinois Valley, but I trust Captain Smith's exertions will prevent the commission of any more depredations by them. The Applegates and Lower Rogue Rivers are all friendly and desire to remain so.
    I have found it necessary also to remove the Lower Rogue River Indians to the reservation.
    The crops on the reserve look well and present every indication of an abundant harvest.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 210-211.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1114-1118.




    There are apprehensions of serious Indian difficulties on Rogue River.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 2, 1855, page 2



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. June 9th 1855
Dear Sir
    Referring to your note of the 9th ult. I would say that a small amount of funds applicable to the payment of delinquent salaries of agents and interpreters has been received at this office.
    Also that an appropriation for the payment of general deficiencies of accounts in this Superintendency is believed to have been made at the last session of Congress, though this office is not yet officially notified of the fact.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Clk. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
A. A. Skinner Esq.
    Jackson Co. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 209.



Office Sub-Agency
    Umpqua City--Oregon
        June 1st 1855
Sir--
    Nothing has occurred within the bounds of this agency during the past month to disturb the general good feeling which has existed for the past year between the whites & Indians.
    Several slight difficulties have come under my observation between the Indians themselves which have been satisfactorily settled. One case yet remains unsettled--one which I fear may result badly. It is as follows.
    The chief at the mouth of the Umpqua has lost his wife & two children within the last month, and he asserts with others of his tribe that they came to their death by poison administered by a certain doctor (Indian) & unless he is permitted to murder the said doctor that he also will meet with the same fate. On the above grounds he wishes me to permit him to kill the said doctor. I have reasoned with him to no effect, and he now says that unless I say he may kill him that he will go to the Willamette to see you. From experience I have learned that the physician may die.
    Having stated the facts regarding the case I await your answer should you consider it of importance.
    The Coos bands of Indians I found suffering from syphilis. Drs. Toby & Bostman [sic--Boatman?] were treating them expecting the Department to allow their bills. I could not state positively whether it would or would not, but told them that under the circumstances I thought the Department would consider a reasonable bill for medical attendance of that character.
    On the eve of the 22nd of May [I] recd. a letter from Col. Taylor requesting me to intersect him at G. R. Strathan's Esq. on the Friday or Saturday following. On my arrival there on Saturday I learned that he had passed on into the Willamette, leaving $1400 with A. C. Gibbs Esq., which I have since recd., having filled & signed vouchers for the same which will be forwarded to your office by the next mail.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1131-1134.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River
        June 16th 1855
Dear Sir
    Since I wrote you last we have been in constant dread of war; it has however pretty well passed over and once more assumed a quiet aspect.
    I have all or nearly all of the Indians on the reserve, and am well satisfied they wish to remain quiet; they say they have nothing to gain by a war, but much to lose.
    In Illinois Valley two volunteer companies of men were organized and had determined to exterminate the Indians before I heard of it. The Indians had fled to the mountains and were difficult to find, but when found they invariably said they wanted peace; they had done nothing to merit such a chastisement; many of their people had been killed, and they were driven to the necessity of fighting in self-defense.
    I will make you a detailed report in a short time and give you all the minutiae.
    For three days past I have been engaged in a talk with the Butte Creek Indians, the subject of which is the murder of a boy belonging to that tribe. The circumstances under which it occurred are as follows.
    It seems the boy was in the employ of two white men who had taken a claim on Rogue River a few miles above the reserve. The names of these men were James Hogan and John Carrolton. One morning about six weeks since Hogan left home; Carrolton and the boy were at work hauling rails, since which time the boy has never been seen, until a few days ago the Indians discovered his body hid in a drift of a canyon with evident marks of violence. They had suspected Carrolton for some time past, and had watched him closely up to the time they discovered the body of the boy. They were clamorous for his prosecution, but as no evidence could be obtained but Indian testimony, and that was not admissible, he (Carrolton) was acquitted. As there was no doubt in the mind of anybody as to the fact of the boy having been killed by some white person, I compromised the matter after their own fashion by paying them two horses for their loss. I don't know that I should have done so, had not the event occurred at the time when there was so much disaffection, and the difficulty not yet concluded with the Illinois Indians. I expect to have it all settled in a few days, when I shall write you.
    The people of Illinois Valley declare the Indians shall never return to that country, and if they are to be kept on the reserve, there must be some provision made for them, otherwise they will suffer for the necessaries of life. I trust you will give the matter your earliest attention.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
            R. River
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
        (Original transmitted to Office Comr. Indian Affairs)
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 224-225.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1135-1138.


Indian Affairs in Illinois Valley.
    Up to the time of our last issue the Indian difficulties in that section had progressed to an alarming extent. Volunteer companies were in search of the Indians, who had all left the reservation on Rogue River. Judge Peters, Mr. Rosborough and others on their way to this city were induced to return to Jacksonville. Mr. T. A. Jackson came through accompanied by a guard a short distance of the route, and two days after his arrival a letter was received, written by Mr. Shoudy, and dated Applegate, June 10th, from which, by permission, we make the following extract:
    "Yesterday Mr. Jackson got Mr. J. Dyer and Mr. D. McHues to guard him over to Mooney's ranch. On returning home they were waylaid by the Indians and both killed, one having received seven balls and the other ten through the body in various places. Some soldiers who passed along this morning found the bodies and buried them. This of course causes considerable excitement, and families are obliged to move to places of safety. Travel has for the moment almost ceased, and there is but little doing in the diggings here or at Jacksonville. It has rained all this afternoon and two or three trains have just come through without experiencing any trouble."
    These statements are fully corroborated by Mr. Cornwall, the expressman, who came in a few days after.
    THE INDIAN DIFFICULTIES IN ILLINOIS VALLEY SETTLED.--From G. S. Rice, of Sailor Diggings, we learn that news had been brought in of the adjustment of the Indian troubles, it being reported that the Indians returned to the reservation after having given up six of their number concerned in the murder of J. B. Hill on Indian Creek and also in the murder of Dyer and McHues on Applegate.
    P.S.--Mr. B. F. Dorris of this city returned last evening from Yreka; he passed through Illinois Valley on Sunday, reports everything quiet and confirms the statement that the murderers of Hills, Dyer and McHues were given up to the Indian agent. Some soldiers and volunteers, however, are still out.
Crescent City Herald, June 20, 1855, page 2


    THE INDIANS OF SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Crescent City Herald says: "The Indian troubles in the neighborhood of Illinois Valley, Southern Oregon, are far from being settled. The Indian agent Dr. Ambrose is using every exertion to concentrate them on the reservation on Rogue River."
Union Democrat, Sonora, California, June 23, 1855, page 3




Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    William B. Hay of said county being duly sworn says
    On or about the 31st day of May A.D. 1855 three head of beef cattle belonging to me were driven off and killed by the Deer Creek band of Indians, said cattle were running at large in the range in which they usually run, near my claim in Deer Creek Valley. Said cattle were missed in the evening, & pursuit was immediately made. The trail was followed into the mountains to an Indian camp, & the remains of the cattle were found & recognized. I have no doubt whatever of the Deer Creek Indians having stolen the cattle.
    Said cattle were worth at the time they were driven off one hundred and twenty dollars per head. I have never received payment for said property destroyed from the United States nor from anyone nor have I applied for remuneration therefor at any other time or in any other manner.
    That neither myself representative attorney or agent has violated any of the provisions of the intercourse laws by seeking or attempting to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
    This affidavit is made for the purpose of obtaining from the United States payment for said property destroyed by said Indians.
William B. Hay
Subscribed and sworn to before me at Jacksonville, Oregon this 21st day of June A.D. 1855.
As witness my hand & seal.
G. H. Ambrose
(  seal  )                               Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Joseph H. Dickerson of said county being duly sworn says
    On or about the 30th of May A.D. 1855 I know that William Hay was the owner of three head of cattle worth one hundred & twenty dollars per head that were driven off by the Deer Creek band of Indians on the day above named & I followed the trail of the cattle where they had been driven by the said Indians into the mountains to their camp. I saw where they had been slaughtered & have no doubt [of] the fact of the Deer Creek Indians having done the act. I was staying at the house of Mr. Hay in Illinois Valley at the time. I have no interest in this claim.
J. H. Dickerson
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office on Rogue River this 26th day of June A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 728-731.



Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Gabriel Smith of said county being duly sworn says
    On or about the twenty sixth day of February A.D. 1855 I had belonging to me a Spanish horse worth eighty dollars. Said horse was running in the range in the vicinity of my house situated in Illinois Valley.
    On the evening of the 25th Mr. Guest a neighbor of mine drove up some mules and this horse was with them. After he caught the ones he wanted to use the horse belonging to me and two mules were turned out in their usual range. A few days after the mules were found distant about five miles, the horse was missing and I never saw him since. I have no doubt but he was stolen by the Deer Creek Indians.
    I have never received payment for said property destroyed from the United States nor from anyone.
    That neither myself, representative, attorney or agent has violated any of the provisions of the intercourse laws by seeking or attempting to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
    This affidavit is made for the purpose of obtaining from the United States payment for said property destroyed by said Indians.
Gabriel Smith
Subscribed and sworn to before me at Jacksonville Oregon this 25th day [of] June A.D. 1855.
As witness my hand and seal
G. H. Ambrose
(  seal  )                               Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Gabriel Smith of said county being duly sworn says
    On or about the 27th day of October A.D. 1853 about fifteen tons of hay belonging to me was destroyed by fire. Said hay was in stack near my house in Illinois Valley and was set on fire in the night time, as also was my dwelling house, and I have no doubt it was done by the Deer Creek band of Indians. I saw the Indians very plainly. Hay of the quality of that destroyed has been selling for one hundred dollars per ton during that whole winter in that section of the country.
    Also I lost at the same time by the said Indians two head of beef cattle. Said cattle were driven out of my corral and run off. I afterwards saw where they had been slaughtered. Said cattle were worth at that time one hundred and twenty five dollars each. I have never received payment for said property destroyed from the United States or from anyone. That neither myself, representative, attorney, or agent has ever violated any of the provisions of the intercourse laws by seeking or attempting to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
    This affidavit is made for the purpose of obtaining from the United States payment for said property destroyed by said Indians.
Gabriel Smith
Subscribed and sworn to before me at Jacksonville Oregon this 25th day of June A.D. 1855.
As witness my hand and seal
Geo. H. Ambrose
(  seal  )                               Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 733-738.



    INDIANS.--We understand that the Indians on the Klamath River between Humbug and Scott River are becoming quite insolent--trespassing on the property of the whites and making assertions that "they would set as they pleased, as it was their own land," &c. We would invite the attention of the Indian agent to this. The inhabitants of that, as well as all other parts of the county, are law-abiding, taxpaying people, and are entitled to the support and protection of the government. These people are able and willing to protect themselves, but would prefer having the proper authorities attend to this matter. Otherwise they will be forced to protect their own lives and property.--Yreka Herald.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 30, 1855, page 2



Report of Agent Ambrose
Office Indian Agent Rogue River
    June 30th 1855, O.T.
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit to the Department the following report of the condition of this agency for the close of the fiscal year June 30th 1855. Since my last communication a season of unusual interest and excitement has passed, but happily peace and harmony are once more restored. I have already given you a brief sketch of the difficulties which happened in the agency. At the time of their occurrence however I found it exceedingly difficult to obtain an account in the midst of so much excitement and confusion which I would vouch for as being correct. After a thorough investigation and strict inquiry, I find the subjoined statement to be in the main nearly or quite correct.
    It appears from statements elicited from the Indians that their recent difficulties date their origin from the killing of Indians on Illinois River by a white man by the name of Miller (an account of which I have already given you); that being an unprovoked and cold-blooded murder, in their opinion, they could not reconcile their ideas of justice to Miller's sentence.
    Hence there was considerable dissatisfaction expressed, and the opinion was advanced that white men had one law for themselves and another for the Indians. Whilst this disaffection was existing, a man by the name of Hills was murdered on Indian Creek, a tributary of the Klamath River in California, which murder was alleged to have been committed by the Deer Creek, or Illinois band of Indians, then living in Illinois Valley, distant about 60 miles from this agency.
    A volunteer company was immediately organized in the vicinity of Indian Creek and sent in pursuit of the Indians to inflict summary punishment upon them wherever found; they proceeded immediately to Illinois Valley and were there several days before I heard of it. As soon as I learned the fact, I immediately proceeded to the scene of difficulties without a moment's delay. Upon my arrival in the valley I found the Indians had fled to the mountains, after committing several thefts and other unmistakable evidences of hostilities.
    However, in justice to the Indians I cannot refrain from stating that the first attempt to take life in this valley was upon the part of the company of volunteers, who waylaid and shot an Indian boy from off his horse in the advance of a train of animals belonging to white men, who had the boy employed, and had had him in their service for nearly three months; the boy was only wounded, and through an almost impenetrable thicket of brush made his escape. I afterwards found him in the Indian camp, which he reached in safety the night after his wound, and brought him to the reserve, where he shortly recovered from the effects of the shot.
    Capt. Smith of the U.S. dragoons at Fort Lane, to whom too much praise cannot be awarded for his promptness, energy and efficiency, was immediately on the ground and in pursuit of the Indians. On the next day, May the 26th, the main body of the Indians were found. They were much frightened, exhibited many signs of distrust and fear, & expressed a willingness to go immediately on the reservation, if they could have an assurance of protection. They said they did not want war, but desired peace, and were willing to go anywhere to obtain it.
    There were about fifteen of their number of whom they knew nothing, but entertained the impression that they were hostile to the people of that valley (Illinois), from the treatment they had received from their hands. We found it necessary to remove those we had found to the reserve, and in order to quiet their fears and ensure their protection Captain Smith decided to go with them.
    In the meantime, while Captain Smith was engaged with these going to the reserve, those remaining in the mountains were discovered by a company of volunteers that had been raised in the valley to avenge the injuries they had received from the hands of the Indians. A conflict ensued, in which one Indian was killed. The next day the volunteers were followed by the Indians, and a man by the name of Philpott, who was riding a short distance in advance of this company but who did not belong to it, was shot by some Indians in ambush on the roadside. This event caused intense excitement in the neighborhood, being the first murder that was committed, and an additional company of volunteers was raised numbering about eighty (80) men; search was again made for the Indians. They were discovered but fled through fear (as they have since told me). They took an easterly course, crossed over a range of mountains, intersected the pack trail leading from Jacksonville to Crescent City about one mile from Applegate Creek, where there were two men passing, both armed; the men were coming in the direction from Illinois Valley, and were both killed by the Indians. The same evening Lieut. Sweitzer took a few of their number. The next day the whole company came in and gave themselves up & said they wanted to live where they could have peace.
    There were seven men & twenty-nine women & children, which includes all those bands of Indians that inhabited the valley of Illinois and Deer Creek, except a few who inhabited the headwaters of Illinois River; who it is supposed have fled to the coast in order to avoid the conflict with the whites. There are about six men with their families absent.
    In a former communication I expressed the opinion that those Indians were the perpetrators of the murder of Mr. Hills on Indian Creek, and as the matter still remains in doubt as to who were the perpetrators of that act in perfidy, I have but to say that I have been unable to elicit anything from the Indians that would tend in the least to establish the commission of that crime upon any of their people, and I have taken much pains to investigate the matter.
    While the scenes were being enacted in the western part of this agency, the east was not free from difficulties, as you will see by my special report. An Indian boy was killed, doubtless by some unknown white person (a detailed account of which you will see in my former report, which difficulty was happily adjusted at the time, and the conduct of the Indians since has proven the adjustment to be satisfactory).
    Of the pecuniary condition of this agency, the property belonging [to it] and other matters pertaining to it, you will see a correct account in my quarterly return.
    The agency at the present time is in a more flourishing condition than it has been for some time past. There is in cultivation on the reservation forty-three acres of wheat, which looks well, and is now nearly ready to harvest. Of potatoes there are seven acres, which promise well indeed; of corn and garden vegetables four acres, all growing finely, and I have no doubt will succeed well. Of schools, public buildings &c., none have yet been established. When they shall be, I have no doubt but the experiment will prove beneficial, for these people are susceptible of much moral improvement. Many of them exhibit a commendable spirit in endeavoring to imitate the whites in their mode of living, and if proper encouragement could be afforded them, it would doubtless have a fine effect.
    They seem to take as deep interest in their little [omission] as white men possibly could, and but for that interest it would all have been destroyed, for it still remains unfenced.
    In conclusion, allow me to express the hope that when our government shall have fully complied with the treaty, by sending the necessary funds to improve the lands on the reservation, we will hear no more of Indian wars in this valley. It will then be an object of attraction, rather than repulsion, as it certainly was at one time.
Yours respectfully
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 60-62.



Washington, 30th June 1855.
Sir:
    The Commissioner of Indian Affairs is under the impression that he has no right to allow me for traveling expenses in returning from Oregon without your consent.
    Allow me, therefore, to submit the claim with a few remarks, for your consideration.
    I was commissioned for four years and consequently made such arrangements with my business and property here as seemed necessary for this long and perilous journey, having in view an absence of four years.
    It may not be improper here to state that by reference to the files in the Indian office, it will appear that during my three years' Superintendency in Oregon, and with very large discretionary powers too, the whole expenditures for every purpose connected with Indian affairs does not amount to one-fifth of that for the same purposes in California for the same time, and it is believed there were as many Indians under my Superintendency as there were in California, while my salary was $3500, and the same grade of office in California was paid $4000.
    You will remember that Beverly S. Allen (an Indian treaty commissioner), who was superseded in Oregon, was paid his traveling expenses both ways.
    I am not aware of any other but political consideration that caused me to be superseded.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Supt. Ind. Affrs. for Oregon
The Hon. Geo. C. Whiting
    Acting Secretary
        of the Interior
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 795-797.



    List of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for the use of the Rogue River tribe of Indians for 2nd annual payment of the annuity of said tribe as per treaty of the 10th Sept. 1853
3 prs. 3-pt. scarlet mackinaw blankets
11 prs. 3-pt. white mackinaw blankets
27 prs. 2½-pt. white mackinaw blankets
27 prs. men's pants
275 yds. calico
500 yds. unbleached shirting
27 flannel shirts
7 doz. wool half hose
27 pr. men's shoes
53 pr. women's shoes
2 lbs. linen thread
2 lbs. cotton thread
1 M needles
1 pack pins
30 lbs. brass kettles
100 fish hooks and lines
8 doz. butcher knives
½ doz. short-handled shovels (Ames' steel)
1 doz. handled hoes
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 918-919.  Dated 1855.



    List of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for the use of the Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians for second payment of annuity as per treaty of the 10th Sept. 1853
10 prs. 3-pt. scarlet mackinaw blankets
66 prs. 3-pt. white mackinaw blankets
114 prs. 2½-pt. white mackinaw blankets
152 prs. men's pants
1866 yds. calico
2000 yds. unbleached shirting
152 flannel shirts
31 doz. wool half hose
152 pr. men's shoes
227 pr. women's shoes
8 lbs. linen thread
19 lbs. cotton thread
6 M needles
6 packs pins
100 lbs. brass kettles
2000 brass nails
500 fish hooks and lines
31 doz. butcher knives
doz. short-handled shovels
3 doz. handled hoes
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 920-921.  Dated 1855.



    List of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for the use of the confederated bands treated with on the 18th November 1854, to wit, the Quilsieton & Nahelta bands of Shastas, the Cow-man-ti-co, Secheriton & Nah-al-ia bands of Scotans & the Grave Creek band of Umpquas in payment of annuity
6 prs. 3-pt. scarlet mackinaw blankets
32 prs. 3-pt. white mackinaw blankets
65 prs. 2½-pt. white mackinaw blankets
64 prs. men's pants
750 yds. calico
750 yds. unbleached shirting
64 flannel shirts
13 doz. wool half hose
20 doz. cotton handkerchiefs
doz. wool hats or caps
64 pr. men's shoes
91 pr. women's shoes
5 lbs. linen thread
10 lbs. cotton thread
2 M needles
2 packs pins
88 lbs. brass kettles
1000 brass nails
250 fish hooks
13 doz. butcher knives
12 doz. iron spoons
doz. short-handled shovels (Ames' steel)
2 doz. handled hoes
1 doz. axes & helves
doz. hand saws
2 sets hand saws
4 doz. assorted gimlets
200 lbs. tobacco
500 lbs. salt
400 lbs. soap
1 box U.S. rifles with molds
20 cans rifle powder
80 lbs. lead
6 M gun caps
2 crosscut saws
doz. scythes and cradles
doz. mowing scythes and snaths
1 coil ½-inch hemp rope
1 coil ¾-inch hemp rope
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 922-923.  Dated 1855.



    List of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for the Umpqua and Calapooia Indians treated with on the 29th of November 1854, for first payment of annuity
11 prs. 3-pt. scarlet mackinaw blankets
40 prs. 3-pt. white mackinaw blankets
76 prs. 2½-pt. white mackinaw blankets
103 prs. men's pants
1200 yds. calico
1200 yds. unbleached shirting
103 flannel shirts
22 doz. wool half hose
22 doz. cotton handkerchiefs
8 7/12 doz. wool hats or caps
103 pr. men's shoes
153 pr. women's shoes
8 lbs. linen thread
12 lbs. cotton thread
4 M needles
4 packs pins
150 lbs. brass kettles
1500 brass nails
500 fish hooks & lines
22 doz. butcher knives
22 doz. iron spoons
2 doz. short-handled shovels (Ames' steel)
4 doz. handled hoes
4 doz. axes & helves
2 doz. hand saws
2 sets hand saws
2 sets augers ½ to 8/4 [sic] inches
4 doz. assorted gimlets
200 lbs. tobacco
200 pipes and stems
500 lbs. salt
400 lbs. soap
10 kegs nails 8d & 10d
1 ton assorted iron
200 lbs. assorted steel
200 lbs. steel for mold boards
2 lbs. sal ammoniac
10 lbs. borax
4 boxes tin plate
2 bales Russia sheet iron
20 lbs. solder
10 lbs. rosin
10 gross rivets, assorted sizes
2 gross ears for kettles
50 lbs. assorted wire
1 box U.S. rifles with molds
20 cans rifle powder
80 lbs. lead
6 M gun caps
2 crosscut saws
1 coil ½-inch hemp rope
1 coil ¾-inch hemp rope
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 925-927.  Dated 1855.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. July 3rd 1855.
Dear Sir
    On my return from Middle Oregon on the second inst. I found your letters of the 13th and 16th ultimo on file in my office. I regret exceedingly the recent difficulties which have disturbed the public quiet in your district.
    It is unfortunate that anything should have transpired rendering necessary the removal of the Indians to the reservation before the reception of appropriations for carrying into effect the provisions of the treaty. Even if the fund were now on hand, the application of them to subsisting the Indians, huddled together as they must necessarily be without the means of realizing anything for subsisting themselves, will greatly cripple our efforts to provide for them and render almost useless the appropriations designed for making permanent improvements on the reservation.
    Those who originally belonged to the reserve could undoubtedly obtain a sufficiency of food, but when so many are congregated it is impossible for them to do so. I see, however, no alternative--we must provide for them & I will send you immediately two wagonloads of flour, with salt and a few other articles. I transmit by Mr. Metcalfe, sub-agent, one thousand dollars, which you will account for under the head of "subsistence for Indians &c. as per 4th article of the18th November 1854." Accompanying is a blank receipt in duplicate, which you will date and sign and forward to this office.
    It is proper to say however that no part of that appropriation has been remitted, but the emergency I think sufficiently urgent to warrant borrowing from other appropriations until a remittance can be made. An estimate will immediately be forwarded for the entire amount provided for by article 4th of said treaty.
    A remittance of fifteen hundred dollars has been made to erect three houses for the chiefs as provided in article fourth of treaty of the 10th September 1853, and I desire that you will confer with the principal chiefs, if such be recognized, and determine upon the particular location for the buildings. In selecting the sites you will regard the localities of the various bands, so that each chief may reside in the vicinity of the band over which he presides.
    I also think it proper to regard the bands as confederated, and in the event no persons now occupy the positions of head chiefs to permit the bands whose habits and feelings are congenial to unite and select their chief, and when the buildings are completed let them be occupied by the chiefs thus selected so long as they remain in office.
    There has also been remitted me applicable to the fulfillment of the fifth article of the treaty of the 18th November last the sum of seven thousand dollars. The expenditure of this sum will enable you to do much for these Indians who are disposed to labor, as it is proposed to employ as many of the Indians in the erection of the buildings provided for, and making other improvements, as practicable.
    Besides the benefit of the consideration given them for their services, it will be instructive, and tend greatly to better their condition. To accomplish this great care must be taken in selecting suitable persons to superintend the works, so as to make the expenditure advance the interests of the Indians to the greatest possible extent. We should strive to make the reservation attractive rather than an object of aversion to the Indians.
    The buildings will be erected in a cheap but substantial manner, built of logs, with the bark peeled or shaved off, and perhaps in some instances hewed. The barracks and dwellings at Fort Vancouver are of logs, and present a neat and substantial appearance. The floors, partitions, doors &c. are of sawed timber. These buildings when whitewashed without and painted within, with good shingle roofs, are neat, commodious and comfortable, and I think similar ones would [be] most economical on the reservation, as the Indians can be employed to do most of the work. The cost of said timber too is another reason why this mode of building should be adopted. You will do well to secure a suitable person to proceed at once to make shingles to cover these buildings, employing Indians to do the chopping and sawing.
    I will in a few days submit a plan for these buildings. In the meantime you will select a suitable location on which to erect a blacksmith shop, and cause a log building to be erected for that purpose; a set of tools will immediately be sent out, and if I can employ a good blacksmith who understands something of tinning and gunsmithing I will do so. A gunsmith & tin shop will be attached. The site should be selected with reference to the general convenience and the location of other public buildings on the reservation.
    The treaty provides for the designation of farms to the individuals of the respective bands, and the public buildings should be located with reference to the convenience of the greatest possible number of such settlers.
    By reference to the 5th article of the treaty referred to, a copy of which is herewith enclosed, you will observe that an experienced farmer is to be employed--that two blacksmith shops are to be erected and smiths employed, that a hospital is to be erected and school house, and that qualified teachers are to be employed.
    The farmer, blacksmith, physician and school teachers must of course have dwellings and other improvements for their convenience and comfort.
    The location of all these buildings should be made with great care, so as to answer the designs contemplated. An estimate of funds for the erection of these buildings was submitted to the Department at an early day, and appropriations have been made in accordance therewith.
    For your information and guidance in the expenditure of the funds to be remitted for these objects, I forward you a copy of my estimate, with the remark that it is expected these improvements will be completed and the other provisions contemplated fully carried out and kept within the estimate submitted.
    The completion of all these buildings this season is of course not contemplated, but of such only as are required by a due regard to the welfare of the Indians and which can be erected with economy.
    As already remarked it is expected that the greatest possible amount of labor will be done by the Indians, and if they are given to understand that their means of subsistence and protection depends upon their industry and willingness to labor, you will be able to induce many of them to aid in the erection of these buildings, paying them a reasonable compensation in such articles as their condition and necessities may require.
    The flour which I send you will be charged to the fund for carrying out the provisions of [the] 5th art. of the treaty, and may be given to the Indians in payment for their labor and furnished employees while engaged in such service. The coffee, tea, sugar and salt will be charged to the same fund.
    I send you camp equipage for four sets of workmen, six men in a set, to which you can add as circumstances may require; you may or may not put them all in requisition, but the articles are charged to the building fund, as also the tools sent you.
    Estimates for tools, nails, glass and door hangings have been submitted, that these articles might be purchased in the eastern markets, and I am advised that they will have been shipped so as to arrive in a short time. They will be forwarded immediately on their arrival. I forward you a copy of my estimates for these objects, so that you may be governed in your purchases by the circumstances.
    The fund for the erection of these buildings, excepting so much as may be needed to purchase the requisite materials &c. in this valley, will be placed in your hands. In its expenditure you will use discretion and economy, having due regard to the comfort and convenience of the future occupants of the buildings and carrying out to the fullest extent the objects contemplated by the government in incurring this expenditure. I send you by R. B. Metcalfe Esq., sub-Ind. agent, three thousand dollars of this fund, with duplicate blank receipts which you will fill up, sign and transmit to this office.
    You will observe that in the estimate of funds required to erect buildings on Table Rock Reserve is an item of "$2500 for the erection of an agency and storehouse, office, outbuildings &c." My impressions are that we had better not incur any of these liabilities this season. I would also suggest that but one smith shop and one school house be erected this season. In the event of there being no suitable persons to be obtained to take charge of the erection of these buildings, you will advise me of the fact, and I will endeavor to secure the services of suitable persons.
    You will also make such suggestions in reference to the carrying out of our purposes as you may deem proper. Mr. Metcalfe will carry any message you may have to send by way of Crescent City and will meet me at Port Orford, and if it be requisite I will send a messenger direct to you from that point.
    We are not yet prepared to cause the reservation to be surveyed into lots and assigned to different individuals, but I deem it important that tracts should be assigned to such individuals as may wish to occupy them so as to encourage them to cultivate and produce something on which to subsist. These tracts you will designate by natural boundaries or by marks & stakes in such a way that it may be understood by the Indians, taking care that equal justice be meted out to all the Indians embraced in the treaty, giving them to understand that subsequent surveys may change the boundaries but that each person will be secured in his improvements.
    It is important that the services of a farmer be secured immediately whose duty will be to instruct and aid the Indians in putting in crops and making improvements; too much care cannot be taken in the selection of this person. He should be a practical farmer, of kind disposition, good morals & just in his dealings, and his whole time should be devoted to the interest of the Indians. So we may say of all other employees on the reservation, for it is by example mainly that we can hope to wean these people from their warring and savage habits and instill into their minds moral, humane and enlightened ideas. In selecting employees you will regard the order as imperative that no dissipated or profane person will be employed in the service, and that a violation of this rule by anyone employed will subject him to immediate dismissal.
    The amount of funds transmitted to you at this time will be accounted for as per form of abstract herewith enclosed.
    So soon as operations are commenced, I desire you will make weekly reports of proceedings in the form of a daily journal, showing the names of each person in the service, whether white or otherwise, the kind of service he is engaged in, the progress Indians make in performing service, the number of Indians taking claims, their improvements & how made, and in fact every incident deemed of any interest to the Department, so that I may be as well advised of what is done as though I were on the reservation; give the births and deaths among the Indians, the diseases existing, and if practicable obtain a thermometer and note down the temperature daily morning, noon and evening, and note the weather, whether cloudy, fair or rainy. This information is not merely to gratify a whim, but is deemed essential to the efficiency of the service; a record of reports on these topics will be kept in this office, and the originals be transmitted to the Department at Washington.
    Similar journals will be kept by all agents and sub-agents located on or having charge of reservations.
    I may add that I deem it essential that a building should be erected at some suitable point to be used as a warehouse or storehouse, as goods will be sent out from time to time, some of which must necessarily remain on hand. This building should be convenient to the point selected as the site for the agency buildings
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Geo. W. Ambrose Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Rogue River
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1150-1160.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 6th 1855
Sir
    I have this day forwarded you per hand [of] R. B. Metcalfe, sub-Indian agent, five thousand dollars for which you are held accountable under the following heads.
    For the erection of three dwelling houses for the three principal chiefs of the Rogue River tribe of Indians, as per first clause article 4th treaty of 10th September 1853--$1,000.
    Applicable to the fulfillment of the 4th article treaty of 18th November 1854, with the Scotan, Shasta and Grave Creek Indians--$1,000.
    Applicable to the erection of buildings on Table Rock Reserve as per article 4th treaty 18th November 1854, with the Scotans, Shasta and Grave Creek Indians--$3,000.
    On the receipt whereof you will please date and sign the accompanying receipt and forward to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Geo. H. Ambrose Esqr.
    Indian Agent
        Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 228.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 10th 1855
Sir,
    My protracted absence from the office upon business connected with the negotiation of treaties in Middle Oregon has prevented me till now from taking steps for the erection of buildings on the Table Rock Reservation.
    The accompanying copy of instructions to Agent George H. Ambrose indicates the intended action and preparations in regard to these improvements.
    I have omitted to take action in relation to the Umpqua Reservation until I have made a more thorough personal examination of the contemplated reservation on the coast, anticipating that in the event that reservation become permanent to locate the Umpquas and Calapooias and the Indians of the Willamette Valley within its limits. There are believed to be two small valleys within its limits which, from the description of persons who have visited them, are well suited for an Indian settlement; they are situated on the headwaters of the Alsea and Siletz rivers, isolated by a lofty spur of the mountain from the coast, yet sufficiently near to be under the care of the same agent, and also separated from the white settlements by a mountain chain; their position indicates them as peculiarly adapted for the settlement of the Indians of this valley. A few whites have taken claim in these valleys, and the usual improvements of bachelors in a new settlement commenced. The improvements made I learn are not extensive and would be useful to the Indians and could be paid for out of the funds provided for in the 5th clause of the 3rd article of the treaty of the 10th January 1855 with the Indians of the Willamette Valley and in article 4th of treaty of 29th November 1854 with the Umpquas and Calapooias.
    I have recently learned that considerable dissatisfaction exists among a few persons residing in Benton County in regard to the boundaries of this contemplated reservation, they alleging that it embraces nearly half of the best portion of that county. A glance at the map of the surveys already made and reference to the indicated limits of the intended reservations will satisfy anyone of the exaggerated erroneousness of these assertions. The fact is there is among a portion of the settlers along the coast and elsewhere a feeling of hostility toward the Indians and disregard for their rights--a feeling that looks to the humane system of annihilating the race, and all action of the government or its agents looking to the improvement & civilization of the Indians meets their hearty disapproval. In the present instance there are a few persons interested in the retention of claims in these valleys, and others in town sites elsewhere, who anticipate pecuniary advantages to accrue from white settlements in that region. Beyond these no opposition to this reservation is manifested.
    I contemplate a tour along the coast and will set out about the 18th instant for the purpose of negotiating treaties for the purchase of the country with the coast tribes and bands. The goods designed for the Indians south of the Coquille will be shipped by steamer to Port Orford; those designed for Indians on Coos Bay, the Siuslaw and at the mouth of Umpqua will be packed to Scottsburg, and those for the bands between the Siuslaw and Tillamook by the same mode of conveyance over the mountains to a convenient point on the coast. Those for the Tillamooks by a new trail over the mountains, while those for the Indians on Clatsop Plains and vicinity will be sent down the Columbia River on a small steamer to Skipanon or Tansy Point.
    While engaged in this business, I shall be able to make a more thorough examination of the Coast Reservation and judge of its adaptation to the objects for which it is designed, as I shall diverge from the trail so as to examine the valleys of the Alsea and Siletz.
    Should I find the country unsuited to the settlement of the Umpquas, I shall be able to perfect such improvements upon the reservation designated in the treaty of the 29th November last, before the setting in of the rainy season, as will give those Indians assurance of an intention on our part to fully carry out the provisions of the treaty and provide for such of the Indians as may locate thereon during the season. But in the event I am satisfied that the welfare of these Indians will be promoted by locating them as before indicated, I would suggest the propriety of distributing such goods this season as their most pressing wants may demand and allow them to remain in their present locations till next season, drawing for this object upon the fund for "Negotiating with Indians in Oregon &c." and leaving the annuity goods to be distributed after their removal to the reservation, and husband all the possible resources to be expended in permanent improvements. This would so postpone the annuity payments that the funds might be invested in the eastern markets in the fall and shipped so as to arrive on this coast early in the spring, as indicated in your letter of the 10th April last. Indeed, the plan may be adopted if the old reservation be adhered to. The Indians parties to the treaty of the 10th January last might also be supplied with such articles as are most needed, from the same appropriation. But in the event of drawing thus heavily upon that fund for the first payment of annuities, an additional appropriation for negotiating treaties in Eastern or Upper Oregon would necessarily have to be made, the amount of which I shall be able to determine on my return from the contemplated trip along the coast.
    Should you decide against the proposition to purchase in the eastern markets and ship as per schedules transmitted to supply the Indians parties to the treaty of the 10th September 1853 and the confederated bands treated with on the 18th November 1854, an early remittance for those objects should be made so as to enable me to make the requisite purchases in San Francisco. The purchase of annuity goods by contract in the Oregon markets would be ruinous to the interests of the Indians.
    The Scotans, Shastas & Grave Creeks and the Rogue Rivers should be paid at the same time, and in the same kinds of goods. But a considerable portion of this annuity may be judiciously expended in making improvements upon the reservation and subsisting them during the coming winter. Flour can now be purchased in this valley at the mills at forty dollars per cwt. These prices may or may not continue, but in anticipation of a rise in the price and the certain demand for the use of various Indian tribes during the winter I have thought it would be wise to contract conditionally for the delivery of ten or fifteen tons of flour at suitable points, to be transported by the teams needed for use on the several reservations. The cost of transportation is a material item in this country, and when it can be done by teams which may be used in the erection of public buildings on the reservations, or transferred to Indians on account of treaty stipulations, as a matter of economy it should be so done.
    The ordinary system of contracting by soliciting bids is by no means the safest mode of ensuring economy or promptness, either in the transportation of property or the purchase of annuity goods, so far at least as applicable to this Territory, nor are the locations of the various Indian agents and sub-agents with reference to the business of the country such as to enable them to purchase or contract for the delivery of merchandise to the Indians within their agencies, and until the Indians are removed to the reservations and the whole business systematized [and] a little discretionary power given to the Superintendent, deviating from the general rules would seem demanded not only as a matter of economy to the government but to secure to the Indians their great rights. There is perhaps no portion of the United States where the opinion prevails more generally among the people that the Treasury of the United States is a proper and legitimate object of plunder than in portions of this Territory, or where a more reckless disregard for the rights of Indians is manifested. The civil authority being in the hands of that class of persons, an attempt to enforce the intercourse laws would be a mere mockery, but this class of people are transient and may not long remain among us.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Honl. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1144-1148.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, July 10th 1855.
Sir,
    On the 2nd of August last, the Attorney General briefly stated his opinion upon the question, presented to him in a letter from the Department dated the 27th July last, enclosing one from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, covering correspondence and memorials communicated by Superintendent Palmer of Oregon, whether the acts of Congress regulating intercourse with the Indians are in force in that Territory. The Attorney General then reserved the purpose of exhibiting the reasons for his conclusion at a future day of more leisure, and I now enclose to you a copy of a communication from him dated the 22nd ultimo, wherein are set forth the reasons to which he alluded.
    You are requested to furnish the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon with a copy of the Attorney General's communication for his information and government.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Chas. E. Mix Esqr.
    Actg. Commr. Indian Affairs
   

Attorney General's Office
    22nd June, 1855.
Sir:
    I duly received your communication of the 27th of July last, enclosing to me a letter of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs covering correspondence
and memorials from Oregon, which raise the question whether the acts of Congress regulating intercourse with the Indians are in force in that Territory, and I replied, under date of the 2nd of August, briefly stating my opinion in the premises and reserving the purpose to exhibit the reasons for my conclusion at some future day of more leisure. This I now proceed to do.
    The question is a very simple one, and cannot be drawn in doubt except by complete disregard of all the rules of statutory construction, and of the whole theory and system of the government.
Hon. Robert McClelland
    Secretary of the Interior
   
    By a clause of the 14th section of the act to establish the territorial government of Oregon, passed on the 14th of August, 1848, it is enacted that "the laws of the United States are extended over, and declared to be in force in, said Territory, so far as the same, or any provision thereof, may be applicable." (ix Stat. at Large, p. 329.)
    This provision carried with it the whole body of the acts of Congress which are applicable to the Territory, and the sole inquiry, therefore, regarding any acts, or parts of acts, is whether they be or not applicable to the Territory.
    In discussing the question whether this provision carried such parts of the act of Congress of June 30th, 1834, for regulating intercourse with the Indians as are in their nature applicable, it seems that, in the first place, it has been argued in Oregon that the whole question of the meaning of the word "applicable," in any case, depends on whether the particular law is convenient to the "white" inhabitants of the Territory. "Whatever militates against the true interests of the white population is inapplicable," we are told, and so not in force in Oregon.
    That is a very strange idea. "Applicability" in a law has nothing to do with the question whether the persons to whom it is to be applied think it for their interests. That question Congress determines. It would make singular patchwork of the acts of Congress, if their applicability in each case were to be tested by this rule. It would nullify all the acts of Congress by piecemeal in one-half of the states or Territories of the Union, some here and some there, according to the local estimation of their interests on the part of the inhabitants of this or that state or Territory.
    Such a doctrine is of course altogether untenable.
    I should have had no doubt, therefore, that by mere force of the declaratory clause of the 14th section, any provision of any act of Congress applicable by its nature, subject matter, or general tenor to the Territory of Oregon, went into operation there, if not before, yet certainly at the time of the establishment of the territorial government--including, of course, the acts of Congress for regulating intercourse with the Indians.
    Other provisions of the act establishing the territorial government prove this. One is altogether conclusive, namely, the proviso in the 1st section, which is in the following words:
    "Provided, that nothing in this act contained shall be construed to impair the rights of person or property, now pertaining to the Indians in the said Territory, so long as such rights shall remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians, or to affect the authority of the Government of the United States to make any regulation respecting such Indians, their lands, property, or other rights, by treaty, law, or otherwise, which it would have been competent to the government to make, if this act had never been passed." (ix Stat. at Large, p. 323.)
    Here is express reservation to the United States of the continued exercise of the entire constitutional jurisdiction of the federal government regarding Indians, applied explicitly to the Territory of Oregon.
    And by the same act it was provided that the Governor of the Territory "shall perform the duties and receive the emoluments of Superintendent of Indian Affairs." (Sec. 2.)
    But the provision of the 1st section concerning Indians, like the provision of the 14th section concerning the force of acts of Congress generally, is but declaratory of what would have been the law without either. Oregon is a part of the United States. As such it is subject to all treaties or laws which the general government may make or enact within the Constitution. It no more needs, in any general act of Congress, to mention Oregon specially than it does to mention each one of the other states and Territories nominatim. The local application of acts of Congress depends on their subject matter. All general acts of Congress have applications as such. Specialty of application is the exception, and must be specially set forth, either by inclusion or exclusion, in the act of Congress.
    But it is said that Oregon is not, geographically speaking, a part of "the Indian country," as described by the act of Congress.
    Why not? The terms of the act are: "All that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana or the Territory of Arkansas, and also that part of the United States east of the Mississippi River, and not within any state, to which the Indian title has not been extinguished, shall, for the purposes of the act, be taken and deemed to be the Indian country." Why, I repeat, does not this description apply to Oregon with mathematical precision of certainty? Is not Oregon a "part of the United States, west of the Mississippi"? Moreover, it seems to be mistakenly supposed that "the Indian country," in the acts of Congress, is inclusive or exclusive of certain political boundaries of organization. Not so. It applies in general to such portions of the purchased territory of the United States as are in the actual occupation of Indian tribes, and wherein their title of occupancy has not been extinguished, either by cession to the United States, or to individuals with sanction of the United States.
    But all possible room for doubt on the general question was removed by the act of June 5, 1850, which, in establishing a new Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Oregon, and enacting other kindred provisions, proceeds to make a third declaratory enactment touching the present subject, in these words:
    "That the law regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes east of the Rocky Mountains, or such provisions of the same as may be applicable, be extended over the Indian tribes in the Territory of Oregon." (ix Stat. at Large, p. 437.)
    This provision describes the act of 1834 in terms which imply, and in my judgment imply without good cause, that that act was confined in scope to the country "east of the Rocky Mountains." But that is now immaterial as regards the main question, for in the face of the act of 1850 it is no longer possible to say that some part of the act of 1834 is not applicable to Oregon.
    But what part? We assume by common consent the question of "applicability," as involved in the act regulating intercourse with the Indians, like that of "applicability" in acts of Congress generally, is not dependent on the question whether a particular provision is "beneficial to the whites" or not, that is, whether, in the local estimation of parties restrained by law, it is expedient or not. No such question of the benefit, convenience or interest of the "whites," that is, of the persons against whom the particular law was enacted, is to determine its application in Oregon. To decide that laws are applicable when they please the fancy of those against whom they are passed, and then alone, that is, to make the validity dependent on the interests of the lawbreakers, would be to abolish law.
    Meanwhile, another idea, equally untenable with the others, is advanced in Oregon; it is said, in objection to giving force there to the particular provisions of the act regarding the sale of intoxicating liquors to the Indians.
    The alleged argument is that, if any of the provisions of the act of 1834 "conflict with existing laws or rights under those laws, the former and not the latter must give way," and as "the right of unrestrained traffic with the Indians is admitted to have existed (before), the Indian code must adjust itself to, and not destroy, that right." That is to say, the prior law repeals the posterior, and the Territory of Oregon, and not Congress, has absolute right to regulate trade with the Indians. Such a proposition needs only to be stated to show its fallacy.
    Nevertheless, at the risk of being tedious, permit me to unfold a little further the fallaciousness of the alleged argument.
    The suggestion is that, not the assumed "benefit" of the whites, but the assumed "rights of the whites under existing laws" are "the test of the applicability" in Oregon of any of the provisions of acts of Congress concerning intercourse with the Indians. But this theory of testing the applicability of an act of Congress by the assumed "rights of the whites" is subject to the same objection as that of their assumed "benefit." It is quite immaterial whether the assumed "rights" of the parties restrained by a new law, or their assumed "benefit," be the pretended test; in either case the local estimation of right or benefit, as the case may be, nullifies an act of Congress, or at least substitutes a changeable and vacillating rule of local interests in the place of the true legal intendment of the law as a law.
    But what is meant by the assumed "rights of the whites under existing laws"? Is it intended to say that in Oregon no law can be passed to regulate or prohibit an act which is now permitted, or not forbidden, or not regulated? That any existing abuse of permission or omission exists, and must continue to exist, as of immutable right? That because the Territory did not prohibit theft for instance, yesterday, therefore it cannot today, and that such omission heretofore to prohibit, or permission heretofore to commit, theft, establishes indefeasibly the perpetual right to steal? That seems to be the necessary construction of the conception that, if a particular traffic is lawful to day, and a new law comes in to prohibit or regulate such traffic, the latter, not the former, must "give way," and the new law "must adjust itself to, and not destroy," the preexisting law, because of some supposed "right" which the latter confers.
    The thought obscurely running through the argument seems to be that the "whites" of Oregon have a vested right, which no new law can touch, in some existing form, mode or subject of trade with the Indians. It suffices to say that no such vested right exists by any rule of law or any constitutional doctrine. It belongs to the Territory of Oregon within the limits of its lawful authority as a territorial government, and to the United States in the matters of their jurisdiction, to prohibit, or in their discretion to modify, any branch of commerce, subject always to the conditions of the Constitution of the Union.
    The fallacy here commented on is the more notable, seeing that the Constitution of the United States, by express terms, gives to Congress the power to regulate commerce with the Indian tribes, and in accordance therewith the amplest power over the subject is retained by Congress in the provision inserted, ex majori cautela, in the very opening of the act establishing the territorial government of Oregon.
    If, in regard to this matter, the legal authority of the Territory of Oregon and that of the United States were one and the same--and prior to the year 1850, for example, there was full permission of trade in liquors between the whites and the Indians, or no prohibition of it, then it would be the case of a posterior law coming to take the place of a prior law, instead of a prior law remaining in force in spite of a posterior repealing law.
    It would be just as reasonable to say that the land laws or the revenue laws of the United States must yield to the previous laws of the Territory, as to predicate this proposition of the laws to regulate commerce with the Indians.
    For, in truth, and beyond all peradventure, the United States have absolute and complete jurisdiction over the whole subject matter, the application of this, as of any other general law, is a question of the subject matter, and the applicability of the particular provision to the Territory of Oregon is, in my judgment, as clear and certain as that of the law for disposing of the public lands, or collecting duties on foreign imports in that Territory.
    There is one other idea suggested by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and the documents he communicates, as being current in Oregon, namely, that any white settler may rightfully take possession of any of the lands occupied by the Indians, and oust them prior to the extinguishment of their occupancy title by the United States. This idea is too absurd to admit of any reasoned reply. Suffice it to say that a white settler has the same right thus to oust the Indians as he has to oust white men, and no more, that is, the right to substitute robbery for purchase and violence for law.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        C. Cushing
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 820-837.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 11th 1855.
Sir,
    Your early attention is desired to the accompanying exhibit of the items in your accounts, which have been suspended or disallowed in the auditing of your accounts at Washington.
    The items for fuel for office at Port Orford are suspended, and you may be able to give such explanation as will satisfy the accounting officer. That for the two armchairs for office is peremptorily disallowed, amount $20.
    In regard to salary vouchers, he arrives at his conclusions by arithmetical rules to me inexplicable.
    It is hoped you will be able to give such explanations as will cause most, if not all, of the items to be passed.
Your obedient servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
S. H. Culver Esqr.
    Oregon City O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 112-113.  The accounts are frames 114-116 of the above link.



Office Supt.Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 12th 1855
Dear Sir
    On my return a few days since from the interior of Oregon, where I have been for some time engaged in the negotiation of treaties with the Indian tribes, I found your letter of the 21st April last, making inquiry in reference to James M. Jackson's claim for services under Capt. Walker in quelling Indian difficulties in Rogue River in 1851.
    Upon an examination of the papers on file in my office relating to this class of claims, I find that the account of James M. Jackson has been paid to Joel Perkins, late of this Territory, now residing near Los Angeles, California.
    The original certificate of Capt. Walker shows that Mr. Jackson
served 40 days @ $3 per day.
 
$120.---
and charges him with cash advanced     16.50
leaving a balance when due Mr. Jackson of 103.50
    This certificate is dated August 25th 1851, and on the back of it is the following assignment:
    "I transfer the within account to William W. Perkins Oct. 20th 1851." (signed) James M. Jackson
    At the bottom of the certificate is the assignment of William W. Perkins to Joel Perkins dated 6th March 1854.
    On April 15th 1854, the certificate of Capt. Walker with the assignments thereon was presented by Mr. Joel Perkins at my office for payment, and on the order of Capt. Walker (endorsed on said account), for whose relief conjointly with ex-Governor Gaines Congress made the appropriation, I paid the amount to said Joel Perkins, taking his receipt therefor, a duplicate whereof is now in the proper office in Washington.
    In reply to your statement that Mr. Jackson had a horse stolen by the Indians, I have to say that no provision was made in the treaty with the Indians for the payment of claims of that character originating prior to the date of the commencement of the war of 1853.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
                Oregon Territory
H. C. Smith Esq.
    229 Broadway
        New York
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 239-240.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 13th 1855
Sir,
    Herewith I enclose a letter from J. L. Parrish Esq. claiming to be the legally authorized agent to settle the estate of Dr. Robert W. Rose, whose estate is a claimant for spoliations committed by the Rogue River Indians during the war of 1853, the claim for which has been audited by the board of commissioners appointed to audit those claims, and awards No. 67 to Peter Miller, and the estate of William R. Rose being $850 is the amount allowed.
    Not being advised of the action of the Department in relation to these awards I have deemed it proper to enclose this letter for your inspection and direction.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioners &c.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1099-1100.



Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 13th 1855
Dear Sir,
    Yours of the first May has been received and the contents noted. There are undoubtedly instances in which it becomes necessary to give presents, but a too liberal [policy] of this kind is deemed objectionable, for besides the small amount appropriated by Congress for that object, it is believed to exert no very beneficial influence among the Indians and should only be resorted to when absolutely necessary.
    I expect to leave home about the 18th or 20th instant, by way of Neachesna, Yaquina, Alsea and Siuslaw to Umpqua, and thence to Port Orford, with the design of negotiating treaties with the coast tribes. The goods designed for the Coos Bay Indians, the Umpquas and Siuslaws will be forwarded to your care by way of Scottsburg.
    The train will be in the charge of John Hill and will start about the time above mentioned. I desire you to make the necessary arrangements to transport the goods and animals to the mouth of the Umpqua, if there be no trail on which they can travel, where you will take charge of them until my arrival.
    You will designate some suitable point to hold the council with the Siuslaws, Umpquas and Coos Bay Indians where they can assemble. Some point near your residence on the opposite side of the river would be preferable, being a central position for the tribes around. I shall probably be ten days in reaching the Umpqua and desire that you will have the Indians assembled so as to meet me. Everything should be done quietly. There will be no parade or display, and the least possible number of whites in attendance the better. I shall have with me a few seines and nets to assist the Indians in taking fish, and we will doubtlessly not be compelled to remain many days in council so that there need be no very extensive preparation for subsisting the Indians while in council. I shall pack flour for our own use and a letter to feed the Indians during the time of council, as I anticipate the price in Scottsburg as being too high to justify purchasing at that point. I wish you however to ascertain at what price beef could be delivered at the council ground either on foot or slaughtered as might be preferred by us, leaving the matter to be determined on after my arrival.
    The Coquilles will be assembled at the mouth of that stream but of that we will determine on my arrival at your place. Should you receive this in time, I desire you to send a messenger [to] Aeneas, chief of the Siuslaws, with a request that he would take a party and open the trail between Siuslaw and Alsea, and in the event of my not arriving at that point by the time the trail be opened, that I wish him and party (say three Indians) to proceed north and open the trail at all points where it may be necessary until he shall meet me.
    There are many points where it is difficult to pass even at low tide that may be remedied  by opening a trail over the spurs, and others where we are compelled to travel [over] ridges heavily timbered and requiring considerable labor to climb; open a trail to permit pack animals to pass. In view of this if you can procure a suitable white man to accompany the chief with proper tools it would be well to do so, the expense of which will be paid on my arrival, as also the services of these Indians. I mention this chief because he is well acquainted with the route, and withal an energetic person and will use judgment in selecting ground for the trail.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
E. P. Drew Esqr.
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
        Umpqua City Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 243-244.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 14th 1855
Sir,
    Enclosed are six letters to this office of different dates, from Agent George H. Ambrose, exhibiting a view of the leading events in his district from the first of January to the 16th June last.
    The perusal of these communications will show the frequent occurrence of events in that region calculated to disturb the public quiet and endanger the personal safety both of whites and Indians, and the necessity of the constant exercise of prudence and vigilance on the part of the officers in the Indian service in order to prevent actual war.
    The Rogue Rivers embraced in the treaty of the 10th September 1853 manifest uniform good feeling and are gratified with the interest for their welfare shown by the government, especially with the agricultural improvements, and I doubt not but that if the other bands could be withdrawn from the neighborhood of the mines, where misunderstandings embroiling the whites and Indians constantly arise, and where the slightest offense or mere suspicion often excites the fury of reckless and unprincipled men, but little reason would exist for apprehending hostile manifestations on the part of the savages.
    It will be seen that the agent has been impelled to adopt this course as the means of preserving the country from another Indian war, and that nearly all the Indians are now collected upon the reservation. This measure, which has been pressed upon us as the only means of preventing greater calamities, has somewhat embarrassed our operations, as it is impossible for the Indians thus suddenly crowded together to find the means of subsistence, and without aid from the government they would be driven to the alternative of predatory acts or starvation. Sound policy and humanity therefore demand that the exigency be met. I have consequently purchased two tons of flour, which will be sent to the reservation without delay and placed in the hands of Agent Ambrose, one thousand dollars for the purchase of additional necessary supplies, as set forth in my instructions to that officer, of which a copy is transmitted to your office. Mr. Ambrose has promised a more detailed report of the late disturbances in his district, which, upon its reception, will be immediately transmitted to you.
    It is believed that these measures have prevented impending war, which besides the blood of our citizens and the loss of private property, would have led to a large expenditure on the part of the government, and that their continuance are absolutely necessary to public tranquility, and it is accordingly hoped they will receive your approval.
    I also herewith transmit two letters of Agent Thompson on matters preliminary to the treaties recently consummated with various tribes in his district, and the monthly report of Sub-Agent Drew for May last.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. George. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 247-248.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1106-1109.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 14th 1855
Sir
    I herewith enclose plot of survey and field notes of survey of a portion of the boundary of Table Rock Reservation, with the oath of surveyor and affidavits of chain carriers, together with a letter from Mr. Metcalfe giving the measurement of ground plowed on the reservation in 1854.
    The encroachments of the whites upon the reservation, giving as an excuse the want of accurate knowledge of the boundaries, induced me to direct Mr. Metcalfe to make this survey.
    The removal of the Indians to the reservation and assignment to the respective individuals of tracts of land will require subdivisions and more detailed surveys. I would therefore ask your instructions as to the mode of procedure in such matters, and as to the appropriate sum which the amount necessary to meet those expenditures is to be taken, and whether those surveys will come under the supervision of the Superintendent, the agent, or the Surveyor General.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. George W. Manypenny
    Commissioner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 248.  A copy can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1079-1080.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 14th 1855
Sir
    I enclose you herewith a copy of a letter addressed to me, which reached the office during my absence in Middle Oregon.
    Upon its presentation by Mr. Skinner's messenger, Mr. E. R. Geary, my secretary, paid the amount of salary appearing due Mr. Skinner, he having signed the requisite receipts.
    He however holds a claim against the Department for horse hire, house rent and other incidental expenses, the original bills of which were transmitted to the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs by my predecessor Doct. Dart. No copies were retained in this office but Mr. Skinner has subsequently furnished me with a copy. The charges upon portions of these items appear high, and as the original accounts were in your office I would hope that they be passed upon and the requisite instructions be given me in regard to their payment.
    There are no entries of amount for salary of interpreter indicating an allowance for such service.
    I have therefore informed Mr. Skinner that the amount would be paid Mr. Skinner at this office upon presentation of the proper vouchers signed and certified to by him, that the account was correct and just and that he served as interpreter during the time specified, and has not previously been paid for said services.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
   

Jackson County
    May 19th 1855.
Dear Sir
    Some five or six weeks since I wrote you with reference to the claim I have against the government of the U.S. but have not received an answer.
    Will you do me the favor to write me at your earliest convenience and inform me whether there was an appropriation made at the last session of Congress to pay off the indebtedness of the Indian Department in Oregon, and what the prospect is of C. B. Gray, the late interpreter of this agency, and myself getting the moneys due us from government.
    Mr. Gray was appointed by me Oct. 15th 1851 and confirmed by the government Jany. 1st 1852, and served all the time I acted as agent and has never received any part of his salary. If we are never to get our pay it would be a good deal of service to know the fact.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1089-1092.



Oregon City O.T.
    July 20th 1855
Gentlemen
    I am directed by Superintendent Palmer to say that he ships today to Portland for Port Orford the following--Bales 1005, 1007, 1003, 1008, 912, 1009, 1014, 1015, 1013--Box 00--and two tons flour, all of which he wishes to remain in the wharf boat until the steamer of the fifth of August and should Captain Tichenor arrive previous to that time, you will please forward all the goods designed for Port Orford by him and direct him to land them as near the 
Tututni village on Rogue River as practicable, but should he not arrive you will ship per steamer to Port Orford, and should the General not meet the steamer at Port Orford he will immediately on his return pay the freight in Portland. You will please make such an arrangement that there may be no disappointment.
Yours truly
    Cris Taylor
L. Snow & Co.
    Portland
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 251.



Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 24th 1855
Sir
    I herewith submit an estimate of funds required to meet the current expenses of the Oregon Indian Superintendency for the half year ending December 31st 1855.
    The entire amount of the funds provided for by Article 4th of the treaty of 18th November 1854 is estimated for as being requisite to the preservation of peace among these Indians and to make the necessary provision for their subsistence.
    From the funds provided for by the 5th article of this treaty, I have estimated for an amount believed to be required for the payment and subsistence of a farmer & a blacksmith, and to provide medical attendance for the fractional part of this half year.
    The presence of a farmer continually among the Indians during the remainder of the half year would encourage and induce them to put in crops of wheat for the coming season. A smith shop will be erected, and upon the arrival of the tools we must necessarily employ a smith, but during this period one shop will be sufficient.
    The Indians suffer much from sickness, and provision for medical aid would lend greatly to lessen their aversion to reside on the reservation and give them general confidence in the rectitude and kindness of our intentions.
    It is not however expected that the hospital can be erected and the necessary provisions made for the reception of invalids during the current half year, nor will it be practicable to complete the buildings and put in operation the schools during this period, contemplated in the treaty. Anticipating the commencement of improvements upon the reservation of the Umpqua Indians during the last quarter of this year, I have estimated for a part of the funds provided for by articles 4th & 6th of the treaty of the 29th November 1854, as being required for taking the preliminary steps for the fulfillment of that treaty. The amount of funds required and extent of improvements to be made during the next half year will depend in some degree upon the practicability of locating these Indians on the Coast Reservation, and I shall not expend any of the building funds, or that now estimated for, until advised of your views on this subject. In the event that it is deemed inadvisable to change the location of the reservation, I shall have no hesitation in investing the funds, but if on the contrary, I deem it advantageous to the government and also more to the advantage of the Indians to make the change. I am at a loss to know how to proceed.
    Whether any outlays can be made on the new reservation without additional legislation of Congress, and without a written agreement with the Indians and the usual action of the President and Senate upon that agreement, I am unable to determine. Would the written agreement of the three delegates as contemplated in article 1st of the treaty of the 29th November last be sufficient to justify the commencement of improvements without the action of the Senate? I hope to be advised by you on this point at an early day.
    The length of time required to obtain replies and instructions, and the importance of commencing improvements on the reservation at an early day, has induced me to make these suggestions and inquiries.
    There has been great delay in submitting this estimate; my apology is the length of my detention by the late negotiations in Middle Oregon, and the amount of business that has accumulated in the office during my absence. The quarterly statement as to the kind and amount of funds on hand will accompany my quarterly abstract of disbursements &c. for the last quarter, which will be transmitted in a few days.
I remain sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            Joel Palmer
                Superintendent
Hon Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 252-253.  The original can be found on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1161-1165.



Rogue River O.T. July 25 1855
Dear Sir
    As Mr. Metcalfe is in haste to leave I can say but a few words.
    All is peace & quiet, no danger of war anymore this season. I shall proceed with all possible dispatch to the erection of those buildings as directed by you. I heartily concur with you in the selection of a man for farmer; too much care cannot be taken. If you know of a suitable person recommend him or hire one and send him here. I shall hire none until I hear from you. I would also recommend the payment of good wages so as to secure a competent person. I can obtain a good person to superintend the erection of the buildings, and also one to take charge of the school. Blacksmiths, tinsmiths, gunsmiths and all the others but common laborers if you can procure them you had better do so as I know you will have a much larger field to select from than I, and of course will be more likely to select good persons.
    Of ordinary labor I can procure nearly all of it done by Indians. I never saw people more eager to learn and to work than these Indians are. I had all of the harvesting (except cradling) done by them, hence I have been enabled to get it done much cheaper than I otherwise should have done. I had it cut, bound and cocked up and divide it in the sheaf. I could not make an equitable division otherwise.
    Those Indians from Illinois Valley are well pleased, have no desire to return to Deer Creek, Applegate or Illinois. I have no doubt but with the assistance which could be afforded them by a good farmer they will turn their attention to agricultural employments.
    I would like to know what salary I would be justified in giving to a good school teacher, or how soon it is expected one will be employed. Mr. Royal, who lives in Jacksonville, is the person who I allude to that can be obtained. He is a pious, moral man, has a very estimable lady indeed & both take a great delight in teaching Indians. Several have been learned their letters by them since they settled in this valley. I presume he can be obtained for seven or eight hundred dollars at the utmost. If left to me I should regard the price as a secondary consideration, qualification first, however in all those selections I shall consult your judgment before employing any except such as it may be found necessary to carry on the work until I hear from you.
    I hope it may not be found necessary to send a messenger to you but I should like extremely well if it is possible for you to visit this agency this season.
    I paid Mr. Metcalfe's bills incurred while he was acting as sub-Indian agent, as requested by him. Amongst them was two for work done on the reserve, one to his brother, one to a Mr. Cain. I paid his brother at the rate of ninety dollars per month as per agreement with you. Mr. Caine at the rate of $60. This I paid out of the thousand dollars sent me by you to be "accounted for under the head of treaty stipulations as per 4th Article Treaty of 18th November 1854." If it should be found to be incorrect to take it out of this fund it can be transferred to any other, inform me by your next letter.
    R. B. Metcalfe can give you all the particulars so excuse my haste.
Yours fraternally
    G. H. Ambrose
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No.68.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 286-287.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 28th 1855
Dear Sir
    I enclose herewith a form of receipt and bill of articles recently sent by Mr. Wm. Hash, to be delivered to you for use in constructing buildings on Table Rock Reserve, in fulfillment of 5th article treaty of the 18th Nov. 1854, with the Scotans, Shastas & Grave Creek Indians.
    You will take an invoice of these goods on their arrival and prepare and forward duplicate receipts by Mr. Hash, which receipt will be his voucher for the delivery of the goods. In making out the duplicates you will be able to correct the list in the event Mr. Hash should fail to deliver all the articles.
    My trip to the coast has been delayed much longer than I had intended. I shall start on Tuesday next. Business in the office has so crowded me since my return that I am compelled to have many things unattended to. I have no tidings of the arrival of the vessel upon which were shipped the Indian goods for your district, but in the event of their arrival before my return Mr. Geary will forward them out. I would like to have your views in regard to the transportation of the goods from Portland to the reservation. This you know is a heavy item, and if some plan could be devised short of hiring them packed or hauled, it would be well to do so.
    Will the teams now sent out and those belonging on the reservation be required to perform service on the reservation so as to render it necessary to hire or purchase other teams to transport annuity and other goods?
    What proportion of this year's annuity may be applied to the payment of liabilities on account of improvement and supplies already made and furnished on the reservation? And what kind of goods should be bought in addition to the list which I sent you by Metcalfe? The "circular" now transmitted makes similar inquiries.
In haste yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Dardanelles
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 261.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 281.



Monthly Report of Agent G. H. Ambrose
Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River O.T. July 31, 1855
Dear Sir,
    The past month has been an unusually busy one, although an unpleasant circumstance has occurred to seriously affect our friendly relations with the Indians.
    Some few unimportant thefts which were adjusted without any difficulty have been the only cause of complaint upon the part of the whites until within a few days past. On Sunday evening last five Indians arrived at this agency from the Klamath River, although belonging to this agency and without permission to leave it; in fact in violation of peremptory orders not to leave. They went and while there some horrid murders were perpetrated, in which there is reason to believe they participated to some extent. They were seen returning from there in great haste with some horses belonging to some white men who had been murdered. Although they did not bring the horses to this agency, there is reason to believe they know where the horses are. I hope to be able in a few days to make you a full report of the matter.
    The Indians stated on their arrival here that the Klamath Indians had killed ten or eleven white men on the Klamath River, under the following circumstances (I give you the Indian statement in the absence of any other).
    It appears that on Thursday the 26th instant some three or four Indians were on Humbug Creek and purchased several bottles of whiskey. In the afternoon, as they were returning, they were accosted by a man to know where they obtained their liquor, at the same time taking the bottle from the hand of the Indian and dashing it to the ground, which exasperated the Indians who commenced cursing the individual. Thereupon he drew his pistol and shot the Indian but did not kill him. The wounded Indian drew his pistol and killed the white man dead on the spot.
    A company of miners immediately collected, followed the Indians and overtook them near the Klamath, where they had been joined by several others, fired [on] and killed them.
    That night & early the next morning the Indians killed as many as ten or eleven persons, took a considerable amount of property and fled to the mountains, and the Indians belonging to the agency returned home.
    The Indians belonging to the agency here deny any participation in the matter and say they were merely looking on.
    An individual living near the western boundary of the reserve had employed them to go to the Klamath country in search of a horse said to have been stolen by a Klamath Indian, who had been but a short time previous in his employ.
    The Indians applied for a pass and permission to go, which being assured them they seemed content, and I thought had abandoned the idea; in fact they said they had. But on finding an ex-justice of the peace in Jacksonville who gave the permission to leave, and wrote them a certificate of good character, and off they went--I fear--into trouble. Indian "Bill," son of old man "John" was along--and by the way the only one who had a good reputation. Some of the others are known to be desperate Indians, and the very ones suspected of committing the murder on Indian Creek, which caused so much difficulty last spring in Illinois Valley.
    Although circumstances [are] very much against them, it may be possible they are innocent. I cannot believe they had any design in going, for I know they were sent. The promptness with which they returned shows they could not have stayed more than two nights at the utmost & probably not but one. Their previous bad character makes more against them than any evidence yet adduced.
    There is a tremendous excitement in Yreka and vicinity and threats are made of exterminating the whole Indian tribe, and as a matter of consequence the Indians are very much alarmed.
    In the event of this state of affairs existing any length of time, the Indians will necessarily be huddled together on the reserve and must be fed, as it will be impossible for them to procure a livelihood in any other way, which is much to be regretted. But little benefit will be derived from their crop in such an event, whereas if they could be permitted to follow their usual vocations--hunting, fishing &c.--their crops would go far and prove highly beneficial.
    I have just finished harvesting the grain belonging to the Indians, and found it an excellent crop indeed. As it was the first crop they had ever raised, I had to employ white men to cut it for them. They very readily learned to rake, bind and shock it, all of which labor was done by them, and some of them would soon learn to cradle [use a scythe and cradle]. After shocking it, I divided it out among them to have it threshed. I am confident there will be as much as a thousand bushels, but even that will be a small pro rata for the number of Indians residing here.
August 4th               
    As no mail has left by which I could send you this communication I give you the result of an interview with the Indians today. I had a talk with them. They protest their innocence & say they did not arrive in the Klamath country till after the difficulties had begun--that the property they had they traded for without any knowledge of where the Indians obtained it, or in what way. They say they are perfectly willing to give it up, and have sent for it to be brought into Captain Smith's camp tomorrow morning. I hope by next mail to give you a better and probably a more reliable account. I shall spare no pains to ferret it out, when I shall report immediately.
Yours respectfully
    G. H. Ambrose
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 55-58.



Rogue River Valley
    August 1st, 1855
Dear Sir
    In your letter of the 15th ult. you informed me that an appropriation was made at the last session of Congress of some $3000 to be applied towards the payment of arrearages of the Department in this Territory. You also inform me that my accounts for contingent expenses have never been audited by the Department at Washington. My object in troubling you now is to request you to urge the immediate action of the Department on my accounts. Will you do me the favor to write to the Commissioner at your earliest convenience and urge an immediate decision on the accounts, or that they be referred back to your office for final settlement. I should much prefer the latter course.
    In the fall of 1850 James M. Moore, L. A. Rice & myself gave our joint note to Mark Sawyer, administrator of the estate of Jordan Sawyer, deceased, for the sum of $2900. Moore has no property & Rice and myself will have the whole note to pay, and unless I can get the money due me on the account above referred to I shall be entirely broken up & be compelled to sell my land claim for what it will bring, and times are such now that I have no hope of being able to sell it for more than $3000 or $3500. Twelve months ago it would have sold readily for $6000.
    I presume that there is no doubt but a portion of my account will be allowed to the amount of $1500 at least. Now if you could consistently with your own safety, and in accordance with your sense of duty, advance me out of the appropriation the amount you think will without doubt be allowed, you would place me under very great obligations to you & probably enable me to avoid sacrificing my land claim. Mr. Sawyer will obtain judgment against Rice & myself at the next term of the court in this county (next Monday).
In haste
    Truly yours &c.
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. &c.
        Dayton
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 262-263.



Rogue River Valley
    August 1st, 1855
Dear Sir,
    I send you by Mr. Riley Gray the account of Charley B. Gray as interpreter for this agency. I have endeavored to make my certificate in accordance with the instructions contained in your letter of 15th ult.
    The bearer of this, Mr. R. Gray, is a brother of C. B. Gray, and by arrangement between them when Charley left for the States Riley is to receive the money due Charley as interpreter. You will confer a favor on both of them by paying the money to the bearer, if the vouchers and certificates are correct.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esquire
    Supt. Ind. Affairs &c.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 269.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. August 2nd 1855
Sir
    Owing to the amount of business accumulated in this office in consequence of my absence in Middle Oregon, I have been unable to prepare complete property returns for the back quarters, or perfect my abstracts of disbursement up to June 30th last, and as arrangements have been previously made to enter into treaty stipulations with the tribes and bands along the Pacific coast, I have deemed it necessary to leave Mr. Geary, my secretary, in charge of the office, who is authorized to make out, sign and transmit the abstracts and property returns up to the close of the last fiscal year.
    On my return duplicates of these abstracts with required certificates & affidavits will be forwarded.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1172-1173.



Coast Tribes
    Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the place and date hereinafter named in the Territory of Oregon, by Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, and the following chiefs and headmen of the confederate tribes and bands of Indians residing along the coast west of the summit of the Coast Range of mountains and between the Columbia River on the north and the southern boundary of Oregon on the south, they being duly authorized thereto by their respective bands, to wit:
    Louis, Quink-ouse, Kos-kup, Tel-kite, Albert, Ki-hose, Sme-ka-hite, Cal-he-wa, Que-mash, Kle-ich, Pal-hi, Ha-ake, Tu-e-to, Quitiska and Quo-appu of the Alsea band of Tillamooks, Jim, Con-chu, Toch-a-lie, Pal-ni-ka-a, No-cos-curt, Tlate-hal, He-a-kah, Sam-may, Ki-etch and John of the Yaquonah band of Tillamooks; Jim, Sis-nah-quo-lin, Scho-yo, Kle-kow-iuts, Ton-ton, To-cet-so, Jake, Chah-quo-lah, Chin-ni-quo-wash, Tu-e-uch, Ah-sio-less, Si-cou-in, Is-han-na and Yet-sit of the Siletsa band of Tillamooks; John of the Ne-a-chesna band of Tillamooks; Enos, DeChamp, John, Peter, Pascal, Ha-to-tuch, Kal-la-wat-sa, Ha-lo-ghese, Bi-cham-in, Louis, Lakeman, Jerome, Pierre and Wilson of the Siuslaw tribe; Jim, Tim, Tom, Sam, Tat-tim, Don Quixote, Charley, John, Que-il-me, Qui-et and Ha-lo-wa-na of the Kal-a-wot-set or Umpqua tribe; Jim 1st, Bob, John 1st, George, William, Charley 1st, Dido, Dick, Ole Man Doctor, Tom 1st, Captain, Stephen, Col-lolt, Wol-lonch, Lock-itch, Wol-lach, Pete, Jackson, Hol-lice, Taylor, Pe-lee-gray, Joe, Sam 1st, Charley 2nd, Sam 2nd, Jim 2nd, Johnson, Charley 3rd, Ole Man, Jack, Tom 2nd, Jim 3rd, John 2nd, Gabriel, Cris, Kah-lite, Ne-at-tal-woot, Quin-ut-chet, Yol-si-no, Lalkt, Damon, Ka-ton-na, Lock-hite, Ten-ach, Ke-hi-ah, Hon-seach, Ko-at-quoa, Solomon, Lol-lotch, Skli-a-milt, Yah-who-wich, Tes-ich-man, How-new-not, Squat-kle-ah, Ki-u-to-set, Al-la-wom-mets, Too-tue and No-whe-na of the Coos Bay tribe, Tsin-no-nas, Pil-le-kis, Klas-waw-ta, Sat-tae, Wah-hinch, Tom, Joe, Malio-quick, Won-to-tlos, Mil-luck, John 1st, Charley, Che-kan-nah, Kunie-mos, T-sha-saw, Kow-u-quam, Sands, T-sis-tah-noo-ka, Mah-tlose, Chil-lah, How-ouse, Charles, Sah-lee, Nock-to-sock, O-Charley, King-klus, Bill, Other-ton, Yohn, Nelson, Sock-sy, Joe Lane, Frank, John 2nd, Jim, George, Bob, El-kah-hut, Klo-kot-on, Lan-dish, Kitchen and Jim-too-wah of the Quano-sake-nah, Klew-nah-kah and Ke-a-mas-e-ton bands of Nas-o-mah or Coquille tribe; Tagonecia, Loo-ney, John and Jim of the Ko-so-e-chah band of Tututnis; Whiskers, Ten-as Tie [Tenas Tyee], Eu-nach-nah and Ia-was-kah of the Se-qua-chee band of Tututnis; An-ne-at-ta, Tal-ma-net-sa, Ko-chil-la and Hust-la-no of the Tututni band of Tututnis; Eu-tlach, Too-whus-kah, Ka-tuch, Kla and No-get-toe-it of the Chetco tribe; Sin-a-hus-chan, Eu-saw-e-klow, Em-nah-uose-tah and Yas-kah-chim-a-mah-tin of the Yah-shute band of Tututnis; Nal-tah-was-shah, Chah-hus-sah, Kos-saw-ow and E-ule-to-tes-tlah of the Whis-to-na-tin band of Tututnis; Ses-tul-tul, Yot-sa and Hustomasay of the Cos-sa-to-ny band of Tututnis; Mos-quot, No-on-me-has-quah, Tuc-qua and Cosh-nul-see of the Chet-less-ing-ton band of Tututnis; Smut-tah-tu, Too-kus-chal-nah, Se-tal-keel and Schah-lah of the Port Orford band of Tututnis; Ah-chase, Tos-ton, Quil-see and Yo-wolt-ma of the Eu-kie-chee band of Tututnis; Mu-ple-tie and Too-quit of the Kus-sol-to-ny band of Tututnis; Now-what, Koose-tlah and Eu-til-mus of the Klu-it-la-tel band of Tututnis; Ult-sa-yah, Yah-em-see, Ton-wa-nic-a-che, Che-nun-tun and Chis-tah-tah of the Tee-cha-quit band of Tututnis; Tul-lel-ol-tus, Eu-sal-sun, Squo-che-nal-tee, Shet-nul-lees and Noch-war-see-yah of the Mikonotunne band of Tututnis; Washington, Tom, Chi-a-le-tin-he, Ni-ick-lo-sis, Tu-si-wah, Jackson and David of the Cal-toch-chin-tak-ta, Whiston and Klen-hos-tun bands of Coquilles.
    Article 1st. The above named confederated bands of Indians ceded to the United States all their right, title and interest to all and every part of the country claimed by them, included in the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing in the middle of the channel of the Columbia River at the northwestern extremity of the purchase made of the Calapooia and Molalla bands of Indians, thence running southerly with that boundary to the southwestern point of that purchase, and thence along the summit of the Coast Range of mountains with the western boundaries of the purchase made of the Umpquas and Molallas of the Umpqua Valley, and of the Scotan Shastas and Grave Creeks of Rogue River Valley to the southern boundary of Oregon Territory, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, thence northerly along said ocean to the middle of the northern channel of the Columbia River, thence following the middle of said channel to the place of beginning. Provided, however, that so much of the country described above as is contained in the following boundaries shall until otherwise directed by the President of the United States be set apart as a reserve for said Indians and such other bands, or parts of bands, as may by direction of the President of the United States be located thereon, such tract for the purpose contemplated shall be held and regarded as an Indian reservation, to wit: Commencing where the northern boundary of the seventeenth range of townships south of the base line strikes the coast, thence east to the western boundary of the eighth range of townships west of the Willamette Meridian as indicated by John B. Preston's diagram of a portion of Oregon Territory, thence north on that line to the southern boundary of the third range of townships south of the base line, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, and thence southerly along the coast to the place of beginning. Provided, however, that the district west of said eighth range of townships between the said northern boundary of range seventeen and the fourth standard parallel south shall for the term of 20 years be held and regarded as a part of said Indian reservation, and together with the tract described by this section as such be subject to the laws "regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes" as now in force, or hereafter to be enacted by the Congress of the United States. All of which tract shall be set apart and so far as necessary surveyed and marked out for the exclusive use of such Indians as are or may hereafter be located thereon, nor shall any person other than an Indian be permitted to reside upon the same without the consent and permission of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and the agent having charge of said district.
    The said bands and tribes agree to remove to and settle upon the same within one year from the ratification of this convention, without any additional expense to the government other than is provided by this treaty, and until the expiration of the time specified the said bands shall be permitted to occupy and reside upon the tracts now possessed by them guaranteeing to all white citizens the right to enter upon and occupy as settlers any lands not included in said reservation or actually enclosed by said Indians. Provided, however, that when the public interest or convenience may require, the right of constructing roads, railroads or other public highways and navigating the streams or bays in said reservation is hereby secured to the United States.
    And provided also that if any band or bands of Indians residing in and claiming any portion of the country herein described shall not accede to the terms of this treaty, then the bands becoming parties hereunto agree to receive such part of the several annuities and other payments hereinafter named as a consideration for the entire country described as aforesaid, as shall be in the proposition that their aggregate number may have to the whole number of Indians residing in and claiming the entire country aforesaid, as consideration and payment in full for the tracts in said country claimed by them. And provided also that where substantial improvements have been made by individuals of the bands becoming parties to this treaty, which they shall be compelled to abandon in consequence of said treaty, the same shall be valued under direction of the President of the United States and payment made said individuals therefor, or in lieu thereof, improvements of equal excellence and value at their option shall be made on the tracts assigned to each respectively.
    Article 2nd. In consideration of and payment for the country hereby added, the United States agree to pay to the bands and tribes of Indians claiming territory and residing in said country the several sums of money, to wit:
    Ten thousand dollars per annum for the first three years, commencing on or before the first day of September 1857;
    Eight thousand dollars per annum for the term of three years next succeeding the first three;
    Six thousand dollars per annum for the term of three years next succeeding the second three; and
    Three thousand dollars per annum for the term of six years next succeeding the third three.
    All of which several sums of money shall be expended for the use and benefit of the confederated bands under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time, at his discretion, determine what proportion thereof shall be expended for such objects as in his judgment will promote their well-being and advance them in civilization, for their moral improvement and education, for buildings, opening and fencing farms, breaking land, providing teams, stock, agricultural implements, seed &c., &c., for clothing, in payment of mechanics and farmers and for arms and ammunition.
    Article 3rd. The United States agree to pay the said Indians the additional sum of thirty thousand dollars, a portion whereof shall be applied to payment for such articles as may be advanced them at the time of signing this treaty, and in providing after the ratification thereof, and prior to their removal, such articles as may be deemed by the President, essential to their wants, for the erection of buildings on the reservation, fencing and opening farms, for the purchase of teams, farming implements, tools and seeds, for the payment of employees, and for subsisting the Indians the first years after their removal.
    Article 4th. In addition to the consideration specified, the United States agree to erect at suitable points on the reservation two sawmills, two flouring mills, four school houses, and two blacksmith shops, to one of which shall be attached a tin shop, and for two sawyers, two millers, one superintendent of farming operations, three farmers, one physician, four school teachers, and two blacksmiths, a dwelling house and the necessary outbuildings for each, and to purchase and keep in repair for the time specified for furnishing employees, all necessary mill fixtures, mechanical tools, medicines, books and stationery for schools, and furniture for employees.
    The United States further agree to secure and pay for the services and subsistence for the term of fifteen years of three farmers, two blacksmiths, two sawyers, two millers, and for the term of twenty years of one physician, one superintendent of farming operations, and for school teachers.
    The United States also engage to retain in the service one Indian agent, and to erect at the most central suitable point agency buildings where said agent shall reside.
    Art. 5th. The half-breeds, legal representatives of the bands and tribes being parties to this treaty who reside outside of the reservation, shall be allowed to draw the share of annuity payments to which they may be entitled either in cash or goods at their option--and when residing upon the reservation they shall be entitled to all the benefit of annuity as well as other payments, but no half-breed shall be allowed permitted to reside upon said reservation without the concurrence of the Superintendent and agent.
    Article 6th. The President may from time to time at his discretion cause the whole, or such portions as he may think proper, of the tract that may now or hereafter be set apart as a permanent home for these Indians to be surveyed into lots and assigned to such Indians of the confederated bands as may wish to enjoy the privilege and locate thereon permanently--to a single person over twenty-one years of age, forty acres; to a family of two persons, sixty acres; to a family of three and not exceeding five, eighty acres; to a family of six persons and not exceeding ten, one hundred and twenty acres; and to each family over ten in number, twenty acres for each additional three members. And the President may provide such rules and regulations as will secure to the family in the case of the death of the head thereof the possession and enjoyment of such permanent home and the improvements thereon, and he may at any time at his discretion, after such person or family has made location on the land assigned as a permanent home, issue a patent to such person or family for such assigned land, conditioned that the tract shall not be aliened or leased for a longer term than two years and shall be exempt from levy, sale or forfeiture, which condition shall continue in force until a state constitution embracing such land within its limits shall have been formed and the legislature of the state shall remove the restrictions.
    Provided, however, that no state legislature shall remove the restrictions herein provided for without the consent of Congress and provided also that if any person or family shall at any time neglect to occupy or till a portion of the land assigned and on which they have located, or shall roam from place to place, indicating a desire to abandon said home, the President may if the patent shall have been issued revoke the same, and if not issued, cancel the assignment, and may also withhold from such person or family their portion of the annuities or other money due them until they shall have returned to such permanent home and resumed the pursuits of industry, and in default of their return the tract may be declared abandoned, and thereafter assigned to some other person or family of Indians residing on said reservation.
    Article 7th. The annuities of the Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.
    Article 8th. The confederated bands acknowledge their dependence on the government of the United States and promise to be friendly with all the citizens thereof and pledge themselves to commit no depredations on the property of said citizens, and should any one or more of the Indians violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proven before the agent, the property taken shall be returned, or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the government out of their annuities, nor will they make war on any other tribe of Indians except in self-defense, but submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the government of the United States or its agents for decision, and abide thereby, and if any of the said Indians commit any depredations on other Indians the same rule shall prevail as that prescribed in case of depredations against citizens.
    Article 9th. For the purpose of establishing uniformity of laws, rules and regulations among the various bands of Indians being parties to this treaty, and to give greater security to persons and property, it is hereby agreed that the Congress of the United States with the approval of the President shall have power to enact laws for the government of same Indians.
    Article 10th. In order to prevent the evils of intemperance among said Indians, it is hereby provided that if any one of them shall drink liquor to excess or procure it for others to drink, his or her proportion of the annuities may be withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.
    Article 11th. The United States agree to expend a sum of money not exceeding ten thousand dollars in opening and constructing major roads between the different settlements on said reservation, and from the saw and flouring mills herein provided for, to said settlements, and in the event of a failure to effect secure landings for vessels in the transportation of annuity goods within said reservation, the additional sums, not exceeding ten thousand dollars, shall be expended by the United States in opening and constructing a wagon road from some point at or near the mouth of Ne-ah-ches-na or Salmon River to the settlements in the Willamette Valley, and one wagon road from some navigable point on Yah-quo-nah or Alsea River to the valley of the Willamette.
    Article 12th. The United States engage to establish and maintain a military post on said reservation whensoever the peace and safety of the Indians residing thereon shall render the same necessary.
    Article 13th. This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.
   

    In testimony whereof the said Joel Palmer on the part of the United States and the undersigned chiefs, headmen and delegates of the said confederated bands have hereunto set their hands and seals this eleventh day of August eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
Signed in presence of
Cris Taylor, Secy. Treaty O.T.
W. W. Raymond, Sub-Ind. Agt.
R. W. Dunbar
B. M. Palmer
[Alsea]
Louis
Cal-he-na
Tel-kite
Albert
Ki-how
Sme-ka-hite
Quink-ouse
Kos-kup
Qui-mah
Kle-ick
Pah-hi
Ha-ike
Tu-e-to
Qui-ho-ka
Quo-ap-pa
Yahquonah
Jim
Con-chu
Toch-a-lie
Pah-ni-ka-u
Wo-cos-const
T-late-harl
Hu-a-kah
Sam-may
Ki-itch
John
Siletz
Jim
Sis-nah-quo-lin
Scho-yo
Kli-con-outs
Ton-tow
Houch-a
To-cut-so
Jake
Chah-quo-lah
Chou-na-quo-lech
Tu-e-uch
Ah-sie-less
Lee-cow-in
Is-han-na
Yet-sit
Neachesna
John
    We, the chiefs, headmen and delegates of the Siuslaw and Winchester Bay bands of the Kal-a-wat-set or Umpqua tribe of Indians and the several bands of Coos Bay Indians, after having had fully explained to us the above treaty, do hereby accede to its provisions and affix our signatures or marks the seventeenth day of August 1855.
Signed in presence of
Cris Taylor, Secty.
R. B. Metcalfe, Sub-Ind. Agent
E. P. Drew, Sub-Ind. Agent
John Flett, Interpreter
Joseph E. Clark, Interpreter
R. W. Dunbar
John Gale
S. V. Brown
M. A. Hull
Jn. B. Gagnier, Interpreter
Eneas
De Champ
John
Peter
Pascal
Ha-lo-tuch
Kal-a-wat-sa
Halogleese
Bi-chan-na
Louis
Lake-man
Jerome
Pierre
Wilson
Umpquas
Jim
Tim
Tom
Sam
Fat Tim
Don Quixote
Charley
John
Qui-el-me
Qui-et
Ha-lo-wawa
Coos Bay
Jim 1st chief
Bob 2nd chief
John
George
William
Charley
Dock
Dick
Ole Man Doctor
Tom
Captain
Stephen
Col-losh
Wol-lach
Lock-itch
Wal-lock
Pete
Jackson
Hol-lice
Taylor
Peter Gray
Joe
Sam
Charley 3rd
Sam 2nd
Jim 3rd
Johnson
Charley 2nd
Ole Man
Jack
Tom
Jim 2nd
John 2nd
Gabriel
Cris
Kah-lite
Ne-at-tal-woot
Jake
Quin-ultchet
Yot-se-no
Lolkt
Damon
Ka-ton-na
Loch-hite
Ten-ach
He-hi-ah
How-seach
Ko-ah-qua
Solomon
Lol-lotch
Skil-a-milt
Yah-uts-inch
Teo-ich-man
How-nu-wot
Squat-ki-ah
Ki-u-at-set
Al-la-wom-mets
Too-toe
No-whe-na
    We, the chiefs, headmen and delegates of the Quans-sake-nah, Klen-nah-hah and Ke-ah-mas-e-ton bands of Nas-o-mah or Coquille tribe of Indians, after having had fully explained to us the above treaty, do hereby accede to its provisions and affix our signatures or marks the twenty-third day of August 1855.
Signed in presence of
Cris Taylor, Secty.
John Flett, Interpreter
Jn. B. Gagnier, Interpreter
Joseph E. Clark, Interpreter
E. P. Drew, Sub-Ind. Agt.
R. W. Dunbar
T-sin-no-nas
Pil-le-kir
Klas-wan-ta
Sat-too
Wah-hench
Tom
Joe
Mal-o-quock
Won-to-tlos
Willuck
John
Charley
Che-han-nah
Kume-mos
I-sho-san
Kow-u-quan
Sands
Y-sio-tah-noo-ka
Mah-tlose
Chil-lah
Hon-ouse
Charles
Lah-see
Noc-to-soch
O'Charley
Klingklus
Bill
Other-tone
Yohn
Nelson
Locksey
Jo Lane
Frank
John
Jim
George
Bob
El-kah-hut
Klo-kat-on
Lan-dish
Kitchen
Jim-too-wah
    We, the chiefs, headmen and delegates of the Si-quah-sah, Hu-sos-cha, Eu-ca-che, Yay-chute, Tututni, Mikonotunne, Cessatony, Kler-et-la-tel-ti-cha-quot, Chet-lessing-ton and Win-to-na bands of the Tututni tribe and Chetco tribe of Indians, after having had fully explained to us the above treaty, do hereby accede to its provisions, with the following proviso.
    That the canoes belonging to the members of our respective bands shall either be transported to the district designated as a reservation or other canoes or boats furnished in lieu thereof, or the value of the same paid to the Indians by the government of the United States at the discretion of the latter, and that means of transportation for the old, infirm and children, with goods, wares and chattels belonging to the members of the said bands, and subsistence thereof during time of removal shall also be furnished by and at the expense of the government of the United States.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto affixed our signatures or marks this thirtieth day of August 1855.
To-was-kah
A-ne-al-to
Tol-ma-net-sa
Ko-chil-la
Hurt-la-no
Eu-tlach
Too-whin-kah
Tagonecia, 1st chief
Looney
John
Jim
Whiskers
Tenas tie
Eu-wach-nah
Ka-tulch-kla
No-get-toc-it
Sin-whus-chan
Eu-san-e-clan
Eu-nah-nose-tah
Yas-kah-chin-a-mah-tuo
Nat-tah-nos-shah
Chah-hies-sah
Koo-sa-on
E-ule-ti-tes-tlah
Sec-tal-tul
Tot-sa
Heuch-to-mah-sus
Mos-quit
No-ou-mi-lus-quah
Tuc-qua
Cosh-mel-see
Smut-tah-ta
Too-kus-chal-nah
Se-tal-kul
Scah-lah
Ah-chon
Too-low
Quil-su
Yo-molt-ma
Muscle Tie
Too-quah
Now what
Koos-tla
Eu-til-mus
Ult-sa-yah
Yah-sun-see
Ton-na-nee-a-she
Che-nun-tun
Chis-tah-tah
Tut-lil-ul-tees
Eu-sal-sun
Sqtuo-che-nal-ta
Shet-nul-lees
Noch-was-sa-yah
Signed in presence of
Cris Taylor, Secy.
August V. Kautz, 2nd Lt. 4th Infantry
Jerry McGuire
Dr. R. Glisan U.S.A.
R. W. Dunbar
E. P. Drew
John Flett
J. E. Clark
    We, the chiefs, headmen and delegates of the Cah-toch-say, Chin-chin-ten-tah-ta, Whiston and Klen-hos-tun bands of Coquille tribe of Indians after [having] had fully explained to us the above treaty, to hereby accede to its provisions and affix our signatures or marks this 8th day of September 1855.
Signed in presence of
Cris Taylor, Secy.
August V. Kautz, 2 Lieut. 4 Infantry
R. Dunbar
John Flett, Interpreter
Henry Hill Woodward
Washington
Tom
Che-a-le-tin Tie
Ne-ich-lo-sis
Tu-si-nah
Jackson
David
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 28, Records of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Records Pertaining to Relations with the Indians.  "Tie" should probably be read as "tyee."



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. August 14th 1855
A. A. Skinner Esq.
    Dear Sir,
        Mr. Gray, the bearer of your letter of the 1st inst., did not arrive till several days after the departure of General Palmer for the coast for the purpose of making a treaty of purchase with the Indians of that part of our territory. His return is not expected before the middle of next month. I have this day advised him by letter of the contents of your communication. I will also write to the Department calling the immediate attention of the Commissioner to the subject of your yet unaudited accts., and upon the receipt of information of his action thereon you shall be immediately informed of the result.
    I hope sir that the final adjustment of these claims will be in time to prevent you any further serious embarrassment.
    I have not been authorized by Genl. Palmer to pay the salary due to C. B. Gray, your interpreter, and there are moreover some defects in the power of attorney he gave his brother which render it necessary that the subject come under the immediate notice of the Superintendent. The acknowledgment is imperfect, and there is no certificate of the proper officer that the justice of the peace before whom it was made was duly authorized &c.
    I have enclosed the instrument to Genl. Palmer at Port Orford to have these defects if possible remedied.
    Mr. Gray will remain in this neighborhood till General Palmer is heard from.
    He informs me that he has made the most favorable arrangement of your affairs with Mr. Sawyer who will afford you all the time in his power. He is required to make final settlement of his brother's estate next April.
I am sir very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        Edward R. Geary
            Clk. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 263-264.



(Delayed on the way for several weeks)
Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        August 16th 1855
Sir
    Hash arrived here on yesterday bringing
two wagons and freight. You will see by the receipts which I send you that I received four hundred pounds sugar and two ox whips, neither of which were on the bill I received from you, consequently no price attached. Since Mr. Metcalfe left here we have had an unpleasant & busy time; these Shastas and Scotans will never behave themselves until about half of them are hung. They keep everything in commotion and destroyed their crop, potatoes, corn & wheat without its doing them much good. Finally they went over to the Klamath River and participated in those flagrant acts of aggression there; they went against my orders. They were "Bill," "big Sam," "Dick," and one other of John's sons whose name I do not recollect now who were doubtless participators in that murder. They brought away the horses of the murdered men, and old chief "Sam" says large quantities of powder and lead, and some money. The horses I got from them. They deny getting anything else. We have been endeavoring to find out everything we could before we would make an arrest. I apprehend some trouble yet this fall with these fellows. Old "Sam" and all his people so far have endeavored to comply with the treaty. Up to the present time I have had no trouble with them. If you can make it convenient to visit this agency next month I would like it very much. I thought to resign about the close of this quarter but would like you were here. It may be possible these Indians will all have to be removed from this agency. They are warring at old "Sam" as well as at the whites, and the white people charge it all to old "Sam," when any mischief is done. Last week we had over three hundred volunteers from Yreka encamped in this neighborhood intent on fighting. I have sent you the correspondence that passed between us. It was all Capt. Smith could do to prevent a war. If they should return as they have threatened there is no telling what may be the consequences. I have no doubt they will return if the accused are not delivered up to them We have delayed the matter to try and prepare the minds of the Indians for to do so. They will never consent to it I am satisfied now. I speak of the Shastas and Scotans. They are confederated together. If without detriment to your business you could come out here, I trust you will. If you cannot, I will do all that I can. Nothing is being done on the reserve at the present time. Capt. Smith considers it unsafe for hands to be here. Mr. Metcalfe is the only one I can get who will stay.
    I would like to know if the harvesting of the wheat is paid out of the
incidental fund, or out of what fund it is to come. I bought two cradles and would like to know what fund they come out of. If according to treaty stipulations how am I to charge it; if out of the incidental fund, I want to know it.
    I hope to be able in a short time to
remove the Shastas & Scotans at Evans Creek and keep them separate from the other Indians. By so doing I shall be able to do something towards erecting those buildings on the upper end of the reserve in a short time. I will write you from time to time as I can get opportunity.
Respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 5; Letter Books D:10, pages 287-288.  The extremely faint original is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No.71.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        18th August 1855
Dear Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter bearing date July 28th 1855, also of the arrival of the articles sent by Mr. Hash, for which I have sent you duplicate receipts, as requested.
    In your letter you propound several questions, which my limited experience with the business connected with the agency will, I fear, prevent me from answering in a satisfactory manner, but I trust your experience in such matters, together with your knowledge of the business and pecuniary affairs of this agency, will enable you to comprehend the wants of it. However I will cheerfully communicate any information in my power in relation to matters connected with this agency.
    You ask, "Will the teams sent out and those belonging to the reservation be required to perform service on the reservation, so as to render it necessary to hire or purchase other teams?" There will be constant employment for two wagons and teams, and two plow teams, which you perceive will require as many cattle as is now here, but would leave two surplus wagons, but as these wagons which have been in use here the past year are getting old and well worn it may be well to retain at least one of the wagons which you have recently sent here.
    Your second query, "What proportion of this year's annuity may be applied to the payment of liabilities on account of improvement and supplies already made and furnished on the reservation?"
    If you refer to the liabilities contracted during Mr. Culver's term of office, I have but to say I have no official means of ascertaining the amount. But would propose a liberal portion of their annuities be set apart for agricultural purposes; it is by this means that we may expect to reclaim these wandering savages from their ancient habits and induce them to remain in one place and become a settled people.
    I now have to request that you will furnish me with information in regard to making out my quarterly returns. I find myself at a loss to know to what account I should put various accounts contracted by the agency such as seed furnished for planting and sowing on the reservation.
Tools, grain cradles &c. for use of reserve farm
Repairing plows &c.
Pay of men for harvesting
Board & fare while do.
    Should this be charged to the Incidental Fund, or what particular fund does it come from?
    Will you have the kindness to reply to this at as early day as possible. It may be of use to me in making out my next quarterly return, and any other information that you may think would be of service to me for that object, I trust you will also transmit.
Very respectfully your obedient servant
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 278-279.


    Gen. Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, held a treaty with the Coast Indians, at the mouth of the Umpqua, last week. We have not learned any of the particulars, but presume the Gen. will give us the result of his labors through some of the Willamette papers when he returns home.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, August 23, 1855, page 2


Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton Oregon Aug. 28th 1855
Sir,
    A letter has been recently received from Judge A. A. Skinner, late Indian agent, pressing the early adjustment of his claims.
    By reference to a letter from this office dated August 8th 1854, in regard to delinquent accounts in this Superintendency, you will find a statement of the claims of Mr. Skinner referred to in an accompanying paper marked "C," the amount being $2371.98. Mr. Skinner has no vouchers on file in this office for any part of this claim, and whether he has such papers in his own possession or not, I am not informed. The Superintendent, having referred the claim to your office, has hesitated to take action in the premises till advised by you in regard to the account, and as Mr. Skinner is laboring under pecuniary embarrassment, arising as he alleges from the great delay that has attended the settlement of his accounts, at his urgent request I call your attention to the subject and request that instructions relative thereto may be transmitted by you as early as convenient.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Clk. &c.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1175-1176.



Report of Agent G. H. Ambrose for the month ending August 31, 1855.
Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        August 31, 1855
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit the following report of the condition of the agency for the month ending August 31st 1855.
    Quite a limited amount of labor has been performed on the reserve, in consequence of the surrounding country being involved in war, and the Indians belonging to the reserve accused of aiding and abetting, if not guilty of actual participation.
    This being their usual war season, persons are prone to form such conclusions upon slight circumstances, but in this instance there seems to be good cause that at least a part of them have participated to some extent in some difficulties on the Klamath River. That they were there at the time these murders were committed on the Klamath I know to be a fact, and there is good reason to suppose they are implicated in the murders which took place on Klamath River on the 27th of July last. On the 24th of said month six Indians left this reserve to visit the Klamath country. On the 26th, and before they reached there, a white man was killed by the Indians on Humbug Creek, a tributary of the Klamath. The Indians were pursued to the Klamath camp and three taken in charge to testify against some white person who it seems had been selling them some liquor, which was doubtless the cause of the difficulty. The Indians, suspicious and distrustful by nature, were more than usual as knowing a white man had been killed, and instead of going straight forward and testifying, the first opportunity that offered, they broke and run. They were fired upon by the person in whose charge they had been and some of their number were killed. That evening several white persons were killed who were mining on the river, near the camp, from which these Indians had been taken. Six Indians belonging to the tribe of Old John (Shastas) were recognized in the assaulting party; at last they were seen going to the camp where these white men were killed about fifteen minutes previous to the firing. The firing commenced in the evening about half an hour before sunset, and immediately upon the return of the Indians who were taken in the morning as witnesses, but had made their escape and returned.
    Those Shasta Indians from this agency still deny any participation in these outrages. But from the fact of their being there, going in violation of orders to the contrary, their returning with the property taken from these murdered men, their horses and some articles of their clothing, their being in possession of an amount of money that cannot reasonably be accounted for in any other way, and their previous bad character, all tend to induce me to believe they are guilty, and accordingly with that impression I have thought [it] advisable to have them arrested for trial. The Indians belong to Old Chief John, but neither he nor any other chief has any control over them. About fifteen of different tribes, but mostly of Old John's people, have banded together, and without doubt are the worst Indians I ever saw; their kindred feeling no doubt associates them together, and consequently but little good can ever be expected of them. Aside from this little band, I believe, the others could be got along with without difficulty, but those referred to are so desperate and reckless that the whole tribe fear them. Chief Bill, son of Old John, led this expedition to the Klamath, and as a matter of course he would not be willing to surrender into our hands any of the accused, even for a trial. When a demand is made they simply declare their innocence. Hence you will readily see we have no other way than by force to apprehend them. Capt. Smith surrounded a party of them on the 15th instant and compelled them to come out, among which were found two of the accused. They were arrested and are now in safekeeping, to be handed over to the civil authorities whenever demanded, and by awaiting a favorable opportunity he hopes to arrest the remainder in a short time, without involving the country in a war. For the present they are very shy and keep in the mountains out of our way, and I have no doubt that if they could succeed in getting the other Indians to join them, they would involve the whole country in a war. They evidently desire it themselves.
    The Illinois Indians have run off from the reserve, and I presume have returned to their own country. They were much dissatisfied before they left. Their trail led in the direction of Illinois Valley. On Applegate Creek a house was robbed of its contents by them as they passed. A detachment of dragoons was sent immediately in pursuit of them, but without effecting anything. The mountains were all on fire, and vegetation so dry and parched that the fire spread with rapidity and left no traces of their trail; consequently it was found impossible to follow them.
    In consequence of the surrounding country being involved in war, the uncertain and unsettled state of Indian affairs here, and the consequent excitement in the minds of both whites and Indians, it has been deemed unsafe for hands to labor on the reserve. In fact I could not procure men who were willing to remain and work.
    Two companies of volunteers have been raised and organized about Yreka and sent here to arrest and punish the Indians. So far we have prevailed upon them to desist, and submit the matter to the legal tribunals of our country, which course it is believed will secure to us peace and punishment of the guilty, but in the event of an indiscriminate attack upon the Indians I fear this valley would be plunged into a ruinous war, more disastrous, occurring at this season of the year (their usual war season) than any other.
    I would like exceedingly well, if you had the time to spare, to visit this agency, and see if anything can be done towards getting this band of Indians above referred to out from among the others, remove them somewhere else, or make some disposition of them, so that those who are inclined to do good should not be made to suffer for the conduct of others. Sam's, George's and Sambo's [sic] people are peaceable and quiet, and as far as I can judge, manifest a disposition to remain so; they paid considerable attention to their crops before those other people were sent among them, and seemed to take some interest in agricultural pursuits, and were no source of complaint on the part of the whites.
    It is to be hoped that with the usual fall rains, much of this excitement will be allayed, as that not only destroys the power of the Indian to do harm by fire, their most destructive weapon of war in this country, but renders them liable to be tracked wherever they may choose to go. Consequently, upon such an occurrence they usually set themselves about the adjustment of all existing difficulties, preparatory to their making arrangements to go into their winter quarters.
September 4th
    As no mail was leaving by which I could send this, I write after this date in order to inform you of an affair which occurred on Saturday last.
    At the head of this valley about six miles east from the Mountain House, a small party of white men were out hunting and discovered a body of Indians with a considerable number of stolen horses, among the number one of their own they had lost the night previous. Without waiting to inform the commandant at Fort Lane, believing it would give the Indians time to make their escape, they hastened into the settlements, raised what they considered a sufficient force to attack the Indians and recover the stolen property, in which however it seems they were mistaken. While making preparation to follow the Indians they were attacked them early in the morning. The whites found that they were outnumbered, and were compelled to return from the field, leaving one man dead upon the ground and carrying two wounded ones away. On Sunday evening word reached Fort Lane, and Capt. Smith started a detachment of dragoons in hot pursuit of them, with what success remains yet to be seen. I may perhaps as well add that these Indians do not belong to the reserve, but are supposed to be those that live near Klamath Lake and usually infest the immigrant roads.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 66-68.   Compare the perplexing differences between this version of the report and the variant in the Joseph Lane papers. Agents were required to submit reports in duplicate or triplicate; apparently those copies were far from identical.



Ft. Lane O.T.
    August 31st 1855
    We the undersigned chiefs of the Rogue River tribe of Indians do acknowledge the receipt of G. H. Ambrose, special Indian agent, the sum of two hundred and six dollars and sixty cents, as pay for the privilege of cutting hay on the Indian reservation in full of this account.
    51 tons & 1300 pounds at 4 dollars per ton, $206.60.
[signed]
    Chief Sam
    Sub-Chief Elijah
Witness:
    A. J. Smith
        Capt. 1 Drags.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        September 3rd 1855
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 10th and 14th of July last, the first relative to the erection of buildings on Table Rock reserve, and your instructions to Agent Ambrose in regard to the same, also your views with respect to the location of reserves, the purchase of goods, contracting for the same &c.; the second transmitting six letters from Agent Ambrose in reference to difficulties on Rogue River, the trial of Miller, his reports for the months of March & May &c., also letters from Agent Thompson relating to treaties recently negotiated, and the monthly report of E. P.  Drew for the month of May. All of which will receive the consideration of this office, and when so considered you will be duly advised of the course deemed proper to be pursued.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Charles E. Mix
            Act. Commissioner
Joel Palmer, Esqr.
    Supt. &c.
        Dayton, Oregon T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 87.



Port Orford Sept. 6th / 1855
Dear sir
    Having determined on starting to Chetco on tomorrow I wish to inform you that I have heard nothing more in regard to matters below. I sent my messengers yesterday and hope you will meet with success in treating with the Inds. on Coquille. I wish you to send me a copy of the treaty if you think it should be right to explain it to some of the Indians in case they may have it explained at any time also send me some money the first opportunity as I shall want to go to Sacramento as soon as I can possibly leave things safely here. But I shall not go until everything is right here and shall not be long detained there and all instructions from you will be obeyed and I shall take every opportunity to inform you how things goes on here.
Your obdt. svt.
    Benj. Wright
In haste
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 61.  NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 348-349.


    INDIAN TROUBLES ON THE UPPER KLAMATH.--From the Yreka Union of the 18th ult. we copy the following:
    The Indian excitement has subsided. A large party of mountain rangers returned on Wednesday last and report that they did not succeed in killing a single Indian. They traced the murders near the Siskiyou into the Indian reserve at Rogue River Valley, at which place were found several horses belonging to those that were killed. The guilty Indians placed themselves under the protection of the Indian agent at that place and Capt. Smith, who stated that they were compelled to prevent their being molested until the authority should be produced for their arrest.
    Now we would ask what security have our citizens against a repetition of the shocking tragedy lately enacted, if the perpetrators can at any time be shielded from justice by United States troops? For what purpose were these troops stationed on this frontier? Was it to secure the citizens against the depredations of Indians, or to protect the Indians from molestation by the whites for any enormity they might see fit to indulge in--a wholesale slaughter not excepted? We know not the character of Captain Smith's orders, but we do know that a different course of procedure on his part would in this instance have been more subservient to the ends of justice and have avoided the unavoidable condemnation of many. The party on their return proceeded to the cave on the Klamath above Cottonwood, but found no Indians. They destroyed, in a measure, the fortifications at this place, which they represent as being strong and well built.
Weekly Humboldt Times, Eureka, California, September 8, 1855, page 2



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Sept. 8th 1855
Sir
    Since my last communication to you the prospects of our Indian affairs have very much improved. I saw old man John yesterday, and he says he is determined to abide [by] the treaty and will give up to be hung the last son he may have if he is guilty of killing a white man. He affirms his belief in the innocence of those persons who are accused of murder on the Klamath River, and does not [want] to give them up to be hung for acts they have never committed.
    I would like your opinion in relation to the course I should pursue in the event the civil authorities of California should demand of me the surrender of Indians belonging to this reserve for trials, without evidence of their guilt. All who may be sent there for trial will doubtless never return, hence it is a matter of some importance to know certainly who are guilty. Although circumstances are very much against them, possibly they may not all be guilty. "Tyee Bill" has heretofore as you are well aware sustained a pretty good reputation, and though he was there and with that party of Indians, it does not necessarily follow that he was guilty.
    Capt. Smith entertains the opinion that Bill is not guilty, than whom I know of no person better qualified to form a correct opinion. I have heard it intimated that they would apply to the Governor for a requisition with no evidence of their guilt more than suspicion.
    I shall endeavor to conform to the law in this as in all other matters, and my object of addressing you is to request your views and opinions in regard to it.
    I have ascertained and I think correctly too that the difficulty in the upper part of this valley was caused by a portion of Shastas who had taken refuge near Klamath Lake at the time old "Scar Face," chief of that tribe, was hung by the whites two years ago near Yreka, a
remnant of old Tipsey's people who are yet living, and some Klamath Lake Indians.
    I was mistaken in my former communication in stating the Indians commenced the attack. I stated [that] upon the authority of a person who was there, but it seems to have been a mistake. The Indians had stolen some horses and were attacked by the whites for so doing.
    The Indians fled toward Klamath Lake and the troops have returned. I shall resume work again on the reserve on Monday next, and unless prevented by new difficulties will be able to effect considerable yet before winter sets in.
    Respectfully your obt. servant
        G. H. Ambrose
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 77.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 279.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton Oregon Sept. 19th 1855
Dear Sir,
    Your letter of July 25th last with its enclosures, by the hand of Mr. Metcalfe, was duly received, but owing to the press of business I was unable to answer it at the time.
    I did not return till Saturday last, and consequently have had no opportunity to look after or engage persons, or recommend any to you as mechanics on the reservation.
    The consideration to be allowed teachers, mechanics and farmers you will of course arrange in accordance with the prices usually given for similar services in that portion of the Territory. But inasmuch as prices are fluctuating, you will be governed by a sound discretion, both in this matter and as to the period for which employees shall be engaged, having always in view the benefits accrued to the Indians and a judicious economy as respects the government, remembering that frequent changes of employees among Indians are not beneficial and should only be made for good cause.
    In reply to your inquiry how soon it is expected school teachers will be employed, I have to say that you will be governed by the preparations and presence of means requisite for carrying on the business. So soon as a school house is erected, books procured and proper arrangements made for the accommodation of a teacher, one should be employed. Much care should be taken to secure a favorable commencement so that it may attract the attention and make a proper impression in regard to the enterprise on the minds of the Indians who have children. Care should also be taken to induce them to settle on tracts as will be most convenient to the schools so as to afford the children the greatest facilities possible for punctual attendance.
    You refer in your letter to a payment made a brother of Mr. Metcalfe for services on the reservation at the rate of $90 per month, as per agreement with me.
    I have made no such agreement with the person referred to, either for services or rates of pay, and consequently do not understand the allusion connecting me with the transaction. It is proper that he should be paid for services rendered on the reservation. The value of that service is to be judged of by you and not regulated by any reported contract with me. I employed R. B. Metcalfe Esq. to superintend the harvesting of the potato crop, the preparation of the ground and the sowing of wheat, making fences &c., during the fall of 1854, but have no recollection of making any agreement with his brother.
    In reference to your inquiry as to the head of acct. under which you will arrange the amounts paid Messrs. Cain & Metcalfe, I reply that you will be governed in this matter by the kind of services rendered. After breaking land or fencing, it may on account of 4th article of the 18th November last, but if for planting or harvesting it may be placed under the heads of "annuity" as per 3rd article of the same treaty.
    Article 3rd clearly points out that the annuities may be expended for such objects as are contracted in your inquiries in your letter of the 18th August, and I would suggest that the cost of all agricultural implements used in cultivating and harvesting the crops, and the expenses connected therewith, be taken from the annuity fund, and that the expenses of breaking & fencing land & the furnishing of seed for the present and coming season be taken from the fund provided in accordance with article 4th as also any expenditure necessary for the subsistence of the Indians on the reservation for this year.
    No remittance has yet been made for paying the annuity installments, but as the appropriation for expenses of negotiating treaties provides also for the first payments under the treaties ratified, I am justified in applying a part of that fund to the payment of such expenditures, under the 3rd article, and I will in a few days transmit an amount believed sufficient to cover these expenditures. I anticipate an early remittance, which when received will be forwarded, with instructions under what heads of appropriation to acct. therefor.
    The amount of time consumed in negotiating treaties with the scattering bands, and the ordinary business of the office, will, I fear, prevent my visiting your agency this fall. The same reasons have also prevented me from preparing and submitting plans of the buildings to be erected on the reservation, and you will therefore use a sound discretion in the arrangement of these buildings and proceed to the erection of them in accordance with former instructions without awaiting plans to be submitted from this office, keeping in view that the plans and modes of constructing the buildings must not lead to an expenditure exceeding the amount of the appropriation for those objects.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Agent for Indians
        Rogue River Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 283-285.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton Oregon Sept. 19th 1855
Dear Sir,
    Your letter of the 16th ultimo, brought by way of the Great Bend, was received at the mouth of Rogue River, but the uncertainty of a letter reaching you from that point induced me to postpone a reply till my return. I much regret the bad conduct of those Shastas and Scotans who have contributed so much to keep your district in commotion.
    I was particularly surprised to learn that "Bill" should have been engaged in unfriendly acts against the whites, as his general good conduct and apparent determination to restrain his people within proper bounds, manifested prior to and during the negotiation of the treaty, induced me to entertain a high opinion of his capacity and integrity of character. It is possible I may have confounded persons and that the "Bill" you refer to is not the one to whom I allude.
    The fact of the suspected Indians having in possession a part of the property of the murdered man is strong presumptive evidence of their participation in the massacre, justifying their arrest and examination, and no pains should be spared to secure their apprehension.
    I approve [of] your course in not consenting to surrender those Indians into the hands of the "volunteers." The laws of the country clearly indicate a different mode of disposing of such cases. Besides, some of those suspected may not be guilty, and their delivery into the hands of a mob (and such I apprehend the "volunteers" were in the view of the law) would have been equivalent to shooting them down. If the perpetrators of the atrocious deed, they deserve death, but an excited and enraged population are illy qualified to discriminate between the innocent and the guilty, and however deserved the punishment, all experience proves that executions without the forms of law are not only without salutary effect, but of [a] positively injurious tendency.
    It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the Indians that their only security against violence and wrong from reckless whites is to remain quietly on the reservation, that if they leave it and mingle with the vagabond Indians infesting the region adjacent to the boundary between Oregon and California, or at any time give countenance and protection to any fleeing to the reservation to escape detection and punishment, and that their security, happiness and prosperity as individuals and as a people rests upon their upright and peaceful deportment and prompt surrender of all among them guilty of violence, robbery or theft.
    You state in your letter of the 16th August that you have sent me the correspondence between yourself and the volunteers who demanded the accused Indians. It has not come to hand. I have however noticed a correspondence in the Statesman of such import. For the use of the Department at Washington it should be reported officially and you will accordingly send another copy to this office for that purpose.
    Your letter of the 18th and reports of the 31st August and letter of the 8th September have been received.
    My letter of this morning contains explanatory answers to your inquiries as to the "appropriations," to which the various expenditures on the reservation are to be charged. This is a matter of importance and should be carefully regarded.
    I am unable to suggest any plan of effecting a separation between the Shastas and Scotans and the other bands on Table Rock Reservation under the existing treaties.
    The most effectual mode of checking intestine [sic--"internecine"?] feuds and further depredations is to arrest and inflict judicious yet exemplary punishment on every offender.
    If any leave or attempt to leave the reservation without your permission, arrest and retain him in custody until his roaming propensities are corrected. It will be less expensive to government and less laborious for the troops to retain and feed such scamps in the guardhouse than to suffer the necessarily resulting consequences, another Indian war, and humanity as well as economy justifies such a course.
    A large majority of the Indians on the reservation evidently desire and will readily enter into any arrangements calculated to secure peace.
    Could not measures be taken by which a plain but effective code of laws might be accepted and adopted by the Indians residing
permanently and peaceably on the reservation? If they could be induced in general council to enact such laws for the general government of all the confederated bands with proper penalties to be inflicted on the violators thereof, in accordance with the decisions of those appointed to administer the same, it might tend greatly, I apprehend, to relieve the agent and the country of many serious difficulties.
    There is a natural antipathy existing between the bands of Rogue River Valley and those of the valleys of Applegate and Illinois River. Their hostility might render decisions in accordance with even-handed justice extremely doubtful when rendered exclusively by either party. But if combined action can be secured, there is believed to be a controlling and well-disposed influence in both parties, which under the judicious watch and management of the agent, and proper aid from the military in awing the refractory, might eventuate in the happiest results securing order and peace, and ultimately rendering them a homogeneous, well-disposed and industrious people.
    The agent would be able to give tone and direction to the administrative council or authority and secure the selection of persons to their positions that could be relied upon to exert a proper influence and secure the ends of justice.
    The adoption of a governmental system of this character seems to be
demanded. Its details would necessarily demand time and mature reflection. Care should be taken in preparing the code to make it plain and free from complications beyond their comprehension.
    There may be a disinclination on the part of the Indians to
attempt anything of the kind. An effort however might be made; should it fail, they will be no worse off than at present.
    In your letter of the 8th instant you ask my opinion as to what should be your action "in the event the civil authorities of California demand the surrender of Indians belonging to the reservation for trial without evidence of their guilt."
    We have a territorial statute regulating the mode of proceeding in such cases, to which I refer you, being Chapter XV, entitled "Demanding Fugitives from Justice." Section 2nd, and those following, appear to render the case clear. It is a matter between the chief executive authorities of California and Oregon. The alleged offense was within the limits and a violation of the laws of California, and is included in the class of cases named in the statute. The degree of evidence necessary to substantiate the commission of the crime is to be determined by the civil authorities and not by the officials of the Indian Department. While we might apprehend hasty and improper action by an assemblage of enraged people seeking revenge for wrongs committed against their neighbors and friends, we have no right to presume that the proper officers acting under the laws of the respective state or Territory would be governed by anything else than the provisions of the statute.
    The 19th section of the act of Congress of June 30, 1834, "regulating trade and intercourse with the Indians &c.," rendering it obligatory upon the officers in the Indian Department "to endeavor to procure the arrest and trial of all Indians accused of committing any crime, offense or misdemeanor, and all other persons who may have committed crimes or offenses within any state or Territory, and have fled into the Indian country, either by demanding the same of the chief of the proper tribe, or by such other means as the President may authorize and the President may direct the military force of the United States to be employed in the apprehension of such Indians" &c.
    The establishment of a military post at Fort Lane is by authority of the President, and the troops there stationed are, of course, fully competent to act in the cases coming under the purview of this statute.
    You will therefore be governed by the "Intercourse Act" and the territorial statute, and if improper proceedings follow, the censure will fall where it may properly belong.
    The consequences of surrendering the Indians may be as you predict--they may never return, and if they are guilty, it is right that it should be so.
    Every precaution should be taken to secure them a fair hearing.
    No authority in my opinion is competent to demand the surrender of the accused Indians, short of a requisition from the chief executive of California upon that of their territory. But if there is good reason to believe the persons charged guilty, they should be immediately arrested, examined and retained in custody as the law provides.
    I will in a few days give further attention to your several communications, and if any important points remain unnoticed, I will make them the subject of a future communication.
    No fresh intelligence of the materials purchased in the eastern markets and shipped for use on the Table Rock Reserve has been received. A quantity of goods shipped on the same vessel is greatly needed to perfect the treaties.
    All the tribes from the California boundary to the Neachesna or Salmon River have entered into treaty stipulations. I will set out in a few days for Tillamook and Clatsop, and will probably be absent two weeks.
I have the honor to be
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Dardanelles O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 289-292.




Oregon City, Sept. 24, 1855
To the Executive Committee of the A.H.M.S.
    Dear Brethren
        At the late annual meeting of the Oregon Association of Cong. & Presb. Brethren & Churches, a resolution was unanimously passed, recommending you to reappoint Rev. H. H. Spalding as one of your missionaries for Oregon, to have charge of Calapooya, Eugene City and perhaps Grand Prairie churches.
    Bro. Spalding has for three or four years been faithfully preaching to all these churches. He indeed formed them all. No man among us has worked harder for his divine master. No man has more faith, or more of the self-sacrificing spirit. All this time he has supported himself. While he was an Indian agent, he of course was often absent & could not keep up regular appointments, but he still preached wherever he was, in the Rogue River Valley, at Port Orford, Clatsop or when he happened to be among his brethren.
    The charges publicly made against him of misrepresenting the govt. on the subject of excluding missionaries from the Indian country are so much modified by facts which we know that they do not diminish our former confidence in Bro. Spalding. And I suppose we have as a body of ministers omitted a duty which we owed to him & to the churches east in this matter. If we could not answer the charge, we ought to have said that we trusted the man did not doubt the honesty of the man.
    The present Superintendent of Indian Affairs informed me last spring that he had found in the archives of the Indian Office records almost entirely substantiating Mr. Spalding's statement. I requested an official copy of those records, which he promised to give. I have since learned that a part of them were the diary of the former Superintendent & that this has been withdrawn from the office. I shall receive, however, some official statements bearing on this question, which I hope in due time to give to the public in a more permanent form.
    The resolution of the Association will doubtless be forwarded to you by the clerk--Rev. T. Condon. It requests the appointment for six months--we meant the date from Sept., as Bro. S. is still entirely devoted to the work. He is now with Bro. Clarke for a short time in the southern counties. I think they have been holding a special meeting with the church at Eugene City or rather it is Spencer's Butte.
    We ask you to give Bro. S. at the rate of $800 per year. The reason we ask for only six months is that there seem to be special indications that he will be wanted to return to his former mission among the Nez Perces as early as possible in the spring. Should you appoint beginning with Oct. or even Nov. it might close before he could leave this valley for that country. Bro. S. has fallen behind in his funds, I believe, having been considerably aided by the property of his former wife, while engaged in what is really the home mission work. He said to me that he was about to teach school again in order to pay a man to work on his claim. The increase of his stock has been his chief support, together with his wheat & vegetables.
    Still he could not have kept out of heavy debts had he not recd. the salary of Indian agent for a year or two. It is seven years since Bro. S. came into this valley & he has all the while been preaching.
    I mention some of these facts because I had a doubt in 1852 of the wisdom of your then appointing Bro. S. I mentioned it to Dr. Badger when in New York then. It was not of Bro. S.'s fitness or because of the public charge of falsehood, but that I supposed Bro. S. could be easily supported by his claim & stock & that he would in fact be naturally & needfully devoted to his farm & that the Soc. would do better to send other men with the same funds. In that doubt I did not rightly estimate Bro. S. He has been heartily devoted to the mission work, even while his name was dropped off & no money sent him. As the appointment was made before I expressed any doubt, I did not suppose that it would affect the case. I know not that it has, but if it has, you will see here my present judgment & my former error.

Yours in the gospel
    G. H. Atkinson
Letter to the American Home Missionary Society. Congregational Home Missionary Society, Letters from Missionaries in Oregon, 1849-1893.



Yoncalla O.T. Sept. 28th 1855
To Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir
            The enclosed accounts were sent to me from Scottsburg last mail with a request from Mr. Allan that I would from yourself or Captain Martin obtain the payment.
    As the sale to Capt. Martin was made by me whilst a member of the firm of Allan, McKinley and Co. they seem to consider it my duty to obtain the payment.
    I was much surprised to learn that the accounts of Capt. Martin were yet unsettled, as the circumstances under which he made the purchase were of the most pressing character, the Indians of Coos Bay being at the time in a state of discontent and excitement which appeared likely at any moment to result in hostilities.
    As it was thought to be but an advance for a short time only, the goods were rated to Capt. Martin at the price price actually paid for their lowest wholesale price, and several of the articles purchased of Messrs. Northup and Simonds and charged to Capt. Martin at the price actually paid for them, besides which as you will perceive by the items he had some advances in cash.
    What I most earnestly request is that you will either at once pay the accounts or return them, so that the firm of Allan, McKinley & Company may demand and obtain payment from Capt. Martin, as it is certainly small encouragement to individuals to make advances to the officers of the government if the payment of their just account is thus long to be denied or delayed.
I remain with all due respect
    Yours &c.
        Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 296.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Sept. 30th 1855
Sir
    I was presented last week by Dr. Crane a bill of one hundred and twenty-five dollars for medical services rendered to Indians belonging to this reservation. I employed Dr. Crane to visit the Agency & administer to the wants of the sick, which he has done faithfully since the first of May last up to the present time. I deemed it absolutely necessary for the welfare of those Indians residing
upon the reserve that they should have medical attention and accordingly procured it for them. As there is no funds in my hands for the payment of such a debt I have transmitted the account to you and hope it will be allowed. Please inform me what action will be taken in the matter.
    Respectfully yours &c.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Genl. Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 83.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 348.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Sept. 30th 1855
Sir
    I sold the privilege of cutting hay on the Indian reservation to Lieut. C. H. Ogle, A.A.Q.M., Fort Lane,
O.T. for the benefit of the Indians. The sale was by bids from previous public notice, posted in three public places, and awarded to C. H. Ogle being the highest bidder. It being an unusual dry season the grass was not good and fifty-one tons & 1300 lbs. was all he considered worth cutting, for which he paid me $40 per ton, amounting to two hundred and six dollars and sixty cents, as the accompanying receipt will show. I have taken no account of this in my quarterly settlement. Will it be necessary; is the above receipt sufficient.
    Respectfully yours
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Gen. Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 84.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 348.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Sept. 30th 1855
Sir,
    In reviewing the affairs of this agency for the past month I am forced to the conclusion that the prospects of peace are anything but flattering. The month has been passed in one series of aggressions; although taking each item simply in itself it appears small, but in the aggregate the sum total presents a formidable appearance. It would seem as though they had studied how far they can go with impunity and seemingly have determined to go no further. I think nearly or quite all of the mischief that has been done was perpetrated by a few Shastas and Scotans. The settlers' patience has become exhausted; they are quite irritable and will not bear the least offense from an Indian any longer. Petitions are handed me weekly, and in some instances I may say almost daily. One day a theft has been committed in one portion of the valley; in a few days another and a different part of the valley. The thefts are quite small as a general thing, not amounting to more than four or five dollars, in some instances a gun, in another some powder or lead, or both. Again a miner's cabin will be broken open and his little stock of provisions taken. It must be borne in mind that our frontier settlers are many of the bachelors, and when they are absent from their house at work, no one is left to guard what they may own, and not unfrequently when they return from their work at night do they find their little stock of provisions missing. It has been abstracted during their absence by Mr. Indian crawling down the chimney or knocking a board off and crawling through a crack. In most instances the houses are of rude logs and not very securely fastened, which offers a temptation to Indians hard for them to resist, especially when we consider they have been trained to steal from their infancy. After the repetition of the thefts a few times, and the individual after a hard day's work has to walk two or three miles to get his supper, and lay in another small lot of provisions, which in a few days may probably go the same way, he gets peevish and angry and embittered against the Indian race, and would about as soon shoot an Indian as eat his supper. In order that you may form a better idea of what is going on, I will give you a brief of last week's work. On Monday I was called upon by Mr. Hamilton, who lives twelve miles below here on the river. His house had been entered in his absence and its contents abstracted, amounting to eight or ten dollars work. From there I was called to Mr. Shough's, whose house had been entered and six shirts, half a sack of flour, and one chopping ax purloined. Next I was called to Mr. Tufts', who have three head of cattle shot, from appearances by a revolver. None of the cattle were killed, but some of them badly wounded, apparently done in sheer wantonness. Next to Mr. Gilbert's, whose house was entered through the chimney while he was in the field at work, robbed of a sack of sugar, sack of flour, small quantity of bacon, and a pair of boots. He saw the Indians break and run at his approach, was not near enough to recognize any of them. Next comes Mr. Walker, whose house was robbed of a pair of boots, one pair of blankets & one pair of pants. From here to Mr. Vannoy's, who had a lot of rails burned in the woods, the grass fired near his fence several times; [he] had to be constantly on the lookout to prevent being burnt up; does not suppose the Indians fired the rails, but in wantonness fired the woods, which soon extended to the rails and burned them. And this is but one week's work! Grievances of a similar character are constantly pouring it upon me from every side, and in all these numerous instances not an Indian can be found who is guilty of the above work. One band lays the charge to some other band; they in return charge it to some other band, and so it goes from one to another and all go unpunished. The loss sustained by any one individual being quite small, he does not care to spend time to ferret it out, and if he did, I know of no way by which he could do so. All of this mischief you will observe was committed in the neighborhood of Mr. Vannoy's, the country occupied by George and Limpy's people, but in justice to them I will say I do not believe they know anything of the matter, yet they have all the blame to bear. From what I can learn I believe it to have been done by some of old John's people, and some Scotans of whom I informed you some time since of their leaving the reserve. John's people are constantly passing to and fro from the reserve to the Scotans who are camped somewhere in the Coast Range of mountains and the Lower Rogue River Indians about Galice Creek.
    I have failed in every instance to bring the offenders to justice. They seem to take no interest in the affairs of the reserve, nor do I believe they will stay on it much longer. From the frequent occurrence of these petty offenses the patience of the settlers of the valley has become worn and threadbare, and I expect daily to hear of an Indian being shot; should one pass by the vicinity of some house about the time of its being robbed, I have no doubt he would be shot upon suspicion. The idea is quite prevalent among the white population that there is a combination [i.e., a conspiracy] among all the Indians, and the chiefs instead of trying to control it connive at it, which is certainly not the case. I do not believe it is in the power of the chiefs to control it. I entertain the opinion that this little band of Shastas and Scotans do all or nearly all the mischief that is done in pure wantonness, alike thoughtless and regardless of consequences, and with the impression they can charge it to some other Indians, as the mischief is usually done near the camp of some quiet Indians, to whom no theft had been alleged for many months prior to the bringing [of] these bands of Shastas and Scotans on the reserve.
    It is with difficulty that hands will be procured who will labor on the reserve; they are in constant dread of their lives being taken; nor do I believe the matter will be bettered so long as the Shastas are permitted to remain here. I really fear they will plunge the whole country in a war if some stop is not put to their numerous little thefts. Already the people talk of waging a war of extermination and calling on the citizens of Yreka for assistance, which if they should do it would be quickly granted them, for they are ready at any and all times for an Indian fight. Some people doubtless desire peace and to remain on the reserve. They have not left it the past summer, nor have they taken part in any difficulty, or been engaged in any thefts that I can ascertain, though from Sam's previous reputation they are charged with nearly everything that is done. At any rate, say they, he knows it, and some of his people help. The fact of charging crimes on innocent Indians & those desiring to remain friendly has the worst possible effect. It impairs their confidence in our people; they have no guarantee of safety, be their conduct what it may, nothing to stimulate them to do right; in fact its tendency is to draw them all into that same channel of vice and crime. After the massacre of those men on the Klamath, not a single Indian who was concerned in that affair has yet been punished, yet quite a number have been killed, and some of them belonged to a different band.
    If that policy should be carried out here, it remains yet to be sure what will be the consequences. On Tuesday night the 25th inst. two men were killed by the Indians near the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains. The men were teaming, hauling flour to Yreka, and were unarmed at the time. There were four in company; two escaped unhurt. They were fired upon by some Indians in ambush. The two men and thirteen head of cattle were killed and left dead in the road. Six sacks of flour were missing; nothing else was disturbed. The next day on Cottonwood, a party of three men, miners, were fired upon by some Indians--one was killed, one wounded--the third escaped unhurt.
    Capt. Smith started a detachment of dragoons immediately after them. I am satisfied these murders were not perpetrated by any Indians belonging to this reserve. I believe it to have been done by these same Indians with whom a party of white men had a difficulty with a few weeks ago a few miles east of the Mountain House, on account of which I wrote you at the time. They were Shastas and "Tipsu Tyee" people beyond a doubt. For the pecuniary condition of this agency, I must refer you to my quarterly returns. Of the amount of labor, number of hands and the occupation of different ones, progress &c. of work on the reserve, you will see an abstract accompany this report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 305-308.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1224-1231.




Janesville, Wisconsin
    October 6th 1855
Sir
    The enclosed copy of a letter from Joel Palmer, Supt. Ind. Affairs, Oregon Territory, reached here some time since. I visited in N.Y. and Michigan for some weeks while on my way from Oregon to this place, which will account for the delay. It is marked A.
    Also a paper marked B. that he sent to me which contains a list of items that have been suspended and disallowed by the office at Washington, in my accounts.
    On account of the distance from here to Oregon and the great length of time required to carry on a correspondence with your department through the Supt.'s Office I hope to be able to communicate with your department direct, so far as to explain these or any other items that you may deem necessary.
    By the paper marked B. there seems to be 10 items that have been suspended or disallowed and I will take them up in this order.
    Item 1st. In this there seems to be three dollars disallowed but what it is on account of I cannot ascertain from the paper and of course cannot explain.
    Item 2nd. Is the purchase of firewood, which requires explanation as to why so great a quantity was needed for office purposes for the period embraced. When I arrived at that Agency I found that there was not a place fit for an office to be procured. I finally obtained a part of a building that had a roof on it and that had been clapboarded but the boards were old and warped so much so that it was impossible to make it tight. I repaired it the best that I could with the means that were then to be procured and occupied it. On that coast there is almost constantly a strong wind from the sea that renders it too cool to be comfortable without a fire, in fact there is but a few days in the entire year that a fire can be dispensed with, even in the best built houses. And it was particularly so in my very open office. I frequently found it impossible to use a candle or lamp on account of the free circulation of air in the room. It was uncomfortable, and the only way to make it inhabitable at all was to keep a large and constant fire. Fir timber is used there for wood which burns freely but consumes rapidly. I used over two cords of wood per month on an average and found it impossible to do with less.
    Item 3rd. Is on account of the employment of two interpreters at the same time. The Supt. is required to explain and show the necessity for their employments in that Agency. As he will explain it I will pass it over and only remark that it was because no one person could be procured who could speak the several different languages in use among the different bands in that district.
    Items 4th, 5th and 6th is on account of salary overcharged. I am not able to explain or correct these items, for on a careful examination I make the several items as in the vouchers.
    Items 7th, 8th and 9th are on account of hay cut by Alva Huddleston, P. M. Huddleston and Theodore Huddleston. And you remark that as the Supt. says this claim upon the belief that it is correct, the order of Culver should accompany the voucher.
    These three men were employed by Supt. Palmer to labor for the Indian department and by him left with me. After completing the spring's work on the Indian Reserve, as I found it to be the only way in which I could procure the necessary amount of hay to keep the horses that were in the constant use of the Agency I directed them to cut it. And know it to be correct.
    Item 10th. This item is in a voucher, being a charge for two arm chairs, $20 "is inadmissible being deemed unnecessary for an office and is disallowed." Although this has been disallowed, as I think you are laboring under a misapprehension correcting this item I will refer to it. You observe that they "being deemed unnecessary for an office are disallowed" &c. I conclude that you refer to the kind of chair and not to chairs generally, for of course they are a necessary part of office furniture. The ones referred to were made entirely of wood, with arms, were strong, well built and what are commonly known as office chairs. I purchased these particular ones because they were all, and the only ones, to be procured at that place. I fear you may think, judging by the price, that they were of a better quality than was necessary and that a needless expense was incurred in consequence; if so, it is a mistake. And to give you a correct idea of it I will observe that $5 for each chair that was put up was the customary charge as freight from San Francisco to Port Orford at that time. Whether they were good and well put together or not made little or no difference, that charge was the same. And as we did not have communication with San Francisco only once in two or three months, and these shippers would not agree to land [i.e., offload] freight unless the sea was smooth, it was difficult to get any taken up for that price. The cost price of a chair in San Francisco, that was well put together, was from three to seven dollars. In short no good chair could at that time be procured at Port Orford for a sum less than 10 dollars each. I could have sold the chairs during any of the time that I was at Port Orford for the price paid for them, but of course I had no right to do so because I purchased them as Agent and for the department. I turned them over with the other property that belonged to the Agency to my successor. If there is a fixed regulation on that subject which requires Agencies to be furnished with a particular kind of furniture, then I am sure you will agree with me when I say that all Agents should be supplied with such regulations. I never saw such a one; on the contrary, those that I did see seemed to require that Agents should have an office, furniture &c. but did not refer to any particular kind, and I supposed it was for the reason that Agencies are usually located so as to compel Agents to furnish their offices with what they can procure, rather than with the kind that they would like. The chairs were purchased in the fall of 1852, and the department has had the constant use of them, about three years, to the present time. I advanced my private funds to pay for them, as I did for all other expenditures while I was in that district, and it was from one to two years before the department returned to me their money advanced. In case this should be disallowed finally the result will be that the department has, and will still have, the chairs, for they must necessarily be so much bruised and damaged in the long service of the department as to render them unsalable. I hope you will reconsider your former decision and be convinced that justice to the department and myself require the items to be passed.
Respectfully your
    Obdt. servt.
        S. H. Culver
Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 105-111.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Oct 8th 1855
Sir
    I received two communications from you by last mail, bearing date Sept. 19th; being about from home I did not get them until yesterday and have not time to reply now. I will endeavor to do so by next mail. The business of the agency continues about as it was when I wrote you last. All the better portion of the Indians desire peace and are using their utmost exertions to secure it.
    Several thefts were committed on Applegate last week, no doubt by some of old
man John's people. In some instances that occurred the stolen property was returned in the night and left. I have just returned from there but could find no Indians, although I know there are some on the creek. Dr. Barkwell was induced to leave his house on account of apprehended danger; his house was robbed of its contents. In a few nights after his return some friendly disposed Indians returned the stolen property; among the articles returned was a good rifle gun, the return of which showed a friendly spirit upon the part of some Indian.
    The chief "Bill" alluded to in my communication is son to old man
John, the same Bill that was appointed chief over the Illinois Indians last November. Bill has always been regarded by the whites as friendly and quietly disposed. I have employed several more hands and will prosecute the work on the reserve with all possible dispatch. There are near thirty or forty volunteers camped on Butte Creek, in search of the Indians that killed those men on the Siskiyou. They are under the impression that the Indians on the reservation are connected with that transaction, which I do not believe. I have seen no cause to alter my mind as to who committed that act. I believe it to have been done by that remnant of "Tipsu Tyee's" people, who are yet living in connection with some Shastas.
    When this war excitement shall have subsided a little, which I trust will be the case shortly, I will furnish you statements of what is transpiring by my
mail. I have to trust to luck to send you this, as I was not at home in time to put it in the mail. I will also furnish you a copy of the correspondence between the Yreka volunteers and myself. That that you saw in the Statesman is substantially correct. I suspect I shall have to copy from that, as I sent you the original some weeks since.
Yours &c.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 89.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 322-323.



Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Clisby Landreth of Jackson County being duly sworn says
    I am acquainted with Washington L. Riggs who resides on Cottonwood, have known him since last spring, know that the said Riggs brought about one hundred and fifty head of half breed Spanish & American cattle onto Cottonwood last spring and established himself in the butchering business. I am engaged in the cattle trade myself and am herding my cattle within eight miles of Cottonwood, north on the road leading into the Willamette Valley, have frequently seen Mr. Riggs' cattle straying or running off in small bands [of] from three to twenty, apparently making their way back toward the Willamette Valley. Saw Mr. Riggs frequently in search of his cattle and saw him at times returning from Rogue River Valley with some of his cattle and have also seen several of his cattle in Rogue River Valley while out hunting my own. I experienced considerable trouble in keeping my own cattle from straying off with all the care I could use. I have lost several head by straying. I cannot say what Mr. Riggs' cattle would weigh did not examine them very closely. Beef cattle were worth at Cottonwood & Yreka 10 cts. per pound on foot which is the highest price I know of being paid at any time during the past summer.
Clisby Landreth
Sworn to and subscribed before me at my office in Rogue River Valley agency this twenty fourth day of October A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
    Indian Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Eli B. Moore of said county being duly sworn says,
    I have read the statement of Mr. Landreth and believe it in the main to be substantially correct, to the best of my knowledge. I am partner with Mr. Landreth and engaged in the cattle business. We herd our cattle within about eight miles of Riggs' and have had frequent opportunities of seeing Mr. Riggs' cattle straying off. I do not of my own knowledge know how many cattle Mr. Riggs brought then but have heard it stated at one hundred and fifty head. I know of no beef cattle being sold for more than ten cents per pound on foot during the past summer.
Eli B. Moore
Sworn to and subscribed before me at my office in Rogue River Valley O.T. this twenty fourth day of October A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Abraham S. Cannon a resident of Umpqua County Oregon Territory being duly sworn says
    On or about the 10th of August last I was looking after Mr. Riggs' cattle, was employed by him to do so. I saw fifty or sixty head of his cattle being driven off by persons who I took to be Indians. I was within a quarter of a mile of them and was satisfied from their appearances they were Indians. They were driving the cattle very fast, I thought it to be unsafe to approach any nearer them. On the next morning I missed one hundred and thirty head of cattle. They were doubtless driven off during the night as I saw Indian tracks the next morning. I was induced to believe they were taken by Indians. I know that Mr. Riggs has never recovered his cattle nor found any signs but what would leave the impression that they were stolen by Indians. I have no interest in this claim.
A. S. Cannon
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Rogue River Valley this 2nd day of November A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    James H. Butler a resident of Lane County Oregon Territory being duly sworn, says,
    I was assisting Mr. Riggs in herding his cattle. His cattle were missing on or about the first of August and diligent search has been made for them, but they could not be found. I was looking for cattle on Butte Creek in Rogue River Valley, on the eighth day of October A.D. 1855 and found four all together, saw the Indians kill one and believe they got all the others. Said cattle were herded on Cottonwood near the Oregon line and were worth at the time they were driven off seventeen and a half cents per pound. I have no interest in said cattle.
James H. Butler
Sworn to and subscribed before me at my office on Table Rock Indian Reserve this 9th day of October A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    William Gerke of said county being duly sworn says
    I know that Mr. Riggs had a lot of cattle on Cottonwood Creek near the Oregon line and that they were missed on or about the first of August A.D. 1855 and believe the Rogue River Indians drove them off. I was assisting Mr. Riggs hunt his cattle on Butte Creek in Rogue River Valley. I found four immediately after I saw the Indians shoot one when I left. I believe from what I saw the Indians got all the missing cattle one hundred and thirty two in number. Said cattle were good beef at the time and would weigh six hundred and fifty pounds each and were worth at the time they were driven off seventeen and one half cts. per pound.
    I have no interest in this claim.
William Gerke
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office on Table Rock Indian Reserve.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
Ambrose wrote his name "William Gerke"; his signature looks more like "Wiliyem Genirke."
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Henry Clifton of Douglas County Oregon Territory being duly sworn, says
    On or about the first of August A.D. 1855 as I was passing from Rogue River Valley to Cottonwood Creek immediately after I had crossed the Siskiyou Mountains I observed what I took to be Indians driving some cattle. There were five or six persons and I supposed at that time there were about one hundred and thirty head of cattle. They were driving them quite fast and from appearances & the gait which they were driving induced me to believe they were Indians. This was in the neighborhood where Mr. Riggs' cattle were being herded and I have but little doubt said cattle were said Riggs'. I have no interest in this claim.
          his
Henry X Clifton
           +
         mark
Attest--A. S. Cannon
Sworn to and subscribed before me at my office in Rogue River Valley this 2nd day of November A.D. 1855.
Geo. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
County of Jackson       )  s.s.
    Washington L. Riggs being duly sworn says
    On or about the first of August A.D. 1855 I had one hundred and thirty two head of cattle belonging to me, which were being herded on Cottonwood Creek near the Oregon line, which I believe were stolen by the Indians and driven off to the mountains. I believe the theft to have been committed by the Rogue River Indians. I found four head of my cattle on Butte Creek in Rogue River Valley on the 8th day of October. Two men in my employ were herding cattle and saw some Indians shoot one, and I have no doubt they killed or destroyed all the others. The cattle were all good beef and would weigh six hundred and fifty pounds each and were worth seventeen and a half cents per pound in the market at the time when they were driven away.
    I have never recovered payment for said property destroyed from the United States nor from anyone. That neither myself representative attorney or agent has violated any of the provisions of the intercourse laws by seeking or attempting to obtain private satisfaction or revenge.
    This affidavit is made for the purpose of obtaining from the United States payment for said property destroyed by said Indians.
Washington L. Riggs
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Table Rock Reserve this 9th day of Oct. A.D. 1855. 
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 712-721.  The 9th of October was the day after the Lupton Massacre, which took place just a few miles from Ambrose's office. The 9th was also the day of the "breakout," the retaliatory Indian attacks reaching from Evans Creek to the Harris cabin.


Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 9th 1855
Sir
    A letter from this office of the 3rd instant advised you of the reported murder of Agent Bolon of Washington Territory and seventeen other white persons and of my departure for the Dalles with a view of preventing combinations against the peace of the country.
    I reached the Dalles of the Columbia on the 2nd inst. Messengers had been sent to the Yakima mission, to obtain tidings if possible of Mr. Bolon. Soon after my arrival one of these messengers returned with a letter from Father Durieu of that mission stating that Mr. Bolon arrived at the mission at one o'clock p.m. on Sunday the 23rd September and left there in about two hours afterwards for the Dalles accompanied by a nephew of Kamiakin, the head chief of the Yakima nation, since which time he had heard nothing of him.
    He further states that upon the return of the Yakima Indians from the Walla Walla council, their principal theme of conversation had been a war with the Americans, and that during the month of September but few Indians had been about the mission, that an Indian had arrived at his mission two hours previous to his writing, informing him that the whites had killed Father Mendoza and three Indians. He had heard of no other murders.
    The messenger conveying the letters to and from the Yakima mission is a chief of one of the Deschutes bands of Walla Wallas and is regarded as reliable by those acquainted with him. He says that when near the mission he was met by Kamiakin, the head chief, who seized and wrested from him his gun and stood for some time in the attitude of firing upon him. Finally he inquired where he was going. When told to the mission with a letter to the Father inquiring after his health as he had been sick, he then asked whether he was a friend to the Father, which being answered affirmatively, the chief ceased his menacing attitude and extended his hand. Kamiakin then told him to accompany him to his lodge, and in the morning he would accompany him to the mission, which he did. During the night the chief stated to the messenger that his people had determined upon a war with the Americans, and that they would continue that war for five years if necessary, that no American (Bostons, as he called them) should be permitted to come into their country; that they had killed Bolon and would kill all who came among them, that they had invited all the tribes to unite with them and had threatened, if they refused, to treat them in the same manner as Americans, that they would kill all the adults and make slaves of their children & that when they had secured their country they would give it to whomsoever they chose.
    These statements were corroborated by the report of another messenger, a chief sent out by Major Haller; he, after meeting with several leading Indians with whom he was well acquainted, learned that they were on their way to join the hostile bands. He was compelled to use a good deal of stratagem to get clear of them, they having resolved on taking his life on account of his being friendly with the Americans.
    This messenger had also had an interview with Kamiakin, from whom he received a pressing invitation to join them in hostilities against the Americans.
    The chief sent a message by him to Agent Olney, whom he regarded he said as a son, requesting him not to come into their community or fight against his people.
    Runners have been sent by the Yakimas to all the tribes and bands around, offering them inducements to join them and threatening, in the event of a refusal, to exterminate the male adults and make slaves of their wives and children. Some could not resist the temptation of the promised rewards, while a fear of the fate threatened had its effect upon others, and it is believed that by the accession of individuals from the various bands, the hostile tribes will be able to bring into the field a force of six hundred well-armed warriors.
    They have evidently sought to cut off all communication between them and the settlements, and how far they intend carrying their hostility can only be conjectured, the information thus far being chiefly derived from Indians. But that information established beyond any doubt the death by the hands of the hostile Indians of Mr. Bolon and three others.
    Reports generally believed by the surrounding tribes are current that they have murdered forty-five Americans, first a party of 6 miners, next a party of eleven miners, and afterward in different parties twenty-eight others.
    Lieut. Slaughter with a command of 40 U.S. troops was sent out from Fort Steilacoom immediately after the receipt of the intelligence that three men had been killed at the Natches Pass, and a few days afterward on learning Mr. Bolon's death and reports of other murders, Major Haller with a hundred infantry crossed the Columbia at the Dalles and proceeded to the Yakima country, intending to effect a junction with Lieut. Slaughter on the Yakima River. Their intended route was by way of the Catholic mission situated sixty miles north of the Dalles. They marched on the 3rd instant, since when nothing has been heard from them. One-half of the command were mounted on mules and Indian ponies, the rest on foot.
    Those mounted were unaccustomed to cavalry or dragoon service, and almost all new recruits; it is doubtful whether they will make such an impression upon the enemy as will be likely to deter them from acts of aggression. A mountain howitzer, however, packed with its accompaniments on mules, may, where the ground is favorable, keep the enemy at bay. But from the known character for bravery and sagacity of these Indians, I entertain serious apprehensions for the safety of both these detachments. In fact, Indian reports reached the Dalles on the 4th instant that a party of forty soldiers had been cut off by the enemy while crossing a stream, but the rumor was discredited.
    I visited all the bands along the Columbia River from the Cascade Falls to the Deschutes River, obtained their pledge of fidelity and adherence to the treaty, sent messengers to more distant bands, gave directions for all friendly Indians residing adjacent to the Columbia on the north to cross to the south side, and to secure all the canoes by which the enemy might cross over.
    Agent N. Olney, who has recently returned from the Snake country with the troops, was dispatched to the Walla Wallas, Cayuses and Umatillas with instructions to remain among them till matters were quiet, if he deemed it necessary to their rejection of the overtures made them by the hostile bands to unite against us. Mr. Olney deemed it impracticable to remain in the Snake country and effect any good results in the absence of a military force and returned to the Dalles for further instructions. Owing to the excited feelings of the Indians in Mr. Thompson's district and the apprehension that these bands might be drawn into a hostile attitude, and the necessity for an agent on the Utilla as well as in the vicinity of the Dalles, I have directed Mr. Olney to aid Mr. Thompson in his district until quiet is restored.
    There are several causes from which may be drawn reasons inducing the present state of disaffection among the Indians in Washington Territory, among which may be named the following. The Yakima Indians were represented in the Walla Walla council by four of their principal chiefs accompanied by a number of their leading men, all evidently at first opposed to entering into any negotiations for the sale of their country. After more than two weeks had been spent in trying to convince them of the importance and necessity of such a course in open council, they gave decided and peremptory answer in the negative. But during the next week by interviews with the chiefs separately Gov. Stevens induced them to agree to the terms of the treaty, and Kamiakin, who is declared by the treaty head chief of all the tribes and bands included in that purchase, came forward and signed the treaty, followed by the other chiefs. The head chief however stated at the time that he would not receive any of the goods promised, but that his people might take them.
    It is pretty evident that the signing of the treaty was adverse to the will of the nation, as expressed prior to the delegation's coming to the council, and that on the return of the chiefs they were beset by their people and denounced as traitors to their tribe. Two of the chiefs, Owhi and Skloom, evidently signed the treaty with great reluctance, and after returning home and meeting with their friends were easily induced to join in opposition to adhering to its provisions.
    The Klickitat tribe, whose country is included within the limits of this purchase, had declined attending the council and were not represented by any of their tribe, and upon the return of these Yakima chiefs and people from the council it is said the Klickitats were much enraged at the sale of their country without their knowledge or consent, and declared they would not abide by an agreement in which they had no voice.
    A considerable number of their people had been for many years residents in the Willamette and Umpqua valleys, still claiming allegiance to, and regarding the Klickitat country as their home, and avowing their intention of returning at an early day upon the consummation of the treaty and designation of a reservation for their tribe.
    I requested these Klickitats to return to their homes. This I deemed proper, inasmuch as treaties had been perfected with the tribes of the Willamette and Umpqua valleys and from the constant annoyance to which the settlers were subjected from the presence of the Klickitats among them. They have in general large bands of horses, and owing to the drought and the ravages of the grasshoppers destroying the grass they were regarded as a grievance, for the removal of which I was repeatedly petitioned by the settlers. Some left the Territory quietly and appeared satisfied, while others evinced a bad feeling, and I am told sought to produce a similar spirit among the Indians throughout the country.
    Some of them still remaining, as well as those already gone, have solicited the Indians of this valley to break from the obligations of the treaty, and in fact many exerted their utmost influence to prevent the consummation of the negotiations. The Klickitats from this Territory, with their boasted knowledge of the manner and customs of the whites derived from their long residence among them, swelled the number and increased the disaffection among those seeking to repudiate the acts of the Yakimas. The immigration of persons into their country seeking locations for settlement immediately after the treaty and before any resulting visible advantages alarmed them and placed an additional argument in the mouths of the opposers of the treaty. The rush of miners through their country to the reported rich gold deposits near Fort Colville tended greatly to augment the excitement, for they were not always overscrupulous in regard to the rights and property of the Indians, and besides they were told that the value of their country was greatly enhanced by the discovery of gold so near them.
    These causes and many others tended to awaken a doubt in the minds of those Indians of the correctness of their acts in signing the treaty. Most of the causes here set forth are equally applicable to all the tribes treated with east of the Cascade Mountains, and should the hostile bands be successful in their first efforts against our troops, we may expect great accessions to the number of our enemies from among the bands south of the Columbia.
    Enclosed herewith you will find the report of Geo. H. Ambrose, Indian agent, for the month of September, and also a letter from Agent R. R. Thompson.
    It appears from Agent Ambrose's statements that but little progress in improving the condition of the Indians on Table Rock Reservation has been made, or can be hoped for, so long as a few lawless remnants of bands infest the country. Nothing short of a peremptory order requiring every Indian belonging thereto to remain constantly upon the reservation, and declaring every Indian found outside an outlaw, will secure peace and order in that community.
    I am by no means convinced that all the aggressions reputed to have been committed by Indians are chargeable to them. There are in those mining districts murderers, robbers, horse thieves and vagabonds congregated from all parts of the world. Driven frequently from among the settlers and miners, they are compelled to take shelter among Indians, where the most unwarrantable excesses are indulged in, not only against the bands with whom they associate but against neighboring tribes, and by combining with the more reckless of the Indians they are enabled to carry out their plans of annoying the settlers.
    There is reason to believe that very many of the murders and robberies committed in the south of Oregon and Northern California within the last three years have been instigated by these miscreants, or actually perpetrated by them, and by their management the suspicion of guilt fastened on the Indians.
    Thus whole communities are thrown into commotion and the heavy hand of vengeance made to fall upon the natives frequently for wrongs they never perpetrated. One result of this state of affairs is to augment the strength of the lawless bands infesting the mountainous region between Rogue River Valley and the Klamath, as desperation drives one and another of the Indians from the settlements by the wrongs and cruelties of which they or their relatives are made the victims.
    The heart sickens at the existing condition of affairs in Southern Oregon, and there is little hope of a change for the better so long as Indians and whites are permitted to mingle. The proximity of the reservation to the settlements renders the prevention of petty thefts by the Indians of the property of the whites well nigh impossible, but whether a suitable location more remote can be selected is doubtful. Could peace be maintained till the arrival of tools and materials for constructing buildings and making other improvements on the reservation, we might then interest them in the work and possibly arrest their further aggressions. The crisis of the destiny of the Indian race in Oregon and Washington Territories is now upon us, and the result of the causes now operating, unless speedily arrested, will be disastrous to the whites, destructive to the Indians, and a heavy reproach upon our national character. Much of the present difficulty is traceable to the mistaken policy of permitting the settlement of this country prior to the extinguishment of the Indian title and the designation of proper reservations; this mistake might now be partially remedied by the immediate gathering of the Indian population on their several reservations, to do which and make the proper provision for their comfort would involve an expense less than that of six months of a two years' war, which must inevitably follow, as I believe, their present situation and a failure to provide for their wants.
    The expenditures of thirty-five thousand dollars upon the Coast Reservation in erecting buildings, opening roads and in removing, clothing and subsisting the coast tribes south of Umpqua during the coming winter would secure peace in that quarter. Twenty thousand in like manner on Table Rock Reserve in addition to other appropriations would effect the same result in that district. And twenty-five thousand on Umatilla and twenty thousand on Wasco Reservation would ensure the peace of Middle Oregon.
    With the Willamette and Umpqua Indians we have no fear of war, but measures should be taken to erect buildings and open roads to the tracts selected for these tribes. The delay in the shipment of tools and materials from the eastern markets for the various objects in this Superintendency is a serious obstacle to carrying out the provisions of the treaty, and as such articles may now be purchased at reasonable rates on this coast, I think it would be well to give discretionary power for their purchase here or in California when deemed advisable.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Honl. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1237-1247.



Office Indian Agent,
    Rogue River Valley, O.T.
        October 9th, 1855.
    Sir--Whilst engaged in writing you a few lines yesterday morning, I received a message from Capt. Smith, informing me that the volunteers had made a descent upon a small band of Indians, camped about two miles from Fort Lane, in which several Indians were killed. I immediately repaired to the scene of action and found that Sambo's band of Indians had been attacked just at the break of day, simultaneous with an attack upon Jake's people, who were camped about one-half mile above Thompson's ferry (better known to you by the name of Camp Alden), on the bank of the river. Capt. Smith sent a detachment of dragoons to inform themselves of the nature of the difficulties, and to see what had been done; upon arriving at Sambo's camp were found two dead women; one had died a natural death, and one had recently been shot. I learned from Sambo that one woman was slightly wounded, and that two boys had been wounded, each shot in the arm. They were all taken to Fort Lane and provided for.
    We then proceeded to Jake's camp, where we found twenty-three dead bodies, and a boy who escaped said he saw two women floating down the river, and it is quite probable several more were killed whose bodies were not found. I had apprehended danger, and had so informed the Indians several days previous, and Capt. Smith had notified the Indians that if they wanted protection they had to come onto the reserve or to Fort Lane. It seems from their statements that they had concluded to go on the reserve, and had accordingly started on Sunday evening, leaving the old men and women behind to follow on Monday. In the meantime this attack was made quite early in the morning, which resulted as above stated. There were found killed eight men, four of whom were very aged, and fifteen women and children, all belonging to Jake's band. The attack was so early in the morning, it is more than probable that the women were indistinguishable from the men.
    Upon the part of the whites, James Lupton, the captain of the company, received a mortal wound, from the effects of which he has since died, and a young man by the name of Shepherd is supposed to be mortally wounded. Several others slightly.
    The night following this affair, the Indians rallied together, killed some cattle on Butte Creek, and it is supposed have since joined old man John, who I suppose had been waiting some time for a pretext to commence hostilities, only desiring the assistance of some other Indians, which this unfortunate occurrence secured to him--that of the Butte Creek at any rate--and I apprehend many disaffected Indians will join. On Monday night a young man by the name of Wm. Gwin, in the employ of the Agency, who was engaged at work on the west end of the reserve in company with some Indians, near old John's house, was killed and his body was horribly mutilated, cut across the forehead and face with an ax, apparently as he lay asleep; they then destroyed or took off what provisions and tools that were at camp. They then repaired to Mr. Jewett's ferry, killed one man who was camped at the ferry, and wounded two others. Next I heard of them at Evans' ferry, where they fired at the inmates of the house as they passed, wounding one man, supposed to be mortally. They had with them, at the time they passed, several American horses and mules which they had doubtless stolen the night previous. Mr. Birdseye lost three or four, and Dr. Miller several, Mr. Schieffelin one; they were seen by Mr. Birdseye running some mules off that morning.
    Old Chief Sam gathered his and Elijah's people together and protected the hands who were employed to work on that part of the reserve, as also the cattle and other property belonging to the Agency. Neither he nor his people want war, nor do I believe they can be made to fight except in self-defense.
    The whole populace of the country have become enraged, and intense excitement prevails everywhere, and I apprehend it will be useless to try to restrain those Indians in any way, other than to kill them off. Nor do I believe it will be safe for Sam and his people to remain here, if any other disposition can be made of them; it should by all means be attended to immediately. I doubt very much if the military will be able to afford them the requisite protection.
    Sam entertains the opinion that Jake's people will fight till they are all killed off; John will doubtless do the same.
    I hardly believe that either Limpy or George desire a war, but have no doubt many of their people will engage with those that do, and possibly they may too. Neither of them or their people are upon the reservation, nor have not been for some weeks, and should either of them be caught sight of, they will most certainly be shot.
    Taking all circumstances into consideration, I think it hardly possible to avert the most disastrous and terrible war that this country has ever been threatened with.
    Oct. 10th. Whilst waiting an opportunity to send my former communication, additional news has come to hand. After the wounding of those men at Evans' ferry, the Indians pursued the main traveled road towards the Canyon, where I learned from a company of packers who have just arrived that they saw seven dead men lying in the road in different places between Mr. Evans' ferry and Mr. Wagoner's--several trains had been robbed--and several wagons had been plundered, and I suspect every person who passed the road has been killed. I expect to have to record still sadder news before the week closes. A greater destruction of life will probably never be caused by the same number of people, or more horrid atrocities be perpetrated, than by those Shasta Indians. They are well provided with arms, both guns and revolvers, and skillful in the use of them. I do not believe more desperate or reckless men ever lived upon the earth, and I have no doubt but that they have made up their minds to fight till they die.
Very respectfully yours, &c.,
    G. H. AMBROSE,
        Indian Agent.
Gen. Palmer, Sup't. Ind. Affairs,
    Dayton, O.T.
----
    Oct. 11. Today a dispatch arrived from Major Fitzgerald, who was in pursuit of the Indians. From his statement, it appears that all the houses between Evans' ferry and Jump-off Jo Creek were destroyed by fire. Mrs. Jones escaped wounded, with her little girl, to Mr. Vannoy's. [She may not have had a little girl; Mrs. Jones died soon after.] Mrs. Wagoner and little daughter were both burned in their house--probably massacred first. Her husband was away from home at the time. Mrs. Harris escaped. Her husband was killed and her little girl wounded in the arm. I am unable to give you the names of the killed. The Major discovered ten Indians on horseback--pursuit was immediately made and five of them killed under full jump. The others got into the mountains and escaped. Sam and his people are camped at Fort Lane, where they will have to be provided for. They are willing to submit to anything for the sake of peace. From Maj. Fitzgerald's note, I learn it is quite probable that George and all his people will join with old John, and I am satisfied nearly or quite all of Limpy's and the Applegates will unite with them, with probably one or two exceptions. The Scotans are in for a free fight, and have been for two months past. I  have but little doubt of eighty-five or one hundred Indians uniting, exclusive of a number of disaffected Indians belonging to surrounding bands.            G.H.A.
----
    Evans' ferry, Oct. 12. I learn from Major Fitzgerald that he found two more dead bodies yesterday, and no doubt any longer exists but that George and all his people will take part with the Shastas. If it is possible for you to come out here, you had better come, or give me specific instructions.
            G. H. Ambrose.
"Rogue River War," Pioneer and Democrat, Olympia, Washington, October 26, 1855, pages 2-3
The original letter can be found on
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 93. A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 323-326.  The newspaper transcription omits the last lines of the letter: "I have written you before this that I desired to be relieved from the office of Indian Agent. Have you received that letter. I cannot serve longer than the close of the quarter in no event."



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 13th 1855
Dear Sir
    I have but little time to write. We have an Indian war on our hands in the North, a war which in its results is likely to prove more disastrous to Oregon and Washington territories than anything heretofore happening to us. Unlike the single acts of aggression usual in Southern Oregon, this is a movement of powerful, skillful and sagacious, as well as well-armed, tribes, supplied with abundant means to wage war for several months. They have beaten our troops, and flushed with victory are drawing to their support accessions of friendly bands from mere fear of meeting the threatened fate of annihilation should they refuse to join them.
    The Yakamas, Klickitats, Piscoes and a part of the Palouses have confederated, and it is more than probable other tribes may unite with them. As yet the difficulties have been confined to the north side of the Columbia, but Oregon has contributed her vagabond Indians to swell the number of the enemy. You will see by the papers a call for volunteers and the movement of matters generally. Try by all means to keep things quiet in your district, but if it comes to war, do not fail to have those who have caused so much trouble properly chastised. I would suggest that you will set a day for all Indians treated with to be upon the reservation, after which any found outside without a pass from you be declared an outlaw, and treated as an enemy.
    My messenger Mr. Chamberlin has crossed the plains this season expressly to aid in teaching and Christianizing the Indians. It will be an uphill business, but doubtless he will be a useful person among those inclined to do right. Others must have more powerful and effective remedies. The rope will doubtless be a better lesson and have the desired effect, and it should not fail to be applied when needed. Great wrongs have undoubtedly been done the Indian, but when war comes between the two races, who can hesitate how to act? Let us strive to remedy the wrong and seek to remove the cause. Let us also fail not to punish our own people when it is requisite, for those troubles mostly lie at our own door.
In haste yours
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
George H. Ambrose Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Rogue River O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 315-316.


REGULATIONS
FOR THE GUIDANCE OF AGENTS IN THE OREGON INDIAN SUPERINTENDENCY PENDING EXISTING HOSTILITIES.
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T., Oct. 13th, 1855.
    It is hereby ordered that the Indians in the Willamette Valley, parties to the treaty of the 10th January, 1855, shall be forthwith collected on the temporary reservations heretofore or now to be assigned them, to remain under the direction of such persons as may be appointed to act for the time being as their local agents.
    The names of all adult males and boys over 12 years of age shall be enrolled, and the roll called daily.
    When anyone shall be absent at roll call, the fact shall be noted, and unless a satisfactory reason be rendered, the absentee shall be regarded as a person dangerous to the peace of the country and dealt with accordingly.
    Any Indian found outside of his designated temporary reservation, without being able to satisfactorily account therefor, shall be arrested and retained in custody so long as shall be deemed necessary, or should he be a stranger not belonging to any of the bands of this valley he shall be placed for safekeeping in the county jail or taken to Fort Vancouver.
    But should he prove a spy from the enemy, he will be immediately turned over to the military authorities.
    Any Indian who has joined or may hereafter join the hostile bands, give them information, or in any way aid or assist them in making war against the whites shall be regarded as having thereby forfeited all rights under the treaty and excluded from any benefits to be derived therefrom. He will, moreover, be regarded as an enemy, and it will be the duty of all friendly Indians to deliver such up to the agents or civil officers, and in no case to afford them encouragement or protection.
    The persons designated to act as local agents will use a sound discretion in regard to the number of firearms the Indians may be permitted to retain at their encampments.
    No Indian will be permitted to leave his assigned encampment unless by written permit from the local or special agent.
    The local agents will each be furnished with proper supplies of flour and beef and will issue rations to the Indians when necessary of one pound of each per day to each adult, and less in proportion to children, as they may judge them to require.
    Should any member of these bands desire to reside with and labor for the settlers he may be permitted to do so, the agent obtaining a guarantee from the person for whom the labor is to be performed, in each case, for the fidelity and good conduct of the Indian.
    Every effort will be made by the local agents to ascertain whether any Indians of the valley have left the settlements with hostile intentions, and the names of such, together with the proofs, will be reported to this office.
    E. R. Geary will superintend the arrangement of encampments and designate persons to act as local agents for the respective bands.
    Berryman Jennings is appointed special sub-Indian agent for the Willamette Valley, and as such will cooperate with Mr. Geary in carrying into effect the foregoing regulations.
    The encampments assigned the several bands and the name of the local agent for each will be reported to this office and published in the papers of this valley for the benefit of all concerned.
    The same precautions will be observed in regard to the tribes and bands within this Superintendency embraced in the treaties lately negotiated east of the Cascade Mountains, and Agent R. R. Thompson will assign the temporary encampments to the several bands and designate proper persons to act as local agents, call the rolls, and distribute the necessary rations.
    Agent Ambrose will make similar arrangements in regard to the Indians in the Rogue River District embraced in the treaties of the 10th September, 1853, and 18th November, 1854.
    The various rolls will be kept with accuracy and care and forwarded to the Superintendent's office, at Dayton, it being determined to make these rolls the criterion in the payment of annuities, and no Indian whose name is not enrolled, and who cannot give a satisfactory reason for the omission, or who shall refuse to comply with the foregoing regulations, shall be embraced in said payment.
    This order, though it may be regarded as arbitrary and unwarranted in the ordinary state of affairs, is, in view of existing hostilities, deemed necessary, as it is extremely difficult to distinguish among our Indian population the well disposed and friendly from the vicious and hostile, and from the fact that representations have been made warranting the belief that members of one or more bands have already left this valley and joined the hostile tribes north of the Columbia River.
    The measure is claimed no less a security to the white settlements than to the friendly bands of Indians, nor is it designed to abridge in the least the rights secured by the treaties to the Indians, but if possible to avert hostilities with these bands.
    Citizens generally are requested to give this order a proper interpretation and to exercise a due degree of forbearance in their dealings with the Indians, but at the same time to keep a vigilant watch over them and report to the acting agents the presence of strange Indians among us, and render such aid in their apprehension as may tend to protect our persons and property and secure peace.
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs.
   
    Since preparing the foregoing regulations, information has been received at this office that a portion of the Indians in Southern Oregon and Northern California have exhibited hostile demonstrations endangering the peace of the settlements in Umpqua Valley; it is therefore ordered that the Indians embraced in the treaties of 19th September, 1853, being the Cow Creek band of Umpquas and those of the Umpqua and Calapooia tribes, treated with on the 29th November, 1854, be assembled on the reservation designated by that treaty.
    William J. Martin is appointed special sub-Ind. agent for the bands embraced in these two treaties, and as such will cooperate with Agent Geo. H. Ambrose in carrying out the foregoing regulations.
    Sub-Indian Agent E. P. Drew and special Sub-Indian Agent Ben Wright will, if they believe the peace of the settlement requires it, adopt the same precautions with the tribes and bands within their districts.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs, O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 1197.  A copy is also on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frame 559.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 15th 1855
Dear Sir
    I have this day placed in the hands of Joseph Chamberlin Esq., my messenger, seventeen hundred and fifty dollars for use in the Rogue River Indian Agency District, for which you will account under the following appropriations, to wit:
    Adjusting difficulties & preventing outbreaks 500.
Incidental expenses 3rd qr. 1855 500.
1st of 10 installments for pay of physician, purchase of medicines & expenses
    of care of sick per 5th article treaty 18 Nov. 1854 250.
Salary of Indian agent 3rd qr. 1855 375.
    "        "  Interpreter     "    "       "     125.
$1750.
    Other remittances will be made you immediately on the return of Mr. Metcalfe, who has been sent as messenger to San Francisco to obtain the cash for drafts which could not be realized in this Territory. Please date and sign the accompanying receipts and transmit to this office.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
George H. Ambrose Esq.
    Ind. Agent Dardanelles O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 315.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 16th 1855
Sir
    I herewith enclose a copy of regulations for the direction of Indian agents in the Oregon Indian Superintendency, which I have regarded under the present exigencies as absolutely demanded. The large number of men and arms withdrawn from this Territory to act against the hostile tribes in Washington renders the settlers residing in remote districts apprehensive of danger from the bands scattered among us. These Indians are scattered over a wide extent of country, and many of them have been in the habit of mingling with a portion of the hostile bands and in some instances are suspected of sympathizing with them. In the event of a repulse of our troops, these might be induced to operate against us. In their present locations great opportunities are afforded for securing spies that may be sent among them from the hostile bands. The plan adopted is designed to lessen these opportunities and restore confidence among our citizens. Wrought up by excitement as the minds of the settlers now are, the least offense on the part of an Indian would most likely result in unwarranted excesses, leading to a rupture with these bands.
    The expense will undoubtedly exceed the appropriation for adjusting difficulties and preventing outbreaks, and it is hoped that funds may be remitted from other appropriations to meet these exigencies.
    Since writing the above, a messenger has arrived from Rogue River Valley with information that those Indians have taken arms and have already murdered twenty-five or thirty families, and are burning houses and laying waste the whole country. The messenger bearing this intelligence to the Governor, now at Portland, passed a family from this point and sent a verbal message. His report is that the communication between the Umpqua Valley and Jacksonville is cut off. The accounts may be much exaggerated, yet I put much confidence in them, as the letters of Agent Ambrose heretofore transmitted indicate a restlessness among the Indians and a strong probability of hostilities.
    A portion of our own people seem to desire war, and it is greatly to be feared that it has been forced upon us, much against the wish of a large portion of the Indians of that district. But if commenced, whatever may have caused it, I apprehend nothing short of annihilation of these bands will terminate hostilities.
    We may be able to save a portion of the Indians of Umpqua and this valley, and perhaps portions of the bands along the coast with a few of those east of the Cascade Mountains, but the race is doomed on this coast unless a strong military force be thrown in as a shield. They must at all events be humbled and taught the folly of attempting to redress their own wrongs. This will require a great sacrifice of the lives and property of our citizens, and whole neighborhoods of our scattered population will be cut off. An army of ten thousand men will not be more than adequate to meet the requirement of the service in this and Washington territories, if, as there is now good reason to believe, a general concert of action has been agreed upon among the Indians north and south.
    Enclosed is an extra Statesman just placed in my hands. I regard the reports as lacking confirmation and as based to a great extent on conjecture. The great excitement causes a trifling incident related at one point to increase as it proceeds to an alarming magnitude. On the receipt of more reliable information your office will be duly advised.
    The amount of labor connected with negotiations and the suppression of hostilities in this Superintendency has placed it beyond my power to prepare and transmit an annual report. Estimates for the next fiscal year will be submitted at an early day. The reports of agents Thompson and Ambrose and the various communications from this office will it is believed supply in a great measure and supersede the necessity of a regular annual report.
    Enclosed herewith is a letter from Agent Thompson containing an account of the repulse and retreat of Major Haller and command.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Superintendent
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1190-1194.  The undated "extra" of the Oregon Statesman, probably from October 15, 1855, is transcribed here.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 16th 1855
Dear Sir,
    I have this morning dispatched by way of Scottsburg to your office a messenger with funds and letters for you. The amount transmitted you will account for under the following heads of appropriations, to wit:
    Adjusting difficulties and preventing outbreaks $500.
Incidental expenses 3rd qr. 1855 500.
1st of 10 installments for pay of physician, purchase of medicines and expenses
    of care of sick per 5th article treaty 18th November 1854 250.
Salary of Indian agent 3rd qr. 1855 375.
    "        "  Interpreter     "    "       "     125.
1750.
    Immediately on the return of Mr. Metcalfe from San Francisco, whither he has gone to have certain drafts cashed, another remittance will be made. The amount now transmitted, with what you have on hand, will probably answer your purposes in the interval.
    You will be permitted to apply out of this year's annuity fund under the treaty of 10th September 1853 one thousand dollars for agricultural purposes upon the reservation, and by the consent of the chiefs this may be applied in the payment of outstanding liabilities contracted for such objects as planting, harvesting, seed &c.
    The 2nd installment under this treaty has been remitted and will be available on Metcalfe's return, and you will immediately inform me of the kind of articles most needed by the Indians for winter use.
    I send by today's mail a copy of regulations for the guidance of agents in this Superintendency pending existing hostilities.
    Your district has been embraced in the order as being particularly in need of such a regulation to ensure peace and prevent impositions being practiced upon us in the payment of annuities.
    It must be generally understood that all absentees, unless for satisfactory reasons, will be excluded from the benefits of annuity payments, and it is my desire that this order be regarded as imperative. We must know who are friends and who enemies.
    Enclosed is a copy of the Governor's proclamation calling for eight companies of volunteers. Other papers and advices will doubtless put you in possession of the facts relating to the present condition of affairs as late as I have them. The company from this country will leave LaFayette tomorrow morning. There must undoubtedly be another call, for it will require a force of fifteen hundred men to subdue these Indians, and if sent out by dribs they will be cut off. The Indians are well armed and will fight like tigers. It is not to be single-handed combats between weak vagabond bands and marauding parties, but a war waged by powerful tribes in possession of means to defy a large force. May we not hope for the dragoon force in your valley; cavalry alone is fitted for this service.
    I have this moment received intelligence of Indian hostilities in your district, but do not give full credence to the reports. It is not unlikely, however, that on learning the difficulties north with such exaggerated reports of their success it may have inspired them with hope. In fact it is not improbable that preconcerted arrangements may have been entered into through the medium of the Klickitats, who have been roaming throughout Southern Oregon the last few years and extensively supplying the southern Indians with arms and ammunition.
    My messenger may not be able to reach you. Try by all means to advise me of the conditions of things in your district. Among so many reports it is difficult to arrive at the facts.
I am dear sir
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
    Ind. Agent
        Dardanelles O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 319-320.



   
Oregon Indians.--Instructions have just been issued from the General Land Office for a large temporary reservation on the Pacific Coast for the Umpqua, Willamette and other coast tribes of Indians, extending from Cape Lookout, south, to a point about midway between the Umpqua and [Siltcoos? Siuslaw?] rivers, and running back to the Coast Range of mountains, with a view to their consolidation and to facilitate the white settlements as well as the domestication of the Indians. The necessary instructions have also been communicated for a small permanent reservation for the Rogue River tribe in the forks of Rogue River and Evans Creek opposite Fort Lane, under their treaty of the 19th of September, 1853.
    By these arrangements, large districts of country recently ceded by the several tribes will be thrown open to settlement, and many causes of dissatisfaction, and even conflict, between the races will be removed, which past experience has shown to be incidental to the rapid settlement of a new country.
Evening Star, Washington, D.C., November 17, 1855, page 2




Port Orford O.T. October 19th 1855
Genl. Palmer, Dear Sir
    By the enclosed letter from Ben Wright, which I send that you may form some idea of the prompt and decided steps taken to prevent hostilities within his district. It may be necessary to give you some account of the news which has reached here and which induced Ben to leave the mouth of Rogue River where he had been for a time managing the Chetco bands, amongst whom and some whites a difficulty had recently occurred. Lieut. Kautz with ten men and a guide started 9 or 10 days ago on the examination of the proposed road from here to Jacksonville; he took a due east course and in 30 miles reached the Big Bend of Rogue River. On his arrival he found the settlers in great alarm, leaving for protection from a threatened attack of a large body of hostile Indians from Applegate Creek Valley. It seems by the news brought by the Lieut. that some friendly Indians had come down the valley from Grave Creek and warned the settlers to leave, as a large body of hostile Indians were coming to kill all the whites in Rogue River Valley and the valleys adjacent to it. The Indians reported that some 20 white settlers and a party of 10 U.S. troops from Fort Lane were already killed, that the Indians had descended the valley as far as the mouth of Grave Creek, and were going to burn the store or trading post of Dr. Reeves, having already murdered the Dr. at his ranch 4 miles above. The settlers did not believe the report and after awhile concluded to go; one or two in company with the Indian who brought the report (they lived only a short distance below the store) went to see--going up a hill carefully and not far from the store, they beheld the house in flames and some 60 or more Indians dancing the war dance around it. The Indian told them that the war party after killing the Dr. came on to the store, where was a young man whose name was known only as Sam and one or two others about, that the savages told Sam that they had come to kill him; he thought them in jest, made no resistance to such a cool demand. They did as they had threatened, cut him in quarters and salted him. After taking what flour and other articles they wanted, [they] set fire to the building of the burning of which was witnessed by the party of whites above alluded to who at once left, and on their way down accidentally met Lieut. Kautz and his party at "Big Bend," who at once put his men in position in a good log house with 9 guns and all the ammunition and stores he had, and in company with a guide left for the fort here, arriving at one o'clock in the morning of the 16th and left for the camp the same night, preparatory to a resistance of the farther advance of the hostile party, or if necessary to make a demonstration upon them. What will be the result I know not. The Indians will be emboldened by the success they have already gained, and the arms and provision they have taken will or may make them quite formidable. It is said that the cause of this outbreak is the taking from the reserve and hanging the week before last some Indians near Jacksonville for murders committed on Humbug Creek near Yreka last summer. Of course nearly all the proceeding is but reports, as yet only as to the burning of Dr. Reeves' store, for its truth I have seen and conversed with one of the men who says he was one of the party who went upon the hill and saw the store in flames &c. In consequence of this you see the course of Ben Wright, and I know of no better course he can pursue. By the way, I think he deserves great credit for the coolness and calculation manifested in his plan. If anything further occurs, I will let you know.
Your friend R. W. Dunbar
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 331.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1258-1261.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. temporarily at Portland
        Oct. 19th 1855
Sir
    Information deemed by the executive reliable has been received, confirming the reports mentioned in my last communication that a number of families had been murdered by hostile Indians in the Rogue River Valley. Very much however is still in the dark. That there is a small band of Indians in that country determined to rob and murder, justifying the calling into the field a military force, I have no doubt, but I am unwilling to believe any considerable number of Indians have combined for hostile purposes in that district.
    I enclose you the second proclamation of the Governor calling for volunteers to operate in Southern Oregon.
    No decisive movement has as yet been made in the Yakima country by our troops. The Indians are said to be assembled in the Simcoe Valley to the number of two thousand warriors, eager for a fight.
    The movements indicate a protracted war, the topography of the country, favoring the mode of warfare practiced by the Indians. The enclosed letter, without date, from Agent. R. R. Thompson, indicates his views in reference to the result of a second repulse of our troops. Enclosed please find regulations for the guidance of Indian agents in this Superintendency. Upon the receipt of intelligence from the south I added an additional paragraph.
Oct. 20th 10 a.m.
    A gentleman from Corvallis of undoubted veracity arrived this morning with intelligence that a messenger had reached that point from Rogue River with information that companies of miners and others had organized and commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of all Indians found on Table Rock Reservation, that they had already killed one hundred and six men, women and children.
    The particulars attending the attack upon one of the villages are given. It states a party of 18 men commanded by Mr. Lupton proceeded to the Indian camp during the night, remaining a short distance till daylight, when they rushed upon them and killed over thirty, old and young. Mr. Lupton received a mortal wound from which he soon after died. No others of the party were injured. The details attending the slaughter of others is not given. They are all represented as having been friendly Indians. If it becomes a fixed policy to permit wholesale butchery of defenseless women and children of those of our friendly bands of Indians, who in accordance with treaty stipulations locate upon temporary or permanent reservations and comply with all the requirements of such treaties and the regulations and directions of the agents of the government placed among them, the officers of the Indian Department may as well be disbanded. Pledges of aid and protection by the government to such as enter into treaty stipulations are but empty bubbles, made only to be violated by our people. We as agents of the government are made the instruments by which to prepare them for the slaughter. Our pledges are broken, confidence destroyed, and unless supported in our efforts to maintain the faith of the government, we might as well close the office in this Superintendency.
    Reports would indicate a bad feeling entertained by those marauding parties against the officers commanding at Fort Lane and those engaged in the Indian Department, and that it was highly probable a hostile meeting would take place.
2:00 p.m.
    John Cain Esq., Indian agent for Washington Territory, has just arrived from the Dalles, and I am put in possession of the enclosed letters from agents Olney and Thompson, marked "A," "B" & "C." I still entertain hopes that Mr. Olney may be able to obtain an interview with Pu-pu-mox-mox, the head chief of the Walla Wallas, and that he may be induced to decide in favor of peace. I am assured by Joel Carey that a force will be sent to the relief of the settlers in the Walla Walla Valley.
    Should all these tribes unite against us, a protracted and bloody war will be the consequence. Raw recruits of infantry constitute nearly the entire available force that can be brought into the field. These men, when mounted, are almost useless for such service. Cavalry alone is adequate to meet these Indians. The number of volunteer force called out by proclamation of the Governor of date 11th inst. will not, I apprehend, with their present equipments and inexperience, be sufficient to ensure a successful campaign.
    The inclement season of the year will tend greatly to operate against the success of the command. They have a high chain of mountains to cross before reaching the enemy's country, and to operate effectively a post should be established in the heart of their country [and] another in the Walla Walla country. To garrison these posts, and others already established, transport supplies and carry on offensive measures, the force is entirely inadequate. There seems also to be an inadequate supply at the military posts in this Territory of all the requisites to properly equip and carry on a war with these Indians.
    A lack of suitable arms, ammunition and means of transportation are among the difficulties to overcome.
    It is I believe conceded by all that a winter campaign will be the most likely to accomplish the object, but it should be prosecuted with energy so as to deter other tribes from uniting in this alliance.
October 21st (noon)
    A messenger from my office at Dayton hands me the originals, from which the enclosed copies have been taken. I purpose starting for the Dalles this evening to aid Agent Thompson in arranging encampments in his district. If a force can be secured warranting it, efforts will be made to establish an encampment on the Umatilla River, and upon the reservation designated by the treaty with the Walla Wallas, Cayuses &c.
In haste
    I have the honor to be
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
Honl. George W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1201-1205.  A copy is on  NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 355-356.



Oregon City Indians.
    It seems that whilst our citizens were met on last Monday night to take our internal Indian relations into consideration, the squaws were busy in replenishing their empty bottles with rum. The Indian liquor merchant must have taken in considerable change that night, as the savages laid in a good supply. At least on the night following the meeting, the redskins who are camped within a stone's throw of our domicile held a drunken jollification, which in the magnitude of its bluster, and in the seriousness of its character, out-Deviled anything we have heard before. The whole of the forepart of the night was made hideous with the sound of angry words, and with the screams and moans of the miserable victims of drunken savage ferocity. One squaw was literally cut to pieces and gave up the ghost. At least so we were informed. Another one was dreadfully cut and mangled around the head and face.
    These poor creatures, that so often suffer from violent hands in their drunken sprees, are generally slaves which have been stolen from other tribes. There has been a constant traffic kept up among the Oregon Indians, in slaves, consisting of women and children which have been stolen from other tribes. Nothing can exceed the cruelty with which these poor creatures are treated by their masters, especially in their drunken revels.
    We have a law subjecting the man--(no, we will take that back)--the creature, the incarnate Devil in human shape who furnishes these Indians with liquor, to the penalty of a heavy fine. In effect we might as well have a law imposing fines and imprisonment upon "the man in the moon." Nobody is able to find out who this mysterious "creature" is. Like the "Wandering Jew," he is everywhere, and nowhere. No one is able to ferret out his den, except the squaws. They all know exactly where to find him, and just how much change (or other commodity) it takes to constitute a quid pro quo for one bottle of grog. They not only procure their liquor from him, but have been his attentive scholars, and have taken lessons in the art of lying and deception until not a nod, a wink, or a look from them will serve as a guide to those who wish to find the liquor merchant. They give us abundant evidence on many nights of where the liquor goes to, but whence it comes, no man knoweth.
    The citizens of the place are night after night deprived of their rest; our women and children lie quaking in their beds through fear, all caused by the demoniacal conduct of a perfect bedlam of some sixty or seventy drunken Indians, who have gathered in here from Klamath Lake for the purpose of begging, stealing and getting drunk, and there is not power enough in Oregon City, now numbering over two hundred men, to devise a remedy. Some of these Indians are getting so smart that they have within the last few weeks drawn their knives and arrows in some of our citizens' houses, to frighten the women into giving them food. Mr. Blanchard's wife, at Canemah, not long since, who was in childbed and unable to rise, was ordered by an Indian to go and get him victuals, upon pain of being shot with an arrow which he stood pointing at her. Now if, as some think, there is no danger from these Indians whilst they are sober, all will admit, we think, that while they are intoxicated any person is liable to fall a victim to their rage. But even admitting that in their drunken revels that there is no danger of their hewing to pieces anybody but their own squaws, does not humanity dictate that there should be a stop put to it? Besides, are we under no obligations to look after the peace and comfort of our wives and daughters, who amidst all the reports, gathering thick and fast, of Indian depredations, are nearly distracted at the sound of hellish "revelry by night" which indicates that King Bacchus has dethroned what little reason the savages have and turned them into demons thirsting for each other's blood!
    If the liquor cannot be removed from them we think it would not be a bad plan to remove them from the liquor, and send them back on Klamath to live on ants and snails, and drink river water, as they have been accustomed to.
    Our vigilance committee would do well to look after this matter. If no clue can be got to the vendor of liquor, and if the Indians are to be permitted to remain the balance of their days with as many more of their friends as choose to come, we can easily teach them that after this they are to keep perfectly quiet during the night and let our citizens sleep.
The Oregon Argus, October 20, 1855, page 2



Territory of Oregon
    Headquarters
        Portland, October 20th, 1855.
    Information having been received that armed parties have taken the field in Southern Oregon with the avowed purpose of waging a war of extermination against the Indians in that section of the Territory, and have slaughtered without respect to age or sex a band of friendly Indians upon their reservation, in despite of the authority of the Indian agent and the commanding officer of the United States troops stationed there, and contrary to the peace of the Territory, it is therefore ordered that the commanding officers of the battalions authorized by the proclamation of the Governor of the 15th day of October instant will enforce the disbanding of all armed parties not duly enrolled into the service of the Territory by virtue of said proclamation.
    The force called into service for the suppression of Indian hostilities in the Rogue River and Umpqua valleys and chastisement of the hostile party of Shasta, Rogue River and other Indians now menacing the settlements in Southern Oregon, is deemed entirely adequate to achieve the object of the campaign, and the utmost confidence is reposed in the citizens of that part of the Territory that they will support and maintain the authority of the executive by cordially cooperating with the commanding officers of the territorial force, the commanding officer of the United States troops, and the special agents of the Indian Department in Oregon.
    A partisan warfare against any bands of Indians within our borders, or on our frontiers, is pregnant only with mischief, and will be viewed with distrust and disapprobation by every citizen who values the peace and good order of the settlements. It will receive no countenance or support from the executive authority of the Territory.
By the Governor.
E. M. Barnum,,
    Adj. General.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 1206.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Oct. 20th 1855
Sir
    Since I informed you of existing hostilities in this valley no important event has occurred not contained in that communication. I have learned reliably that the Shastas, Scotans, Grave Creek and many of the Umpquas and Cow Creeks are concerned in those horrid murders and massacres. The Shastas are beyond doubt the leading spirits of the whole expedition. Old Chief John managed to secure the assistance of all the above named tribes together with the Klamaths, and all the surrounding tribes are concerned in this war. Not that there is a general combination of all those tribes to do this, for there is no want of funds existing among some of these tribes, but they all have their enmity against the white race. The Klamath Lake Indians on the east have been at war for two months past, and those murders which were committed on the Siskiyou Mountain were doubtless done by them. On the south were the Klamath River and Shasta Indians at war for some time past. On the west are the Scotans, Grave Creeks and Cow Creeks, who were greatly disaffected. Hence you will see it would require but little exertion to unite them all in one common war against their white foe, which I apprehend has already been done. The Rogue Rivers alone excepted, who have placed themselves under protection of Captain Smith of Fort Lane, all others belonging to this reservation are off and no doubt nearly all are engaged in this war. There are some I believe have gone with those hostile Indians through fear, who do not desire a war.
    I have taken the census of those at the fort & find a total of 303 persons. Principal Chief Sam has of his own and his brother Joe's people who are now counted as his the following
  Men Women Boys Girls Total
Sam 36   66 35 24 160
Elijah 18   33   9 17     77  
Sambo 16   25 11 13   65
70 124 55 54 303
    There is no possible way by which these people can subsist themselves; it must be done by government. They cannot be permitted to leave the fort in quest of game or subsistence of any kind, and being a very improvident people they have not laid up their winter supplies. However this is their usual hunting season, and it is impossible for them to avail themselves of it; hence you will see no other alternative than to feed or to fight them. I have furnished them supplies the past week, believing it to be the policy of our government and in the end much less expensive. As I have but a small fund in my hand for the purpose of buying provision for them, I wish to call your attention to that fact and ask your advice as to what I should do.
    No longer any doubt exists but that this must be a war of extermination, against all the chiefs and leaders of the hostile bands they have so declared it themselves and say they are determined to show no quarter. Old Chief John killed the man employed to build him a house, declaring that he "wanted no house, but was going to fight till he died," and the massacre of women and children in the most brutal and fiendish manner show a determination to carry into execution their threat. Quite a number of travelers, miners and persons passing the road have been killed. I have not learned authentically the number nor do I know the names of all, consequently I refrain from making the attempt to state it.
    Several hundred volunteers are patrolling the country in every direction, besides the regulars who have been constantly in the saddle since the commencement of difficulties, yet nothing effective has been done. It will certainly require a large force to subdue these savages, and save this country from desolation and ruin.
    Among some papers found in the office, I find the following statistical table which I subjoin, as it may be of use to you for reference, showing the bands and numbers of hostile Indians. The table bears date Nov. 1855 [sic].
  Men Women Boys Girls Total
Deer Creek 33 42 20 11 106
Galice   " 23 26 18 10     77  
Kiota Indians 16 25 11 13     8
Grave Creek   4 15   6   2   27
Old John   4   6   3   2   15
Butte Creek 26 32 11 15  84
Applegate John 14 24 13 12   63
        "         Bill 14 15   8   9   46
George & Limpy   25     38   17 17   97
147   201   97 78 523
    I do not mean to say that all of the above are concerned in this war, but the bands have sided with those that are hostile. I have no doubt many individuals disapprove of the act, and would like to be away from their people,but fear of their leaders has restrained them and they have all gone together.
Yours respectfully
    G. H. Ambrose
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 329-331.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1262-1265.




Office, No. 29 Wall Street
    New York, Oct. 24, 1855
The
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
Dear Sir
    Have the goodness to inform us whether any recent tidings have been received by your Department from the party who went out to treat with the Indians under command of General Palmer. A friend of ours has a son who is connected with the expedition whose last letter was dated "Fort Orford"
(we think that was the name), Rogue River, Oregon, but since then there has been a rumor of a fight in that region, which causes this inquiry.
Respectfully yours
    Wm. & Jno. O'Brien
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 780-781.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. Oct. 26 / 55
Dear General
    I have thought it best to forward you by express the enclosed dispatches from Agent Ambrose brought by a special messenger, Mr. Kane, who arrived yesterday evening. The state of affairs in Rogue River is even worse than the first rumors received, and havoc and blood are abroad with full license.
    The painful evidence is again before us that the initial act in the bloody drama now acting there was by our own citizens. Mr. Kane thinks it will be impossible to preserve Sam & the friendly part of the Rogue Rivers from the popular fury. An indiscriminate slaughter of all the Indians is the cry and probably the general resolve.
    Mr. Kane left Rogue River on the 16th inst. and is able to add but few particulars to those in Dr. Ambrose's letter. The wife & daughter of Mr. Haines, his hired man and a son of Mr. Harris are missing and probably murdered. The bodies of three men were found in the vicinity of Grave Creek and identified as those of Mr. Powell of this county and a Messrs. Fox and White.
    Dr. Henry is acting as assist. commissary and wrote a few lines from Evans Ferry, being on his way to Jacksonville.
    It has been rumored for some days that there was a large number of armed Indians encamped on the headwaters [of] the Santiam, believed to be in a great measure strangers to this valley, and also that most of our Indians had mysteriously disappeared from their temporary reservation. Mr. Waymire and Capt. Armstrong thought the matter should be looked into, and Capt. Armstrong said he had been on the point of marching his company that way when he learned that a company for the purpose of scouring that part of the valley had been formed at Salem. On Thursday Mr. Orton stated that he had met a man from the forks of Santiam who assured him that there was an unusual number of Indians in that part of the country and that the people were much alarmed.
    I felt but little disposed to yield credence to this rumor, but as it was sustained by such circumstantial statements from creditable sources I deemed it proper to inquire into the affair, and accordingly on Thursday night proceeded to Salem when I found that the company that had gone out had returned. The rumors had not the "shadow of a shade" of foundation. All quiet among the Santiam Inds.! No strange Inds. had passed that way except a small band of Klamaths returning home from their annual fall visit to Oregon City. I returned by daylight yesterday to Doaks Ferry when intercepted a company of 10 of the Yamhill Rangers en route for the reported scene of hostilities & informed them that their services would not be required, upon which they returned. Such is the history of the wars of Santiam. Mr. Stone called today and informed me that Judge Comegys' family and several others were much alarmed and apprehensive lest there might be an outbreak among the Yamhill band. Some, he stated, were in favor of taking all the men into custody, and others of even more extreme measures. The Indians, on their part, and for better cause, were as much alarmed as their white neighbors. In order to allay the fears on all sides, and protect this little handful of Indians from the consequences of these silly apprehensions, I appointed Mr. Stone local agent and instructed him in accordance with your "general orders," copies of which have not yet come to hand.
    There is much fear and quaking among our citizens residing at the eastern base of the Coast Range in consequence of the signal fires seen looming up on the heights of the Coast Range and which appear to be answered by similar lights upon the Cascade summits. It is also alleged that four or five armed Indians were seen prowling in the brush near John Perkins' mill, mayhap the shades of the earlier aborigines, like Ossian's heroes on "the hills of mist pursuing deer formed of clouds and bending their airy bows." Be that as it may, the fears of several families have induced them to leave their dwellings for the security of the more central settlements. You will be gratified to learn that Mr. Clark returned in safety on Thursday evening last. He was quietly employed in cutting out the trail, assisted by his father. He found the work more difficult than he expected, but accomplished it. He was wholly unconscious of the Indian troubles and consequent excitement in the valley until he arrived at Grand Ronde on his way in. I did not see him, being at Salem when he arrived at the office.
    You will excuse this scrawl, as I have had a chill this morning and am not wholly over it.
Very truly yours
    Edward R. Geary
Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1219-1222.



Deer Creek Oct. 28th 1855
Genl. Palmer
    Sir
        I received the appointment of Indian agent and merely executed the same until I could appoint an interpreter and make some arrangements to feed what friendly Indians there might be in this valley and tender you my resignation this morning, as I think the time has passed for talking to Indians. I could not under my present feelings think of being agent. I recommend to you Theophilus Magruder Sr. as a fit person to act as agent. I acted one day and appointed him interpreter and acting company for the present. Also made all the necessary arrangements to have all friendly Indians removed to the reserve. I am in hope you will see fit to appoint Magruder agent. I have just been elected major of this battalion, which gives me a chance to act in accordance with my feelings.
    Sir, I hope you will not think hard of me for not remaining as agent when I am perfectly well satisfied that they will fight the whites the first chance that appears.
    Now, General, I do wish you to appoint Magruder agent for this valley for the present. I have sent Mr. Underwood to the Applegate settlement to bring all the Indians in that settlement. He will be five days in service at five dollars per day. Also Mr. Day at four dollars per day as acting commissary, and also to allow Magruder four dollars per day as interpreter; all of this actually necessary, and you will see at once that I have acted for the best in all things. There is no mistake of a long Indian war, and blood must run freely before we can have peace. I have been on my feet for 15 hours and shall leave here at day for Rogue River. I will write you soon again.
Yours truly
    Wm. J. Martin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 359.  "Deer Creek" later was renamed Roseburg.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Oct. 28, 1855
Sir,
    Mr. Kane, the messenger whom I had sent to your office, bearer of dispatches, returned yesterday bringing some papers, also Mr. Chamberlin has reached this office with some dispatches and funds for this district. I have enrolled the names of all the Indians belonging to this reservation that are now present, and have appointed James K. Metcalfe special sub-Indian agent for the time being, to call the roll and issue rations. The Indians are encamped on the military reservation at Fort Lane. Under existing circumstances during hostilities I have deemed it necessary to call the roll twice daily and issue to them full rations, as they have no other means of subsistence.
    The parties to the treaty of the 10th September 1853 are nearly all here, the chiefs, heads of families & the principal men are all here except George & Limpy, and some of their people are here. The parties to the treaty of the 18th November 1854 are nearly all absent--the chiefs and leaders are all of them absent. Some of their people are in confinement at Fort Lane for safekeeping, women and children. I find it impossible to make any progress in improvements on the reserve; in fact it is unsafe for hands to be there, hence I have suspended operations during hostilities.
    On Wednesday the 17th instant a party of miners, twenty in number, on Galice Creek were attacked by a large force of Indians. The attack commenced early in the morning and lasted all day. The miners occupied a house and fought from behind a breastwork of flour. They lost two killed and thirteen wounded. Those killed upon the part of the Indians could not be ascertained as they carried the dead off with them in the night. On the 24th they made their appearance on Cow Creek near the Cañon, spreading desolation and ruin in every direction, burning houses, grain stacks and killing stock in open day. The houses had been fortified and guarded, and two I believe were saved by it. Two men in endeavoring to protect their stock were killed and one supposed to be mortally wounded.
    On the same day a detachment of men under command of Lieut. Kautz, of Port Orford, who were surveying a route for a road from Port Orford to the Oregon Road, unaware of existing hostilities, were attacked by the Indians; two of his men were killed. The Lieut. was compelled to retreat, with the loss of his animals. On Thursday Capt. Smith started in pursuit of them with some hope of being able to overtake them, as they had their women and children with them. It is rumored that the Indians attacked a company of miners on Thursday last in Illinois Valley, killing nine or ten men and capturing one hundred and forty animals. The rumor is generally credited and believed to be correct. I will, however, learn the facts in a few days and report them.
    Subjoined you will find the names of all [male] persons present belonging to this tribe over twelve years of age on the temporary encampment at Fort Lane.
    Principal Chief Sam Bill Yal pe nah
Sub             do. Elijah Ben Yah once
Sub             do. Sambo Jack Bob e sah
Tom A cat e cah Johnson Bob e sah
Jim Che te quit cha Com e tah
Charley Um te wa ha Oc ah quit nic
Henry Te to sha Cad ar yah cah da
Bill Yap cah tek Oliver Owat tic
Dan Cho ka hi yak Dick Ha din nich
Zack Yah de o ka John Op pah pa
Charley Edah shu que Dick Che hos qus
Jim Yeh ha qua te da Jim Ed dah se wa cah
Henry O wa te ah Isaac O wah he mo
Bill Quin poo na Charley At te tic each
Bob Te quel la Bill Channoah
Ta ep ak ke ah George O ho mah
A ma hat que John Hi ep seh
George Quin too quo Jack Quil quil la
John Tah bouse Moses A cah tuc te
Te lo me ah Tom Odah shinde
Charley Tel um cut Hus lus ke wa
Tom Cah moe e mah Op pou ke
Oc col shu John Chum che cut
William Te poke te nah Jack Cush ne ha hah
John Hap po e nah Charley Tam ne wal ke
Pet Te tol o me Bob Ep po lum
Baboon Ta wa he Bill Hi you che me
Charley Ha chi ki usa George Chu me chu me
Te poke te nah Bill Lat ka che
Tom Sheh hel ve ah Dick Uppan nois
Skinner Etum sketum Bob You uch we cum na
Sam Patch Te toash Jack Such pe luch
John Te ke pe ah Tom Kin daysh
Bill Cah loe ah Tom Ult kou weit
Bob Dis slay Jim Wau cut lou wit ka
Dick Cul sha John Hi e te cha
Bob Eppas Sambo Quich umps
Dick Lah lah John Kil le yoke ke
Charley Che le kak Bob O pa chuc
Bill Hah tak te
Alonzo Sum chut ka
The sum total which I sent you by last mail was intended to include those only who belonged to the chiefs named, to whom may be added eleven belonging to other bands which I have since added to Sam and Sambo's bands, and twenty now in the guardhouse belonging to hostile bands who have been brought here since the commencement of hostilities, and you find the total number of Indians now at this encampment to be three hundred and thirty-four.
Very respectfully
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 341-343.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1272-1275.




Scottsburg Oregon
    Octr. 30th 1855
Sir,
    Yours of the 19th ult., enclosing "regulations, census and provision returns for the guidance of agents during existing hostilities," came to hand on the eve of the 28th. Much excitement has prevailed at Scottsburg and the valley above during the three weeks last passed, yet I see nothing indicative of an outbreak at the present time. The inhabitants have been collecting & fortifying, which leads the Indians to apprehend difficulty--and the fear of the Indian is very apparent--indeed for the past two weeks, it has been difficult to say which manifest the most fear, the Indians or whites.
    During the last three days the excitement has in a great degree subsided; the night guard at Scottsburg has been abandoned, and people have returned to their regular employment. I have taken the precaution to suspend all licenses for the sale of ammunition within the bounds of this district. I shall proceed to this coast forthwith and visit the Coos and Siuslaw bands, after which I will report the state of affairs at these points immediately to your office.
    Since hearing of the disturbance at Rogue River I have seen and talked with the headmen at Coos Bay, who say that they very well know what they told Genl. Palmer & they meant it and should live up to their part of the treaty & if the Indians at Rogue River do anything wrong it is not their fault and they are not accountable for that &c. &c. Enos & John at the Siuslaw talk in the same way. Under existing circumstances I do not think it advisable to collect the Indians at any one point. I will advise you of my proceedings and of the feelings of the Indians within this district by every mail.
    I have not yet received the invoice prices of goods distributed on the Coquille & cannot make up my abstracts of disbursement until I do.
Yours very respectfully
    E. P. Drew
        Sub-Ind. Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supertdt. Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 343.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1255-1256.



Oct. 31st 1855
Sir,
    I have received the remittances sent to this office and have receipted therefor to Mr. Chamberlin, who will deliver the package to you. In my report of last mail I noticed the rumor of the capture of several pack trains and the killing of nine or ten persons, which is found on investigation to be incorrect. The train was attacked on the summit of the mountain near Mooney's--two Mexicans were killed and twenty-four mules shot dead, and some wounded. It was incorrect only in the number killed.
    I trust you will come out here if you can possibly spare the time. Different arrangements must be made for these Indians here than what we had calculated on. If they are to be kept at the fort some temporary buildings will be necessary for their accommodation.
    I no longer apprehend any danger of their being attacked by our volunteers. They seem to have settled down upon the conviction that these Indians may be serviceable to them yet before the close of the war.
G. H. Ambrose Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 344.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 1276.




Office Indian Agent, Rogue River Valley
    Octr. 31, 1855
Sir,
    In your communication of the 15th instant you request me to inform you of the kind of articles mostly required for winter use among the Indians.
    I answer good, substantial woolen clothing for the men and boys, and several bolts, say twelve or fifteen hundred yards, of linsey woolsey, suitable for the women's wearing apparel.
    There are many of them expert with the needle, and had they the material could make such articles to order which be cheaper and much better for the children than anything that can be purchased. Boots, shoes, stockings and such articles as will add to their comfort should be bought and sent them if possible to do so before the winter season sets in. They are illy prepared for winter in their present condition.
Respectfully your obt. servant
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 344.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frame 1257.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Nov. 4th 1855
Sir,
    Your communication bearing date Oct. 18th written at Portland came to hand yesterday. I have not yet seen Mr. Martin or Lamerick, nor am I advised as to whether he will accept the appointment of sub-agent or not. There are no Indians in the district which you designed placing Mr. Martin in. A part of that same party of men who commenced the attack on Rogue River of the 8th ultimo followed up their plan of extermination by passing through the Cañon, and waging an indiscriminate war on every Indian whom they chanced to meet. In Lookingglass Prairie, distant thirty miles from the Cañon, they found a ranch of Indians who were friendly disposed and had claimed protection of the citizens, and had moved down among them. This band of Indians numbered some thirty or more persons, and were attacked by this volunteer force early in the morning of the 24th of October. Eight of their number were killed; the remainder made their escape into the mountains. I am informed all the Indians in that section of the country are run into the mountains, whether with hostile intentions or not I am not able to say. My informant, Mr. Barnes, was in that part of the country at the time of the occurrence, and he is a gentleman in whom I have every confidence. I have not been able to learn that these Indians were charged with any crime. In fact, the volunteers alleged nothing more than that it afforded a harbor for some vicious and ill-disposed Indians, and they were determined to break it up.
    I had started to go there, but those difficulties occurring here turned me back. I have assigned Mr. Metcalfe as a sub-agent only temporarily. When things shall have assumed a settled appearance I will be able to attend to all the duties in this valley, and will endeavor to do so as early as possible.
    After the attack on the settlements near Elliff's, of which I wrote you last week, the Indians assembled in considerable numbers in the Grave Creek Hills, where they were found by Capt. Smith. On Wednesday morning last Capt. Smith & Col. Ross with their respective commands, amounting to about 400 strong, determined on making an attack, which was accordingly begun about 9 o'clock in the morning. The fight lasted through the day, without anything effective being done. Toward night the forces were drawn off a short distance to obtain water and to take care of the wounded. At daybreak the next morning the fight was renewed by the Indians making an attack on the camp of the whites. After about two hours fighting the Indians were driven back to their old ground, where they kept their position. The whites being worn out with fatigue and hunger, not being provided with either food or blankets, and finding themselves unable to rout the Indians, without great loss of life, they concluded to return and get supplies and renew the attack in a few days. The loss sustained by the whites in that battle amounted to nine killed and twenty-five wounded. The loss upon the part of the Indians unknown, nor is it known the number of Indians engaged--it is variously estimated from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty. I have but little doubt the next encounter will be the bloodiest ever fought in this country. The Indians, flushed with success, will contest every inch of ground and fight like tigers. The superior advantage which their knowledge of the country affords them makes but few determined men a formidable foe.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 344-345.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 1267-1269.




Port Orford O.T.
    Nov. 4th 1855
Gen. Palmer
    Dear Sir,
        By last mail I wrote you in reference to the Indian difficulties on Rogue River and the situation of matters in this district. In that communication I left Ben Wright with the Indians under his charge on Rogue River since which he has returned, having advised with those upper bands and put them on their guard. He found some of the hostile Indians among them, who were saucy enough to demand of him his business there, but who left before his small party could take them into custody. The agent learned that overtures had been made to his Indians to join the hostile bands, but either they were not disposed to do so, or his timely arrival put a stop to further negotiations of that sort. After advising with them he returned to the mouth of the river, where all was excitement. He gave the whites their orders for peace and left for home, having learned from rumor that danger was apprehended on Coquille. He hastened up there, found all quiet, though much fear existed in consequence of the alarm felt by the Indians from a report that armed whites were coming from Umpqua Valley to kill all of them, and from the circumstances of the Coquille Indians having discovered while out hunting a large number of squaws and children guarded by four men secreted up the valley supposed to be the women of the war party of Rogue River Valley, put there for safety. The Colvilles express great friendship for the whites, and say that they don't want the war party to be allowed to come among them. The agent advised with them, and promised to send an agent to stay by them until the alarm should be over. On his way down he met a party of armed men from Coos Bay, who said they were going to protect the white settlers from what they supposed a meditated attack of the Indians. Ben went back with them to the Indian camp who were greatly alarmed, but he called them back, talked with them and convinced the whites that there was no danger. He prevailed upon the men to return and appointed Mr. Hall as a sub-agent to maintain quiet till he could send Bill Chance up. When Ben reached the coast he found everything in the wildest confusion. At Randolph they had cached their effects and were leaving for protection. All down the coast the same excitement existed, and now there is but two white men between here and Coquille; all have come to Port Orford for safety. At Rogue River these fire eaters are in a perfect fury of excitement, have built defenses, armed, and threatened to attack the Indians, or to go by force and disarm them, and all this is kept up by a set of graceless scamps at Rogue River, who have no higher desires than to murder the defenseless Indians for pastime. Up to this time no act of violence has been done by the advice of the cool-minded they have been deterred.
    Ben goes at once to Rogue River, and if the whites will let his business alone, he can maintain quiet in his widely extended district.
    It is lamentable to see the uneasiness and fear of those Indians; they beg of Ben not to suffer the whites to kill them, that they will do anything rather than have the whites come and kill them and drive them away from procuring food for the winter. Ben will go and take with him such help as he cannot get along without, and try to restore quiet, and at all hazards prevent the whites from misusing the Indians of his district, and try and bring them back to their homes, that they may not be deprived of the chance now offering to procure their winter food. If this is not done there will many of them suffer. In some instances Ben has bought potatoes--and may give them more as they actually need. There is not a doubt but he can maintain peace in his district.
    Some expense must be incurred to do this thing, but nothing to compare with what it would cost to put them on temporary reservations.
    I send you a copy of the authority which Ben gave to Chance, and if anything further transpires before the steamer comes, I will give you the news. Ben is on the jump day and night. I never saw in my life a more energetic agent of the public--his plans are all good; there can be no doubt of it--that of maintaining peace--and that of quieting the fears of the Indians, so that he and the white man may return to their usual pursuits.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar
P.S. I send you also a copy of a request to Major Reynolds, who is expected by steamer, to take the remaining troops from Port Orford for the northern campaign. Ben is going to station them for a time at Big Bend. All is quiet here. I do not believe that any danger need be apprehended.
R.W.D.
Letter to Major Reynolds above referred to
Port Orford Oregon
    November 5th 1855
Major Reynolds U.S.A.
    Sir,
        In consequence of existing excitement on the part of white citizens in this district, occasioned by the presence of warlike bands of Indians on our borders, I desire it expedient and necessary to request you to allow the present military force stationed at Port Orford to remain as a means of enabling me to carry out my plans for the preservation of peace among the Indians of my district, and for the security of the white citizens.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        (signed) Benj. Wright Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 384-386.  Original on

Office [of the] Indian Agent,
    Rogue River Valley, O.T.
        November 20, 1855.
Sir:
    I have just returned from a visit to the Umpqua reservation, where I found everything pertaining to the agency being conducted according to your instructions; the names of all adult males and boys over twelve years of age have been enrolled; special sub agent Magruder calls the roll daily and issues to them rations of beef and flour. He apprehends no danger whatever of an outbreak on the part of the Umpqua Indians. In examining their reservation I found very little good tillable land. If it should be your design to colonize those Indians on the coast, it had better be done before expending any portion of their annuities in agricultural purposes on the present reservation. I suspect, however, all things considered, they could be kept more economically and to a better advantage where they are for the present, than they could in the event of their removal to the coast. Flour is being purchased at the rate of five and [a] half cents per pound, and beef at ten dollars per hundred. There is now on the Umpqua reservation two hundred and sixty six persons including all ages, thirty of whom are Klamaths, or Indians from the vicinity of Klamath Lake, with whom no treaty has ever been made. As they desired peace it was thought advisable to take them on to the reservation and care for them the same of [sic] those belonging there. In relation to the Table Rock reservation, I am hardly prepared to venture an opinion as to the best policy to be pursued with those Indians; they have an aversion to being removed, which arises in part from the attachment they bear for their native land, and again not the slightest apprehension need be entertained of an outbreak among them. They are inclined to peace, and under favorable auspices would soon become highly civilized. They have erected comfortable temporary winter quarters, and are to all appearances quite contented. Their conduct both before and since this war commenced has proved satisfactorily to me that their desire is to remain friendly with the whites. They gave up their arms without the least hesitancy; Sam at the same time averring, if fears were entertained of him to post a guard around him or put him in the guardhouse; he would submit to anything for the sake of peace for his people. They had at one time tried war, and were tired of it, had sought for peace and made a treaty to obtain it, which treaty they ever intended to hold inviolate. Up to the present time I have had no flour to purchase; of the wheat which they raised the past summer, and of which they have been subsisting upon ever since, there is a considerable quantity yet. I occasionally issue to them some flour (of which I received from you) for a change, and have been furnishing them beef ever since they were taken to the fort. Flour can be purchased at six, and beef at (12½) twelve & half cts. per pound; however, I suspect I will have to pay more for beef before spring unless I have money to buy with in which event I can get it for that, or probably less. Would it not be as well to use the money placed in my hands for building purposes, and replace that with the funds appropriated for this specific purpose?
    The ratio of decrease vastly exceeds that of the increase; since the eleventh of October last, when they were removed to this encampment, there has occurred ten deaths, seven girls and five boys, and but one birth.
    There is on the reserve nearly twenty acres of volunteer wheat, which looks exceedingly well, and I doubt not but it will make a good crop.
    Those hostile bands of Indians have gone down Rogue River. Just before they took their departure they went on to the reserve, burned all the boards and shingles there, and every article of value belonging to chief Sam's people;. A temporary house I had erected for the accommodation of persons laboring on the reserve shared the same fate; they also killed or drove away seven of the cattle belonging to the agency. The settled parts of this valley being nearly entirely destitute of grass, I was compelled to keep the agency stock on the reserve, which I endeavored to do by keeping a white man to accompany the Indians while herding their cattle and horses.
    The Indians have assembled in considerable numbers near what is called the Meadows on Rogue River, whither they have been pursued by the forces in the field, and probably by this time a very severe battle has been fought between them of which I may be able to inform you before the mail leaves.
    If it should be deemed advisable to resume work on the reservation it could be done by employing six or eight persons to work together; there would be no more danger than in any other part of this valley. In fact I doubt if there would be as much danger as there was before hostilities commenced. Again if it should be the object of the government to remove these Indians and make a permanent reservation for them, I [sic] had better be done at once, and save any further expenditure of money on this reserve. There are some bands of Indians a short distance up Rogue River who are not implicated in this war; that should in justice to the country be removed; if they are not removed, war with them is unavoidable.
Your obedient servant,
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer, Esq.,
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 418-422.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 382-384.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 425-429.



Deer Creek Nov. 7th 1855
Sir,
    I suppose that you have received the resignation of Wm. J. Martin, and also [the appointment of] myself, as interpreter & issuing commissary to the Indians, so in accordance with the appointment and your regulations I proceeded to work and have collected as many of the Umpquas as I can get, the number of which is two hundred and eighteen of all sizes, and thirty-five Molallas or Klamaths which live in this valley, and by the request of the citizens came in and delivered up all their arms and claimed protection. Deeming it necessary for the safety of our citizens I have taken them in charge and placed them on the reserve near to the Umpquas and issued to them rations as to the Umpquas. There has been issued to all the Indians on the reserve near two thousand pounds of beef and flour. I have in my possession a letter stating that there would be a messenger dispatched immediately for this place with a person and teams for the erection of buildings on the reservation, which I have been anxiously looking for, but they have not yet arrived. I am very anxious to hear from you to learn as to the legality of my proceedings in regard to the Molallas & Klamaths, as there is a very great expense incurred every day in procuring & issuing rations for them.
    The Cow Creek band of the Umpqua Indians have proved to be hostile and fled to the mountains. There will be a company of volunteers start in pursuit of them in the morning.
Your most humble and obt. servant
    T. R. Magruder
        Intr. and Issuing Commissary
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 360.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Nov. 11th 1855
Sir
    Since last mail day nothing of interest has transpired. The Indians have fled into the mountains 'tis not known where. An Indian girl came into Dr. Barkwell's house on Applegate. The Dr. requested she should be taken to Fort Lane, some volunteers started with her, but killed her on the way. I don't know as the circumstance is worthy of mention, I only allude to it to show the disposition of the men who are now in the field, and how difficult it must necessarily be to get along with them smoothly. I saw Capt. Lamerick and conversed with him about the Umpqua portion of this district. Mr. Magruder has been appointed special sub Indian Agent, I suspect, from what I learn, a better appointment could not have been made. I learn by Capt. Lamerick that he has collected the Indians together on the Reservation. The information which I gave you last mail in relation to the difficulties in Lookingglass Prairie may or may not be correct. I had it from rumor and suppose I had it as near correct as it could be got amidst so much confusion.
    The facts of the case I suspect will be laid before you by special sub Agent Magruder.
    Those Indians at the Fort [Lane] remain quietly as usual.
    Yours Respectfully
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 415-417.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 363-364.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 417-419.



General Land Office
    November 12th 1855.
To Geo. W. Manypenny Esq.
    Commr. of Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            I have to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 3rd instant, and its enclosures, the sketch plats and field notes of survey of the reservation for the Rogue River Indians, covering parts of Townships 34, 35 and 36 South of Ranges 2 & 3 West, and Townships 35 and 36 South of Range 4 West of the Willamette Meridian on Rogue River and Evans Creek, Oregon Territory, made under their treaty of the 10th of September 1853.
    In reply I have to state that the plats of the public surveys of only four of the townships, to wit, Township 36 South of Ranges 2, 3 and 4 West and Township 35 South of Range 2 W., covered in part of the above reservation, have been returned to this office, and that I have this day communicated copies of all the paper enclosed in your letter to the Surveyor General of Oregon, with instructions to cause the lines of the reservation to be carefully laid down & the fractions calculated on the township plats yet to be returned to this office and the land officers and to transmit amended maps of the townships heretofore returned showing the reservation.
I am very respectfully your obt. servt.
    Thos. A. Hendricks
        Commissioner
 NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 851-852..




Office Indian Agt.
    Rogue River O.T.
        Nov. 14th 1855
Sir
    As I have an opportunity I will send you a few lines. Nothing has transpired of an alarming character recently. The Indian alarmist and exterminators are cooling off and the good people of the valley are beginning to believe they were sold. Sam's people are all at the Fort and apparently quite contented and I believe the people of the valley are content to let them remain so. As soon as this organization shall have been completed in accordance with the proclamation, no longer any danger need be feared from unprovoked assaults. Bruce is elected Major, a very sensible man and quite friendly to Sam's people. I have but little doubt in the course of a month or so the Indians will be permitted to return to their reserve. A healthy reaction is taking place in the public mind, and none seem to doubt his [Sam's] innocence. As the express man is in great haste I will close & write you by next mail.
    Yours in haste
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 410-411.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 369.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 412-413.



Umpqua Local Agency No. 15th / 55
Maj. Wm .J. Martin
    Sir
        In accordance with your request I now have the pleasure of reporting to you the condition of the Indians remaining on the Umpqua reserve. The number of males over the age of twelve years is 67 and the number of females over the age of twelve years is 28. The number of males and females under twelve years is 62, making in total 217.
    The following is the number of Klamaths or Molallas. Indians remaining on the Umpqua reserve for their protection is males over twelve years is 10; the number of females over the age of twelve years is 8, and the number of males and females under the age of twelve years is 12, making in total 30, making in all that is on the reserve a total of 247.
    They have no guns or pistols with the exception of two rifles which I have allowed them to have for hunting purposes, which helps them very much, as they are close to the mountains in which there is great numbers of deer. They keep the rifles going every day, first by one and then by another. There is no danger to be apprehended from them so long as they are let remain in their present position.
Yours in haste
    J. R. Magman
        Interpt. & Issuing Comm.
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 3, Document 683.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Nov. 17, 1855
Sir
    In the assembling of the Umpqua Indians and subsisting them at the encampment, an expense has been incurred for which no funds have been remitted. On your return from Rogue River Valley you will pay such claims as you find just and properly incurred in carrying out my instructions to W. J. Martin, taking duplicate vouchers for the same. The funds for this object will be furnished at this office prior to your setting out on your journey. Upon your arrival at Fort lane if you find that the teams at that point are sufficient to transport the requisite baggage and subsistence for those Indians as far as Umpqua Valley, you will dispatch a messenger to meet the pack train sent out, so as to stop them in the Umpqua Valley, where they may be turned to the Umpqua Reservation to aid in removing those Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 364.



Office [of the] Indian Agent,
    Rogue River Valley, O.T.
        November 20, 1855.
Sir:
    I have just returned from a visit to the Umpqua reservation, where I found everything pertaining to the agency being conducted according to your instructions; the names of all adult males and boys over twelve years of age have been enrolled; special sub agent Magruder calls the roll daily and issues to them rations of beef and flour. He apprehends no danger whatever of an outbreak on the part of the Umpqua Indians. In examining their reservation I found very little good tillable land. If it should be your design to colonize those Indians on the coast, it had better be done before expending any portion of their annuities in agricultural purposes on the present reservation. I suspect, however, all things considered, they could be kept more economically and to a better advantage where they are for the present, than they could in the event of their removal to the coast. Flour is being purchased at the rate of five and [a] half cents per pound, and beef at ten dollars per hundred. There is now on the Umpqua reservation two hundred and sixty six persons including all ages, thirty of whom are Klamaths, or Indians from the vicinity of Klamath Lake, with whom no treaty has ever been made. As they desired peace it was thought advisable to take them on to the reservation and care for them the same of [sic] those belonging there. In relation to the Table Rock reservation, I am hardly prepared to venture an opinion as to the best policy to be pursued with those Indians; they have an aversion to being removed, which arises in part from the attachment they bear for their native land, and again not the slightest apprehension need be entertained of an outbreak among them. They are inclined to peace, and under favorable auspices would soon become highly civilized. They have erected comfortable temporary winter quarters, and are to all appearances quite contented. Their conduct both before and since this war commenced has proved satisfactorily to me that their desire is to remain friendly with the whites. They gave up their arms without the least hesitancy; Sam at the same time averring, if fears were entertained of him to post a guard around him or put him in the guardhouse; he would submit to anything for the sake of peace for his people. They had at one time tried war, and were tired of it, had sought for peace and made a treaty to obtain it, which treaty they ever intended to hold inviolate. Up to the present time I have had no flour to purchase; of the wheat which they raised the past summer, and of which they have been subsisting upon ever since, there is a considerable quantity yet. I occasionally issue to them some flour (of which I received from you) for a change, and have been furnishing them beef ever since they were taken to the fort. Flour can be purchased at six, and beef at (12½) twelve & half cts. per pound; however, I suspect I will have to pay more for beef before spring unless I have money to buy with in which event I can get it for that, or probably less. Would it not be as well to use the money placed in my hands for building purposes, and replace that with the funds appropriated for this specific purpose?
    The ratio of decrease vastly exceeds that of the increase; since the eleventh of October last, when they were removed to this encampment, there has occurred ten deaths, seven girls and five boys, and but one birth.
    There is on the reserve nearly twenty acres of volunteer wheat, which looks exceedingly well, and I doubt not but it will make a good crop.
    Those hostile bands of Indians have gone down Rogue River. Just before they took their departure they went on to the reserve, burned all the boards and shingles there, and every article of value belonging to chief Sam's people;. A temporary house I had erected for the accommodation of persons laboring on the reserve shared the same fate; they also killed or drove away seven of the cattle belonging to the agency. The settled parts of this valley being nearly entirely destitute of grass, I was compelled to keep the agency stock on the reserve, which I endeavored to do by keeping a white man to accompany the Indians while herding their cattle and horses.
    The Indians have assembled in considerable numbers near what is called the Meadows on Rogue River, whither they have been pursued by the forces in the field, and probably by this time a very severe battle has been fought between them of which I may be able to inform you before the mail leaves.
    If it should be deemed advisable to resume work on the reservation it could be done by employing six or eight persons to work together; there would be no more danger than in any other part of this valley. In fact I doubt if there would be as much danger as there was before hostilities commenced. Again if it should be the object of the government to remove these Indians and make a permanent reservation for them, I [sic] had better be done at once, and save any further expenditure of money on this reserve. There are some bands of Indians a short distance up Rogue River who are not implicated in this war; that should in justice to the country be removed; if they are not removed, war with them is unavoidable.
Your obedient servant,
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer, Esq.,
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 418-422.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 382-384.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 420-424.



Winchester Douglas Co. O.T.
    Nov. 22nd 1855
Sir
    I arrived here a few days ago on a visit to the Umpqua reservation. Mr. Magruder entertains the opinion that no fears need be apprehended of these Indians; they are collected together on the reservation and disarmed, and evince a friendly disposition. They are much in need of winter clothing, and if their annuities have arrived, it would be well to forward them out immediately. The Rogue Rivers were getting on smoothly when I left. Mr. Metcalfe was in charge of them; he assured me none had been absent at roll call yet. I have no news to communicate to you in relation to the movement of the troops, nothing official has yet been done. I received your letter before I left home, informing me of the near arrival of their annuities, and of your probable intention of moving these Indians to the coast. I have not had time to find out their minds fully on that subject; it is a matter which should require some consideration. Those new arrangements made with Indians should not be entered into hastily, except it meet their hearty approval. Had those Shasta and Scotan Indians been kept away from this reservation we would in all probability have avoided a war with any other Indians than themselves. I am well satisfied it was their influence that brought about a state of hostilities, and they were exasperated by being forced from their lands by our people before compliance upon the part of the government with the treaty, and being placed too near bands of the Indians against whom ancient feuds existed.
    I will write more particularly as soon as I return home. I am now on my way.
Your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 403-405.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 371.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 405-407.



Port Orford O.T.
    Nov. 23rd 1855
Genl. Palmer
    Dear Sir
        In Ben Wright's absence I will undertake to give you the news of this district. Wright has been amongst the coast Indians for nearly two weeks. Chance is up to the Coquille, where some excitement exists, but he assures me by letter yesterday that all will be well in that quarter; he has taken the seine to assist them in procuring fish for winter. Kautz & party returned on Sunday. He had a brush with the Indians near Grave Creek--two men killed and two wounded. He made a narrow escape, was shot in the breast, but the ball lodged in some sketch books in his breast pocket, tearing the skin a little. He and party made the fort and joined a company and on the 30th October attacked the Indians under command of Capt. Smith of Fort Lane; after an attempt of part of two days the whites were obliged to retire, having failed to dislodge the Indians. Kautz returned by Crescent City, as it was impossible to get back by Rogue River.
    The war party have not made a descent as far as Big Bend yet. There is a party of 25 whites in position there awaiting the Indians. All as yet is quiet in that quarter.
Your friend in haste
    R. W. Dunbar
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, page 400.




Umpqua Reserve Nov. 24th 1855
Mr. Geo. H. Ambrose
    Sub Indian Agent
        Sir, it is with much gratification that I see a great willingness of submission with the Indians on this reserve.
    They are mainly all on the reserve that belongs to this district all with the exception of some three to four men and eight to ten squaws which the Indians report to have been run off in the various attacks made upon them in this valley. Those on the reserve are comfortable fixed as they have constructed huts after their own mode of building which affords ample protection from the inclemency of the weather though there is cause of complaint. There has been much sickness with them, mostly the flux with which two children have died together with the desertion of one Umpqua and one Klamath, reducing their number four. Their conduct since they have been on the reserve has been such as would warrant the greatest safety of the people. On their part it speaks for them that they have been trespassed upon by the whites. As an action which took three in Lookingglass Prairie clearly illustrates, there was camped near the house of Mr. Arrington a party of over seventy-five friendly Indians of which there was twenty-two men which it appears had pitched their tent there for the security of themselves as Mr. Arrington had told them that in case they would come close to his house they would not be molested. They had not been camped there but a few days when a party of twenty-five or thirty men made on the 23rd of Oct. an attack upon them, killing three men and wounding one squaw, which afterwards and from the wound [died,] the party alleging that the Umpqua were harboring hostile Indians, of which there is no evidence.
    And after that action some three or four days a party of men made an attack upon a defenseless camp of Umpqua Indians, killing one man.
    Then came also one other abuse of an Indian, who was at the time and had been for a time past living with a Mr. Pierce who accompanied Mrs. Pierce on her way to one of the near neighbors on a visit. Immediately upon arriving with Mrs. Pierce at Mr. Gage's, Mr. Gage spoke of the danger of the Indians being killed so it was thought best for the Indian to return home as it would be a place of less publicity and consequently would be safer. So the Indian started and had not gone far when three persons met him. One of the party, placing himself behind a tree, fired at him. The Indian immediately put spurs to his horse and run, pursued by the men, whereupon coming on the bank of the South Umpqua River the Indian leaped from his horse and jumped into the river, making his escape with a heavy flesh would. There has been one other incidence in which there was one Indian killed by a small party of men the particulars of which is simply that he fell in with the Indian and shot him down because he happened to be an Indian.
    As I never knew in the first place and incidents show in the second place that the Indians in this valley has as great cause for complaint which shows their forbearance as there has been no tribe of Indians known that would not have rebelled with the half of the malicious treatment received by the Umpqua Indians.
    There has been transmitted so far plenty of beef and flour which has been issued to them every third or fourth day to the amt. of one pound of each per day to those over the age of twenty years and half that
for those under twelve years of age.
    There has been purchased for those that were most destitute a few articles of clothing.
Your obedient servant
    T. R. Magruder
        Special Sub Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 37.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton Oregon Nov. 24, 1855
Dear Sir,
    I have just perfected an arrangement with the citizens of the Grand Ronde on the headwaters of South Yamhill River by which I have secured a tract of land to be attached to the Coast Reservation designed for wheat farms and the settlement of a part at least of the Indians of this valley.
    I purpose putting in one hundred and fifty or two hundred acres of wheat this winter, and in order to do so must have someone to superintend the business.
    I therefore desire you if practicable to come up and take charge of the business. There are already several houses which will answer for families; others must be built for the Indians, and a general preparation for the next season's operations entered upon.
    I would prefer, if you design doing so at all, that you would bring your family, so as to make a permanent beginning. You will have near neighbors. I design establishing a school as soon as we get the Indians on the grounds, and that may be in six weeks. Messengers have been sent for the friendly bands in Rogue River and Umpqua Valley, designing to winter them at the point above named, and in the spring locate them on Salmon River near the coast. The latest intelligence received of the goods & tools shipped for those tribes, they had arrived in San Francisco and were being put on board the Charles Devans to be brought up to Portland. Whether she is in or not I have not learned.
    This Indian war is playing hob with all my arrangements, but we may be able to save a portion of the tribes from utter annihilation. I have lost all hope of being able to carry out the provisions of the treaty upon Table Rock and Umpqua reservations, and therefore designed transferring the Indians of those districts to the Coast Reservation.
    If you design to do so, come up and see the point before moving your family. It is one day's ride from this office and over a good road.
    You will remember that no person will be employed to service among the Indians who uses profane language, drinks as a beverage spiritous liquors or holds illicit intercourse with their women.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Mr. Jeffers
    Astoria
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 399-400.



For the Statesman.
Gardiner, O.T., Nov. 26, 1855.
    Editor of the Statesman:--The Indians in this vicinity have been collected at the mouth of the Umpqua River by Agent Drew, and are being fed by his order. Drew is now at Coos Bay collecting the friendly Indians at Empire City.
    Two Rogue River Indians recently came up the coast and visited the Umpquas.--"Old Jim," a friendly Indian, says that the Siuslaw Indians have recently had a war dance. What all this means is not known. The settlers are not generally much alarmed.
    Five soldiers are now stationed at this point, and it is understood that the number will soon be increased to twenty, and others stationed at Scottsburg. Probably there is more property and fewer men comparatively, to protect the same, in Scottsburg, than at any other point in the Territory.
    Three vessels are lying at this port ready for sea.
Very respectfully yours, &c.
    A. C. GIBBS.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 8, 1856, page 2



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Nov. 26, 1855
C. M. Walker Esq.
    Dear Sir,
        You are hereby designated a special agent to aid in removing the friendly bands of Rogue River and Umpqua Indians from their present encampments to the Grand Ronde on the headwaters of the south fork of Yamhill River, and as such you will take charge of the pack train of horses and proceed at once to Fort Lane in Rogue River Valley. Mr. R. B. Metcalfe, sub-Ind. agent, has been dispatched to that point with instructions to Agent George H. Ambrose, who has charge of the Rogue River District, to cause their immediate removal to the point designated and that if deemed necessary he will call upon Capt. Smith, commandant at Fort Lane, for an escort to guard the Indians through the disturbed district.
    The reported opposition of a portion of the citizens to the removal of the Indians and an avowal to shoot them and those who attempt to cause such a movement may render it necessary to have an escort the entire route.
    Of this you will be able to judge after passing along the route where this opposition is said to exist. Should Agent Ambrose decline to accompany the party Sub-Agent Metcalfe will have the direction of matters, and you will render such aid as will enable him to accomplish the removal at the earliest practicable moment, and with the least possible expense. You will be furnished with sixteen horses and eight pack saddles with the necessary fixtures. These horses will be used to aid in the transportation of the necessary baggage and such of the old and infirm as are unable to travel. Should those animals with the teams now in the charge of Dr. Ambrose be insufficient for this object, teams will be hired to supply the deficiency.
    You may possibly meet a messenger sent by Agt. Ambrose or Mr. Metcalfe with information that those animals will not be needed south of the Cañon; in that event they will be used in the removal of the Umpquas, which are now on the Umpqua Reservation below the mouth of Calapooia Creek, in charge of Local Agent Theophilus Magruder Jnr., to whom you will turn over the horses to be retained by him until the arrival of the Rogue Rivers in that valley. You will then proceed to Fort Lane and aid in removing those bands which upon their arrival in the Umpqua Valley will be joined by the bands in that valley residing above the little cañon. Those below that point will go to the mouth of Umpqua and be under the charge of E. P. Drew, who is sub-agent for that district.
    The funds necessary for the payment of expenditures connected with this service have been sent out by Sub-Agent R. B. Metcalfe, but you will be furnished with five hundred dollars to defray the expenses before joining the party and meet any liabilities above the amount already in the hands of agents Ambrose & Metcalfe; a receipt from either of whom will be your voucher.
    Your acquaintance with those Indians, as well as with the citizens now engaged in the service against those hostile bands, it is believed will enable you to give material aid in effecting the removal of the friendly bands to the designated point.
    Great pains should be taken so as to avoid associating any of those engaged in the massacres recently perpetrated against our citizens [with] the friendly bands, as such an association might involve the entire bands in difficulties. Besides we have no assurance that they would not continue to commit depredations upon the people.
    You will purchase one thousand pounds of flour at Eugene City pack ["packed"?] for the use of the Indians between the Cañon and this valley.
    Take duplicate receipts for all expenditures and express in them the object of expenditure, quality, price and amount.
Very respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 391-392.




Eugene City O.T.
    31st Novr. 1855
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Dayton O.T.
        Sir
            I arrived here this morning (in advance of the horses a few hours) and find that there is not a pound of flour for sale in the place, & the river in such a stage that I cannot pass to the mill. Where could I reach I suppose (from report) the prospect for procuring flour would be doubtful, owing (as is said) from the pressing demand of the government requirements.
    I shall try to purchase, en route, from settlers, 1, 2 or 3 &c. hundred as opportunity offers (at reasonable rates) until the quantity is made up.
    Should I fail, I will advise you from Applegate's, per mail--or [sic]
    I overtook the two Umpqua Indians the 2nd day, with their horses fatigued. I took them, at their wish, & they are now with me.
    I traveled two days in extremely severe storms & jaded the animals severely--however nothing serious--all this p.m. is right. I shall leave here as soon as I finish this by way of the Applegate route.
    The mare and colt with which I started, belonging to Sambo, the Umpqua, in defiance of our exertions fled our train between Meredith's & Wm. Goodrich's claims.
    The persons who have expressed such inveteracy against the coming in of the Indians have recoiled a little. It appears that they were but few, & they were guided by motives of revenge, more against you than otherwise (not worth more now).
    Every person with whom we have conversed since appears highly gratified with the course you have adopted.
    No news from the south important.
    I have to write in haste--excuse it--
    I'm very chilly.
Most respectfully
    Yours
        C. M. Walker
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 112.



Department of the Interior   
    Office of Indian Affairs
        December 1st, 1855
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit herewith, for your information and consideration and such action in connection with that which may be deemed proper by the War Department as may be advisable, the original letters and their respective enclosures, from Joel Palmer Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon Territory, of the 9th, 16th and 19th October last, respectively, which reached this office today.
    The letter of the 9th October confirms the information of the murder of Agent Bolon communicated to you in my report of the 16th ultimo, and details to a considerable extent the character of the difficulties and the causes thereof in the Oregon and Washington territories. It also refers to the means necessary to enable the government successfully to meet the existing crisis regarding our Indian relations in those territories both as to war and peace measures, and I have respectfully to invite your attention to the suggestions referred to, as well in the letter of the Superintendent as the report of Agent Geo. H. Ambrose for September and the letter of Agent R. R. Thompson enclosed therewith.
    The letter of the 16th encloses a printed copy of "regulations for the guidance of agents in the Oregon Indian Superintendency pending existing hostilities," of the 13th October, which the Superintendent has considered it proper to issue for the purposes herein stated; a letter from Agent R. R. Thompson of the 8th October, reporting information of a battle between Maj. Haller's command and the Indians, his defeat and other rumors of difficulties; and an extra from the Oregon Statesman, containing letters and other information relative to an "Indian outbreak in Southern Oregon--dwellings burned and families murdered." In this communication the Superintendent suggests the want of funds sufficient for the exigency of the service, details further information as to the rumors of hostilities and murders of families and expresses the opinion that a large effective force upon a war footing will be immediately required to meet the existing demand upon the government.
    The letter of the 19th October, which appears to have been kept open on the 20th and 21st and written from Portland, encloses two letters from Agent Thompson and two from Agent Olney, and printed copies of the proclamation of the Governor of Oregon and general orders looking to armament and defense against armed parties who have combined with the avowed purpose of waging an exterminating war against the Indians in Southern Oregon--also, a letter of the 21st October from E. R. Geary Esq., his clerk, giving additional facts and information touching the outbreak, the murders and the extent of the bloody drama then enacting in that country.
    It will be observed by this last letter from Superintendent Palmer that he is apprehensive that any force which may be obtained under the proclamations of Governor Curry will be insufficient for the service required and that mounted men only can be depended upon for the successful prosecution of a permanent peace. Your particular attention is called to the remarks of the Superintendent, under date of the 20th October, relative to the wholesale butchery of peaceable and friendly Indians upon their own reservation as prescribed and provided under treaty stipulations.
    Without further reference to the numerous points presented in the papers enclosed, I would respectfully request that, when you shall have duly considered their contents, they be returned, to be filed here. Should copies hereafter be required for the use of your Department, they can be made. From the importance of the subject, any action that may be concluded upon should doubtless be done at once and in time to be communicated by the steamer that leaves New York on the 8th instant, if possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Hon. R. McClelland
    Secretary of the Interior
 
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 608 Oregon Superintendency 1853-1855, frames 842-845.



Columbia Barracks W.T.
    December 1st, 1855
Sir,
    The existence of a war of extermination by our citizens against all Indians in Southern Oregon which by recent acts appears to evince a determination to carry it out, in violation of all treaty stipulations and the common usages of civilized nations, has induced me to take steps to remove the friendly bands of Indians now assembled at Fort Lane and upon Umpqua reservation to an encampment on the headwaters of the Yamhill River, distant about sixty miles southwest of Vancouver and adjoining the Coast Reservation.
    This plan has been adopted with a view of saving the lives of such of those Indians as have given just and reasonable assurances of friendship.
    The tremendous excitement among the miners and settlers in that country, goaded on by reckless and lawless miscreants who slaughter alike innocent and guilty of both sexes, induced those friendly bands to abandon the reservation and claim protection of the United States troops stationed at Fort Lane. Over three hundred of these people are now encamped at that point, and as many more in the Umpqua Valley, but little less menaced. These people are deprived of their usual means of obtaining subsistence and must necessarily be furnished by the government. The enormous expense attending the transportation of supplies at this season of the year will, I think, alone justify their removal.
    In my instructions to the Indian agents directing this movement, they were required to call upon the commandant at Fort Lane for such an escort as was deemed requisite to secure a safe passage through the disturbed district. Since these instructions were given, I have received intelligence that meetings of the citizens of the Willamette Valley, residing along the route to be traveled by these Indians in reaching the designated encampment, as well as those in the vicinity of the latter, have resolved upon resisting such removal, and avowing a determination to kill all who may be brought among them as well as those who sought to effect that object. This feeling appears so general among our citizens I am apprehensive they may attempt carrying it into effect; to avoid which I have to request that if it be deemed by you practicable, that a command of twenty men be directed to accompany these Indians on their removal, with directions to remain at or near the encampment so long as their presence may be required to insure the safety of the Indians.
    Believing, as I do, that the cause of the present difficulty in Southern Oregon is wholly to be attributed to the acts of our own people, I cannot but feel that it is our duty to adopt such measures as will tend to secure the lives of these Indians and maintain guarantees secured them by treaty stipulations. The future will prove that this war has been forced upon these Indians against their will, and that too, by a set of reckless vagabonds, for pecuniary and political objects, and sanctioned by a numerous population who regard the treasury of the United States a legitimate subject of plunder.
    The Indians in that district have been driven to desperation by acts of cruelly against their people; treaties have been violated and acts of barbarity committed by those claiming to be citizens that would disgrace the most barbarous nations of the earth, and if none but those who perpetrated such acts were to be affected by this war, we might look upon it with indifference, but unhappily this is not the case.
    In connection with the request for an escort, I may say that the winter encampment for the Indians herein referred to is situated upon lands designed as a permanent location for residence of Indians and to be attached to a district declared an Indian reservation ; that it is the gap through which the communication from the white settlements to an Indian reservation destined to contain a population of four thousand souls, and the only practicable route through which supplies can reach them for the northern half of that population.
    The establishment of a military post for a few years at this point is deemed requisite to insure the preservation of peace between our own citizens and these Indians, as well as good order among the numerous bands congregated. Entertaining this view, I would respectfully request that a competent officer be directed to accompany me to the contemplated encampment prior to the arrival of the Indians from the south, that I may have the benefit of his experience and suggestions in the particular location and arrangement of the encampments and the improvements designed for the use of Indians upon the reservation.
    This examination may be made in a few days and may be of the utmost importance to the government in its intercourse with Indian tribes and the preservation of peace.
I have the honor to be, dear sir,
    Your obedient servant,
        Joel Palmer,
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
                O.T.
Maj. Genl. John E. Wool
    Comdr. Pacific Division
        United States Army

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 393-396.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 395-398.




Dardanelles Decr. 2nd 1855
    Office of Ind. Agent
Sir
    I arrived here on 30th ult. and found Capt. Smith was absent with nearly all of the troops from the fort. And after consulting with Agent Ambrose we have thought it best not to say anything to the Indians about their removal until Capt. Smith returns. I fear it will be with difficulty that we will get their consent to leave here; they are all comfortably situated in winter quarters with plenty to eat, but most of them are poorly clad, and owing to the inclemency of the weather it will take much longer than we expected to get them down there, though I do not despair of being able to accomplish our undertaking, say, by the 20th of January. I will use every effort in my power to convince the Indians that it is to their interest to have a country where they can never have fear. I heard several persons say as soon as they were through with the hostile party they would attack Sam's band, but I think this is only talk.
    As there is nothing here that requires my attention at this time, and I have an opportunity of going into a battle which is to come off in a few days at the Meadows, I leave this morning for that place; you shall hear from me as soon as I return. If I never return I will report to you through the medium of the spiritual rapper how our Indian affairs stand in the other world.
    Your most obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 121.



Office Ind. Agt.
    Rogue River O.T.
        Decr. 2nd 1855
Sir
    Agent Metcalfe arrived at this agency on yesterday, bearing dispatches containing instructions for the removal of the Rogue River tribe of Indians to the Willamette Valley. It is quite unfortunate such instructions did not arrive earlier; winter with all its severity has fully set in; snow is several inches deep on the ground at the time of my writing, and falling fastly yet; from all appearances it may be very deep before night. I regard it as almost impossible to remove the Indians at this time, for several reasons, first the unusual severity of the winter at this early season, secondly they are destitute of winter clothing, not having received their annuities, but very few of them have either shoes or stockings, many of them are sick. Peace and plenty seem to be far more destructive to the Indian than war; surround him with comforts and gratify his appetite and he grows dull, lethargic, and loses what energy he was once possessed of, in which state sickness and death soon overtake him. The healthy excitement of the chase, or even the greater excitement of war, with its scanty pittance of acorns and roots, is far more congenial to his nature. Their assent to removal can be obtained, although it will require some little time to do so. Here is another characteristic of his nature; he must have time to reflect over every proposition made him. Once started in, they never look back. If hasty action be required of them they at once suspect duplicity or treachery or at any rate that some sinister motive has actuated it, and with this impression he makes up his mind against anything that may be proposed that requires speedy action. Again, if time be allowed them to council among all the heads of families, and nothing imperative required of them, at least until they have had time to deliberate upon it, but advice given them to pursue such a course as would best promote their interest, I have never experienced the least difficulty in getting them to do as I desired, nor do I apprehend any now, but sir I do assure you a trip to the Willamette at this inclement season of the year could not be accomplished without a vast deal of suffering among them. Again, it will be impossible to move them without an escort, which cannot be obtained for two or three weeks to come. Capt. Smith of Fort Lane with all of his disposable force is now engaged with those hostile bands of Indians near sixty miles distant from here, from which he will not be disengaged for several weeks. Mr. Metcalfe, who has just traveled over the road, also entertains the opinion that it would be worse than folly to endeavor to remove them without an escort; hence we will not be able to start as early as you expect. Necessity compels what humanity would require, a delay at least until comfortable preparation can be made for their accommodation; in the mean time it is to be hoped that pleasanter weather may succeed.
    As it regards the payment of liabilities contracted by Mr. Culver, late Indian agent in this district, I hardly know what to do. Your suggestions as the prices being exorbitant, in some cases it will be admitted it really appears so. It is claimed to be a special contract made at the time with a knowledge of the uncertainty of the time when government would pay it. In the case of Mr. Hughes I am credibly informed that he borrowed the money to complete his job; and the interest now amounts to more than the whole of his claim against [the] government. It is also claimed that special contracts made with agents of government, where there is no fraud, holds good.
    And although those prices may appear exorbitant to any person not conversant with the prices of this country, I opine it would be a difficult matter now to find any person who would agree to perform like service (I allude to the potato contract) for less compensation, with the same uncertainty of pay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 406-409.   A transcription can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 389-390.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 408-411.



Office Supt. Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City Oregon Decr. 3, 1855
Sir
    By the mail of Oct. 28th I informed you that I did not deem it absolutely necessary to carry into immediate effect the regulations set forth in your circular of Oct. 13th 1855. Since that date affairs in this district have assumed a different aspect, and on the 14th of last month I found it necessary to act under the general orders therein contained and accordingly collected the Umpqua band of Kal la wat sits in a temporary reservation near this agency, appointed John W. Miller local agent during my absence and immediately started for Coos Bay.
    On my arrival at Empire City on the evening of the 16th found the citizens from the Upper Colville & on Coos Bay & river had brought their families to Empire City, anticipating an immediate outbreak. These suspicions were aroused from the fact that all the Coos band of Indians had moved up the river taking with them all their effects and demanding and unceremoniously taking away all the Indians who were in the employ of the whites. Connected with this was a well-confirmed report that the Cow Creek or Rogue River Indians were in the mountains at the headwaters of the Coquille and Coos rivers &c.
    I immediately started upriver and found Taylor's band and a part of Tyee Jim's band encamped at the mouth of the north fork of Coos River about two miles above the mouth of what is termed the Isthmus Slough connecting with the waters of the Coquille. The remainder of Jim's band was encamped at the head of a slough leading towards the Umpqua. In a word their camps were so arranged that they kept up a constant communication from the Umpqua to the Upper Coquille. I thought it advisable to break up this line of communication and proposed to them to come down the bay about four miles below Empire City and camp there all in one body, which proposition they told me they could not [do] immediately. I gave them twenty-four hours to decide. At the expiration of that time they agreed to move down. They are now on a temporary reservation & Socrates Scholfield appointed local agent.
    A few days after they were all encamped, the Coquille Indians commenced hostilities by burning Mr. Hoffman's house near the council ground. I also learned from a dispatch from the Upper Coquille received last evening that the settlers had an engagement near Dudley's at the lower fork--that three Indians were [killed] and one taken prisoner and hung. Hoping that my movements thus far will meet your entire approval, I await further orders.
Respectfully yours
    E. P. Drew
        Sub-Ind. Agent
Gen. J. Palmer
    Superintendent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 381-382.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 414-416.



Copies of letters furnished Supt. by Major Gen. Wool
Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific
    Fort Vancouver December 3, 1855
Sir,
    At the request of General Palmer, Supt. of Indian Affairs for Oregon, the Commanding General directs that you proceed with General Palmer to examine a site selected for an Indian reservation near the seacoast, with reference to the location of a military post upon it, and the facilities for building and supplying the same.
    You will then return to headquarters and report in detail as to the fitness of the site, the supplies of wood, water, forage, parts of the army ration &c. which may be obtained in the vicinity, and the best mode of transporting supplies to the post.
I am sir very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servant
        E. D. Townsend
            Asst. Adjt. Genl.
Lieut. John C. Bonnycastle
    Aide de Camp
        Fort Vancouver
            W.T.
Headquarters Department of the Pacific
    Fort Vancouver Dec. 3rd 1855
Sir
    General Palmer, Superintendent Indian Affairs for Oregon, has expressed a determination if possible to remove the friendly Indians at and near Fort Lane to a reserve on the seacoast about 200 miles from Rogue River and 60 miles from this place. To do this, provided the Indians can be persuaded to move, Genl. Palmer thinks an escort of 20 men will be necessary to protect and restrain the Indians on the road, and at the new reserve. The Commanding General accordingly directs that you detail a command, officers (if possible), a trusty sergeant, a corporal and eighteen men for this purpose if the Indians do consent to move, and provided also in your opinion you can spare the men from your command. An additional regiment is expected to arrive in this Department in the course of two or three months, and your detachment at the new reserve could then be relieved, but in the meantime there will be no troops available for that purpose.
    Major Fitzgerald arrived here with the company the 1st instant.
    The General desires you to inform him by the first opportunity of the state of your command, supplies &c. and also whether you send an officer with the detachment, in case it goes. If you require Q.M. subsistence or ordnance stores, you can send requisitions direct to the chiefs of those departments at Benicia. The General desires you also to detain Lt. Gibson and his detachment at Fort Lane, so long as you deem it necessary for the safety of the post.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        E. D. Townsend
            Asst. Adjt. Genl.
To
    Capt. A. J. Smith
        1st Dragoons
            Fort Lane O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 398-399.



Port Orford December Third 1855
Dear Sir
    This being the first time I have had for writing since anything of any importance has occurred within this district I hasten to improve it, as I have been so busily employed since the arrival of the steamer on the 23rd of October which brought to hand your instructions and other papers also an account of difficulties north of the Columbia and Jacksonville. I was on my way to Coquille at the time I recd. your package of papers, which I examined and proceeded on my trip and was absent 5 days. When I returned after having visited all the bands on that river, which I found peaceable and well disposed, but when I returned to the coast I found the most disgraceful excitement prevailing among the whites that ever existed in any country, being founded on nothing but fear, and that without any cause whatever. All the settlers in the vicinity of this place had removed themselves, stock and property to town for protection at Rogue River. The citizens acted in the same manner, having erected two forts for their protection and had already organized volunteer companies for the purpose of protecting themselves, and as you may dispose every Indian was closely watched and their actions exaggerated to suit the times, and then reported and each report confirmed the belief that all the Indians in the country were intending to raise for the extermination of the whites.
    Such is the state in which I found things on my return from Coquille. On my return the Indians were coming to me from all quarters wishing me to tell them what was the matter with [the] whites. And you must know that it was hard for me to acknowledge to them that it was themselves that was the cause of so much fear being shown, though I explained the matter to them in as favorable a manner as I possibly could, shielding the disgrace of my countrymen as much as possibly.
    They begged for me to protect them, and was willing to submit to anything which I might advise them to do, but to fight, that they would never do. They say they would if attacked at any time run to the hills for protection.
    They also wished me to assure the whites that if they were afraid of Indians from the interior they should protect them should any other Indians wish to harm them.
    Such is the disposition which is manifested by the Indians throughout my entire district so far as I know at present, although I have three points which require close guarding. The points to which I allude is first at the Big Bend of Rogue River, also the headwaters of Coquille & Chetco. The Big Bend is the most particular point of the 3, as communication is easy from there to Coquille. October the 15th I first learned through the Indians that the Indians above Big Bend were having some difficulty with the whites above and that some of the upper Indians were then down at the Bend trying to get recruits to go above. I at once proceeded to that point, accompanied by 3 white men, Indians being afraid to accompany me on account of the upper Indians being down at that place. On my arrival at the Bend I soon saw that everything was not right. I immediately went up to the Ind. village, alone and with no visible weapons, where I was met by several strange Indians armed with guns, who advanced and met me with their guns presented. I spoke to them in a friendly manner, to which they made no reply. I then turned to the Indians belonging to my district, who were greatly excited and cool and commenced a careless conversation with them for a few minutes, when I returned to the party and ordered them to pitch camp in the village, which was done, though before we arrived at the village the strangers had left after firing 3 guns over my head as I left on my first visit after they had left and we had camped. The other Indians conversed more freely [then] and I learned that they had made some progress towards recruiting with some of the young men though before I left I succeeded in convincing them of their error and was assured by the chiefs that the upper Indians should not be permitted to come among [them] again, and I am confident they have not, as there has been a company of 25 men volunteers gone from this place and Rogue River for the purpose of going up the river to fight the Grave Creek Indians, and they have been stationed at that place since Oct. 28th, that is, at Big Bend. Jerry McGuire accompanied them when they first started and succeeded in getting the Indians in my district to act with the volunteers against the Indians above, so unauthorized as the company is, they have paid the strictest attention to my directions and to the protection of Indians in my district that so far they have been of great service in preventing difficulties in that quarter. Yesterday I returned from Chetco, where I have been some time between Rogue River and that place, traveling constantly, traveling night and day from one place to the other, more for the purpose of restoring peace among the whites than the Indians, as the Indians are disposed to do anything for peace, and the whites anything for a difficulty. The Indians in this district have been engaged in gathering acorns for winter use, which is their custom every year at this season, and acorns being more plenty than usual has also had its effect towards producing and keeping up the excitement among the whites it has also added to their suspicions in regard to the Indians having a desire to joining the hostile forces.
    But they are now daily returning to their winters quarters and are well supplied with provision I think sufficient for the winter. This being the case I have not thought it necessary to abuse the almost unlimited power which you have left at my discretion of calling them together and feeding them at the expense of government, and I do not think I shall have to adopt that method of preserving peace at all unless it is with the Indians on the waters of Coquille, where it [is] now rumored that there is now some difficulty existing which is partly brought about by jealousy on account of the Coos Bay Indians being fed by government and themselves not. The settlers on Coquille here [are] late in getting hold of the excitement which has been through other portions of the district, and I understand that they are now fortified in that vicinity & it is rumored that the Indians have committed some depredations. The story runs thus that first there was some 1500 lbs. of flour stolen from Henry Woodward's house located on the South Fork of Coquille, after which the settlers collected and took some Indian prisoners, which they held in custody several days, when they made an attempt to escape and were fired upon by the whites, who were by this time organized within themselves into a military company, one Indian being wounded slightly [it is] supposed as they all escaped. Next Mr. Huffman's house was burnt and some other houses robbed of some articles of provision.
    Though I have just learned that the citizens here organized and fortified before anything occurred among the Indians, though it may be a false report, the whole affair. Wm. Chance is there, sent by me to stop at that place to keep things quiet between whites and Indians. This Mr. Chance says was reported to him when he arrived. I have interpreted your instructions in the following manner, that it is your wish that I should take steps to keep peace and quietness within my district at the least possible expense to government. I have acted as follows.
    I have appointed or employed three persons to assist me in discharge of my duty. They are stationed at the 3 most important points to act during my absence. Wm. Chance at Coquille, Peter McGuire at Rogue River, Thomas J. Sharpe at Chetco. This I have thought necessary as it has been invariably the case lately when I leave one place only for a few days and return I find the excitement starting again. This I leave for your consideration.
    I go to Coquille tomorrow.
Your most obdt. servt.
    Benj. Wright
        Spcl. Sub-Ind. Agt.
[P.S.] The men which [I] have designated to act are residents of the places at which they are stationed, and they are also persons in which both Indians and whites have the utmost confidence in their ability to keep peace among them, as it has been the case that those three men each at his respective house during this late excitement have stood almost alone in defending the Indian cause and pacifying the whites. This they have done voluntarily until quite recently, when I gave them a limited power to act as sub-agent. So far as my directions to them here which was to be with the Indians as much as possible and prevent the whites from imposing on them, and should there any excitement occur among the whites to keep it in check until I could arrive and by so doing I can keep things quiet.
Ben Wright
    Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 34.




Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        December 4th 1855
Sir:
    Your letters of the 9th, 16th and 19th October, together with their enclosures, all relating to the difficulties then existing in Oregon and Washington territories among the different Indian tribes, and between the Indians and whites, arrived here on the 1st instant. The subject was promptly laid before the Secretary of the Interior in order that such action might be taken in conjunction with the War Department as should be deemed warranted and proper.
    I have now to advise you that it is understood the military arm of the public service on the Pacific coast will be advised by the mail which is expected to leave New York tomorrow concerning their duties in this emergency. You will instruct the agents of this Department within your Superintendency by all proper means to aid in carrying out whatever measures you may deem necessary to effect peace among the several tribes of Indians and restore harmony between them and the whites. And where practicable you will confer and act in concert with the military on that coast, so as to avoid any seeming clashing of jurisdiction by which disaffection could take heart and encouragement. But while it may be proper that the measures to be employed shall be vigorous and effective, still they should be tempered with justice and such moderation as shall be wholly free from any charge of vindictiveness. You will therefore act with the utmost care and circumspection, avoid undue severity, yet act with such promptitude and energy as to secure respect to your authority. With these general directions you will adopt such measures as in conjunction with the authority and means in the hands of the military shall seem, in your judgment, to be necessary to secure a permanent peace [and] a good understanding among all of the parties participating in the difficulties, of which your several communications make mention.
    There is not now time to send you any funds with this communication, but with the approbation of the Secretary of the Interior you are authorized to draw upon this Department for any expenditure that in your opinion the existing exigency absolutely demands either for agricultural implements for the Indian reserve, provisions, clothing or otherwise as estimated in your letter of the 9th of October ultimo, providing, however, that the extent of such drafts does not exceed in the aggregate the sum of $100,000. But due notice should in every instance be promptly forwarded to this office of the date of the draft, its amount and object. And in incurring the expenditure for which such drafts may be drawn particular care will be taken that the utmost practicable economy is practiced consistent with the exigency of the case, and specific vouchers will be procured in all cases and duly forwarded, with all requisite explanations, to enable this Department and Congress to fully understand and comprehend the reasons and the necessity for the expenditures. You will readily conceive the importance of the observance of these instructions when you are aware that any largely increased expenditure, for whatever object, incurred elicits the most minute inquiry and criticism.
    As regards your statement relative to the propriety of being allowed a greater discretion in the purchase of tools and materials for the various objects of your Superintendency, I have also to inform you that under the circumstances stated by you, any such materials as in your judgment are immediately required will be purchased by you on the Pacific Coast, provided the same can be had at reasonable rates. You will, however, observe the same rules as to economy, giving information to this office of purchases made, drafts drawn, and furnishing proper vouchers as stated in the foregoing paragraph. But on securing the necessary supply to answer the immediate wants of the service, you will report what additional goods or other materials it will be necessary to have sent from the Atlantic markets and at what time the same will be required. In the meantime nothing will be sent from here until further advices are received from you.
    Notwithstanding this allowance of so large a discretion to meet the case in its most alarming phase, it is still hoped that the cause is not really so bad as the representations forwarded by you would seem to indicate. If therefore it shall turn out that those representations are not realized by the facts when ascertained, you will be governed by a judicious regard of the real wants and exigencies of the service and as far as practicable curtail the expenditures herein authorized.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton
            Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Reel 11, Instructions and Reports 1854-1855, pages 191-194.   The original can be found on Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 13.




Mass Meeting of the Citizens
    of Lane Co. O.T.
    Pursuant to previous notice the citizens of Long Tom precinct met at the residence of the Hon. A. L. Humphrey on Sat. 8th inst. for the purpose of taking the sense of the people relative to the policy of allowing Indians to pass and repass to the different portions of the Ter. under the present existing circumstances.
    When the following action was "had," On motion Mr. D. W. Mintun was appointed chairman and E. L. Massey was appointed secretary--On motion Harris Rice, Joseph Perkins, Alsland Baltand, J. M. Richardson, M. W. Canady were appointed a committee to give the expression of said meeting. In a few minutes Mr. Harris Rice, chairman of said committee, reported the following preamble and sentiment of the meeting.
    Whereas it is moved that Indians are and have been in the habit of passing through tis portion of the valley, contrary to the wishes of the citizens, as well as the peace and security of the same, Therefore be it Resolved by this meeting that the secretary be instructed to inform Dr. T. J.
Wright, who has charge of the Calapooia Indians, that a portion of said tribe are quartered in this vicinity in violation of the express provisions made for their support, protection & by the government and in a pure violation [of] the peace, quiet and safety of the citizens and that the said Dr. T. J. Wright is hereby respectfully notified and requested to have the said Indians removed beyond the limits of this vicinity within seven days from this date, otherwise they as well as all other Indians found prowling around the neighborhood will be dealt with in the most summary manner, and whereas it is rumored that strange Indians have been seen passing and repassing under written permission by those having charge of them, this traveling commission will not be tolerated by us and we avail ourselves of this opportunity of notifying Dr. T. J. Wright as well as all others having charge of Indians of this determination not to submit to any such violation of our rights &c.
D. W. Mintun chairman
E. L. Massey secretary
Dr. T. J. Wright
    Sir, since the above action was had I have been requested to forward a copy of this to the Statesman by all the meeting and I would recommend the moving of whatever there may be of the Calapooias in this neighborhood to Corvallis or some other place of safety, as the belief is general that they are visited by other straggling Indians.
Respectfully yours
    E. L. Massey
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 115.   The transmittal bears the date of December 8, 1855.



    United States to James Bruce       Dr.
    To one hundred and fifty bushels of wheat stolen from my place during the months of July and August 1854 by Jake's band of the Rogue River Tribe of Indians with whom a treaty of purchase was made on the 10th of September 1853 by Joel Palmer Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon Territory. The market price of wheat was $4.50 per bushel--making $675.00

Territory of Oregon    )
Jackson County            )  s.s.
    James Bruce of said county being duly sworn says
    That the above account is correct and just, that he knows the Indians mentioned in the account to be the identical ones who committed the offense, and that he has never recovered any portion of the property stolen and furthermore he has never taken any personal revenge.
James Bruce
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Jackson County O.T. this fifteenth day of December A.D. 1855.
G. H. Ambrose
                                             Ind. Agt.
Territory of Oregon    )
Jackson County            )  s.s.
    E. C. Pelton of said county being duly sworn says
    He was living on a claim near James Bruce's in Jackson County O.T. during the months of July and August 1854 and that he saw at different times about thirty Indians in Mr. Bruce's field gathering wheat--and from what he saw he believes they must have taken one hundred and fifty bushels which was worth at that time $4.50 per bushel--and he furthermore says he knew them to be Jake's band of the Rogue River Tribe of Indians with whom a treaty of purchase was made on the 10th of September A.D. 1853--by Joel Palmer, Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon Territory--and that he has no interest in the claim.
E. C. Pelton
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Jackson County O.T. this 14th day of December A.D. 1855.
Wm. Hoffman J.P.
Jackson County O.T.
Territory of Oregon    )
Jackson County            )  s.s.
    I hereby certify that Wm. Hoffman before whom the within affidavit was made and who has thereunto subscribed his name was at the time of so doing a justice of the peace in and for the county & territory aforesaid duly commissioned and sworn & that his signature thereto is genuine.
    Witness my hand and the seal of District Court for the county aforesaid this fifteenth day of December A.D. 1855.
S. H. Taylor
Clerk Dist. Court
(  seal  )                          Jackson Co. O.T.
Territory of Oregon    )
Jackson County            )  s.s.
    George W. Collins of said county being duly sworn says
    He was living with James Bruce at his farm in Jackson County during the months of July and August A.D. 1854 and that he saw thirty or forty Indians in Mr. Bruce's field several times stealing wheat--and saw them packing off large quantities in the sheaf and the portion of the field where they were frequently seen there were three acres entirely destroyed before harvest, and he believes from what he saw there were one hundred and fifty bushels stolen, which was worth at that time $4.50 per bushel; he also says he knew them to be Jake's band of the Rogue River Tribe of Indians with whom a treaty of purchase was made on the 10th of September A.D. 1853 by Joel Palmer Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon T. and that he has no interest in the claim.
George W. Collins
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Jackson County O.T. this 14th day of December A.D. 1855.
Wm. Hoffman J.P.
Jackson County O.T.
Territory of Oregon    )
Jackson County            )  s.s.
    I hereby certify that Wm. Hoffman before whom the within affidavit was made and who has thereunto subscribed his name was at the time of so doing [was] a justice of the peace in and for the county & territory aforesaid duly commissioned and sworn and that his signature thereto is genuine.
    Witness my hand and the seal of District Court for the county aforesaid this 15th day of Dec. A.D. 1855.
S. H. Taylor
Clerk Dist. Court
(  seal  )                          Jackson County O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton Oregon Ty. Decr. 12, 1855
Dear Sir,
    Fearing that the persons who have been sent south to prevail upon the friendly bands of Indians in the Rogue River & Umpqua valleys may not be able to secure their assent to remove to the encampment selected, and attaching much importance to the success of this movement in its bearing on the future arrangements for their benefit, I have deemed it advisable to visit them in person, and shall start this afternoon for Fort Lane.
    I have to request that you will visit the Indian encampment on the Abiqua near Samuel Allen's and ascertain the condition of matters at that encampment. Mr. Allen has made his report, handed in during my absence. The expenses attending that encampment are beyond reasonable bounds and must be curtailed. Mr. Geary has paid him for one thousand pounds of flour and let him have $500 more applicable to expenses of the encampment when he presented his monthly return, but declined passing the accounts, believing them to be exorbitant. I am desirous that you should visit the encampment and ascertain whether the census list is correct, and whether the rations have actually been given as stated. There is probably no longer any necessity for requiring them to remain at one camp, and they may be permitted to return to their usual places of residence and hunt for a subsistence. Of this, however, you will be able to judge after an examination.
    I am desirous that they should remove to the purchase I made recently on the headwaters of the Yamhill River, where I intend making a permanent settlement for the Indians of this valley. A number of excellent farms have been purchased, and I wish to put in three or four hundred acres of wheat between the present and the first of May next. To accomplish [this] I want the labor of some of the Indians, for which they will receive a proper compensation.
    In the spring separate tracts of land will be assigned to the different families and aid rendered them in the erection of houses and making their improvements. We will furnish dwellings and subsist them during the winter, and upon their arrival on the tract designated they will be furnished with the annuity in clothing, blankets &c. I wish you to ascertain their feelings on this subject. The location selected is a most delightful country and well adapted to the settlement of those Indians, and I feel satisfied that they will be pleased with it. Troops will be stationed there for the protection of the Indians. You will inform them that as soon as I return I will expect them to go to the place designated, where they will be furnished with houses, goods &c. But should they positively refuse to remove, allow them if you deem it prudent to return to their several encampments, where they must subsist themselves, and on my return I will visit them. Should they agree to remove at the time I desire, you may allow them to remain at their present encampment if they desire it and allow them such supplies as you may deem proper.
    In the latter event, should you find their wants pressing, you can repair to this office and procure such articles as will relieve them, only however on condition that they agree to remove to the place selected for them when I may desire them to do so.
    I wish to furnish Thomas H. Smith, local agent at St. Helens, with two hundred dollars, taking his receipt therefor. The amount will be handed you on calling at this office, or it will be brought down on my return. He is now at Portland, but should he have gone, you can send it by the Multnomah.
    I desire the exact list of the Clackamas Indians, as the census lists will be the basis of annuity payments to all the bands throughout the valley. The goods having arrived, I am desirous to have the lists perfected so as to distribute them on my return.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent
Benjamin Jennings
    Spl. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 392-393.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Decr. 14 1855
Sir
    Since my communication of the 30th ultimo, the troops of which I informed you were all engaged at that time in a severe conflict with the Indians have since returned, driven in by the severity of the weather, without accomplishing anything. The Indians were quite defiant and maintained their position in sight of the troops, who after making an ineffective effort to cross over the river, in which they were prevented from accomplishing by the Indians, lost one killed and five or six wounded.
    The increasing severity of the weather was such that they were threatened [with] being snowed up in the mountains, where they would be unable to extricate themselves for some time to come or receive supplies, it was deemed prudent for them to withdraw and go into winter quarters somewhere in the valley, where the settlements could be protected till more favorable weather. In the meantime, I held a council with the Rogue River tribe of Indians, but as the mail has stopped from some cause or other, probably high water, I've had no opportunity of sending you the result earlier. The weather has been unusually severe from the first of the month till the present time, that it has rendered the removal of these Indians impracticable for the present; the streams are swollen by the recent rains, the mountains covered with snow, and no forage can be obtained for the animals along the road; in fact the ordinary travel is almost entirely suspended, no northern mail has been received this month. The Indians express themselves quite willing to remove anywhere where they can obtain peace.
    Some designing bad men have represented to them that it was your desire to have them all killed off, that you never wanted to see any of them again and if you sent for them it would be in order to get them in a better place to kill them off. So you perceive I have much to contend with (in freeing the Indians of these false impressions) when we consider they are by nature distrustful and suspicious. Chief Sam is exceedingly anxious to see you and talk the matter over, and wherever you desire he should go with all his people he will do it. He would like to see the country you propose locating him in, the better to persuade his people to go, but in any event he will go,e he feels satisfied his condition cannot be worsted, go where he may.
    In the event of the weather continuing so severe as to prevent the removal of the Indians, I may have to send an express to your office or probably I may go myself in which event I will bring Chief Sam along.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 3.



Rickreall, December 18th 1855
Doct. Ambrose Indian Agent, Jackson County
    Dear Sir, with regret I have lately learned that General Palmer is now on his way to Rogue River with a view of moving the Rogue River Indians that is on the reserve, that you are agent for, to Polk County, and if he does succeed in bringing them in to this portion of the country I will not be surprised if every Indian brought in by him is immediately killed, which I should regret to see. The people of Polk have become so excited about it they held a meeting at our coast house today & passed resolutions disapprobating his course, and the people of the county are determined the Rogue River Indians shall not settle in our midst nor on our borders. I name the matter to you so that you may if you see proper [to] say to the Indians if they come with General Palmer they come at the risk of being beat off by the citizens of our country.
Yours respectfully
    Nathaniel Ford
Doct. Ambrose
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, enclosure to No. 5.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City, Oregon
        Dec. 19th 1855
Sir--
    Enclosed please find a brief statement of expenses incurred in this district on account of existing hostilities. As I have before observed in previous letters, if delayed collecting the Indians in this district until compelled so to do to maintain peace & quiet [omission]
    The Indians in this dist. with a few exceptions manifest a disposition to conform to the terms of the late treaty & appear to be satisfied with its provisions.
    The whites on the Upper Coquille have had an engagement with the Indians there in which three of the latter were killed & one Indian (who I believe from the description to be "Long John" the one Rowland wished you to have a private conversation with) was taken prisoner & hung. All at present is quiet in that quarter & the volunteers who went from Empire City--Coos Bay--have returned. A mail containing letters to you from this office I learn this evening was accidentally lost by the upsetting of a boat between this place & Scottsburg.
    I have failed to receive the invoice of the goods disbursed at the Coquille. I cannot foot up my Abstract of Disbursements until the invoice prices of the goods received at Rogue River & Coquille Ferry are forwarded. I have no prices of goods received except those at Winchester Bay.
    As all the rations have been purchased on my own name I am desirous to learn when the funds will probably arrive (if they are not on hand at this time) that I may make assignments accordingly.
Yours
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Gen. Palmer
    Superintendent
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 13; Letters Received, 1855, No. 127.



Calapooia Creek Decr. 24th 1855
Sir,
    I have to direct that you will proceed to the Umpqua Reservation and superintend the removal of the Umpqua, Calapooia, Cow Creek and Molalla Indians now assembled at that point to the encampment on the headwaters of Yamhill River. Mr. Courtney M. Walker has been directed to aid in that service, acting as commissary.
    One team of three yokes of oxen and wagon has been purchased of Mr. Richardson and delivered.
    One team of three yokes of oxen and one wagon have been purchased of Mr. Barnard, which is to be delivered in a few days.
    One yoke of oxen and one wagon has been purchased of Mr. Cadwallader and has been delivered.
    Two other teams have been engaged upon condition that they are delivered by the 30th of the month, and if they are such cattle as are represented, that is in good working condition, and the wagons good substantial ones, it is presumed that six teams of three yokes of oxen each will be sufficient to transport such of these bands & their effects as it will be necessary to haul. Should you find it otherwise, you will purchase or hire as many as may be deemed requisite. In the event of an exorbitant price being demanded for hire, it may be well to purchase, as considerable delay will unavoidably be experienced in their removal at this season of the year, besides the teams will be required upon the reservation during the ensuing season. I would therefore recommend the purchase of teams instead of hiring, when it can be done and pay the purchase price after their arrival in the Yamhill Valley.
    Louis, the head chief of the Umpquas, and the head chief of the Molalla tribe with three of his people have been sent after the absent members of that tribe. They will doubtlessly arrive in a few days.
    Should the articles of merchandise purchased of Lane & Floed & Abrahams & Co. be insufficient to supply the most pressing wants of the members of the respective bands, you will purchase additional articles as may be deemed absolutely requisite to their necessities. A due regard to the comfort of all the members, having reference to economy, in their removal should be studied, bearing in mind that the goods originally designed for these people are in the Willamette Valley and can be furnished them after their removal at the encampment.
    The supplying of the Indian encampment has for a time been entrusted by Mr. Martin, the original special agent, to Theophilus Magruder. Henceforth you will take charge of that business and make such arrangement as will ensure a competent supply of rations as nearly in accordance with the army regulations as practicable. I refer you to article 39 page 48 Revised Regulations 1850, under the head of provisions and the preceding and following sections, for details in the removal of those Indians, forms of abstracts, provisions & property returns will also be found indicating the usages of agents and other officers in the discharge of their duties, an examination of which may enable you to properly arrange the accounts and papers connected with this business.
    The services of Mr. Magruder may be dispensed with, unless you should deem it proper to direct him to collect and dispose of the effects belonging to the Indians which had been abandoned by them on their removal to the reservation, or taken from them by the volunteers or citizens. In such case you will give him specific instructions as to his duties, limiting the time of service to that actually required to accomplish the object.
    The actual expenses necessarily incurred by him, or liabilities outstanding of the same character, in his duties collecting and subsisting the Indians up to this date you will pay by his producing proper vouchers and evidences of expenditure, with abstracts of distribution and disbursements &c. properly witnessed and certified to.
    It is expected that a due regard to economy will be observed in all things, and that the removal will be accomplished at the earliest possible moment compatible with the comfort and safety of the Indians.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
R. B. Metcalfe Esqr.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1872, Reel 5; Letter Book D, pages 396-397.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 391-394.



Headquarters Dec. 24th 55
Trial of Pill Shirt
By Court Martial
The allegation:
    Whereas certain Indians including Pill Shirt, Doctor Jack and Berry John are accused of aiding and abetting in aggressions committed
by hostile Indians. They are supposed to be emissaries and have been regarded as such and now stand accused of being directly engaged as spies.