HOME


The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1858
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.

Washington City
    Jan 2nd, 1858
Hon. Commissioner of
    Indian Affairs
       Sir,
            In compliance with the suggestions of your letter of the 31st ult. I enclose you powers of attorney duly executed for the receipt of the money in the following cases of Rogue River Indian depredations, together with duplicate certificates of the amount of damages ascertained to be due each claimant by the commissioners, which please return to me, if not required by your office:
Award No. 12    W. S. King  $250.00
Award No. 19    G. H. C. Taylor 668.50
Award No. 29    James Bruce 475.00
Award No. 30    James J. Fryer 544.50
Award No. 31    W. G. T'Vault 270.00
Award No. 39    William M. Ballard 468.50
Award No. 42    Daniel F. Fisher      173.50
$2850.00
Pro rata of  34 77/100 cts.        990.94½
The powers of attorney you will perceive authorize the payment of the amount in each case to L. G. Brandeburg, John A. Miller. As these powers of attorney were given after the amount of the claim was ascertained and the certificate given to each claimant for the purpose of enabling us to draw the money here, and for facilitating the transaction of the business of the parties, I have to request that the warrants or drafts for the money be made payable to the order of the attorneys named, and transmitted to me.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. G. Brandeburg
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency 1858-1859, frames 23-25.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Jany. 14th 1858
Sir,
    Enclosed I forward you a note this day received at this office from A. Proctor Smith, together with what I suppose was intended to be a spoliation claim against some Indians whose name or tribe does not appear on the paper. The papers are informal, deficient in every particular, and worthless. I therefore enclose them to you at San Francisco as directed by Mr. Smith. If you desire to take the proper steps to establish a spoliation claim I would refer you to the 17th section of the Act of Congress of June 30th, 1834.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Capt. A. A. Buckingham
    San Francisco
        Cal.
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 14th 1858
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your note of December 24th, enclosing what I suppose was intended as a spoliation claim, but against what Indians does not appear on the face of the paper. As you direct me to communicate with Capt. A. A. Buckingham at San Francisco in relation to the matter, I have enclosed the appears to him and informed him that they were "informal, deficient and perfectly worthless" and referred him to the laws of Congress on the subject.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    N. Proctor Smith Esq.
        Port Orford
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 155.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 15th 1858
Sir,
    Herewith I have the honor to transmit twenty claims for spoliation committed by Indians in Oregon Territory, which amount in the aggregate to the sum of forty-eight thousand and sixty two 30/100 dollars as per schedule enclosed.
    Relative to these claims I have to reiterate the statements made in my communication of November 15th, and to further call your attention thereto. I beg to refer you to my annual report, wherein mention is made of this class of claimants.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. H. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
Schedule of spoliation claims against hostile Indians in Oregon Territory filed in the office of the Superintendent and forwarded to the Commissioner Indian Affairs January 15th 1858.
No. Name of Claimant Name of Tribe that Committed the Depredation    Amount
1 Lewis Barnes Rogue River & Cow Creek Indians $1700.00
2 William Barton    Do.     Do.       Do.    Do.     Do. 900.00
3 John A. Richard      "          "            "         "          " 974.00
4 William Moffatt      "          "            "         "          " 1050.00
5 Caniel S. Mynatt      "          "            "         "          " 6749.30
6 James H. Twogood      "          "            "         "          " 600.00
7 Daniel A. Lewis      "          "            "         "          " 1035.00
8 W. E. Weekly      "          "            "         "          " 1241.00
9 R. M. Gainey      "          "            "         "          " 440.00
10 Henry Quine      "          "            "         "          " 1886.00
11 Geo. D. Nichols Rogue River Indians 4408.00
12 Martin W. Newland    Do.     Do.       Do.   340.00
13 E. Bailey & others      "          "            "     21820.00
14 Wm. McCullough Umpqua & Cow Creek    Do. 500.00
15 John Byron      Do.         Do.    Do.       " 528.80
16 Alfred E. McCullough        "              "         "          " 200.00
17 S. C. Moore        "              "         "          " 1332.00
18 James Gilman        "              "         "          " 400.00
19 John M. Barker        "              "         "          " 200.00
20 Thomas Cowan        "              "         "          " 1250.00
21 Henry H. Woodward Coquille Indians        500.00
$48162.30
J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
Salem, Oregon Jany. 15th 1858
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 153.



Senate Chamber
    Jan. 18th 1858
C. E. Mix
    Acting Com. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            The Com. on Indian Affairs have referred to me the papers in the matter of the claim of Anson Dart, formerly Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon. Mr. Dart asked the passage of a bill authorizing the Comr. Ind. Affairs to settle with him "on principles of equity & justice." Has he a claim or claims founded in "equity & justice."?
Respty.
    G. N. Fitch
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frame 165.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 18th 1858
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Acting Commissioner Charles E. Mix Esqr.'s letter of Decr. 3rd 1857 advising me that there has been remitted to me two drafts on the U.S.A.T. at San Francisco, one for $249,728.13, and one for $54,000.00 amounting in the aggregate to $303,728.13. The drafts, as above stated, came safe to hand, and will do much to relieve the embarrassments of this Superintendency. The drafts heretofore secured having been in small denomination, and payable in New York, I have had no difficulty in realizing the coin upon them here. The present drafts are so large that it is impossible to get them cashed in this Territory. I am therefore necessarily compelled to proceed to San Francisco for that purpose, and shall depart on the first "steamer" that leaves Portland after the 26th of the present month. A portion of the remittances received to pay outstanding liabilities will be disbursed at this office by myself immediately on my return from San Francisco.
    The wide extent of country over which the claimants are scattered will render it impossible for me to disburse the entire amount to them in person; I shall therefore be compelled to transfer much of it to agents with instructions to investigate and pay off the claims in the vicinity of their stations.
    Before leaving for San Francisco I hope to be able to furnish you with a report upon the financial condition of the Superintendency, embracing estimates of the deficiencies for the present fiscal year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Comr. Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 158.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 328-330.



Corvallis O.T.
    Jan. 20, 1858.
Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Dear Sir
    I send you herewith the application of William S. King for pay for the destruction of a considerable amount of his property, an inventory with the nature thereof is given. The property was destroyed by the Rogue River Indians in A.D. 1855. I presume the proofs are sufficient. If my further proofs are wanting, I hope you will inform me. You will please inform me soon what can be done in the way of getting King his money & you will much oblige
Your friend
    John Kelsey
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 40.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, January 20th 1858.
Sir:
    In view of the heavy liabilities already contracted on account of the Indian service in Oregon, and the expenses likely to accrue during the unexpired balance of the present fiscal year, and so far exceeding the appropriations for that period, I deem it my duty to promptly report to you the present financial condition of the Superintendency, together with an estimate of the probable deficiency on the 30th of June next, so that such steps may be taken as shall be deemed proper to call the attention of Congress to the subject at an early day.
    I had determined to delay the preparation of such a report until statements could be obtained from all the agents in both Washington & Oregon, embracing the time up to the 31st December last, but in view of the remoteness of some of those agents, as well as the uncertainty of communication at this season of the year, together with the existing necessity of prompt action on the part of Congress, I have concluded to communicate at once without awaiting the arrival of all the agents' quarterly reports.
    Of the funds for general purposes for Washington Territory, I have on hand your last remittance of $14,000.00, that, together with the undrawn balance of $26,645.42 of Washington Territory funds yet remaining in the Treasury, I think will be sufficient for the expenses of the current year in that Territory.
    Owing to the fact that there is no general system of reservations yet adopted in that Territory, and the Indians bordering on the Columbia & Puget Sound, generally permitted to wander about in quest of fish and game, they have required but little aid from the government in the way of food since I assumed the duties of the office.
    The Indians east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington have received but little assistance from the government, owing to the fact that their country is not occupied by the whites, or their usual facilities for obtaining a livelihood in any way affected by white settlers.
    It is true that there has been considerable suffering among them, but inasmuch as they are responsible for the late war, by their acts in commencing unprovoked hostilities, I have not been in a hurry, or overanxious to relieve them from the legitimate results of their own treachery and folly.
    In Oregon, while there are only about one-third of the number of Indians that there are in Washington, the cost of "maintaining peace" is much greater, owing to the fact that nearly all of the country west of the Cascade Mountains is occupied by white settlements, and the Indians collected, guarded and subsisted upon reservations destitute of both fish and game.
    In my communication from this office of December 24th, I gave you an approximate estimate of the cost of their subsistence, which amounts daily to $669.63, in addition to which there have been heavy expenses in building houses and making farms for the purpose of rendering the reservations, as late Commissioner Manypenny instructed, "self-sustaining." The food, houses and farms are not the only necessary expenses. The inclement climate in this latitude requires that they should be at least partially supplied with clothing, and for which they are entirely dependent upon the generosity of government. When the clothing (though it be scanty), shelter, subsistence and opening farms for four thousand Indians is considered, in a country of high prices, it is but natural to suppose that the aggregate cost must amount to a very large sum.
    The $176,311.29 received by last mail will, I think, pay the outstanding indebtedness contracted prior to the 1st of May 1857. I have determined to disburse this fund in the payment of all debts which were contracted prior to the 30th June 1857, as it is the language of the appropriation. This disposition of the fund, I trust, will meet with your approval.
    In my report of June 17th I estimated the "supposed liabilities" contracted by late Supts. Palmer and Hedges in this Territory to amount to $50,000.00, and it is perceived by your statement of funds that you have retained $65,894.78 to be applied to the payment of those liabilities when they are satisfactorily ascertained.
    I have as yet received no detailed report from my late predecessors, yet I am satisfied that in my report of June 17th those liabilities were overestimated, and I now think that $30,000.00 would discharge them all, with the exception of, as I understand, about $10,000.00 of late Superintendent Palmer's drafts.
    Many of the claims embraced in the $50,000.00 estimate of June 17th are now on file in this office with the necessary proofs of correctness. One of this character, in favor of James Guthrie Jr., for $2505.00, I transmitted to you on the 27th of November last.
    Where claims contracted by Palmer or Hedges are presented with all the proof, I cannot well avoid their payment without bringing upon the office the reproach of partiality.
    Under this state of facts and consequent embarrassment, I would most urgently request that I be furnished with $30,000.00 more of the appropriation to meet the deficiency and pay off all of this character of claims. This will leave $35,894.78 of the appropriation to pay outstanding liabilities to June 30th 1857 still in the Treasury, and which I am satisfied is a much larger amount than will be required to meet late Superintendent Palmer's outstanding drafts.
    Enclosed I forward you a statement, marked "A," showing the outstanding indebtedness contracted by Agent R. B. Metcalfe at the Siletz, or Coast Reservation from the 1st of May to the 31st of December, amounting to $111,420.35. I also enclose statement marked "B," showing the outstanding indebtedness contracted by Agent John F. Miller at the Grande Ronde Reservation for the same period, amounting to $72,657.54.
    The remoteness of Agent Dennison and Sub-Agent Drew has prevented my receiving their statements of outstanding liabilities in time for my present report. I have included, however, $10,000.00 for each, which will approximate their actual liabilities created from May 1st to December 31st 1857. All those statements are carried to abstract "C," herewith enclosed, and to which, as well as my estimates of November 1st 1857, which is presumed to be on file in your office, your attention is respectfully called.
    By reference to those reports & statements you will perceive that after all the funds heretofore received, and the balance in my hands, is disbursed, the deficiency on the 31st of December 1857 is $204,077.89.
    In referring to my estimates for the 1st & 2nd quarters of 1858, you will observe that they amount to $217,875.50, and after deducting the $19,707.75, now in the Treasury applicable to those quarters, the deficiency for the 1st & 2nd quarters of 1858 will be $198,167.25, which, added to the deficiency up to the 31st of December, makes the total deficiency in Oregon for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1858 $362,245.09.
    This will be the actual deficiency, if the present system is continued, after disbursing every dollar appropriated by the last Congress.
    After reading my various letters and reports upon Indian affairs in this Territory, I think that you will readily perceive the necessity of an immediate appropriation to meet this deficiency, and I can only ask in the name of justice and humanity that it be promptly made.
    By reference to the enclosed circular to agents, you will perceive that I have given orders to discontinue improvements on the reservations, and for the curtailment of every possible expense compatible with the protection of the public property and preservation of the lives of the Indians. If peace is maintained, and the Indians barely subsisted, I have no idea that my present estimates can in any way be curtailed.
    To abandon the system now involves a loss of all that has been done, and how I am to continue it with the limited means at my disposal presents a question which causes me to shudder for the peace and quiet of the country. I have endeavored to do my duty, and have given you the naked facts as they exist, and the question is now presented to Congress: whether they will make the necessary appropriations, or stand coolly by to see this country deluged in blood. It is a question of war or peace, life or death, for Congress in its wisdom to decide. In any event, I shall consider it my duty to continue the present system on credit until otherwise instructed.
    In the event of an appropriation being made, I trust there will be no delay in remitting the funds, and I would also request that the balance now in the Treasury for both Oregon and Washington Territories be remitted as early as practicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Indian Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
         Acting Comr. Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 299-322.  Attachments not transcribed.



Dayton O.T.
    23 Jan. 1858
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem O.T.
            Dr. Sir
                Mrs. Day, the widow of Jas. P. Day Esq. has claims against the Ind. Department to the amount of several hundred dollars. The nature of this claim, with the history of what has been done about them, perhaps you are not fully advised of. And as I was, during the lifetime of Mr. Day, his agent, and since his decease the agent (in this affair) for his widow, I will give you an account of the whole affair, from its source to the present, also telling you what I have done in the matter, and now requesting you to make it the subject of your consideration.
    In the summer & spring of 1856 after the removal of a majority of the Indians from Rogue River & South Umpqua, there were known to be a good number of Indians lurking in the Cow Creek & Umpqua mountains. Supt. Palmer wrote Mr. Day and at [the] same time sending him a commission as special agent to collect, sustain & conduct these Inds. to the reservation. This Mr. Day done, sustaining the Indians from his private means, but on the day of the departure of the Indians from his house on the S. Umpqua he was taken ill, and he appointed W. McKay to conduct them to the reservation, which was done. Supt. Hedges instructed Sub-Ind. Agent Raymond to "pay McKay & the teamsters but no one else." In a short time Mr. Day himself arrived & called upon the Supt. (Hedges), who refused to pay Mr. Day or to audit his account. At this time Mr. Day called upon me to make out his account. I done so, and as agt. for Mr. Day spoke to Mr. Hedges again. He persisted in adhering to his first determination, not to pay. I then enclosed the accounts as made out together with the letter and commission of Supt. Palmer to the Commr. Ind. Affairs at Washington, citing him to Genl. Palmer, who then was on the eve of leaving for Washington. What Genl. Palmer said or done whilst at Washington I do not know, although he promised me the affair should claim his favorable attention. No evidence of such a fact has been recd. by myself or Mrs. Day, hence [we] have to conclude that but little or perhaps nothing was done by him.
    After the removal of Mr. Manypenny from the Indian Bureau, I wrote his successor, Denver, [and] have also written, at the request of Mrs. Day, to the  Secretary of War, Mr. Floyd, as a particular friend of Mr. Day, to ask his influence in the matter.
    Mrs. Day now writes me that for [the] amount Mr. Day had to purchase on time to sustain these Indians, her whole property has to be sold to cancel. I think this an extremely hard case and confidently believe you will permit it to claim your favorable consideration. With such hope
I remain
    Dr. Sir
        Very respectfully yours
            C. M. Walker
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 54.




Office Supt. Ind. Affrs,
    Salem, Oregon Jany. 25th 1858
Sir:
    Your communication of the 8th instant in reply to mine of Decr. 18th is just received.
    I have examined the files of this office and can find no claim of John H. Taylor nor any evidence of it ever having been filed in this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Alec McNary, Esqr.
        Ashland Mills
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 161.



Washington 25th Jany. [1858].
Sir
    The statements made in Superintendent Nesmith's late report reflecting upon my management of Indian Affrs. in Oregon, which you was kind enough to show to me this morning, are of a character calling for a very brief reply only on my part, as the records of your office are quite sufficient to refute all such charges.
    During my Superintendency in Oregon, I never bought a dollar's worth of Indian goods that were not bought for the govt. with duplicate bills of purchase and all regularly charged in my quarterly accounts. All such goods were distributed and accounted for in my property returns.
    But fortunately for me these far-fetched charges go further. He says in the settlement of Dart's accounts he owed the govt. a large sum of money which he could of course well afford pay &c. Is this true? What were the facts? In the settlement of my accounts? After the govt. had charged over to me an item of three thousand dollars which I had borrowed of Genl. Adair on my private account, and had also disallowed, my account for traveling expenses in coming from Oregon to the seat of govt. to settle my a/c I then owed the govt. only eleven hundred dollars, and if any traveling expenses had been allowed, I should have owed the govt. some three hundred dollars only, after having charged me with the three thousand.
    The statement in regard to the Superintendent's house at Milwaukie is best answered in your letter to me on that subject dated 26th Jany. 1851, which please see.
    The statement that papers have been withdrawn from the Oregon Superintendency are without the slightest foundation in truth. No papers were taken from the office except duplicate vouchers.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your
        Obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Supt. &c.
The Hon.
    Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner of
            Indian Affairs
                Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 138-140.



Washington 29th Jany. 1858.
Sir,
    Will you be kind enough to call upon the Secretary of the Interior with the view of learning whether he would have any objections in providing for the payment of a small claim of mine which was investigated in the Indian office last summer, and admitted to be legal and just--but not paid for the want of the proper funds to pay it from; this item was for the pay of a clerk six months during my Indian treaty negotiations in Oregon. The clerk's receipt for this money is in the Indian office, although it is a small amount. I stand much in need of it. If there still is no appropriations directly applicable, I hope the Secretary may be willing to make a transfer to meet this small amount.
    It is only my poverty that induces me to ask your aid in this affair. I expended every dollar I was worth in the world in sustaining the best interests of the govt. during my charge of Indian affairs in Oregon, but as you have known me many years I deem it unnecessary to say more.
I have the honor to be very
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Anson Dart
            Late Supt. &c.
The Hon.
    Charles Durkey
        United States Senator
            from Wisconsin
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 141-142




House of Reps.
    Washington Feb. 17, /58
Hon. Chas. E. Mix,
    Acting Com. Ind. Aff.
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    We would respectfully recommend that Congress be asked to appropriate thirty thousand dollars to defray the expenses of bringing a delegation of Indian chiefs from the Territories of Oregon and Washington to the States, the object being to take them to the principal cities and on great routes of travel, to the end that they may take back to the Indian tribes accurate information of the strength, resources and friendly disposition of our government and people.
    We are of opinion that ten chiefs should be taken from each Territory, making twenty in all, and that fifteen hundred dollars per chief, or an aggregate sum of thirty thousand dollars for the twenty chiefs, will be the least sum which will enable the service to be performed.
We are, sir, very respectfully,
    Your most obdt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
        Isaac I. Stevens
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 193-194.



Salem O.T.
    February 22nd 1858
Sir
    I am instructed, by the Legislative Assembly of Oregon, to forward you the enclosed resolution and a copy of the Governor's communication of the 18th of December 1857, and the accompanying documents relative to the hostilities of the Indians and the protection of the immigrants in 1854.
    All of which are herewith transmitted.
I have the honor to be your
    Obedient servant
        B. F. Harding
            Secy. of Oregon
To His Excellence
    James Buchanan
        President of the United States
            Washington City
                D.C.
   

    Joint resolution relative to the payment of the volunteers called into service for the protection of the emigrants in 1854.
    Resolved, by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon, that the Secretary of the Territory be and he is hereby requested to transmit copies of His Excellency the Governor's communication of the 18th of December last, and the accompanying documents and copies of this resolution, to His Excellency James Buchanan, President of the United States, and to Hon. James B. Floyd, Secretary of War; also, to send copies of the same to Hon. Joseph Lane, Delegate in Congress from Oregon, and that he be requested to present the same to Congress and urge an appropriation to pay the Oregon volunteers who were called into service for the protection of the emigrants in 1854, and all just and necessary expenses.
H. D. O'Bryant
    President of the Council
Adopted in the Council
    February 3rd 1858
Jno. F. M. Butler
    Speaker of the House of Representatives
Adopted in the House
    February 3rd 1858
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 172-174.




Janesville Wis.
    February 23rd /58
Sir,
    Yours of 26th January last, notifying me that my accounts were settled and that $608.54 was found due me, was duly received.
    At the time your letter reached here it did not occur to me that an acknowledgment of it was expected by your office. But having heard nothing further from it I am led to think myself at fault--particularly as you might not deem it best to forward it to this place without actual knowledge that I am here to receive it. Such is the fact and hoping to receive it soon I remain
    Respectfully
        Your obt servt.
            S. H. Culver
T. J. D. Fuller Esq.
Second Auditor
Treasury Department
Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 84-86.


    We understand that the citizens of Jackson County have a petition in circulation, requesting the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to take some energetic steps to prevent the large number of Indians from roaming through the settlements and loafing around Jacksonville.
    If something is not done to prevent these Klamath Lake Indians from mixing with the settlements, there will be another Indian war--for there is no love for the redskins in Southern Oregon, and the Klamath Lake Indians are as great thieves as any other.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 27, 1858, page 2


    To the Hon. J. W. Nesmith, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon Territory, we the undersigned citizens of Jackson County would most respectfully represent to your honor that the Klamath Lake Indians are in the habit of visiting Jacksonville in large numbers, both bucks & squaws, for the purpose of trading with the citizens, and we are of the opinion that the commerce they are carrying on will ultimately lead to difficulty, and probably another sanguinary war will be the result of their promiscuously mixing with the whites. And as the citizens are destitute of any authority to prohibit the Indians from mixing with the citizens, we know that you are clothed with authority to control the Indians to a certain extent. We therefore hope that you will at once see the great propriety of promptly prohibiting these Indians from mixing with the whites and as in duty bound we will ever pray.
Wm. Hoffman
Jacksonville Feb. 25 / 58
Jas. Kilgore
Burrel B. Griffin
Jacob Long
E. F. McKinney
S. A. Rice
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 77.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City O.T. March 8 / 58
Sir--
    Your favor of the 14th of Feb. from San Francisco was duly received.
    You say you hope to see me in Salem at the convention &c. &c. I regret to say that I am unable to leave here at present. The Indians in this district, a part of which are off of the reserve, are making some disturbance there. Our supplies are exhausted & they say they must have subsistence of some kind. Constant complaints are being made by the whites & they wish me to take them [the Indians] on the reserve. I am making arrangement to collect them all this week & subsist them on potatoes. These cannot be purchased on the credit of the Indian Department here until the back liabilities are paid up.
    The potato market is overstocked & a limited supply can be purchased on the old credit system. Promises with men who furnished supplies two years since at back prices avail nothing this winter.
    The Chetco Indians under charge of Capt. Tichenor arrived yesterday. Capt. Tichenor will proceed at once to your office with his accounts. He will appear in the convention as delegate from Curry County--Winchester from Coos.
    One word regarding funds. I would have been at your office before this had the Chetco Indians arrived as soon as I anticipated. If possible, & it would suit your convenience to send funds to me, do so--if not inform me by mail or send the receipts & I will act according to your instructions.
    I am sorely in want of a small draft for a particular purpose. Mr. Winchester will inform you regarding it. No news of importance. Regards to Mrs. Nesmith.
While I remain
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew Sub-Ind. Agt.
To Gen. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 80.



Grand Ronde Reservation
    Mar. 11th 1858.
Mr. J. W. Nesmith,
    Dear Sir, I wish to lay a pair of my grievances before you, deeming yourself the proper person from the fact that I have received my appointment as physician from the office you now fill. And though I regard myself as being under the supervision of the agent upon the reservation, yet I hold myself responsible only to yourself.
    I have remained upon this agency as physician for one year. My practice during this period has been of the most servile nature, often as disgusting to my sensibilities as it has been discouraging at times. None except those well acquainted with the Indian character & their superstitions can appreciate my condition during the past year.
    However, without entering into detail, I will simply remark that my connection as physician with the Indians has been a sufficient tax upon my patience without encountering the many inconveniences I have by your agent depriving me of those little privileges that belong to my position as resident physician of this agency.
    Dear sir, I have never in my whole life been guilty of a breach of courtesy that could humble or wound the feelings of the most sensitive nature, & that which I never give I know not how to receive, other than I shall detail ere I close.
    But you will ask in what does this breach of courtesy consist. I will answer with brevity. Some few weeks since, you addressed a note to this agency urging the necessity of economy. In that note I do not think you had reference to the suspension of treaty stipulations. Dear Colonel, the fact is that the hospital is a treaty stipulation. A hospital supposes there is a steward, & though the Indians may not wish to be treated in a hospital where one of their people have died (for they never after visit the house in which one of their people have died) nevertheless they must be treated in camp; therefore in justice to the Indians there should be a steward.
    I can make the necessary prescriptions for the sick, but I cannot in justice to myself administer the medicine, nor nurse the stick.
    But to the point, previous to this note of yours I had a steward, but on the receipt of the same he was discharged, & that too without consulting me as to the propriety of such a dismissal. I think, sir, that I had a right to be consulted on this occasion. I know of none on the reservation better acquainted with the medical department of this agency than myself. There are other points that I had intended to advert to, but lest I should intrude upon your patience I will forbear. At present I am cook, steward & physician. Dear sir, you will imagine my present condition anything but enviable. But this is a sudden change; there must be a cause. I will give it to you in as concise a form as possible. Some few weeks since I happened to be present while the political character of Stephen A. Douglas was under review. The criticism was most rash & contemptible. He was called a damned Black Republican for the position he had taken relative to the Kansas affair; he was also called a fanatic.
    It was my opinion then, & is still, that Stephen A. Douglas has violated no principle of that national platform from which the Democracy of our common country draws its existence. Mr. Douglas has ever been a favorite of mine politically.
    Therefore when I heard his ructives & efforts thus unkindly expounded by _____ _____ & branded with epithets that have ever been revolting to my sensibilities, I remarked upon the spur of the moment that the fanaticism of the pro-slavery men with whom I was acquainted was unparalleled even in the ultra
ism of the anti-slavery of the north. Perhaps this was an imprudent remark; however, I thought so then & spoke as I thought & have not changed my mind since. "This is the head & front of my offending."
    But, "whither this world was made for Caesar, I am weary of conjecture."
    Dear sir, if I cannot be allowed a steward, please consider my resignation as taking effect on the 1st of April, or as soon after as you can procure someone to fill my place. Sir, you will confer a great favor upon your correspondent & save him much humiliation by replying to my note through a letter; however, it is not my province to dictate. It would have been gratifying for me to have seen you on this occasion, but it is impossible for me to leave at present, for there is much typhus fever among the Indians at the present time.
    Excuse the length of my letter
Most respectfully your servant
    John G. Tower
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 82.




Washington, March 12, 1858.       
Chas. E. Mix Esq.
    Com'r. Indian Affairs
Sir,
    In regard to the Superintendency district composed of the Territories of Oregon and Washington, I have to say that in the present precarious condition of relations with the numerous tribes of Indians in these Territories, the district is too large, and I am well satisfied that the good of the service would be promoted greatly by creating an additional district, composed of the Territory of Washington with a superintendent in each Territory, and in fact, the service would be promoted by forming all that portion of the country embraced in the two Territories, east of the Cascade Range, into one district, and one in each Territory, west of the Cascade Range.
Very respectfully,
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 195-197.



Salem O.T. March 17th 1858
Sir
    My returns for the third qr. 1847 were forwarded to J. W. Nesmith, Sup. Ind. Affrs. on the fifteenth of November last, and my returns for the fourth qr. 1857 were in this office on the fourth of January 1858, but I see they have not been forwarded yet on account of some supposed or real informality, to which I must say that they were made to the best of my ability from the data then in my office. I hope you will show me a little indulgence should there be a slight informality in my accounts, and for the future there shall be a separate abstract for every head of appropriation. We are greatly in the dark in this country and have to rely in a great measure upon our own judgment as to what course to pursue. The printed regulations are not applicable to Ind. Affrs. in this country; there is a difference of opinion in relation to the duties of agents and the Supt. Ind. Affrs., and I have to beg that you will put me right on this point. Is the Supt. the proper officer to let private and public contracts for the agents? Is he the proper officer to purchase supplies and annuities for the agents? Please give me an answer to these inquiries. There should be something more than the present indefinite regulations to define the duties of agents and Supts.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner
            Ind. Affs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 207-210.




Salem O.T. March 17th 1858       
Sir
    I beg leave to transmit for your consideration an account in favor of L. A. Davis for surveying and state the circumstances in connection with it, and beg that you will advise me by what means it is to be paid. I was employed by Supt. Palmer in January 1855 to survey and mark out the boundary of the Table Rock Reservation, which I did in connection with Mr. Davis, and for which we have never received compensation. The charge was less than private individuals were paying for the same service. Now what I have to ask is that the account be paid or one half of it which is going to Mr. Davis and I will say no more about what is coming to me.
I have the honor to be
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
The United States
To L. A. Davis Dr.
For
Services in surveying and marking out the boundary of the Rogue River Indian Reservation, commencing on the 5th and ending on the 18th day of Jany. 1855 inclusive--
(15) Fifteen days at ten dolls. per day $150.00
For services of two chainmen from Jany. 5th to Jany. 18th 1855--inclusive--fifteen days each
(30) Thirty days at ($4) four dolls. per day
  120.00
$270.00
Two hundred & seventy dolls.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 211-213.



Milwaukie O.T. Jan. 15th 1852       
Received of N. C. Dean $6.00 for three dinner sup. lodg. and break.
Jan. 15    Received payment
                     S. W. Childs
    ----
N. C. Dean & Ross
        To A. H. Frier            Dr.
To 4 meals Ross 3.00
To 4 days Dean & Bills 10.00
13.00
        Received payment        A. H. Frier
----
N. C. Dean Esqr.
            To steamer Multnomah
Night on one bale blankets $2.00
Passage from Canemah to Marysville 12.00
$14.00  
Jany. 20 / 52         Recd. payt.             C. D. Marcuse [unclear]
----
The United States
        to N. C. Dean                                           Dr.
    To expenses paid in removing Worthington Bills from Rogue River Valley to the office of the Supt. of Indian Affairs at Milwaukie O.T. by order of A. A. Skinner, Ind. Agent for southwestern Oregon, 1852.
Jany. 15 To paid tavern bill at Milwaukie $6.00
" 16   "     "    steamer Washington in returning from Milwaukie 4.50
"   "     "    A. H. Frier tavern bill 13.00
" 20   "     "    steamer Multnomah 14.00
" " 8 days services at $5 per day 40.00
$77.50
    Received         Jany. 23rd 1858
of seventy seven dollars, in full of this account $77.50
Nathaniel C. Dean
Territory of Oregon   )
Jackson County          )  s.s.
    Nathaniel C. Dean being first duly sworn says that the services specified in the above account were actually rendered at the time and for the purpose therein mentioned, by order of the said A. A. Skinner, late Indian Agent as aforesaid. That the price charged therefor is just and reasonable, and that said account has never been paid by the said Skinner nor by any other person.
Nathaniel C. Dean
Subscribed and sworn to before me the undersigned Clerk of the District Court for the Third Judicial District of Oregon.
Witness my hand and the seal of said court
this 23rd day of January A.D. 1858
James M. Pyle Clerk
per J. B. Sifers Deputy
Territory of Oregon  )
Clatsop County          )  s.s.
    Alonzo A. Skinner being first duly sworn, says that in the months of December 1851 and Jany. 1852 he was Indian Agent in Oregon Territory, and that as such Indian Agent he employed the said Nathaniel C. Dean at the time mentioned in the within account to perform the services therein specified; that the price charged for said services is just and reasonable; and that he verily believes that the said Dean actually expended the amount of money charged in said account in performing the services therein mentioned, and that the same was actually necessary to enable him to perform the services for which he was employed, and that the amount of said account has never been paid by him or to his knowledge by any other person.
Alonzo A. Skinner
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day of February A.D. 1858.
James Wayne
Auditor of Clatsop Co. O.T.
The United States
        to John E. Ross                                          Dr.
1852
Jany. 20
    To 7 days services in removing Worthington Bills from Rogue River Valley to the office of the Supt. of Indian Affairs at Milwaukie O.T. by order of A. A. Skinner, Ind. Agent for S.W. Oregon, at $5 per day $35.00.
    Received         Jany. 23rd 1858
of thirty five dollars, in full of this account $35.00
John E. Ross
Territory of Oregon   )
Jackson County          )  s.s.
    John E. Ross being first duly sworn says that the services specified in the above account were actually rendered at the time and for the purpose therein mentioned by order of the said A. A. Skinner, late Indian Agent as aforesaid. That the price charged therefor is just and reasonable, and that said account has never been paid by the said Skinner nor by any other person.
John E. Ross
Subscribed and sworn to before me the undersigned Clerk of the District Court for the Third Judicial District of Oregon.
Witness my hand and the seal of said court
for Jackson County
this 23rd day of January A.D. 1858
James M. Pyle Clerk
per J. B. Sifers Deputy
Territory of Oregon  )
Clatsop County          )  s.s.
    Alonzo A. Skinner being first duly sworn, says that in the months of December 1851 and Jany. 1852 he was Indian Agent in Oregon Territory, and that as such Indian Agent he employed the said John E. Ross at the time mentioned in the within account to perform the services therein specified; that the price charged for said services is just and reasonable; and not more than the usual charge for similar services at the time said services were rendered, and that the amount of said account has never been paid by him or to his knowledge by any other person.
Alonzo A. Skinner
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day of February A.D. 1858.
James Wayne, Auditor
of Clatsop County O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 569-576.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, March 18th 1858
Gentlemen;
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your petition of Feby. 25th asking my interference to prevent difficulties likely to result from the visits of the Klamath Lake Indians to Jacksonville and vicinity. I have to regret that it is out of my power at present to afford the relief which you desire, as I have no agent whose services can at this time be dispensed with at the reservations; besides I am perfectly destitute of funds applicable to the purposes set forth in your petition. No treaties have ever been ratified with those Indians, neither has there been any agent appointed by the government to take charge of them.
    In my annual report of September 1st 1857 I called the attention of the Department to the necessity which existed for an increase of agents within this Superintendency. In the event of my recommendation in this particular meets [sic] with the approval of the government and the agents are appointed, one will be dispatched to establish an agency among the Klamath Lake Indians.
    If in the meantime your apprehensions of danger should increase I would suggest the propriety of your petitioning the genl. in command of the U.S. troops in this Department for protection. It will afford me pleasure to join you in such request whenever you may deem the emergencies warrant it.
Respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Messrs Hoffman, Kilgore
        Griffin & others
            Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 185.



Port Orford Mar. 21st 1858
Mr. J. W. Nesmith
    Dear Sir
I wrote you by last mail telling of the trouble at Chetco with the Indians. I have since learned that it is not so bad as represented at first, no doubt but what they have killed Oliver Cantwell & also tried to kill Bob Smith. There were others there that they had a chance to kill, but they did not do so. It appears from report that this Bob Smith told the Indians that he was tyee ["chief," "boss"] & to not go with Captain Tichenor to the reserve & also report says that he & others has sold them a portion of that country. After Oliver Cantwell was killed Bob Smith went with a party of men after the Indians. They could not find any Indians, but they burned all the ranches that they could find. So it appears that the Indians has found out that this Smith has been telling them lies & they are a-trying to kill him & no doubt will if they can get a chance to do so. No doubt if it had not been for Smith & Cantwell & three or four more Capt. Tichenor woulda got all them Indians in without half the trouble. As for my part I have no sympathy for any such men as Smith, Cantwell, Tom Sharp & such fellows. The Indians ought to kill them & all such men, but the great trouble is that they so often kill an innocent good man. Now the people are afeared to travel between this place & Green City. The report says that some of Waldo & Dale's cattle was driven off. I do not know whether it is so or not. It will be some trouble to get them Indians out from there. Peter Dockerty says that he thinks that there was about 40 Indians when they attacked Smith's house. They had 4 or 5 guns. It is thought that there are some of the California Indians are with them. There are a small party of men after the Indians now, but they have taken to the mountains & it is doubtful whether they will get any of them. Their company is too small to do any good. They may get some more men, but I think not. There are but few men but what is tired fighting Indians. Please write on the receipt of this & let me know how Capt. Tichenor has got along with the Indians & his accounts. As for my part I am in a hell of a fix for money now. If I don't get that I don't know what I will do. For God's sake send me it as soon as possible my account is receipted.
    I will write you occasionally & let you know how things are going below with the Indians & whites. I will send this by the way of Umpqua. The other I sent by the way of Portland.
Yours truly as ever
    Peter Ruffner
Mr. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        O. & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 88.



Executive Office
    Olympia Washington Territory
        March 22nd 1858
Hon. Jacob Thompson
    Secretary of the Interior
        Sir--Under a former regulation by Congress, the Governor of this Territory, was also Supt. Ind. Affairs, but by a more recent act this Superintendency has been conferred upon Col. Nesmith of Oregon, who now holds a joint Superintendency over Oregon and Washington Territories. My object in again calling your attention to this subject is to convince you if I can of the necessity for a separate Superintendency for each of these Territories. In the first place the countries are too extensive, and the duties are too arduous for any one man to attend to them properly.
    In the second place I wish to know, in the event of a difference of opinion between the Supt. Ind. Affairs, and one or both of the Governors of these two Territories, whose opinion is to prevail--that of the Superintendent? or that of the two Governors? I can readily imagine a case that may arise, or rather has already arisen,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fayette_McMullen which renders it a matter of much importance to the government that the question as stated should be decided. Suppose, for instance, that several of the agents, sub-agents and employees of the Indian Department of this Territory are in the habit of keeping squaws as their wives or concubines, and the executive were to forbid any such violation of the Territorial, as well as moral and social, laws, and they pay no attention to his instructions?
    I am well convinced that the Indians must be taught to respect, fear and obey the whites to enable us to live in peace, and which they will not do so long as the whites put themselves upon an equal footing with them. I regret to inform you that there have been many complaints made to me upon this subject, both of the Indian agents and army officers in this Territory. I would urge the importance of having men of family to take charge of the Indians as far as they can be had.
I have the honor remain very respectfully yours &c.
    F. McMullen [signed "F. McMullin"]
        Gov. Wash. Territory
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 204-206.



Curry Center, Curry Co., March 27, '58.
    Friend Bush--Notwithstanding the effort that has been made to collect the Indians in Southern Oregon by government agents, there still remain a sufficient number in the vicinity of the California line to cause some considerable trouble and bloodshed. According to the best calculation that can be had on the subject, there are yet remaining in that locality from six to ten men, and some twelve or fifteen women and children, who have determined never to submit to any measure pertaining to civilization. The men have declared war on all white persons, and they have informed the friendly Indians (of which there [are] a few that remain on the Chetco) that they will kill every white man that comes within their reach. On the 15th of February last they killed a man by the name of Olion Cantell, and on the night of the tenth of the present month the house of Mr. Robert Smith was set on fire and several shots were fired at the house, and as Mr. Smith was extinguishing the fire a shot was made at him, but fortunately he was unharmed and no serious damages were done; he deserted his house on the following morning. Mr. S. resided on the coast some ten miles south of Rogue River; an express was immediately sent to the mouth of Rogue River to convey the intelligence, and if possible obtain help to pursue and chastise the intruders. A public meeting was called immediately, funds were raised, provisions were purchased, and a small company of volunteers were organized who started on the following morning in pursuit of their enemies.
Yours, truly,            J. C. F.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 18, 1858, page 2



Deer Creek, Douglas Co. O. Ty. March 28th 1858.
Mr. S. S. Baxter
    Dear Sir
        I rec'd. yours of Jan. 16th in relation to my land controversy with Oty Boon. It was decided much to my satisfaction. I have written to Gen. Lane long since to pay you your fee, which I presume you have got long before this time. I have two other cases before the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington against the Umpqua Indians for shooting & killing horses. I made out accounts against them & sent it to Gen. Nesmith, Superintendent of Indian Affairs; he, I suppose, has forwarded them to Washington long since. One of the accounts is in favor of myself, the other in favor of a son-in-law (John Barker). I will refer you to Gen. Lane; he was at my house at the time & caught the Indians a few days afterwards. They confessed to him all about it. I will also arrange your fee for attending to it for us. Your early attention to it will be thankfully received.
Yours respectfully
    James Gilmore
To S. S. Baxter
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 62-64.



Janesville Wis.
    April 7th 1858
Sir,
    I received a letter from Mr. T. J. D. Fuller, Second Auditor, Treasury Department, under date of 26th January last, in which he said that my amount, as Agent, was that day settled and $608.54 was found to be my due, and that it would be remitted to me here. I also received another from him under date of March 1st, in which he says that a statement of the settlement was at the time sent to the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in order that the remittance might be made.
    In the press of business in your office it would not be strange if this small matter should be overlooked for a time. And though it is an account for service and money expended two years ago and more, with the direct object and hope of preventing a war with Cayuse Indians, which though these measures were successful, did afterwards break out, still I would not address your office so soon upon the subject, and request that the remittance be made to me if there was not a necessity that comes from a quarter that requires both sympathy and actual assistance.
    My father has become embarrassed by the general depression, and nothing but immediate and real assistance will save him in his old age from bankruptcy. I see that Supt. Nesmith has a large sum in his hands with which to pay the outstanding liabilities of the Indian Department in Oregon. Hoping to receive it soon, I remain
Respectfully yours
    S. H. Culver
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
Commissioner Indian Affairs
Department of Interior
Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 87-89.



House of Reps.
    Washington April 10 / 58
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
    Actg. Comr. Ind. Aff.
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    Col. Nesmith, Supt. of Oregon & Washington, under date of March 10th, writes as follows in regard to a division of the present joint Superintendency.
    "I hope that you and the Genl. will be able to have the Superintendency divided, so that the Superintendent will have some little time to discharge the important duty of visiting the tribes in person."
I am sir very respectfully
    Your most obdt.
        Isaac I. Stevens
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 632-633.



House of Reps.
    Washington April 14, 1858
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
    Actg. Comr. of Ind. Aff.
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    Col. Nesmith, Supt. Ind. Aff. Oregon & Washington, writes me under date of March 10th 1858 that "the Commissioner has not remitted any funds for salary of Supt., agents, sub-agents or interpreters for the half year ending June 30th 1858, and I have to request that you will do me the favor to call his attention to the matter."
    In compliance with his request, I send you the above extract, and will request that if a remittance has not been made on account of salaries, you will cause a remittance to be made, if practicable, by the next mail.
I am sir respectfully
    Your most obdt.
        Isaac I. Stevens
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 634-635.



Portland Oregon Territory Apr. 17 1858
Sir:
    The instrument accompanying this is an expression of our view of the condition of the Indians in this Territory, and a prayer that measures be taken to better their condition.
    We do not wish to make a bad matter worse or to become fault finders, but we do feel moved to address you in this matter. Hoping the suggestions contained in our prayer (or, if you please, a better one if you have it) may meet your approval. For we do well know that there is an awful derangement somewhere in the system that is now being carried on among this people. And as an individual we are or I am not at loss to know how to define or to what cause to attribute that derangement. Sir, can we expect that savages will become civilized under influences that [make] civilized people become savages? I tell you, sir, there are vices existing on Grand Ronde and acts committed by the white (and those too who have a very conspicuous part to act in carrying out government arrangements) that the Indians themselves deplore, and look upon the person or those persons with contempt and now, dear sir, we know not under God where to go for redress in this matter short of yourself, as we have faithfully and ardently labored with the agent and Superintendent and expostulated to have those vices suppressed , but as yet to no purpose. We do not ask the removal positively of persons but the suppression of vice. We do not hesitate to say that these men are not incompetent to the task assigned them.
    But for some cause or other they are indifferent to say the least as to what moral influences are brought to bear upon the Indians. Perhaps I ought to say something respecting my opportunities of making myself acquainted with Ind. matters in Oregon. I would say that I came across the plains to this country in /55, purposely to visit the Indians. Was one year under Genl. Palmer, then returned to Mich. for my family. Came back and have been on the reservation at Grand Ronde the last past six months under favorable circumstances to see the true working or the operation of things in relation to government matters among the Indians, and feel justified, yea, a positive duty to say to you what I have upon this subject. I should be perfectly willing to go into detail and make specifications referred to by way of specifying vices and mentioning names &c. &c.
    If you think it best to do so, we might say more, but desist, fearing your patience [might] become exhausted. But we feel deeply upon this subject and have felt that the matter would justify a journey to Washington and a personal interview with you, but owing to circumstances pertaining to my family (pecuniarily) we adopt this method of informing you in part of the condition of a portion of that unfortunate race of people.
    I hope, my dear sir, you will respond to this [as] soon as practicable by addressing someone in this country who has the good of the Indian at heart. Thank God there are such, and we believe too they are about to speak out in this matter. We close.
    May you be inclined to act upon this, and I adopt such manner as shall in your judgment best conduce to the happiness of the Indian and the welfare of our government, is the prayer of your servant and well wisher.
Most respectfully yours
    Joseph Chamberlin
        Portland
To the Hon. Mr. Mix.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
   

Portland O.T. April 17, 1858.
Sir:
    We the undersigned respectfully call your attention to matters pertaining to the Indians of this coast, particularly to those in this Territory. Whereas we are well assured from personal inspection of some of us and from the best information we all otherwise can obtain, that the course which is now be pursued on some of the reservations is working dissatisfaction and destruction to the Indians. And believing as we do that that course would meet with your disapproval, we do most urgently request that some measures be adopted to place those people under circumstances favorable to their being instructed not only in the ordinary pursuits of life, but where there are those influences which have a tendency to improve their morals and otherwise ameliorate their condition and allow us as well-wishers to society, deeming it necessary to take some action and immediate measures upon this matter to make a suggestion--
    (No. 1) That some portion of our country, say of that now in reserve, be set apart for all those who wish to be brought under moral and religious influences--that they (the Inds.) and all pertaining to them be and remain under your appointees, with the understanding that persons who are disposed to impart instruction may have access to them provided they are acceptable to the Indians and their course of procedure does in no wise militate against the true policy of our government.
    In consideration we say our object is not to forward any political or sectarian purpose, but to perform those acts which are now and may from time to time deem it our duty.
To the Hon. Mr. Mix
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Names Profession or occupation Residence
Thomas H. Pearne Editor, Pacific Christian Advocate Portland
C. S. Kingsley Principal of Portland Female Seminary "
Jeremiah Lamson Farmer, near Grand Ronde Reservation
Joseph Chamberlin Yamhill
Roswell H. Lamson Student, Oregon Institute
Orin Belknap Farmer Benton Co.
Silas Belknap
Roger G. Attwell Residence Cascades (OT) Occupation House Carpenter
   
    Dear Sir, Mr. Lamson and son chose to have their names stricken out from the fact that I thought the extreme urgency of the case would justify myself in paying you a personal visit.
   

C. P. Anderson Cabinet Maker Washington Co.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 94-100.



Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco, Cal. April 13, 1858.
Sir:
    Your letter of April 1, 1858 has been submitted to Brigadier General Clarke.
    He approves of your refusal to assist in the arrest of the Indians referred to and of your application to the judge to stay the proceedings. You will give no assistance; the impolicy of the prosecution is clear and the consequences to flow from the adoption of such a course easy to be foreseen.
    The General desires you to communicate your views to the district attorney and ask his interference.
    Should however the judge refuse to stay proceedings, nothing can be done by the military to obstruct them.
    There are no troops disposable at present by which you can be reinforced, and the General desires you, should the arrests be pursued, to take the best means to secure your post. Should you deem it prudent you will concentrate your entire command either at the post or the blockhouse west of the mountain as may in your judgment be best.
    Communicate at once to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs your plans, that he may make the necessary movements for the security of his stores and agents.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        W. W. Mackall
            A.A. Genl.
Captain C. C. Augur
    4th Infantry, Comdg.
        Fort Hoskins
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 130, enclosure to No. 129.



Siletz Agency April 19, 1858.
Dear Sir,
    Lt. Gentry succeeded in arresting Old John & his son Adam, which I consider the most fortunate event which has occurred on the reservation, and I beg leave to state here that I am highly gratified with your prompt action in the matter. I have given permission to Kit and her child, Fan and two of Adam's wives with one child to accompany John & Adam to Vancouver, and earnestly hope you will not allow any more to leave the reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Capt. C. C. Augur
        Comd. Fort Hoskins
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 119, enclosure to No. 117.



Headquarters Fort Hoskins O.T.
    April 20, 1858.
Colonel,
    Not being certain if Agent Metcalfe has as yet reported to you the circumstances of Old John's arrest, I enclose you a copy of a letter received from him last night in relation to it.
    Deeming it essential to have John out of the way, I have sent him to Vancouver, to await a final disposition of him. I have recommended that he with his immediate family be sent to Benicia, or some other military post in California, and should you concur in this perhaps you had better so inform the General. John seems very anxious to see you, and I have taken it upon myself to promise him that he should do so at a very early day.
    Lt. Gentry will give you this and afford you such information as you may desire.
Very respectfully, Colonel
    Your obdt. servt.
        C. C. Augur
            Capt. 4th Infy.
                Comdg.
Colonel J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 117.



Siletz Agency O.T.
    April 21st 1858
Dear Sir
    I sign all the vouchers except that for the horse which I have never seen nor heard of before. I have no use for him, and will send him out the first opportunity. I fear I will not be able to go out by the first of May. I want to take out my quarterly returns with me and cannot complete them until sometime in May. There is some excitement here in consequence of the arrest of Old John & his son Adam, whom I had put in irons and sent to Vancouver. I am certain that the timely arrest of John prevented an outbreak. There were some Inds. here from the Grand Ronde sent by Sam to effect a combination with all the coast tribes and John's people. This I have ascertained to a certainty, and if Miller does not keep a strict watch over Sam they will effect it yet.
    The Indians may deny this but my information is from a reliable source. I will write you more fully on this subject soon.
Very respectfully
    Yr. friend
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 118.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 23rd 1858
Capt.,
    Your letter of the 20th instant enclosing a copy of Agent Metcalfe's letter of the 17th instant reached me last evening. I am highly gratified at your success in capturing Old John, and fully concur with you in the opinion that he had better be taken to some military post in California and will so advise Genl. Clarke by next mail. I did not have the pleasure of seeing Lt. Gentry, as the boat upon which he went down only stopped a few moments at the landing. The person who delivered the letter stated that the lieut. had not time to come up to the office, and the boat left before I could get down. I expect to be at Portland in the course of a month or six weeks, and will go to Vancouver to see John if he still remains there.
Respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Capt. C. C. Augur USA
    4th Infty. Fort Hoskins O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 201.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 24th 1858
Sir,
    I have this day received notice of the protest of a check drawn by me in favor of James Clugage for three thousand dollars, and dated Salem Oregon March 5th 1858.
    As no reason is assigned in the notice of protest, and no other knowledge of the fact having reached me, you will please inform me on what grounds the check was refused payment.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.Ter.
To
    Jacob R. Snyder
        Asst. Treas. U.S.
            San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 206.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 23rd 1858
Sir
    Your letter of the 13th instant enclosing a copy of a letter to Capt. C. C. Augur 4th Infty. commanding Fort Hoskins reached me on yesterday.
    In relation to the contemplated arrest of Indians upon the Siletz Reservation charged with crime I had an interview with the sheriff and dissuaded him from making the attempt. His authority was from a justice of the peace of Curry County, in which the crimes are alleged to have been committed.
    The sheriff assured me that he would make no further efforts to arrest them until they were indicted and he was armed with a warrant for that purpose issued by one of the judges of the U.S. courts. I told him in that event this office could interpose no obstacle to the arrest. I also expressed to him my disapprobation of any attempt to take a posse of citizens upon the reserve, and that if aid was required it must be invoked from the military. The indictment cannot be procured for some time. I have communicated the substance of the above to Capt. Augur.
    Last evening I received a letter from Capt. Augur communicating the fact that he had at the request of Agent Metcalfe arrested "Old John," the principal chief who was engaged in the late war in Southern Oregon. I am highly gratified with Capt. Augur's act in this particular, and fully concur with him in the opinion that John should be sent to Benicia or some other military post in California for safekeeping. He is a daring, restless man, possessed of great sagacity and courage, and likely at any moment to head a war party.
    Doubtless Capt. Augur has communicated all the facts in relation to the arrest and its necessity to headquarters.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Maj. W. W. Mackall
        A. Adj. Genl. U.S.A.
            San Francisco
                Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 202.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 25th 1858
Sir,
    Yours of the 21st instant enclosing the vouchers reached me this morning.
    Your act with reference to the arrest of "Old John" and his son has my hearty approval.
    Capt. Augur had communicated the fact to me previous to the receipt of your letter.
    I shall communicate your suspicions relative to the intentions of Sam to Agent Miller, and direct him to keep a close watch upon his conduct.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
        Ind. Agent
            Siletz O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 203.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 26th 1858
Sir,
    Owing to the turbulent disposition manifested by "Old John" it has been found necessary to arrest him and his son. They have been sent in irons to the guard house at Vancouver for safekeeping, and will probably be sent to Benicia, California.
    Agent Metcalfe reports that he has reliable information to the effect that Sam had sent emissaries to the Siletz for the purpose of consulting with John in relation to a general outbreak, and I have no doubt of the fact. I have therefore to direct that you keep a vigilant watch of Sam's movements, and the moment he gives evidence of an intention to incite an insurrection, or to leave the reservation, you will put him in irons at once, and turn him over to the military for safekeeping. While I desire to deal justly by those people, I am satisfied there is nothing to be gained by a temporizing policy.
    They must and shall be controlled, or fare worse.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    John F. Miller Esq.
        Indian Agent
            Grand Ronde Res. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 203.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 29th 1858
Sir,
    My check No. 34 bearing date March 4th 1858 for [omission] thousand dollars and drawn in favor of James Clugage or bearer was this day returned to me with notice of protest. The reason assigned for non-payment by you is that the check was drawn payable to "order."
    The parties to whom Clugage sold and transferred the check state that they obliterated the word "bearer" and inserted order. While such a change was ample reason for your refusal to pay the check I am satisfied that their act was based upon a desire to secure themselves against the loss of the check, without being aware of the results likely to flow from it.
    I have taken up the check referred to, and have given the parties another of the same date and number which I trust will be paid on presentation.
    I have made the new check of the same date and number as the canceled one in order to prevent confusion in my accounts.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    J. R. Snyder Esqr.
        A.T.U.S.
            San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 209.



Port Orford May 1st 1858
Col. Nesmith Sir
    I was employed by Ben Wright to pack for the Indian Department when he was acting as agent here just before the commencement of the war of 1856. The amount of which is one hundred and fifty-one dollars. Genl. Palmer agreed to have it settled, but it has never been settled. If there any possible chance to get the matter adjusted I should be extremely obliged, and if you can give me any information how to act, I shall be very thankful. I refer you to Wm. Chance if he is about or near you, as I understand he is. He received most of the goods which I packed. Also I let Capt. Tichenor have some animals to pack in the Indians, which he took up immediately after the war, for the use of which he never has paid me except in promises. His bill amounts to seventy-five dollars.
    Will you be so kind as to write and let me know and what my chance is.
And oblige yours
    H. N. Winslow
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 154.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, May 1st 1858.
Sir,
    Enclosed I have the honor to submit my estimates for funds necessary and actually required for this Superintendency for the 3rd & 4th quarters of 1858, commencing July 1st 1858.
    As you will perceive, the estimates consist of three classes, the first being for funds provided for by treaty stipulations and the latter for general purposes necessary for the subsistence of Indians on the reservations, and for the maintenance of peace, independent of the treaty stipulations.
    I have thought proper in my estimates for treaty purposes to include the entire amount due to the different tribes during the fiscal year commencing July 1st 1858, as it is important that the distributions under those treaties should take place in the fall or early autumn, in order for provide for the comfort of the Indians during the inclement winter.
    Heretofore it has been customary to remit only a portion of the funds required in each year to comply with the provisions of treaties, which practice has caused great unnecessary expense and inconvenience in collecting the Indians to make two or three distributions of what ought to have been given them at once; moreover, the Indians much prefer to receive their annual annuities at once, as it amounts them to a sum sufficient for their substantial comfort. But when it is divided up into three or four issues, it apparently amounts to nothing.
    I would therefore respectfully request that the entire amount of the appropriations for treaty purposes be remitted at once.
    In my present estimates I have included $10,000.00, for the erection of a flouring mill at the Siletz, and $5000.00 for the completion of a flouring mill commenced by my predecessor at the Grand Ronde.
    Those sums were embraced in my annual estimates, and I would respectfully urge upon your consideration the great necessity of those funds being remitted as soon as appropriated, as without the mills the large crops of which now being raised at the two points indicated will be perfectly worthless to the government, particularly as there are no mills now erected at which it can be ground.
    As yet I have not deemed myself authorized to incur any expense by commencing the liberty of calling your attention to the necessity which exists of remitting funds in small Treasury warrants, say in denominations of from one to ten thousand dollars, as it is almost impossible to cash larger warrants here. In the last remittance I had infinite trouble in negotiating the large warrants and was compelled to make a trip to San Francisco for that purpose. Warrants payable on New York can be negotiated here more readily than on San Francisco.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Comr. Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 360-364.  Estimate of Funds not transcribed.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
Salem Oregon May 2nd 1858
Dear Genl. [Joseph Lane],
    By this mail I forward to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs my estimates for funds for the 3rd & 4th quarters for the present year, and it is important that the funds estimated for as well as that contained in my estimates for the 1st & 2nd quarters should be promptly remitted. If you and Gov. Stevens would call upon the Commissioner, examine the estimates and my communication on the subject, you could doubtless do much to hurry up the funds and relieve the embarrassment of the Office. By reference to the papers you will perceive that I have urged upon the Commissioner the necessity of sending funds for the erection of a flouring mill at the Siletz, and for the completion of the one commenced at the Grand Ronde. There are now good prospects of raising large crops of wheat at both places this season, and you know how worthless it will be to the government without mills to grind it. I had in my annual estimates included sums for those purposes but don't know what action has been taken on the subject by Congress. If the money has been appropriated have it forwarded at once, as it is now time that the mills were in process of erection. If Congress has failed to make the appropriations, try and have the Commissioner to authorize the building of the mills out of some other funds. I am waiting anxiously to hear from my deficiency estimates for the current year. If that appropriation is not made the Indian Department here had better be "dried up." I have also urged upon the Commissioner the necessity of sending the entire annuity funds for the coming fiscal year at once, as the expense and trouble of collecting the Indians, and making three or four issues, is not only expensive to the government, but causes great trouble and delays, besides when three or four issues are made it is in such trifling and dribbling sums that it does not amount to anything. The entire issue should be early in the fall, then the Indians will be provided with clothing for the winter.
    I have represented all these facts to the Commissioner, but judging from my former experience I am satisfied that your personal attention to the matter will be of great service to us. For God's sake, Genl., hurry up the funds. If they could only be induced to furnish them in advance and stop this damned credit system, how much cheaper and better it would be for the government! I have also to request that you and the Governor will attend to having the funds sent in small warrants, say from two to ten thousand dollars each, and on New York, as they can be cashed here more readily than on San Francisco. The last remittance was in drafts of such large denomination that I was compelled to go to San Francisco for the coin.
    The Indians in the neighborhood of Walla Walla have commenced to rob and murder, and have driven off some of the government stock. They don't appear to care much for the regulars, and will never have any idea of good manners until they are thoroughly drubbed. God grant that they may catch it soon. The few wild Indians about the mouth of Rogue River, whom Col. Buchanan reported as having captured and taken to the reservation, are also murdering and robbing the settlers in that neighborhood.
    We are now in the midst of an exciting election campaign, and as you probably know with three state tickets in the field, Democratic, Republican and National Soreheads. The two latter are trying to fuse and will doubtless accomplish it as their principles are the same, and consist only in opposition to the Democratic Party. But remember my prediction, Genl., the Democratic Party will triumph over both factions, by the triumphant election of the entire state ticket, and two thirds of both branches of the Legislature. Bush went south with the candidates and is now on his way back. I have been editing the Statesman during his absence. I regard your election to the Senate in July as a fixed fact.
Your friend J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers

Grand Ronde O.T.
    May 7th, 1858.
Dear Col.
    The maximum amount allowed in your letter of instructions to Captain Miller for medical attendance to the Indians on this reservation is too small a remuneration for the vast amount of duty required of a physician, especially as he is expected to hire his own help. No one can be obtained to render the least assistance short of $300. Even were I to dispense all the medicines to the Indians myself and perform all the filthy details necessary for their proper treatment, still someone is necessary to see to their wants in my absence so that they will not bore Capt. Miller or the officers of the garrison by lying around awaiting my return. This is an item of expense that I am sure you did not take under consideration in fixing the allowance, and I would therefore request that the maximum may be put at $1200. This is $300 less than I supposed would be allowed when I was first requested to attend the Indians. Taking all things in consideration, however, it is perhaps better that I should not receive so much as $1500, but could you see the number of severe cases of disease under my daily treatment you would readily grant that the amount asked for is only a moderate compensation for indispensable services.
    If you have any forms for making out the monthly sick report please send me a copy. Or, as I am not considered as the regular surgeon, shall all reports be dispensed with except the quarterly?
    By the bye, is it absolutely necessary in making the quarterly report of expenditure of medicine to report the name of each person to whom the medicine may be issued? (I sometimes prescribe for 40 in a single day.) Or will a form similar to the enclosed answer?
    Please consider this letter as unofficial, and I will promise to bore you no more.
    My kindest regards to Mrs. N., and a kiss for Jane and Harriet if they are not too big for such attentions.
Yours truly
    R. Glisan
Col. Nesmith
    Salem
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 132.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, May 15th 1858.
Sir,
    Enclosed I have the honor to forward the following contracts for flour and beef for subsistence of the Indians located upon the Siletz and Grand Ronde reservations. Contract with Moses Weil for delivery at Siletz Agency of forty thousand pounds of fresh beef per month for six months. Contract with John C. Bell for delivery at Grand Ronde Agency of thirty thousand pounds of fresh beef per month.
    Contract with J. C. Ainsworth for delivery at Siletz Agency of one hundred tons of flour.
    As you will perceive by the enclosed contracts, the contractors are to be paid "when Congress shall make appropriations for that purpose, and the funds are remitted by the Treasury Department." These contracts were all executed prior to the receipt of your instructions of April 2nd, in relation to which I have written you at length under this date.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Comr. Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 384-396.  Contracts not transcribed.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, May 15th 1858.
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 2nd referring to the estimates submitted from this office for deficiencies in the current fiscal year, together with my estimates for 1859, and which contains the gratifying intelligence that my estimates had met with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior and had been "transmitted to Congress for appropriations."
    Your letter also cautions me against incurring any liabilities in advance of the appropriations, and informs me that "the Secretary of the Interior had disapproved of the course pursued in my Superintendency heretofore in incurring liabilities beyond the amount of appropriations made for the Indian service therein." In this connection I desire to call your attention to the following extract of your letter of April 2nd returning the papers in the case of Perrin B. Whitman, as follows: "I have to state that the course pursued by you in the management of the Indian service within your Superintendency as specified in your circular of the 8th July 1857 meets with the approval of this office, with the exception of the license given in rules 3 and 5 to agents to incur liabilities beyond the means in hand to meet them; this must not be allowed, and you will in this respect change your circular, instructing agents not to exceed in any event the funds that may be from time to time turned over to them by you."
    The foregoing quotations from your two letters of April 2nd, without conveying a direct or positive order on the subject, would seem to indicate a determination on the part of the Department to change the whole policy now being pursued within this Superintendency, and which if adopted must result in the discontinuance of subsisting the Indians now being guarded by the military on the different reservations, and turn them loose to rob, plunder and murder their white neighbors.
    It does not seem to me possible that you intend that I should adopt such a course, yet it is difficult for me to come to any other conclusion, knowing as I do that the facts relative to the true condition of Indian affairs here have so often been presented to you in detail by myself within the last year. And I desire to say again that without reference to the immense bodies of Indians who are running at large in the neighborhood of Puget Sound and east of the Cascade Mountains in both Territories, that these are collected and being subsisted upon the different reservations, and under military surveillance in Oregon alone [are] four thousand Indians who are solely dependent upon the government for their daily rations of beef and flour. There are also upon those reservations large improvements of a permanent character, besides extensive growing crops.
    The expenses of collecting those Indians and removing them to their present locations have been very great; they are becoming reconciled to the change from abject barbarism and open hostility, and the moment the government stops their supplies they return to both and resume the use of the tomahawk and scalping knife
    The money appropriated for the feeding of those people, and to maintain peaceable relations with them for the current fiscal year, has all long since been exhausted, and liabilities have already been incurred, which added to what will be required to continue the present system of the 30th of June next (the end of the present fiscal year) will amount to the sum of $362,245.09, which I asked for in my deficiency estimates.
    The extracts from your letter already quoted would seem to indicate that the true state of things is not understood at Washington and that the question of the expenses of the service here was one entirely under the control of the officers of the Department, and that when the sum appropriated by Congress had become exhausted it should become my duty to let the Indians loose for indiscriminate robbery and murder and collect them again as soon as Congress in its wisdom shall make the necessary appropriations. I must be permitted to differ from this policy, believing as I do that the government in collecting those Indians and locating them upon reservations not only intended to protect the whites in their lives and property, but also intended to confer some permanent and lasting benefit upon the Indians themselves which would eventually enable them to procure their own subsistence by the peaceful pursuit of agriculture. If such is the intention of the government, the efforts to accomplish it must be continuous--no spasmodic or intermittent efforts will accomplish the object. Now I have an earnest and sincere desire to comply with the letter of your instructions, but to issue the orders you require me to in relation to the 3rd & 5th rules of my circular of July 8th 1857 would result in the most disastrous consequences, ruinous alike to the Indian and the whites. Such an order to agents totally destitute of funds can only verify my predictions. I shall therefore hold it in abeyance until you can be heard from again, and in the meantime would earnestly and respectfully ask you to consider the importance of the questions involved, and if consistent to modify your instructions of the 2nd of April 1858. I would also beg leave to refer you to Genl. Lane, our delegate in Congress, for a corroboration of the views I have already expressed.
    In this connection I would also refer you to your letter of the 14th September 1857, in which you fully approve of my circular of July 8th 1859, without reservation or exception, as follows: "Your letter of the 18th July last enclosing circular of instructions issued to the agents within your Superintendency is received, and in reply thereto I have to say that the course pursued by you in this respect is highly satisfactory to the Department, and that the character and tenor of the instructions referred to meets with its approbation."
    In conclusion, I beg leave to express my sincere regrets that our great distance from the federal capital, together with the difficulties and embarrassed state of our Indian affairs here, has so often rendered it necessary for me in the discharge of my official duties to express sentiments differing from those entertained by the chief of my Department. I have labored assiduously for one year in efforts to discharge my duties, and to benefit the service by reducing the business of the office to something like system and order, and I cannot now involve the country in war, and my fellow citizens in disaster, by a compliance with your instructions.
    Under this state of facts I would respectfully ask for a reexamination of the questions, and if it is determined to carry out the policy indicated by your letter of April 2nd, upon the receipt of such decision I will comply with your order, first withdrawing the agents & employees, and as much as possible of the public property from the reservations, and leave the military to settle the question as best they can with the Indians. In this event there will be no further necessity or use for agents, sub-agents, interpreters or employees, as the condition of the Indians will be such as to prevent and preclude any intercourse between them and civil officers.
    In the event of the adjournment of Congress without making the necessary appropriations for the Indian service within this Superintendency before this reaches you, I would respectfully request that this communication, together with all the facts in relation to our Indian affairs, have been laid before the President in order that such steps may be taken as the importance of the subject demands.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Comr. ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 397-406.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon May 17th 1858
Sir,
    If it is not incompatible with your duties at the Grand Ronde, I should be glad to have you visit the southern portion of Oregon for the purpose of acquiring information with reference to the numbers and condition of the Indians who inhabit the country in the neighborhood of Klamath Lake.
    You will ascertain if possible their feelings and disposition towards the whites and also the results likely to flow from their visits to the settlements. You will ascertain also as far as possible their wishes in relation to a sale of a portion of their country. You are at liberty to use your own discretion with reference to making the trip, and in the event of your going it is desirable that you return to your agency as speedily as possible, at which time you will report to this office the result of your mission.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    John F. Miller Esq.
        Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde Reservation O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 220.



Jacksonville, Oregon
    May 29th 1858
Dear Sir
    When I was in Salem I left with Mr. Barnhart the testimony relative to some property that was destroyed belonging to Martin Angel at the time he was killed by the Indians. Herewith I enclose the letters of administration on his estate, which I wish filed with the proof and transmitted to the Department at Washington City with the testimony relative to the loss of the property.
    The election in this county will be closer than I anticipated at the time I was at Salem, but the whole of the Democratic ticket will be elected except Beggs, and possibly he may be.
    Grover will carry this county by at least 250 majority, but he will get the highest majority of any candidate on the ticket. Several of the independent opposition candidates are not making any exertions. Dr. McCully says he does not wish to be elected. Major Ball is doing his best against Mr. Duncan for sheriff, and Tolman will in all probability beat Beggs for county judge. The balance of the independent ticket will increase the Democratic majorities.
Yours very respectfully
    B. F. Dowell
J. W. Nesmith Superintendent of
    Indian Affairs--Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, no number (at end of reel).



Dayton O.T. June 10th 1858
Sir
    Your letter, desiring to be informed whether the late Benjamin Wright was authorized to appoint local Indian agents in the Port Orford district, has been received.
    In reply, and to show such authority, I enclose one of the circulars addressed to the agents and sub-agents in the Indian Department at the commencement of hostilities. In the last section of this circular you will notice that Mr. Wright had that authority, and the Department at Washington have full knowledge of that fact, for one of the circulars was sent to the Department, and it is among the published correspondence called for by direction of Congress upon the subject of the Indian war in Oregon and Washington Territories, in addition to which I have written several times to the Department advising them that Mr. Wright had all the authority that I could confer upon him in my official capacity as local agent.
    In explanation of the mess chest, coffee boiler &c., which you state were left with Mr. Dunbar, I have to say that those articles were sent to me by Mr. Dunbar, and I turned these over to Supt. Hedges, all of which were included in his receipt to me, and they stand to my credit without any change to balance the account, for I presume it was not stated from whom they were received.
    This statement will doubtless be sufficient to induce them to pass those items in your account. They are made however from memory alone, for I have not time now to overhaul files of papers to investigate the particular details. I may say, however, that all those articles were so worn out in the service as to be nearly valueless.
I am sir very
    Respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Late Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To N. Olney Esq.
    Late Ind. Agent
        Fort Dalles
            Oregon
   

REGULATIONS
FOR THE GUIDANCE OF AGENTS IN THE OREGON INDIAN SUPERINTENDENCY
PENDING EXISTING HOSTILITIES.

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs,
    Dayton, O.T., Oct. 13th, 1855.
    It is hereby ordered that the Indians in the Willamette Valley, parties to the treaty of the 10th January, 1855, shall be forthwith collected on the temporary reservations heretofore or now to be assigned to them, to remain under the direction of such persons as may be appointed to act for the time being as their local agents.
    The names of all adult males, and boys over 12 years of age, shall be enrolled, and the roll called daily.
    When anyone shall be absent at roll call, the fact shall be noted, and unless a satisfactory reason be rendered, the absentee shall be regarded as a person dangerous to the peace of the country, and dealt with accordingly.
    Any Indian found outside of his designated temporary reservation, without being able to satisfactorily account therefor, shall be arrested and retained in custody so long as shall be deemed necessary, or should he be a stranger not belonging to any of the bands of this valley, he shall be placed for safekeeping in the county jail, or taken to Fort Vancouver.
    But should he prove a spy from the enemy, he will be immediately turned over to the military authorities.
    Any Indian who has joined or may hereafter join the hostile bands, give them information, or in any way aid or assist them in making war against the whites, shall be regarded as having thereby forfeited all rights under the treaty, and excluded from any benefits to be derived therefrom. He will, moreover, be regarded as an enemy, and it will be the duty of all friendly Indians to deliver up such to the agents or civil officers, and in no case to afford them encouragement or protection.
    The persons designated to act as local agents will use a sound discretion in regard to the number of firearms the Indians may be permitted to retain at their encampments.
    No Indian will be permitted to leave his assigned encampment unless by written permit from the local or special agent.
    The local agents will each be furnished with proper supplies of flour and beef, and will issue rations to the Indians when necessary of one pound each per day to each adult, and less in proportion to children, as they may judge them to require.
    Should any member of these bands desire to reside with and labor for the settlers, he may be permitted to do so, the agent obtaining a guarantee from the person for whom the labor is to be performed, in each case, for the fidelity and good conduct of the Indian.
    Every effort will be made by the local agents to ascertain whether any Indians of the valley have left the settlements with hostile intentions, and the names of such, together with the proofs, will be reported to this office.
    E. R. Geary will superintend the arrangement of encampments and designate persons to act as local agents for the respective bands.
    Berryman Jennings is appointed special sub-Indian agent for the Willamette Valley, and as such will cooperate with Mr. Geary in carrying into effect the foregoing regulations.
    The encampments assigned the several bands, and the name of the local agent for each, will be reported to this office, and published in the papers of this valley for the benefit of all concerned.
    The same precautions will be observed in regard to the tribes and bands within this Superintendency embraced in the treaties lately negotiated east of the Cascade Mountains, and Agent R. R. Thompson will assign the temporary encampments to the several bands and designate proper persons to act as local agents, call the rolls and distribute the necessary rations.
    Agent Ambrose will make similar arrangements in regard to the Indians in the Rogue River District, embraced in the treaties of the 10th September, 1853, and 18th November, 1854.
    The various rolls will be kept with accuracy and care and forwarded to the Superintendent's office at Dayton, it being determined to make these rolls the criterion in the payment of annuities, and no Indian whose name is not enrolled, and who cannot give a satisfactory reason for the omission, or who shall refuse to comp]y with the foregoing regulations, shall be embraced in said payment.
    This order, though it may be regarded as arbitrary and unwarranted in the ordinary state of affairs, is, in view of existing hostilities, deemed necessary, as it is extremely difficult to distinguish among our Indian population, the well disposed and friendly from the vicious and hostile, and from the fact that representations have been made warranting the belief that members of one or more bands have already left this valley and joined the hostile tribes north of the Columbia River.
    The measure is deemed no less a security to the white settlements than to the friendly bands of Indians, nor is it designed to abridge in the least the rights secured by the treaties to the Indians, but if possible to avert hostilities with these bands.
    Citizens generally are requested to give this order a proper interpretation, and to exercise a due degree of forbearance in their dealings with the Indians, but at the same time to keep a vigilant watch over them, and report to the acting agents the presence of strange Indians among us, and render such aid in their apprehension as may tend to protect our persons and property, and secure peace.
Joel Palmer,
    Superintendent Indian Affairs.
    Since preparing the foregoing regulations, information has been received at this office that a portion of the Indians in Southern Oregon and Northern California have exhibited hostile demonstrations endangering the peace of the settlements in Umpqua Valley; it is, therefore, ordered that the Indians embraced in the treaties of 19th September, 1853, being the Cow Creek band of Umpquas and those of the Umpqua and Calapooia tribes, treated with on the 29th November, 1854, be assembled on the reservation designated by that treaty.
    William J. Martin is appointed special sub-Ind. agent for the bands embraced in these two treaties, and as such will cooperate with Agent Ge. H. Ambrose in carrying out the foregoing regulations.
    Sub-Indian Agent E. P. Drew, and special Sub-Indian Agent Benjamin Wright, will, if they believe the peace of the settlements requires it, adopt the same precautions with the tribes and bands within their districts.
Joel Palmer,
    Supt. Ind. Affairs, O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 555-559.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City O.T. June 16 / 58
Gen.--
    By an express just arrived from the south I learn that Wm. Tichenor Esqr., formerly spec. Ind. agent, is a few miles below this station with (67) sixty-seven Indian squaws & children of the Chetco & Pistol River bands beside the squaws & children which he now has with him. He had when he left Chetco fifteen (15) men, all of which were shot by Tichenor's party near Port Orford while attempting to escape. They had threatened to leave for the mountains two days previous. The regulars were sent into that country, sixty (60) men under Lieut. Ihrie, yet as they had orders (as I understand) to remain only ten (10) days, nothing was accomplished, their orders being such that they were bound to obey & they left with a loss of one man (a packer) killed & twelve (12) mules shot.
    A volunteer company has been organized & are now in the mountains. They have a few pack animals with them & may accomplish their object. The country at present is unsafe to travel through between Crescent City & Port Orford. Capt. Tichenor for his perseverance, his fearless & intrepid daring & more than all for his success merits the confidence & good wishes of all settlers in that remote region & the pecuniary considerations of the Indian Department.
    It was my intention to start for your office today, yet Tichenor's arrival will delay me perhaps two days. After Tichenor's arrival should he arrive before the closing of the mail north I will address you further if necessary. In the meantime
I remain
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. [svt.]
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
To
    Gen. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 151.   The true story of the Tichenor massacre was told in an 1884 article in the Overland Monthly.



Headquarters Fort Umpqua O.T.
    June 17th 1858
Sir
    I hardly know how to report certain circumstances in relation to a party of Indians--mostly Chetcos--from below, who arrived here yesterday and will, I am told, remain on this reserve until sent for by the agent on the Siletz Reservation. They consist entirely of women and children, with two wounded, half-grown boys.
    Mr. W. Tichenor, who has them in charge, called at my office last evening. He stated that he gathered in this party on his own responsibility. (He was acting as a sub-agent, under authority, in Jany. and Feby. last, when the party of Indians, for which Lieut. Lorain's command was sent, were assembled on the Chetco River and brought through this reservation to the Siletz.) That the Indian men in the party--say 15 in number--tried several times to effect an escape and return to their old haunts, and he was convinced from the report of some of the squaws that at a certain place on the route they would make another attempt, and that in consequence he so disposed of the men in his employ that when the point was reached they fell upon these Indians, killing fourteen of them and wounding the two boys--one Indian man, a squaw & some few children escaped.
    That authority, if any, Mr. Tichenor had to act in the premises I do not know. I infer from his own statement that he had none, directly.
    Doctor E. P. Drew, sub-agent for the Umpqua Indians, resides on the reservation adjoining the post. He left here yesterday for Salem O.T., where the Superintendent of Indian Affairs resides. I am told he sent a letter to Mr. Metcalfe, the agent on the Siletz Reservation, where these Indians are to be located, informing him of their arrival here, and requesting him to send for them. I further hear that neither Mr. Tichenor nor any of his employees will go farther with these Indians.
    I am at no little loss what to do. These poor creatures are in a sad condition, and must not be permitted to starve, neither here, nor on their journey of at least some fourteen days travel. Doctor Drew, I learn from one of his employees, intends sending some supplies for them from Scottsburg. The regulations permit the sale of provisions to Indian agents, but for cash only--and they have not a dollar--also Indians visiting military posts can be furnished in moderation. I shall feel obliged, on the score of humanity, if these women and children cannot be subsisted otherwise, to issue provisions to them, and charge the amount on returns to the Indian Department at Washington, through the subsistence department. This is a case that can hardly happen again, and I sincerely hope it never will.
    I beg to have the sanction of the general commanding the Department for whatever I may feel it my duty to do. It may be advisable and even necessary to send these people to their reservation with an escort and a small number of govt. mules for packing, etc.
Most respectfully
    Your obedt. svt.
        Jno. B. Scott
            Major 3rd. Arty.
                Commdg.
Major W. W. Mackall
    Asst. Adjt. Genl. U.S.A.
        Hd. Qrs. Dept. of the Pacific
            San Francisco
                Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 178.  The true story of the Tichenor massacre may have been told in an 1884 article in the Overland Monthly.



Fort Umpqua, O.T.
    19th June, 1858.
To
    Col. Nesmith
        Supt. Indian Dept. O.T.
            Salem O.T.
                Sir:
                    It affords me much gratification and pleasure to bear testimony to the efficient, ceaseless and judicious efforts of Mr. Wm. Tichenor of Port Orford, O.T., in securing and safely conducting to the Grand Ronde Reservation the families of several bands of Indians, the warriors of which, two years ago, were in open hostilities to the whites, and the unpunished perpetrators of numerous murders and depredations.
    Apart from the reimbursement of necessary and unavoidable expenditures, a liberal, prompt compensation for his most valuable services would be but a simple act of justice.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. svt.
            George P. Ihrie
                1st Lt. 3rd Arty.
                    Comdg. Co. "B," 3rd Arty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 160.



Grand Ronde Agency
    June 21st 1858
Sir
    In pursuance of instructions from you, dated May 17th, directing me to visit the southern portion of Oregon for the purpose of acquiring information with reference to the number and condition of the Indians who inhabit the country in the neighborhood of Klamath Lake in Oregon, I proceeded to Jacksonville, and on my arrival consulted with a number of the oldest settlers of that section of country.
    I found there a few Indians belonging to La Lake's band.
    The Indians who inhabit the neighborhood of Klamath Lake and who reside in Oregon consist of La Lake's band, the Modocs and the Piutes. These bands occupy the country extending from the crossing of the Klamath River to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, enclosing the Klamath Lake, Tule Lake, Goose Lake and Lost River country. From east to west it is about 240 miles and about 50 miles from north to south, a portion of which is a very fine farming and grazing country.
    The actual number of these Indians is extremely difficult to ascertain, but the nearest estimate I can make is about six hundred. They subsist mostly on fish and fowl, which they procure from the lakes in abundance. They have but little stock.
    They are a poor, indolent and thievish race, and have been a great detriment to the growth and prosperity of our southern country, their proximity to the settlements rendering the lives and property of our citizens to say the least very precarious.
    These Indians have committed a great many depredations on the lives and property of the emigrants, as well as on the permanent settlers of the country.
    They are continually hovering around the settlements, stealing horses and stock, and unless something is done by the government to place them under control it is impossible to say at what moment an outbreak may [take] place.
    I have but little doubt they could be induced to sell a part of their lands, reserving a small portion on which they could be restrained and protected.
    In the meantime I deem it indispensable that a military post should be established in their country, as it would be impossible for any agent to go amongst them unless protected by a military force.
    The United States survey is now being extended through the country inhabited by these bands, and I have made arrangements with a gentleman in Jacksonville to furnish me a plot of the same as soon as this survey is complete, which I think will be in time for my annual report.
[John F. Miller]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 162.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon June 23rd 1858
Sir
    Acknowledging the receipt of your letter of the 12th instant enclosing an account against the Washington Territory Superintendency.
    In reply I have to say that before the account can be paid at this office it must be made out in duplicate; each of the accounts must be accompanied by a copy of the advertisement together with the affidavit of some person knowing to the facts, and stating the number of insertions, and that the notice was published by late Superintendent Stevens' order. The absence of Governor Stevens' certificate to the account makes this sort of proof necessary. Enclosed I return to you the papers.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Alex Blakely Esq.
        Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 230.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, June 26th 1858.
Sir:
    Enclosed I transmit the resignation of W. W. Raymond, sub-Ind. agent in Oregon Territory, and would respectfully recommend that it be accepted and that Henry H. Brown be appointed to the vacancy.
    Before I took charge of the Superintendency Mr. Raymond had been in charge of the Grand Ronde Reservation. The amount of property and money turned over to him by late Supt. Hedges and Palmer was necessarily large, and for which he had failed to render his accounts. He had been relieved from duty at the Grand Ronde by Mr. Hedges, my immediate predecessor, before I came into office, and assigned to mere nominal duty at Tillamook in order to give him an opportunity to make up his accounts, but he has rendered none since I came into office, and if he had not tendered his resignation I should have deemed it my duty to suspend him. I have turned over no funds or property to him for some time, and have refused to pay him his salary for the 1st & 2nd quarters of 1858 until he shall render his accounts. I would respectfully ask the decision of the Department whether or not, under the circumstances, I am justifiable in withholding his salary.
    The liabilities contracted by Sub-Agent Raymond on behalf of the Indian Department are being paid by myself upon presentation with proper proofs at this office.
    The emergencies of the service render it desirable that the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Raymond's resignation should be speedily filled.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O. &W.T.
To Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Comr. Ind. Affs.
        Washington D.C.
   

Salem May 17 1858
Sir
    This respectfully informs you of my resignation of the office of sub-Indian agent for Oregon Territory.
    I would ask to be relieved at the close of the present quarter.
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. W. Raymond
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 413-416.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, June 28th 1858.
Sir:
    Among the property received from my immediate predecessor in office was a lot of 45 cast-iron plows. These plows are so utterly worthless that no agent will receipt for them, although in want of plows--neither will the Indians receive them as presents. They are stored at an expense entirely disproportionate to their value, viz: two dollars per month for the lot, and which is as low as they can be stored in a place of safety.
    I desire to be instructed by you to sell those plows, or dispose of them in some manner that the unnecessary expense to the government incurred on them may cease.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Comr. Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 409-410.



Fort Umpqua O.T.
    June 30th 1858
General
    A party of Chetco Indians--fifty-three in number--consisting entirely of women and children, arrived here on the 16th inst. from "Chetco River," Southern Oregon, in charge of a citizen--Mr. Tichenor--on their way to the Siletz Reservation, some seventy miles north of this place, and where the Chetco Indians are located.
    They were in a sad condition, and almost destitute of food.
    The Indian agent in charge of the Umpqua Indians on the reservation contiguous to this place had no supplies to furnish this party with, or funds to purchase. (He left the morning after the Indians arrived for Salem, O.T., the residence of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in this region.)
    This party was obliged to remain here until they could be sent for by the agent in charge of the Siletz Reservation, and I deemed it my duty to supply them with some food.
    Accordingly, I directed the A.A.C.S. to issue to them and make out an account against the Indian Bureau, Dept. of the Interior, which will be sent to your Department with his returns.
    These Indians were taken in charge by a chief of their own tribe, and left on the 23rd inst. It will take them about seven days to reach their final destination.
Most respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        J. B. Scott
            Major 3rd Arty.
                Commdg.
Major Genl. Geo. Gibson
    Commdg. Genl. of Subs., U.S. Army
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 645-649.  Accounts not transcribed.



Grand Ronde O.T.
    June 30th 1858.
Sir--
    In accordance with the requirements of the Indian Department I have the honor to submit a few remarks upon the general sanitary condition of the Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation during the quarter ending June the 30th 1858.
    With the exception of the whooping cough no unusual disease has prevailed among them. This complaint, after overrunning the white settlements of Yamhill Valley, found its way to the Grand Ronde early in April last, and is spreading quite rapidly over the reservation. It is ordinarily a very simple, though troublesome, malady, and is only dangerous when complicated with some other disease, as for instance inflammation of the lungs. Indians are more liable to this complication than the whites, who can and do take better care of themselves when sick.
    There is not perhaps an Indian on the reservation who has not at some period had the venereal disease, which is still very prevalent.
    It is supposed by many that this affection [sic--"infection"] was originally communicated to them by the whites. If so, the latter are being fully repaid for their kindness.
    The Indians suffer greatly from gonorrheal ophthalmia. Diarrhea and dysentery have prevailed to a  considerable extent during the quarter, and there have been a few severe cases of pneumonia. There has also been some miasmatic fever, which in most instances originated elsewhere.
    Although the mortality from consumption has been much less within the last three months than during any similar period since the Indians were placed on the reservation, yet it continues to be by far the most fatal malady, especially with the Rogue River Indians, and is mainly attributed to the change in their mode of life and climate.
    In Rogue River Valley the exercise of hunting, fishing, stealing and occasionally fighting was more congenial to their wild and savage nature, and hence more conducive to health than their present sedentary habits. They there enjoyed a warmer summer temperature and had not so much rain in winter. The cool and bracing northwest wind, and cool nights, which under the summer mountain climate of this region is desirable to the hearty, robust, well-clothed and acclimated American, is fatal to the homesick, illy clad and unacclimated Indian.
    The anaconda-like habit of gourmandizing seven days food in four or five, and half starving the remainder of the week, is also no small item in their bill of ill health.
    In course of time these things will change, and then the Indians will cease to consider this a sickly country.
    Instead of being unhealthy, the meteorological and geological features of the reservation indicate at least an ordinary, if not an unusual, degree of salubrity. And the little sickness that prevails among the white inhabitants of this vicinity is confirmatory of the same thing.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan M.D.
                Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 158.



Washington City D.C.
    July 3rd 1858
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            In 1855 or '6 at the request of Mr. Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Oregon, an examination was made by the U.S. Dist. Atty. of a claim set up against the U.S. by Dart, ex-Supt. The examination was carefully made by Mr. W. H. Farrar, Dist. Atty., who went to Oregon City for the purpose. When his services were completed the bill for the atty. was given to Mr. Palmer to be forwarded, but since then Mr. Farrar has heard nothing of it.
    May I ask that the account of Mr. Farrar may be promptly considered & payment made to him?
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. Q. Washington
            in behalf of Mr. Farrar
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 734-735.



Jacksonville July 10th 1858
Hon. J. W. Nesmith
    Sup. Ind. Affairs,
        Sir,
            On the 9th July 1857 I forwarded to your department the claim and vouchers of Wm. N. Lynch, for animals killed by Indians &c. Mr. Lynch requests that they may be returned to me.
Respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Wm. Hoffman
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 175.



Headquarters, Dept. of the Pacific
    Fort Vancouver W.T. July 10, 1858.
Sir;
    Brigadier General Clarke directs me to enclose you a letter from Major Scott, 3rd Artillery, commanding Fort Umpqua.
    The General knows not the authority on which Mr. Tichenor acted, but is satisfied you have never sanctioned acts which as represented he can never approve.
    The Major should be relieved from the charge of these Indians, and the General hopes it will be in your power so to do.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        W. W. Mackall
            A. A. Genl.
To
    Colonel J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Salem
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 166b.



    Capt. Tichenor informs us that a party of men from Rogue River have captured the two bucks and fifteen squaws and children remaining in that country, and that the whole of Southern Oregon is now clear of Indians, and that no fear need be entertained by any who wish to travel over the country or mountains. The two bucks were tied to trees after their capture and shot, and Tichenor says "that was right." The squaws and children will be brought to the reserve.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 13, 1858, page 2




New York 16th July 1858.
Dear Sir,
    I take the liberty of offering my services as a negotiator of peace with the Indian tribes of Oregon and Washington Territories. During my three years service in that country as the Superintendent of Indian Affairs I succeeded in gaining the confidence of all the tribes of Indians in that country. Therefore I trust I could render an important service to the government at this time by negotiating a settlement of all the difficulties now existing with the Indians of that country.
    I have no private ends to answer in this proposition, and if desired would act as a private and confidential agent of the government.
I have the honor to
    Be very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Supt. of Ind. Affrs. for Oregon
His Excellency
    James Buchanan
        President of the
            United States
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 150-151.



New York 17th July 1858
Dear Sir,
    You will remember that in Jany. last I offered my services to the government as a peace commissioner in the difficulties with Utah. I now propose to act as an agent of the government in amicably settling the present difficulties with the Indian tribes of Oregon & Washington Territories.
    Having been entirely successful in gaining the confidence of all the Indian tribes of that country during my three years stay there as the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, I should undertake the enterprise with the utmost confidence of being able to render valuable service to the government.
    I will if desired to do so return to Washington without delay to consult with you on this subject.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your
        Obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Supt. &c.
The Hon. lewis Cass
    Secretary of State
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 152-153.



Siletz Agency July 21st 1858
Dear Sir
    On the receipt of your letter of instructions, I immediately informed all the employees that their wages were reduced, and they have all except my brother and Charley Rand determined to leave the reservation. It is just the time when their services are most needed harvesting and putting in a crop of wheat. I cannot get good men for the price mentioned in your instructions, and bad or worthless men I do not want. The farmers say to work for seventy-five dollars per month, board themselves and then sell their scrip for eighty cents on the dollar will not pay them, so I have determined to let them go and trust to the Indian labor to save the crop and put in a new crop. My carpenter and blacksmith also leave. The services of a blacksmith are almost indispensable, and if you can hire a good man please send me one for that service. I will attend to the farming operations myself, and for the future require the Indians to do all the labor necessary for their support free of cost to the government, say commencing after the present crop is harvested, and in fact the labor that is done now preparatory to putting in a new crop will be done free of cost. My annual report will be completed in a few days. I have notified the Indians that we would discontinue issuing beef out the end of the present contract, and those who failed to put up salmon would have to do without, and they have begun to make preparation for catching and drying salmon.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 176.



Fort Umpqua O.T.
    July 26th 1858
Sir
    Yours of the 16th inst. was received yesterday on the 19th inst. Sixteen Indians--all women and children--arrived at the reservation from Pistol River on their way to the Siletz Reservation. Mr. Tichenor, specl. agent, arrived the same day from Salem, and took charge of them.
    As they were destitute of supplies, Mr. Tichenor applied to me for provisions and I have issued what he required.
    He sent at once to the agent above to send for these Indians, and left himself on the 21st for Pistol River to collect as he stated the few remaining Indians in that neighborhood.
    Your Indians came here this morning from the Yaquina to take charge of these Indians, and all have left for that place.
Most respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        Jno. B. Scott
            Major 3rd Arty.
                Commdg.
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        O. & W.T.
            Salem
                Oregon Ter.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 197.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon July 27th 1858
Sir,
    Your communication of the 10th inst., requesting the return to you of the spoliation claim of Wm. N. Lynch, has been received; in reply I have to inform [you] that the claim referred to was transmitted by me to the Department at Washington on the 15th of November last.
    Enclosed you will please find your postage stamps returned.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Wm. Hoffman Esq.
        Jacksonville
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10.



Dayton Oregon Territory
    28 July 1858
Sir
    Permit me again to call your attention to the claims of James P. Day decd. against the Indian Department, of which you last autumn wrote me, and which now has been before the Department near two years. Every evidence to authorize the payment of this debt has before been produced. And for the sake of the relief it would afford the widow and family of Mr. Day, I hope it may meet your earliest convenient attention. Please allow me to hear from you in due time, that, in the event you find that you are not authorized to pay the amount, that I may place it before Congress asking special appropriation for that end.
Most respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        C. M. Walker
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Commissioner Ind. Affs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 736-737.



Janesville Wis.
    August 11th 1858
Dear Sir,
    I hold an "award" which was made in favor of Mr. D. N. Birdseye by L. F. Grover, A. C. Gibbs and Geo. H. Ambrose as "commissioners appointed to examine and audit claims of citizens for property destroyed by the Rogue River tribe of Indians during the war with said Indians in 1853." This is Award 16 as numbered by the commissioners. The amount is $211.50. I took this from Mr. Birdseye on the day that I left Rogue River Valley in payment for a sum of money due to me which he could not remit at the day, because I did not desire to have any matters that need to call me back to that part again, understanding at the time that Congress had appropriated one third of the amount, and that the money had already been sent, or would soon be forwarded to the Supt. Indian Affairs with instructions to so apply it.
    The amount that is due from this said appropriation upon Award No. 16 has not been paid. And my object in addressing you at this time upon the subject is to apply for this sum that was appropriated and sent to Supt. Palmer with instructions to pay these awards, pro rata, as provided by act of Congress.
    If that fund on reaching its destination was improperly used to pay other debts, is there any reason why an equal sum ought not to be taken from whatever fund this spoliation money was wrongfully applied to, that it may be used to pay the specific debt that Congress actually and specifically appropriated the money to pay.
    I hope that it may be deemed proper by you to take from whatever fund this spoliation money was applied to and return it to its legitimate object. Indeed if this cannot be done, those who are entitled to pay under the act of Congress may never received it, although each holder of an "award" of the commissioners is as much entitled to his pay as though each individually was named in the act of Congress.
    It is safe to assume that there is a way to correct this wrong, otherwise a public officer deficient in capacity or who lacks integrity may do an imparable injury to a large community, which no successor could remedy, for Congress would certainly be slow to make a second appropriation for the same purpose.
    Dr. Ralph Wilcox, register [of the] land office at Oregon City, now has the award, and any receipt that he will give touching the award I consider as binding upon me.
    If from any cause you do not feel authorized to pay it, then please to give such information touching the prospect
of its payment and the steps necessary to be taken to secure it as may be required.
And oblige
    Your friend
        S. H. Culver
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affairs Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 230.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Aug. 13th 1858.
Sir,
    I desire to call your attention to the necessity of an early remittance of the funds for annuities for the different tribes with whom we have treaties within this Superintendency.
    I also beg leave to suggest that it is important that the entire amount of the appropriations for the present fiscal year for treaty purposes be forwarded at a single remittance.
    The wants of the Indians require that the payment of annuities should take place in the fall, and before the rainy season sets in, so that they may be provided with clothing for the winter. If the purchase of an entire year's annuities could be made at once it would be a great saving to the government in transportation, and in the expense incident to the distribution. This is particularly true in relation to the tribes located at the Siletz and Coast Reservation, as a vessel will have to be chartered to transport the goods to the reservation. It is difficult to accomplish it during the winter season, besides, the cost of transporting them in two different lots will be double what it would [be] to send them all at once.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 417-419.



New York 16th Aug. 1858.
Sir,
    Some weeks since I wrote to the Secretary of State, offering to the government my services in the amicable settlement of the Indian difficulties in the Territories of Oregon and Washington, since which I am informed by the State Department that my propositions have been referred to the Department of the Interior.
    I should never have made the offer in question if there was any doubt about the success of the undertaking on my part, or of its being the true policy of the government.
    Anyone who knows those Indians and their country as well as I do cannot be a true friend to this administration if he or they advocate war measures in the settlement of Indian difficulties in that country.
    In a peaceful settlement of all the Indian troubles in question, my services are at the command of the government.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
        Anson Dart
            Late Supt. &c.
The Hon.
    J. Thompson
        Secretary of the
            Interior at
                Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 154-156.



Siletz Agency
    Aug. 20th 1858
Dear Sir
    If the seines which were ordered sometime since have been received, you will please have them shipped to Corvallis, and I will send for them as soon as I learn of their arrival. The fall salmon are beginning to run up the Siletz, and in three weeks they will be quite abundant. Please do not let us be disappointed in getting the seines, for much will depend upon getting them in time.
    We had a heavy frost on the night of the fourth inst. which killed about ten acres of our potatoes at the "Old John place," besides injuring those at the other farms very much, but we will still have quite as much as calculated upon. I am getting along with my harvest well, have put up enough hay for all my stock this winter and making preparation to sow a large crop of wheat this fall. I have discontinued the practice of drawing orders on the store belonging to Bledsoe, and find no difficulty in getting all the labor I want for articles which I have in the gov. store and think there will be no difficulty in making each tribe do all the labor necessary for their support without pay when my goods are gone. Stopping their flour has stimulated them very much, and they are making a large number of canoes for catching salmon this fall.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 206.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 20th 1858.
Sir,
    I desire to call your attention to the fact that, though nearly two months of the present fiscal year have expired, not a dollar has been received applicable to the expenses of the same.
    The prospect of claimants who furnished supplies during the last fiscal year being kept out of their pay for a year or two, by reason of the delays growing out of the Senate amendment to the appropriation bill, has given the death blow to the credit of the Department here, and we are now compelled to pay from ten to 20 percent above the cash market value for the indispensable current supplies of the service.
    The commissioner said to have been appointed by the Secretary of the Interior to audit outstanding claims has not yet arrived.
    I would respectfully request that funds be remitted for current expenses as well as for salaries of Supt., agents and sub-agents & interpreters for the 3rd & 4th qrs. 1858. In this connection I beg leave to suggest that if funds for current expenses could be remitted in advance of each quarter, so as to enable the officers here to pay for supplies as they purchase them, that it would result in a saving of from ten to twenty percent to the government.
    The delays in paying outstanding claims against the Department within this Superintendency have heretofore been so great that it is now difficult to convince anyone that purchases made on credit will not be delayed a year or two for payment, notwithstanding the money may for months been appropriated by Congress [sic].
    With all the economy that can be practiced within this Superintendency, the funds appropriated by the last Congress for the "removal and subsistence of Indians," together with the crops raised on the reservations the present year, will give the Indians collected and guarded by the military at the Grand Ronde, Siletz & Umpqua reserves a partial subsistence no longer than till the 1st of December next. No policy will result in a greater saving of the funds than to place them at once in the hands of the officers here for disbursement, thereby saving the government from ten to twenty percent premium charged by creditors upon purchases made on time.
    As before stated the supplies raised at the reservations, together with the appropriations made for subsisting the Indians during the present fiscal year, will be exhausted by the first of December next.
    I shall be necessarily compelled, under your instructions of the 2nd April 1858, to discontinue the issuing of rations to those Indians.
    I would therefore, in advance, respectfully suggest the propriety of calling the attention of the War Department to the necessities which will exist for a strong reinforcement of troops at forts Yamhill, Hoskins and Umpqua for the purpose of holding the four thousand starving Indians in check, and preventing them from depredating on the settlements.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 454-458.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 25th 1858.
Sir,
    Herewith I have the honor to submit my estimates for the Indian service within the Superintendency for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1860 [sic].
    As you will perceive, the estimates are of two classes, one for complying with treaty stipulations, and one for purposes not provided for by treaties.
    In my estimates for treaty purposes I have included a greater amount for compensation of teachers, blacksmiths, physicians and farmers than has heretofore been appropriated.
    I deemed this necessary, as it is impossible to procure the services of that class of employees at the rate heretofore provided by the appropriations.
    The Indians claim that they have a right to this service irrespective of the cost, and urge with a great degree of justice that the government has solemnly bound itself by treaty stipulations to have the services performed.
    I would therefore respectfully recommend that the amounts as estimated be appropriated for the service. It will have a tendency to quiet the Indians, and convince them that the government intends to comply with the provisions of the treaties.
    The estimates for purposes not provided for by treaty stipulations is in detail, and as low as the service would admit of, and is in fact much lower than the estimates submitted by the respective agents.
    As you will perceive, I have only estimated for half rations of beef and flour for the four thousand Indians located at the Grand Ronde, Siletz and Umpqua. It is contemplated that those Indians will be able to obtain the remainder of their subsistence by the cultivation of soil and by fishing.
    For more detailed information in relation to the tribes located upon those reservations, I beg leave to refer you to my annual report which accompanies this.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 447-453.  Estimate of Funds not transcribed.



Siletz Indian Agency
    Coast Indian Reservation O.T.
        Aug. 31st 1858

Dear Sir
    Your letter of Jan. 11th and Feb. 23rd reached me in due time, but I have delayed writing on the Indian matters until now. I have marked the position of the different villages on the map as directed to, except those in the Alsea and Siuslaw, where I have never been. The villages are numbered, the figures corresponding to the names of the bands on a half sheet of letter paper folded up with the map.
    I am unable to trace the lines of the territory occupied by the different tribes, and as far as I can learn their boundaries were very indefinite; in fact I believe the hunting grounds of the southern coast and Rogue River Indians was held in common. I send you a correct census of the Indians who speak the dialect from which I obtained the vocabulary. If you have a correct vocabulary of the Tututni this will be useless to you, but you can depend on the correctness of this, as I speak the tongue tolerable well and was assisted by the interpreter for this agency, who speaks it like a native. You have vocabularies of all the different dialects spoken here. The Coos and Lower Coquille are the same. I took the privilege to make the following corrections on your map. [I changed] Sequalchim River to Flores Creek; Flores Creek as it was on the map to Sixes River; added Elk Creek which empties south of Cape Blanco; and Euchre Creek about nine miles north of Rogue River. I also marked the name to Pistol River south of Rogue River.
    I may at some future time, if you wish it, give you a condensed history of the manners and customs of these people, at least the most striking features and anything that appears peculiar to them. They are unwilling to speak of their dead, and I think that this peculiarity has caused them to lose all knowledge of almost everything more than a few generations back, but if I can get anything from them I will. In the meantime allow me to assure you that I shall at all times be willing to furnish you with any information that I can obtain.
    In writing to me direct [it] to Corvallis O.T.
Respectfully your friend
    G. H. Abbott
To
    Geo. Gibbs Esqr.
Vocabulary of the Coquille Language, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C.  Photocopy in the collection of the California Language Archive.



Boston N.Y.
    Sept. 1, 1858.
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City
Sir,
    I herewith send you some extracts from a letter which I received the last mail from Col. Nesmith, Supt. of Ind. Affairs in Oregon and Washington, and a copy of his letter to Major Garnett, to which he refers.
    These extracts do Col. Nesmith credit, as they show that he has been actuated by great zeal and devotion to the service, and that it has been an over-sensitiveness in regard to the way his discharge of duty might be regarded by superiors and an intelligent public, and not any intentional disrespect or disregard of instructions which has caused at times a spirit of acerbity to be exhibited in his official correspondence.
    I gather moreover from some remarks in his letter that the Indians are collecting in pretty large force north of the Snake.
    I will be in Washington City by the end of next week.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your most obdt.
        Isaac I. Stevens
N.B.    I will respectfully suggest that the Dept. of the Interior renew its requisition upon the War Dept. in regard to the reclamation of the Yakima murderers. It is obvious now that they have projected ["rejected"?] all claims under the given [i.e., "dictated"?] peace arrangements of Col. Wright in 1856. Too they are now in arms against the government--that is, the portion of the Yakima nation with which these murderers are identified.
   

(Copy.)
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon Nov. 1st, 1857
Major
    By the last mail I received a letter from Maj. W. W. Mackall, A.A. Genl., under date of October 19th enclosing an extract from your letter to him of Sept. 30th in relation to the failure of the Indian Dept. to furnish supplies for the friendly Indians at & near your post for the coming winter, and I deem it proper to communicate to you the reasons for this omission.
    You are aware that the treaties negotiated with those people by the late Governor and Superintendent Stevens have never been ratified by the Senate; consequently, no funds have been appropriated for their execution. The country not being occupied by the whites, nor themselves confined to reservations, they have all the facilities for obtaining their own subsistence that they ever had.
    It is believed that prior to last winter they had never received anything except a few presents at the hands of the government.
    When the Indians of the Yakima manifest a proper degree of penitence for the inhumane  murder of the former agent by surrendering for trial the parties to that murder, I shall be willing to send another agent to reside among them with such means as the government may provide for the relief of their wants.
    I regard their present destitution as one of the results of their own folly in murdering our people and setting our government at defiance by the prosecution of a war for which they had no good reasons. I am aware that there are many children and old, decrepit & helpless people, who are not responsible for the murders or able to arrest the murderers.
    Humanity would dictate that this class of persons should receive relief from the government, and I shall endeavor to forward a small quantity of provisions & clothing for this class of persons, as soon as Agent Lansdale, now absent on duty at Puget Sound, shall return.
    I had hoped that Indian affairs in the Yakima would have been placed upon a different basis before this time by the surrender of the murderers of Matisse & Bolon, and in June last made my request to Brig. Genl. Clarke that those murderers be demanded from the tribes and bands to which they belonged. This request the Genl. has seen proper to disregard, and the murderers are still running at large, producing the impression in the minds of the Indians generally that such acts of murder & rapine can be perpetrated with impunity.
    The correspondence between Genl. Clarke & myself on this subject has been submitted to the Department, and I am now anxiously awaiting its decision of the question.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Major R. S. Garnett
        9th Infty. U.S.A.
            Comdg. Fort Simcoe
                W.T.
   

(Copy.)
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, July 16th 1858
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your kind letter of June 3rd and am under great obligations to you for manly defense in the House against the charge of Mr. Garnett.
    Whatever my defects may be, peculation is not one of them, and I fearlessly appeal to my accounts while I was marshal, and since I have been Superintendent, for a corroboration of the fact that public funds never stuck to my fingers. During the time referred to I have handled hundreds of thousands of dollars of public money.
    Since I have been in this office what ability I possess has been entirely devoted to the public service to the entire neglect of my private affairs. The salary has no more than paid my personal expenses not chargeable to the government.
    Mr. Garnett's strictures on my life [&] official correspondence is only a subterfuge resorted to for the occasion of attacking me on account of some difference of opinion between Major Garnett of the 9th Infantry & myself. This Major G. is in command of Fort Simcoe, and is also from Virginia, and I apprehend a relative of the hon. gentleman of that name. He last year complained to Genl. Clarke that I would not feed the Indians at & near his post. I did decline doing so for reasons set forth in the enclosed copy of my letter to him.
    This Major Garnett also had the murderers of Bolon at some time in his camp, and one of them in his guard house, and allowed them all to escape. I did freely express my opinion of his conduct, and I suppose that he has made it the burden of his grievance to his distinguished relative, who makes a cowardly attack in a place where I am not present to defend myself.
    You are one of the few men who can appreciate my feelings and condition at the present time. I wrote the obnoxious letters [omission] I had assumed the duties of the office before the Indians had fairly subsided from a state of open hostilities; thousands of them were congregated upon reservations destitute of subsistence. The whole responsibility of keeping them in peace and preventing another outbreak rested upon my shoulders. Besides being entirely destitute of funds to accomplish that object the Department here was $300,000 in debt, and a thousand hungry creditors clamorously besetting me for their just dues. I was working night and day to discharge my duties to the country, and that under every embarrassment.
I am sincerely
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 658-666.



Jacksonville Sept. 17th '58
Dear Sir
    At the request of Mr. Dowell I yesterday signed, officially, a request to you for an order to have a certain Indian's gun delivered up to him.
    It is a small matter to trouble you with and should have been settled at once by giving the Indian his gun, but while the matter is fresh in mind there are some other things in connection with these Klamath Indians that I have thought it would be well to call your attention to.
    During the past spring & summer quite a number of them have been in our valley and, although generally conducting themselves as well as could be expected, have yet committed some acts that are likely to make trouble if repeated. Some weeks ago they stole a mare from a Mr. Williams and since that three or four horses from some Kanakas. The Kanakas recovered theirs by going out to the lakes--the other has not been returned, although it is known certainly that they have it. Besides this they have been drunk and of course have had fights &c. &c.
    Now what we of this valley would ask in reference to this whole matter is the establishment of an agency in the vicinity of the "lakes" to the east of Jacksonville about 75 miles.
    There are a great many Indians there and if the proper precautions are taken they may be kept friendly and probably a portion of their country, which is very desirable, purchased for settlement. We have heard rumors for some time to the effect that there was to be an agency established in that region, and certainly the best interests of this section of country, as well as the welfare of the Indians, requires it, for if some measures are not taken to regulate their intercourse with the whites, we will most likely be cursed with another Indian war before twelve months shall have elapsed.
    Believing that you will take this matter into consideration, and, if you have the power, grant us relief
I remain sir
    Yours most respectfully
        L. J. C. Duncan
P.S. I did expect to have been in Salem before this & was requested by several of our best citizens to see you personally in regard to these Indians. Their visits are a source of annoyance & anxiety to a great many, and the universal sentiment is will lead to difficulties unless they can be stopped.
D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 235.



Jacksonville O.T.
    Sept. 17th 1858
J. W. Nesmith Sup. Indian Affairs for Oregon and
    Washington Territories, Salem O.T.
    Dear Sir: One day last week a Kanaka, who has an Indian for a wife, took a rifle belonging to one of the Klamath Indians to Wm. Berry, a gunsmith, to get it repaired for the Indian. The news soon spread through town and the Kanaka was arrested for furnishing arms to the Indians, and it appears from the confessions of the Indians and the Kanaka that the rifle is the property of the Indian and that the Kanaka took it at the request of the Indian to get it repaired. The rifle is still in the shop of Mr. Berry, and he refuses to give the gun either to the Kanaka or Indian without an order from you. These Indians have always been peaceable, and well disposed Indians towards the whites, and as the rifle undoubtedly belongs to the Indian we think the best thing that can be done in the premises is to return the Indian his gun immediately. By so doing we can still retain the confidence and friendship of these Indians. A small party of them are here trading. They belong to old La Lake's band and are under Palmer, a cultus ["worthless"] chief of the tribe. He would therefore request you to issue an order requesting Mr. Berry to return the gun to the Indian.
We remain yours very respectfully
    U. S. Hayden
        Justice of the Peace
    L. J. C. Duncan
        Sheriff
    B. F. Dowell
P.S.
    Please return the order by mail to me.
B. F. Dowell atty.
    for the Indian
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 231.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Sept. 22nd 1858
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 18th instant by Dick Johnson, and while I can but acknowledge that his case is a particularly hard one, I sincerely regret that it is beyond my power to afford him relief. You are aware that the land upon which his improvements are located has been disposed of by the tribe which originally claimed it; the Indian title having been extinguished and the land surveyed, it is now by act of Congress subject to be held by preemption by any American citizen. Any order, or effort on my part to forbid its being held, would be useless and absurd and involve "Dick" in greater difficulty by holding out to him an inducement to continue to labor upon land of which he is liable to be legally deprived by the first rapacious individual who can boast of a fairer complexion. I think that Genl. Palmer committed a mistake in encouraging him with the idea that he could ever acquire a title to the land.
    It is true that if not already claimed by preemption it is within the power of Congress to make him a donation of the claim, but I think that you are too well aware of the delays incident to any such efforts to advise a resort to it--besides it is a question whether or not individuals have not already acquired rights to the soil which would render any such effort useless.
    My advice to Dick is to make the best disposition he can of his improvements and remove to the Grand Ronde Reservation, where I will give him a piece of land and see that he is protected and cared for.
    There are already several Indians on that reserve who are making rapid advances in agriculture; they have there the protection of the government with a military force at hand to enforce the laws and keep off white intruders.
    I trust that upon reflection your judgment will coincide with mine and that you will encourage him to adopt my advice.
    I would send out an agent to assist him in disposing of his effects, but have none who can at present be spared from other pressing duties.
    In the event that Dick concludes to remove to the Grand Ronde, I have to request that you will assist him in disposing of his effects at the best advantage, and I will compensate you for such service.
I am, sir, respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Jesse Applegate Esq.
        Yoncalla, Umpqua
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 266-267.



Salem Oregon Territory
    Sept. 22nd 1858.
Hon. J. Thompson
    Secy. Int.
        Dear Sir
            Although I may have nothing of interest to write you, yet as I promised to do so occasionally from this coast, I will not wait longer for something to "turn up"--especially as there is a little matter in which I am personally interested to communicate.
    From San Francisco I reported to Commissioner Mix my action in reference to the investigation of the charge against Supt. Henley, which report I trust was deemed satisfactory.
    I reached this place on the 6th inst., and as it was represented to me that the creditors of the Indian Department in this Territory were anxiously expecting me and would be clamorous to have their claims examined at as early a day as possible, under the impression that the sooner they were "audited & stated" the sooner they would be paid off, I opened an office and gave notice through the public journals of the mission upon which I was sent.
    As it required some days for this notice to obtain publicity, I concluded to employ the interim in visiting the Grand Ronde Agency in order to see something of the policy pursued under the reservation system, and at the same time to ascertain the liabilities contracted at that point, & to facilitate my action in the examination of the claims originating during the fiscal year ending 30th June 1858.
    From Bailey's account of the California reservations I expected to see but few improvements and a small number of Indians at Grand 
Ronde, but in this I was agreeably disappointed. On account of its elevation & western exposure to the cold sea winds it is considered a bad location for agricultural purposes--yet nearly all of the cultivable soil (some 2500 acres) is under good fence, 923 under cultivation, and the remainder in pasture, with a result this year  of 3565 bushels wheat and 901 of oats, some peas, potatoes & turnips. The soil does not grow corn & the nights are too cold for most vegetables.
    There are eight tribes or bands of Indians at Grand Ronde numbering in all about 1080, being a decrease within the past year of one hundred. To prevent collisions as much as possible the agent has located these bands separately, each occupying little villages resembling negro quarters on Southern plantations. All the Indians who are disposed to work have little patches around their cabins, which is not included in the estimated quantity in cultivation under the farmer of the agency. On the 2nd day of my visit the agent made a four days issue of beef, which brought together a large number of the different bands & enabled me to estimate the number upon the reservation much more certainly and satisfactorily than I was able to do by going into their villages. There were seven or eight hundred to be seen--most of the others being away by permission--the women collecting berries & the men assisting the neighboring farmers in harvesting their crops, for which they are paid high prices in consequence of the scarcity of labor brought about by Fraser River excitement.
    All the Indians I saw were clad in civilized suits& presented a much better appearance as to comfort & contentedness than I expected to see. As I design visiting Grand Ronde again and shall be able, if it is required, to make a full report to the Commissioner, will only add that everything I saw impressed me with the idea of Agent Miller’s fitness for the position he holds.
    I find many & serious difficulties to a literal compliance with the terms of of my instructions.  For instance--I am expected to establish by proof the market price of each article procured for the Indian service at the time of its procurement--such as flour, beef &c. &c. whilst such things are held & sold at widely different prices in different localities, and are everywhere here subject to most violent and sometimes unaccountable fluctuations.
    The discovery of new gold diggings is ever accompanied by the wildest of excitements & keep a large portion of the population constantly on the wing. The traders who generally furnish these supplies to the service & who alone could give the desired information, have no fixed abode and are not easily to be found--here today--gone tomorrow, always on the alert & ready to reap the advantages derived by traders at every gold stampede. So with labor, you may obtain a hand for one or two dollars today when tomorrow the same hand could not be employed for five or six, or his place supplied at any price. Since I reached the Territory farmers have been paying as much as four dollars per day for harvesting hands, and flour has varied in price at this point from three & four dollars a bushel to 80 cts. & one dollar. Nine in ten of those who furnished supplies or performed labor for the Indian service have transferred their claims to merchants & others & are now scattered from Fraser River to California. In many, if not most, cases the payee & government employees are alone cognizant of the facts which serve to establish the liability.
    Upon Indian reservations white men are not permitted to go except in the employment of the government, & it is therefore impossible always to obtain disinterested proof in reference to supplies furnished at the place & labor performed there.
    The course I have adopted is this--each agent is required to furnish me with an abstract of liabilities contracted within his agency for the last fiscal year, and also a copy of each voucher furnished the creditors. I require him and his clerk to say under oath that "the necessities of the service required the incurring of each liability"--that the services were performed in good faith--that the supplies were actually delivered & consumed in said service, that both services and supplies were furnished at as reasonable rates as the same could have been obtained, and that they have an interest directly or indirectly in the claims.
    I shall take proof of disinterested parties engaged in trade as to the value of the supplies & labor and require affidavits from those presenting claims for their own services or supplies.
    To assist in making out abstracts for the different agents, copies of vouchers, taking depositions &c. &c. to accompany my docket and report I have engaged a clerk & opened an office.
    By visiting the various reservations I may be able to determine from the extent of improvements made, the amount of labor done, and ascertain "whether or not the Supt., agents & sub-agents have at all times exercised a judicious economy in the discharge of their duties" and can make such observations as will enable me to report upon the reservation system generally should you require it, as I was led to suppose from your conversations with me, although it is not made a subject of inquiry by my instructions.
    My chief object in writing you is to point out a few of the difficulties in the way of a satisfactory discharge of my duties here & to elicit a response, either by way of supplemental instructions or otherwise, and also to ask that another thousand dollars be placed to my [omission] at San Francisco, for I am assured that that already furnished together with the amount I had of my own, will be insufficient to defray expenses out here & get us back home. Should this request be refused or neglected, I may be constrained to remain here much longer than I desire, and thus enlarge the per diem account against U.S. until such time as the funds can be had to foot the return expenses.
    Col. J. W. Nesmith, the Supt. shows a disposition to afford me every facility in the prosecution of my duties, and urges the most thorough scrutiny into the management of Indian affairs since his accession to the Superintendency.
    He is a plain, blunt man, of great force of character, and has impressed me most favorably, both as to his efficiency & integrity.
    His manners and his language may be somewhat brusque and at times insubordinate, yet I think it will be found that he has conducted Indian affairs of these Territories without reference to his own pecuniary advantage.
    I have had free access to his office & have yet to find or hear anything that reflects in the slightest degree upon his official integrity.
Sept. 29th 1858
    I was too late for the last mail, and have since made a second trip to Grand Ronde, by which direction I expected to reach the Siletz Agency, in charge of Agent Metcalfe.
    At Grand Ronde I obtained Indian guides & in company with Agent Miller started over the Coast Range of mountains, by a blind trail covered with fallen trees. At the end of the second day we had accomplished but twelve miles, and that in the midst of continuous rain & falling timber, when we were compelled to retrace our steps without reaching the Siletz.
    Since my first visit to Grand Ronde, at which time the Supt. made an order for the reduction of rations to the Indians, there has been some complaints & threats from them.
    There is no fish or game within reach & the truth is that at this agency the Department will have to feed the Indians, else starvation or the plunder of the whites will follow--then comes another Indian war.
    The latest intelligence from the Spokane country is that our troops have met with some "brilliant" successes, and the war is ended--for the present.
    Within the next ten days I hope to leave here for the prosecution of inquiries concerning the unratified treaties, and am persuaded that this duty will occupy a considerable length of time, as the country to be traversed is widely extended and of difficult access during the rainy season. Wife joins me in kind regards for Mr. Thompson and yourself.
Very truly your friend & obt. servt.
    C. H. Mott
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 225-232.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, September 28th 1858.
Sir,
    Herewith I have the honor to transmit my estimates for the funds necessary for the Superintendency for the 1st and 2nd quarters of 1859. In making up those estimates you will perceive that I have made them for the actual balances of the appropriations now remaining in the Treasury. The funds received by the last two steamers are now being rapidly turned over to the different agents and will, with the exception of what is required for the current expenses of this office, all be turned over to the agents in the course of a few days.
    Those funds will be disbursed in payment of liabilities already incurred during the present quarter (3rd), and the remainder will be applied to the expenses of the incoming quarter (4th).
    While the remittances for the 3rd & 4th quarters are inadequate for the purposes for which they were appropriated during that period, yet in turning over the funds to agents I have, in conformity with your instructions, given the different agents the most positive orders under no circumstances to incur liabilities beyond the means now placed in their hands. Under those instructions you will at once perceive the necessity for my being supplied with the remainder of the appropriations for the current fiscal year on or before the 1st day of January next, and I earnestly and sincerely hope that there may be no delay in making the remittance, as I desire to avoid any unnecessary and useless waste of the public funds by being again forced to make purchases on credit. If the remittance for the first and second quarters of 1859 is delayed until a portion of those quarters have expired, there will be no alternative left me but to violate your instructions by again resorting to the credit system, or suspending the entire operations of the Department here.
    By recent personal visits to the principal agencies in Oregon, I have succeeded in greatly curtailing the expenditures by dispensing with employees, suspending improvements, and greatly curtailing the rations issued to the Indians.
    While I regard the policy of making those curtailments as questionable, I have been compelled to resort to the measure in order to keep the expenses anywhere near the limits of the appropriations.
    It must be admitted that if the employees on the farms are discharged, and improvements suspended, that we are deprived at once of the means necessary to raise subsistence for the Indians, while the diminishing of their rations occasions the most clamorous complaint on their part, and gives color to their charge that "the government has collected them and is keeping them guarded upon the reservations for the purpose of starving them to death." Such charges, accompanied by threats on their part to leave the reservation and plunder the settlers for food, are of daily occurrence, and I can only promise that every exertion shall be made on the part of this office for the purpose of keeping the expenses within the appropriation, and at the same time maintain the peace of the country.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
   

    Having examined the foregoing communication I approve of the suggestions therein made, and fully endorse what is said in reference to the necessity of the Superintendent's being early supplied with the remainder of the appropriation applicable to the expenses of the 1st and 2nd quarters of 1859.
C. H. Mott
    Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 472-477.  Estimate of Funds not transcribed.



Grand Ronde O.T.
    Sept. 30th 1858
Sir--
    I have the honor to report that excepting the prevalence of whooping cough and measles the general health of the Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation has been pretty good during the present quarter.
    In my last report allusion was made to the spreading of the former disease, which has overrun the entire reservation.
    The latter complaint made its appearance about the middle of July, and is still prevailing.
    As both maladies are most liable to dangerous complications in inclement weather, we may anticipate more severity in their attacks during the approaching rainy season than has been exhibited thus far.
    There have, perhaps, been fewer deaths among the Indians of this reservation within the quarter than for any similar period since its establishment.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan
                Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde Res.
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 282.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Sept. 30th 1858
To
    William J. Berry Esq.
        Jacksonville O.T.
Sir,
    I learn from Messrs. Duncan, Dowell and Hayden that you have in your possession a rifle belonging to one of the Klamath Lake, or Modoc, Indians.
    I have to request that you will return the rifle to the Indian to whom it belongs, or in case of his absence you will please deliver it to B. F. Dowell, who will deliver it to the proper owner.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Sept. 30th 1858
Sir,
    The letter signed by yourself & Messrs. Hayden & Dowell reached me by last mail. By this mail I enclose to Mr. Dowell also an order on Mr. Berry for the rifle, directing its return to the Indian. Your letter of the 17th instant in relation to those Indians is also received, and I am greatly obliged to you for the information therein contained.
    It would afford me pleasure to comply with your suggestions in relation to establishing an agency among those Indians. I have been fully impressed with the necessity of the step for a long time, and have urged it upon the Department at Washington.
    Unfortunately the state of the appropriations will not permit me to take any steps of the kind at present. I have no agent who can be spared from the reservations at present--besides, my estimates for the present fiscal year were so greatly cut down in the appropriation act of the last session of Congress that I am left without a dollar which could be applied to the purpose.
    At the earliest moment after receiving authority from the Department I shall establish an agency among those people.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    J. L. C. Duncan Esq.
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 278.




New York October 1st 1858
T.J. D. Fuller Esqr.
    Auditor Treas. Dept.
        Washington
            Sir, about 3 mos. since you informed me that a payment could be made on a draft of Joel Palmer but not in full. Upon receipt of your letter I immediately wrote to Portland Oregon to know whether I should receive the said amt. you proposed paying and my answer recd. by last steamer is as follows, "We have authority to receive whatever the Indian Department would pay on a/c of the Joel Palmer drafts and receipts on the drafts for the amounts, getting a certificate from them that that amount only is paid on a/c of the draft; of course he wants sound evidence to show him of the amounts received and that the balance is unpaid. If you cannot get that from the Dept. then return the drafts to us immediately." If it can be so arranged will you please send me in the amounts. If not have the kindness to forward the drafts so that I may send it back by the next steamer & oblige. 
                                Yours very respectfully,
                                     C. W. Thomas
                                            No. 215 Pearl St.
                                                    N.Y.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency 1858-1859, frames 21-22.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Oct. 6th 1858
Sir,
    Your letter of Sept. 26th in reply to mine of Sept. 22nd in relation to Dick Johnson reached me last evening.
    Placing "Dick's" case upon the ground of humanity and justice, I truly admit all that you say, and therefore concur with you on your appeal to the "brethren engaged in the robbery." There is this difference, however, between the aforesaid "brethren" and myself; while they verbally admit their accountability to the Deity, I am under written [omission] and heavy bonds to the government.
    The auditor is to pass upon my accounts at once, while theirs is deferred to a time when an execution will not incur against "goods and chattels."
    You certainly misunderstand the meaning of my letter when you say that I "declare to interest myself" in Dick's case. On the contrary, I as an individual entertain the most lively sympathy and compassion for him in his distress, and will contribute as much from my private funds, in proportion to my means, as any other one man in Oregon for his relief, not excepting the most ardent and sincere sympathizers with the "inferior races."
    I infer from your letter that you now desire me to compensate "Dick" from the public funds for his improvements upon the lands of which he is being robbed by persons who appear devout in their prayers for his spiritual welfare, and I apprehend that your own good sense will sustain me in declining to do so when I inform you that I have in my hands no funds applicable to such purposes. On the 29th day of November 1854 the Umpquas by solemn treaty sold out their entire possessory rights to the United States, making no reservation direct or implied in favor of "Dick Johnson" or any other person, and I apprehend that it is now too late for him to annul the treaty by alleging that he has never shared in the compensation by his refusal to accept the same.
    The government and its agents are now engaged in faithfully executing the treaty referred to, and "Dick Johnson" can, if he chooses, share in its benefits.
    For whatever promises my predecessors, in their magnanimity, saw proper to make to "Dick Johnson" or other persons they must be held responsible, while I shall choose to be governed by the written stipulations of the treaties negotiated by them and approved by the President and Senate of the United States.
    Without controverting your declarations relative to the "impractical and hollow promises of the Church" I must be permitted to say that I have made no promises on the part of the "state" with which I am not ready to comply.
    There are several other points in your letter to which I would gladly refer, but as I am now on the eve of starting for Walla Walla on official business, a press of other duties forces me to make this brief and hurried reply.
    On my return I shall be happy to continue the subject in all its bearings, and will promptly reply to any further suggestions you may desire to make. In the meantime you will please accept my sincere regards.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Jesse Applegate Esqr.
        Yoncalla Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 281-282.



108 4th Avenue
    New York, October 26, 1858.
To James Buchanan,
    President of the United States
        Sir: The directors of the American Indian Aid Association, at a recent meeting held in the city of New York, appointed the undersigned, one of their number, a committee with instructions to address a brief appeal to yourself personally, and to the several members of your cabinet, in behalf of the Oregon Indians, asking of you, and urging it on you, to endeavor, by extraordinary means if necessary, to effect an adjustment of the differences between the United States and those tribes, without bloodshed. In the discharge of this duty, allow me, sir, to offer some suggestions.
    Those tribes have, of late years, for the first, been brought in contact with the whites, whom they very naturally view as intruders. We are not of the number of those who believe that a handful of people--Indians or others--should monopolize a continent which they cannot use, to the exclusion of those who have need of homes; nevertheless, justice, the spirit of our age and sound policy require that the rights and even prejudices of the "original lords of the soil" should be treated with consideration and respect. This, as the common rule, has not been the case in the settlement of America, nor always with the United States in its dealings with the Indian tribes. Our rapidly growing power has too often taken advantage of their weakness, and the greed of our traders and the unrestrained passions of our borderers have too frequently carried loss, degradation and infamy, instead of Christian civilization, among the native tribes.
    In the case of the Oregon Indians, against whom a large army is about being sent, many candid and well-informed persons on the ground, including officers of the United States, deny that the difficulties have originated in any fault of the Indians, but on the contrary, in the obvious oppressions and outrages of the whites. The common character of the men who are found mixed with these difficulties, and the history of other like disturbances, give additional weight to this position. Nevertheless, allowing it to be otherwise--on the assumption that the fault is with the red men and not with the whites, we take the broad ground that it is as unbecoming the United States to correct those ignorant people with bayonet and cannon, as it would be for a father to resort to like means with his unruly children.
    The Indians within the bounds of the United States and its territories are no longer formidable. We have emasculated and exterminated those on the Atlantic Slope. Shall we pursue the same cruel policy west of the Mississippi, and on the Pacific Coast? Have we not enough of Indian blood on our skirts? Is it not time to begin to repay them for the virgin continent they have given us? Is it not time to inquire what is right in our dealings with them?
    The argument that it is the destiny of the red man to perish before the white race is entitled to no weight. The parent of feeble children might with equal propriety say, it is the destiny of such to die, and so let them die.
    We therefore ask, with all the urgency of men determined to be heard, that the policy of forbearance, protection and good will be adopted by the government of the United States, in all its dealings with the Indian tribes, and especially in the adjustment of the differences which have grown up between it and the tribes of Oregon and Washington Territories. We ask for those disaffected Indians full protection from aggression of every sort, and meanwhile that our government stand solely on the defensive, without undertaking to destroy or coerce them by force of arms--that if need be, it [should] place its troops between the Indians and the settlers for the protection of each, and there await the result of efforts for peace, being as careful of its blows in the one direction as in the other.
In behalf of the Association,
    J. R. Orton, Committee
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 560-564.




Salem Oregon
    Nov. 1st 1858.
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Commissioner
        Sir
            Your communication of the 18th ult. enclosing "copies of account &c. of James P. Day and others, for collecting and subsisting 71 Indians, and removing them from the Grand Ronde Reservation," I found here on my return from Warm Springs Reservation, three days since, and herewith transmit a report of the result of my investigations concerning the same.
    The Superintendent has paid off the claims of James P. Day and others, referred to in your letter, and is now preparing his accounts for the 3rd quarter of 1858 to be forwarded to the Department, together with the vouchers and the proofs upon which they were paid.
    The Superintendent refers me to letter of Commissioner Manypenny bearing date March 18th 1858, and one from yourself of December 18th 1857, authorizing the payment of claims "of this character, where the justness of the same is fully sustained by satisfactory evidence," and after a "thorough investigation," so far as the same can be had here, I am persuaded that the "justness" of the claims is fully established by the proofs which will accompany the Superintendent's accounts for the 3rd quarter of 1858, to be forwarded within the next few days, and to which I refer without copying the same as a part of this report, or incurring the expense of retaking depositions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        C. H. Mott
            Commissioner &c.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Commissioner of Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City
                D.C.
   

Brief Made in Indian Office
    Brief of the claim of James P. Day & others for collecting and subsisting the Indians and removing them to the Grand Ronde Reservation--
Charles Walker Esq., per letter of Decr. 8th 1856 herewith, enclosed the following accounts papers, viz
    No. 1 census list & provision returns
No. 1 James P. Day's a/c services $      31.00
No. 3 Elliott N. Bowman's a/c 183.00
No. 4 James P. Day's a/c beef, flour & oats 511.80
No. 5 Isaac Boyle's a/c       280.00
Making  the aggregate of $1,605.80
    I find from the papers enclosed in the letters of Mr. Walker, above claimed, that late Superintendent Palmer addressed a letter under date of April 19th 1856 to James P. Day Esq., which appears to have been in answer to me from Mr. Day, relative to an Indian family in Mr. D.'s neighborhood. In this letter Supt. Palmer, after speaking of removing the Indians, goes on to say, "In regard to the family you speak of, I desire you will take care of them for the present and give them provisions on account of this Department."
    From a letter addressed to James P. Day by Joel Palmer, late Supt. &c., dated July 14th 1856, enclosed as above, it appears that Mr. Day was requested by the Supt. to "act as local agent in collecting and removing all the Indians in the Umpqua Valley to the Grand Ronde Reservation."
    The Supt. in the same letter also informs Mr. Day that he contemplates sending "Louis" to assist in hunting the Indians out. He also says that "Captain Smith of the U.S. army will shortly be coming with his command from Fort Lane, and I wish you to arrest all the Indians in the Umpqua Valley, and concentrate them at some point where they may join him, and come on with them to the reservation."
    The Supt. further says to Mr. Day, "I will send you by Louis, or some other messenger, funds to defray the expenses of subsisting the Indians after collected, and on their way to the reservation, but it is expected you will use all economy and incur no expense not absolutely demanded."
    In the Superintendent's instructions, above referred to, I do not find that any assistance except that of "Louis" is referred to or contemplated, except the employment of wagons for the sick; in fact, Mr. Day is specially charged to use "all economy."
    The accounts arising from the appointment of Mr. Day as special agent, as will be observed, amount in the aggregate to $1605.80, which amount is exclusive of the sum supposed to have been paid by Sub-Agent Raymond to the persons who conducted the 71 Indians to the Grand Ronde Reservation, as will appear from a copy of Supt. Hedges' letter to Sub-Agent Raymond, dated Oct. 9th 1856--also enclosed in Mr. Walker's letter--directing the sub-agent to pay said conductors, J. McKay and others. The amount paid to the conductors referred to in Supt. Hedges' letter cannot be ascertained from the records of this office, as Sub-Agent Raymond's a/c for the 4th quarter 1845, wherein the amount, if paid, should appear, have not as yet been received.
    By Mr. Day's provisions return, I find that on the 28th of July 1856 he had 13 Indians collected, which number he subsisted until the 13th August, when one more was added, making 14; on the 20th of August 29 were added, making 43--on the 6th of Sept. 28 were added, making 71. These were all subsisted, it appears, up to Sept. 30th 1856.
    The instructions of Supt. Palmer to Mr. Day were issued as will be perceived on the 14th July 1856, and it appears from the records that Supt. Palmer was succeeded in office by A. F. Hedges on the 16th of August 1856.
    From a paper filed by Mr. Walker, purporting to be the "copy of a letter from A. F. Hedges to W. W. Raymond," dated Oct. 9th 1856, it appears that Mr. Raymond was authorized to pay the just claim of J. McKay and others for actual and necessary service rendered and expenses incurred in the discharge of the duty of conducting 71 Indians from South Umpqua to the Grand [Ronde] Reservation. In this letter Supt. Hedges is made to say, "Mr. McKay was not the person authorized to conduct those Indians to the reservation, but as he is believed to have performed the service, in good faith and intention, it is my wish to pay the just claims against the United States arising out of his action.
    "You will, however, pay no claims for collecting, subsisting, or in any way providing for those Indians prior to the date of their starting for the reservation in charge of Mr. McKay."
    It appears from the above, and the admission in Mr. Walker's letter, that Mr. Day did not accompany the Indians to the reservation, neither is it explained by what authority "Mr. McKay and others" were employed.
    In a paper purporting to be the copy of a letter addressed to W. W. Raymond, sub-agent Grand Ronde Reservation, by late Supt. Hedges Novr. 8th 1856, that officer declines paying any more funds to the sub-agent until he receives his accounts for the quarter ending Sept. 30th 1856.
    The letter of C. M. Walker dated December 9th 1856 is a statement in relation to the claims or accounts of James P. Day & others, and represents that Supt. Hedges gave as one of his reasons for not paying the accounts referred to, viz, that he thought it the duty of ex-Superintendent Palmer.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 233-239.




San Francisco Cal.
    Nov. 15th 1858
Warren A. Mix Esq.
    Dear Sir
        I am about selling my Rogue River Indian spoliation claim of $3678.75 now in your office forwarded by Superintendent Nesmith of Oregon Territory and the purchaser wishes to know through you that the claim is in your office. Also if you think it well authenticated, and that the same will be paid when appropriation is made by Congress. Any information you will give me will be thankfully received by me at San Francisco Cal. and place me under obligations to you.
Hiram Smith
P.S. You will oblige me much by an immediate answer.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 705-706.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Novr. 19th 1858.
Sir,
    Herewith I enclose to you a copy of a general order issued by Brig. General Harney, commanding this Department, and bearing date October 31st 1858.
    While the order on its face seems only intended to invite and authorize settlement in the neighborhood of military posts, the practical effect resulting from it will be to throw open the entire Indian country within this Superintendency (excepting only the military reservations) to immediate occupancy and settlement, by all who choose to avail themselves of the invitation. This is in utter disregard, as I conceive, of the fixed and established policy of the government, subversive of the acts of Congress, and in violation of the repeated promises made from time to time to the Indians by both the civil and military officers.
    As you are doubtless well aware, our relations with the Indians within this Superintendency have always been in an anomalous condition, growing out of the fact that the settlement of our citizens here preceded not only the extension of the laws of the United States over the country, but commenced prior to the time when the stipulations for joint occupancy with Great Britain terminated. Our position is without precedent, and hence it is not strange that a great contrarity of opinion exists among the people here as to the precise rights of the whites, as well as those of the Indians, in their present unprecedented attitude. Heretofore laws encouraging and inviting settlement by white men, through countries, in regions previously occupied by the Indians, had been preceded by treaties, or other steps to extinguish the right of occupancy by the aboriginal inhabitants.
    The act of Congress of August 14th [1848] organizing the Territory of Oregon, & that of September 27th 1850, making donations to settlers therein, embraced territory wholly within the Indian country, as it was described by the laws of the land, and regarded by common consent, and no provisions were previously made by treaty by which the prior rights of occupancy on the part of the Indians had been changed, or in any way modified. This congressional action marked by so wide a departure from the usual course in similar cases, it is well known, was the work of necessity, and not of choice.
    Large numbers of white inhabitants were already settled and had homes in the country before our government obtained exclusive jurisdiction over it by the treaty of June 15th 1846. Under this state of affairs legislation was attempted to be conformed to the existing state of things, and the question as to what is, and what is not, "Indian country" has constantly presented an embarrassing question to the officers of the government within the limits of the Superintendency. Under the operation of the acts of Congress above cited, the principal part of the lands in Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, and a great portion west of those mountains in what is now Washington Territory, had been settled upon and rights acquired under the donation laws, prior to the extinguishment of the Indian title. And there yet remains large portions of land in Oregon, and the greater part of that in Washington, west of the Cascade Mountains, which is now settled upon by claimants, and to which the Indian title has not been extinguished.
    No efforts have been made by me, or to my knowledge by my predecessors, to prevent settlement upon any lands in either Territory west of the Cascade Mountains not included within Indian reservations established according to law. Nor has there been any efforts made to enforce the intercourse laws within the region referred to, except that for the punishment for selling liquor to Indians.
    The acts of Congress marking donations of land to actual settlers expired by its own limitation on the 1st day of December 1855.
    Under its operations but few settlers had established themselves east of the Cascade Mountains, and since the expiration of the acts referred to, that country--east of the Cascades--excepting the portion to which rights had been acquired under the donation laws, has been treated and regarded by the military and officers of the Indian Department here as "Indian country" within the meaning of the acts of Congress upon that subject. In 1855 orders were issued by the military officers in command of this Department forbidding settlement east of the Cascade Mountains beyond the Dalles of the Columbia. Again on the 29th of June 1857 the order was reiterated by General Clarke, commanding this Department, forbidding intrusion upon the lands within certain specified limits and where the treaties had not been ratified.
    The second paragraph of that order--a copy of which I enclose--directing the commanders of posts to "be at pains to explain to the Indians that they have the same right to their country now as they had before the treaties were made." By reference to my annual report for 1857, contained in printed copy of Report of Commission of Indian Affairs, page 320, you will perceive that I directed Agent Lansdale to assure the Indians of the interior that their lands should not be taken from them without their receiving a fair compensation.
    Such explanations and promises have, therefore, always been made to those Indians by both the military and the officers of the Indian Department as to induce them to believe that settlers would not be permitted to occupy their country until the treaties with them had received validity by the constitutional sanction of the President and Senate of the United States. The history of the whole question shows that the military takes the initiative in the enforcement of the intercourse laws over this region, and so strong have been the views upon this subject among intelligent army officers that Major Grier, U.S.A., commanding Fort Walla Walla, under the misapprehension that I had allowed persons to go there to trade under verbal authority, writes me under date of October 28th 1858 as follows: "The particular point referred to is that of white men coming here upon Indian lands to 'make claims,' and thus intrude upon the Indians, before our government has, by treaty or otherwise, made any arrangement for extinguishing the title thereto. In a letter of October 13th 1858, to General Clarke on this subject, I have written as follows: 'Many white men have come, and seem to be still coming, under various pretexts--some to make "claims," others to get employment in Qr. Mr. Department, others again to trade with the Indians (without written license or bonds given), stating that they have verbal permission from the Indian agent or Superintendent, and quite a number who come for no other purpose than to sell liquor to soldiers and Indians. In my view of the matter, this region of country still belongs to the Indians who are living upon it, and until their title to it is extinguished by ratified treaties and the country thrown open for settlement, white men (other than those in the employ of the government) have no right to locate thereon.'"
    On a recent visit, in company with Commissioner Mott, to the country east of the Cascade Mountains, we held several councils with the Indians of different tribes.
    They all complained of the intrusion of white settlers upon their lands before the ratification of the treaties. In every instance I promised them that their country should not be thrown open to settlement until the treaties were ratified. Under this state of facts, and after having made these promises, you may judge of my surprise on learning of the existence of General Harney's order, promulgated without the knowledge of any officer of the Indian Department, and while they were engaged in making promises to the Indians that they should be protected in their rights.
    It is not pretended that any right can at present be acquired to those lands by settlers, inasmuch as the donation laws have expired, and in order to make them liable to be taken by preemption it is necessary that the Indian title should be extinguished, and the lands surveyed--neither of which has been done.
    Inasmuch as "citizens have never been prevented from locating near military posts" west of the Cascades, of course the order is only applicable to that portion of this Superintendency east of those mountains. The word near leaves the question as to the proximity of the settlement with reference to those posts rather vague and indefinite--but is understood, however, and generally interpreted, as throwing open the entire country from the Cascades to the summit of the Rocky Mountains to immediate settlement.
    The excepting of "Indian reservations" made in the order indicates a misapprehension of the facts, as there are no legally established Indian reservations within the limits of the country referred to.
    In view of the foregoing facts I conclude that the country east of the Cascade Mountains not occupied under the provisions of the donation law is "Indian country" within the meaning of the acts of Congress upon that subject.
    I therefore conclude that the order of General Harney to give "every encouragement" to settle therein is contrary to law and void, and no support of my opinion [sic]. I beg leave to refer you to the following, among other laws upon the subject: 1st, the Constitution of the U.S. gives Congress the exclusive power to regulate commerce "with the Indian tribes."
    2nd, the ordinance of July 1787 provides in its 3rd section that the utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians--their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent &c, "but laws founded in justice and humanity shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them." 3rd, the people of Oregon in their act organizing a provisional government, on the [blank] day of [blank] 1845, reenacted the very language above quoted from the ordinance of 1787. 4th, Congress, on the 14th day of August 1848, incorporated one provision in the 14th section of the land law of Oregon, extending the ordinance of 1787 over said Territory.
    The same law, and same section, also gives force and vitality to the act of the provisional government, making it the law of the land.
    5th, I beg leave to refer you to the act of Congress of June 30th 1834, which, in its 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th sections, not only protects the rights of the Indians, but provides for punishing persons who infringe them, and makes it the duty of the military and officers of the Indian Department to enforce them.
    From the foregoing you will perceive that a difference of opinion exists between the commanding general and myself relative to Indian affairs within this Superintendency. As it will be useless for me to attempt to enforce the laws without the cooperation of the military, I, therefore, submit the subject for your decision and orders.
    In the foregoing I do not desire to be understood as opposing the settlement of the Walla Walla Valley, or, indeed, any other portion of our great interior. On the contrary I think that every consideration, founded in good policy, demands that the country be thrown open to settlement, and have so stated in each of my annual reports.
    I do think, however, that the rights of the Indians, as recognized by the laws, as well as the general usage and policy of the government, should be protected. I therefore would again respectfully urge that the treaties now pending before the Senate be ratified, so that settlers who may choose to occupy the country may have some more stable and reliable tenor to their improvements than that to be derived from a mere military order to be changed, modified or revoked by the next commanding officer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&.W.T.
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Commissioner Ind. Affs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 531-542.



Office Grand Ronde Agency
    Nov. 27th 1858
Sir,
    In accordance with your instructions of Nov. 18th in regard to the land claim of A. D. Babcock and George Zimmerman I have carefully examined into the matter and would respectfully report as follows:
    The claim of Mr. Babcock is situated in Section 7 and 8 and 17 and 18 in Township __ Range __ and contains 800 acres, which is all located in the Grand Ronde Valley and almost surrounded by the reservation.
    The arable portion of the Grand Ronde Reservation is situated in a valley of about 4000 acres of open land, and enclosed by ranges of hills and mountains and but a single gap leading into the white settlements. In this gap is located the military post of Fort Yamhill.
    The Rogue River, Cow Creek, Santiam and Mohawk [sic] tribes or bands of Indians live along, and most of them immediately on, the lines of Mr. Babcock's claim for more than 2 miles.
    The Cow Creeks and Santiams are entirely destitute of timber even for fuel except what they can beg from Babcock; the intrusion of the Indians on his land is a constant source of annoyance.
    By a recent survey of Mr. Babcock's claim by order of the Surveyor Genl. of Oregon it was found that his northwest corner took in a portion of the buildings belonging to the military post, and also took in all the improvements made by the Cow Creek tribe as well as a portion of those made by the Santiams.
    The improvements on Mr. Babcock's claim are but of little value, about 20,000 rails and thirty acres in timothy meadow is about the extent. I should value the improvements at about $1000.00. The entire tract of land is very rich and excellent for agricultural purposes.
    I think the price asked by him for eight hundred acres of land, viz $7000.00, is reasonable.
    I would suggest in reference to this matter that there is not sufficient arable land now belonging to the reservation to comply with treaty stipulations.
    The claim of George E. Zimmerman is situated in Sec. 23 & 24 in Township 6 Range 8 West within the Grand Ronde Valley and is entirely surrounded by the reservation, leaving him no access whatever to his claim without passing through the reservation.
    He is completely surrounded by the Indians, who are continually trespassing on his land, destroying his garden and fences and committing other depredations, which is a constant source of trouble.
    The improvement on his place consists of about 6000 rails, a good hewed-log house and log barn, the value of which I would estimate at $250.00. He has 160 acres of land which together with the improvements I estimate at $600.00 which amount he is willing to take.
Respectfully
    Jno. F. Miller Ind. Agt.
To
    J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Aff.
            W. & O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 265.



Corvallis Nov. 29th 1858
Hon. J. W. Nesmith Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                        Salem
    Dr. Sir,
        Last Saturday morning, "Tyee Mary" of the Rogue River tribe was brought to the "infirmary" helpless from the combined effect of spirits & some narcotic--probably opium. After the partial subsidence of the poisonous symptoms I discovered that she was laboring under a severe attack of "lung inflammation," & had only been able to speak a little this evening.
    She wishes me to write you stating that on her return from Jacksonville, by some accident (I cannot understand what) she lost her horse. On arriving at this place on Friday night someone plied her with "lum" ["rum"--Rogue Rivers couldn't pronounce "R's"] & whilst she was helpless robbed her of $46--all she had. Says she was aware that she was being robbed but could not resist. By her description & other circumstances I am led to believe the thief to have been a man named Elisha Colvin. She wants some Indian sent to take care of her & some means afforded for her return to the reservation when she recovers. There is at present no communication with Siletz Agency, and there are no Indians here.
    May I receive any remuneration from the Department for her expenses & if so, or not, what shall I do with her until she convalesces.
Yours respectfully
    J. L. Coombs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 264.


    Lalakes, the chief of the Klamaths, says the Yreka Union, has received intelligence by an Indian of his tribe, named Charley, of the massacre of three white men on the headwaters of Pit River on Sunday, October 31st. Charley says that the Indians have in possession the stock and property of the murdered men, consisting of one wagon, six head of cattle, six horses, two mules, several riding saddles, $52.25 in silver and between $1,000 and $2,000 in gold coin, besides a lot of clothing and camp equipage.
Nevada Democrat, Nevada, California, December 1, 1858, page 1




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon December 10th 1858
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 3rd inst. by the hand of Mr. Williams giving a detailed account of the circumstances connected with the murder of the Indians in your neighborhood. For this information you will please accept my sincere thanks. I have this day written to Agent E. P. Drew, directing him to proceed as early as possible to the scene of the murder for the purpose of rendering such aid and assistance as may be necessary to secure the effects of the deceased for the benefit of the survivors. I have directed Mr. Drew to call upon you for such information as may be necessary to an understanding of the wants and condition of the Indians who survived the massacre; by giving him such information you will confer a favor upon these unfortunate persons and place this office under renewed obligations.
    You will pardon me for suggesting that nothing contained in letters from me heretofore upon the subject can be tortured into an expression of contempt for "inferior races." It is however true that for cogent reasons heretofore stated to you I did decline to make an application of the public funds in violation of both law and instructions for the purpose of paying the deceased for their improvements. I did however use every exertion in my power short of absolute force to induce them then to place themselves in a position where I could afford them such protection and means of support as the government had provided.
    I renew to the unfortunate survivors a tender of such aid and protection as is within my power, and execrate the wretches who are the wanton authors of their calamities.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Jesse Applegate Esqr.
        Yoncalla
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 313.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1858
Sir,
    Information having reached this office of the murder of the Indians known as Dick Johnson and Mummy in the Umpqua Valley, I have to direct that you proceed at your earliest convenience to the scene of the murders, and afford such assistance and protection to the surviving Indians as circumstances may demand. I am informed that the deceased had at the time of their death quite an amount of personal property in their possession. You will take such steps as may be proper to secure the property for the benefit of the survivors, and if the Indians desire it you will secure the services of responsible persons to take charge of the property or assist in making such disposition of it as the survivors may desire. I have also to direct that you will report to this office at the earliest practicable moment all such circumstances relative to the murder as you may think of importance to this office. You will also report the kind and amount of property belonging to the surviving Indians. In the event that they desire it you are authorized to send them to the reservation under your charge.
    You are directed to call upon Jesse Applegate Esq. for information relative to the condition of the Indians and their property. As he is familiar with all the circumstances I would suggest the propriety of your conferring freely with him upon the subject.
Very respectfully, sir
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    E. P. Drew
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Fort Umpqua O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 313-314.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Dec. 13rd 1858
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of November 29th in relation to "Tyee Mary."
    In reply to your inquiry in regard to compensation for your services I have to say that all the funds applicable to the tribe to which Mary belongs has been turned over to Capt. John F. Miller at the Grand Ronde who is agent for the tribe. On application to Capt. Miller he will doubtless make the proper remuneration for your services.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    J. L. Coombs M.D.
        Corvallis O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 314.



Office Sub-Indian Agent
    Fort Umpqua O.T. Dec. 21 / 58
Sir
    Orders were received at this office by yesterday's mail from the Supt. Ind. Affrs. requiring me to ascertain the position of the estate of one Dick Johnson, an Indian, who was murdered near to at Yoncalla a short time since & to make such disposition of the property as the circumstances of the case might require, also to attend to the wants of the surviving members of the family & if advisable remove them to this reserve.
    I am further induced to advise with you freely as you have heretofore taken much interest in them & have been in a position to know somewhat of the estate of the deceased & family.
    I have the pleasure therefore to solicit your aid & to ask for such information as you may deem proper to give regarding the property & your advice respecting its disposition & if you will take charge of the same & if deemed advisable dispose of it for the benefit of the survivors.
    Should you think it advisable & the Indians desire it perhaps it were well to send them (the survivors) to this reserve. Whoever takes charge of them will be paid a reasonable compensation for his services & reimbursed for any expenses incurred in their transportation on the presentation of his claim at this office.
    I intend in a few days to be at your place, water & weather permitting.
I have the honor to be sir
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
           Sub-Ind. Agt.
To
    J. Applegate Esq.
        Yoncalla O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 3.



Chief Clerk's Office Indian Affairs
    Washington D.C. Dec. 22nd 1858
Dear Sir,
    It has been suggested to my mind that by making a proposition it may relieve you from embarrassment in reference to your conclusions and decisions respecting my case, or rather my request.
    In view of the importance of this matter and of the apparent peculiarities connected with my course in reference to it I would most respectfully propose that I meet you at some specified time (of your own choice) for the purpose of giving somewhat in detail my personal acquaintance or knowledge of Indian matters in Oregon and Washington Territories. I would also suggest that the Hons. J. Lane of Oregon and I. Stevens of Washington (in view of the relations they sustain to those Territories) be invited to be present. Also as many others as you choose to extend the invitation. Asking the privilege of inviting two or three of my acquaintance.
Most respectfully your friend
    Joseph Chamberlin
Mr. J. W. Denver Commissioner Ind. Affairs
    Washington D.C.
P.S.    If consistent, please answer at an early hour, and if the suggestions meet your approval mention time place &c.
J.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 128-129.



Jacksonville O.T.
    Dec. 26th 1858
Chas. Mix Commissioner
    Sir, having learned your department are paying the pro rata of the fifteen thousand dollars which was appropriated to pay the spoliation claims of the Rogue River Indian War of 1853, enclosed we send you duplicate voucher No. 13 for the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars, and we wish you to forward us a draft for our pro rata distribution in a draft on New York City for it and direct it to us to Crescent City Cal. care Dugan & Wall, Cal.
Cram, Rogers & Co.
    The above letter and signature was written and signed in our presence by Richard Dongan one of the firm of Cram, Rogers and Company.
B. F. Dowell
James T. Glenn
Wm. Hoffman
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 821-822.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Decr. 27th 1858
General,
    The people of Southern Oregon, and particularly those residing in Jackson County, have repeatedly, by petition and otherwise represented to this office the necessity which exists for the establishment of a military post, and an Indian agency at or near Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon. I would at any moment assign a sub-agent to duty in that region were it not that his life would be in danger, and he powerless in the absence of military protection.
    Enclosed I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a resolution adopted by the Oregon Legislature upon the subject, and would respectfully recommend that troops be stationed in that district of country at as early a day as practicable.
    Such a post, in addition to furnishing necessary protection to the citizens of Southern Oregon, would greatly facilitate the communication between Jacksonville and Salt Lake City, upon which route a U.S. Mail contract is now authorized to be let.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Brig. Genl. W. S. Harney USA
        Comdg. Dept. of Oregon
            Fort Vancouver W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 318.



Washington D.C.
    Dec. 29th 1858.
Sir,
    In view of the importance of the work in which I am engaged I take the liberty once again to address you, although it may apparently be transcending all rules of correspondence and propriety. Were it not that I have covenanted with our God to devote our all to this work (i.e., to bettering the condition of the Indian), had I not entered into the most solemn engagement with them to do all in my power for this purpose, could we engage in any other work without doing violence to my convictions of positive duty? Did I not feel that there is a cry that should be heard and heard by every person of this our favored land, and felt by every Christian heart, I would keep silent and trouble you no further upon the subject. But in view of these facts and others that could be mentioned, from the consideration also that the suggestions I propose if carried out will work to the injury of no one, I am moved to call your attention to this matter which is the sole object of our journey and visit to this city and has led me to such an interview with you. I feel I have been misapprehended in my request. It is not to have you conflict with those under your instruction, as you refer in your reply of the 22nd inst., but the object is to ascertain the true policy of our government towards the Indian, and our request is that we have the privilege under favorable circumstances of delivering our message or in other words of performing the duties growing out of the relations we sustain to those people. It is my candid opinion that as long as they are under the influences incident to the present relations they sustain to our military and civil authorities there is no possible chance for their improvement short of a direct interposition of the power of the Almighty. I speak in reference to the Indians on the reservation in Oregon. In relation to the hostile ones I have nothing to say. But our plea and prayer is in behalf of those who wish to live in peace and avail themselves of the benefit of civilization and Christianity. Now to secure this desirable end what objection can be raised to giving those Indians who are desirous of being located at some point favorable to the accomplishment of this object the privilege of repairing thereto, and permitting persons whose sole object is to do them good to go among them, provided they are acceptable to the Indians. And their course of procedure does in no wise militate against the true policy of our government, especially if satisfactory assurance be given to the Department that there will be no additional expense to the government, and the peace and prosperity of our own citizens in no wise be disturbed or embarrassed. The fact is, my dear sir, we ask neither the sword or purse in this matter, but the privilege of carrying out our convictions of duty. At present we will continue this no further. But if it is your pleasure we should be happy to disclose our plans more fully respecting this enterprise, or in other words of committing ourselves fully upon this subject. I purpose to go as far as prudence and convictions of duty may require so that at the day of reckoning we may find ourselves excused if this work has not been fully accomplished. My desire and prayer is, my dear sir, that we both be able to adopt those measures and pursue that course that will best conduce to our individual good and to the mutual peace and prosperity of the Indian and our government.
    Will it be asking too much to request a response or an interview? Pardon this lengthy note--let me say we respect you for the attention paid your servant. And will close by saying we wish that the course in which we are engaged may meet with corresponding respect and attention.
Most respectfully your friend and servant
    Joseph Chamberlin
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commission of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
   

List of Vouchers of Joseph Chamberlin
for Services Rendered in Oregon Territory

The United States
1855 To Joseph Chamberlin                 Dr.
Nov. 9th For 22 days services as messenger conveying instructions and funds from office of Superintendent to Sub-Agent E. P. Drew at Scottsburg and Agent G. H. Ambrose at Jacksonville at $2 per day commencing Octr. 15th and ending Nov. 8th 1855 twenty-two days $44.00
Amt. paid traveling expenses as per sub-vouchers Nos. 1 to 20    34.25
1856 $78.25
May 15th For amt. paid by him for school books, maps, cards, stationery &c. in Oregon City and Portland for the use of schools for the Willamette Valley, Umpqua and Rogue River tribes on the Grand Ronde Reservation
viz
May 12th Paid--J. D. Post $  9.00
May 12th            Charles Pope Jr. 6.50
May 13            A. R. Shipley & Co. 60.82
May 14            Carter & Austin 4.00
May 14            Smith & Davis 2.65
May 15            S. J. McCormick     3.00
$85.97
May 15th For amt. paid for traveling expenses in going from Dayton to Oregon City and Portland to purchase school books &c. for the use of schools for Willamette Valley, Umpqua and Rogue River Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation as per vouchers sub from 1 to 3 $12.65
June 24 For services rendered in erecting school house for the Rogue River Indians, 29 days commencing May 22nd and ending June 24th at $2.50 per day $72.50
Paid August 15th 1856
May 21 For services as hospital steward, taking care of the sick among the Indian tribes congregated at the Grand Ronde (consisting of several tribes) commencing March 1st and ending May 21st--70 days @ $2.50 per day $175.00
Paid August 15th 1856
Aug. 15 For his services as school teacher for the Rogue River tribes of Indians, 45 days commencing June 25th and ending August 15th 1856 at $1000 per annum $143.77
March For amount expended for salt, candles and sugar and for expense whilst acting as hospital steward for Indians at Grand Ronde, the articles being used in said service $7.12
Paid August 15th 1856
Feby. 29th For his service in erecting temporary buildings for the residence of Indians congregated at the Grand Ronde encampment, assisting in the issue of rations and other duties connected with the collecting of the scattering bands of Willamette and Umpqua Indians, commencing Novr. 27th 1855 and ending Feby. 29th 1856--82 days at $3 per day $246.00
Paid August 15th 1856
    The above are copies of vouchers taken from Superintendent Palmer's accts. for 4th qr. 1855 and 1st, 2nd and 3rd quarters 1856, showing amts. paid Joseph Chamberlin for services rendered.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 130-136.



Headquarters, Department of Oregon,
    Fort Vancouver,
        December 31, 1858.
Sir,
    I am instructed by the General commanding to state he has received your communication of the 27th instant, & he regrets it is not in his power to establish a post in the vicinity of Klamath Lake, as that country is in the Rogue River District & was placed by orders from the War Department under the military jurisdiction of the Department of California.
    A copy of your communication will be sent to General Clarke & also to Washington.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. srvt.
        A. Pleasanton
             Capt. 2nd Dragoons
                Asst. Adjt. Genl.
J. W. Nesmith, Esq.
    Superintendent
        of Indian Affairs
            Oregon & Washington Territories
                Salem,
                    Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 9.


    A fine subject for study and experiment was a little Indian boy six or eight years of age that lived in my family during the years 1858 and 1859. He was a relic of the Rogue River Indian War of 1855 and 1856, having been wounded by a buckshot in the leg in "The Cabin Fight" and found in the cabin after the Indians had abandoned it. The Indians, being hotly pursued by the white settlers, took refuge in a log cabin from which they could command any approach and hold their assailants out of rifle range. To remedy this state of things, a mountain howitzer was being forwarded from the nearest fort, and the besieged Indians, guessing the cause of the apparent suspension of hostilities, awaited until dark, when they broke out, every fellow trusting to his heels, and escaped, it is said, without the loss of a man. A man by the name of Bozart claimed the boy as his prize, extracted the bullet, which had not done serious damage, named him Charley, and signified his intention of taking him to Missouri and selling him as a slave. Charley was a beautiful Indian boy with an admirable form and physical development, a good face and naturally shaped head, showing that he was not of the tribes addicted to the hideous custom of flattening their children's skulls while infants. My brother believed him to be a Modoc and was desirous of knowing what could be made of such a perfect specimen of the aborigine by education and rearing in a civilized community, and therefore got his release from Bozart. Being without a family, brother John took the boy to the Willamette and left him with mine for a season. At that time he could speak a little English, and young as he was, showed a very firm determination to hold fast the customs and habits of his tribe. His coal black hair was thick, matted with fir pitch and dirt, and reached well down upon his shoulders. He was lousy beyond anything known of white children, and although he knew by trial that combing his helmet of hair was entirely out of the category of practicabilities, he was so passionately proud of his long hair that he resisted all attempts to shorten it.
    When John turned the boy over to me he said to him, "Charlie, you are to stay here with my brother for a while; he will take care of you and send you to school, and you must do as he wishes you to do. Mind whatever he says and be a good boy."
    Charlie gave his assent and school began. The first thing on the program was to clear the boy of lice, which could be done in no other way than to cut his hair close to his head. To this he said "No" with a firmness of tone that had deterred his other teachers.
    "Charlie, you have come to stay in my family, but while the lice are on you, you cannot have clean clothes, sleep in a good bed, go anywhere or be anybody. In fact, you cannot stay in the house. Do you not see that your hair must come off?"
    Still that defiant negative which had caused others to respect his so-called rights.
    I took the shears and advanced toward him. A forbidding frown took possession of his face, his black eyes were fixed on me with a most obstinate expression, and backing to the wall he held up both arms in an attitude of defense.
    "Charlie, you put me in mind of the sheep. Of a hot day, when they would feel better with the wool off, they try to get away, but we have to catch them, hold them down and shear off the wool, and I see that you have no more sense than a sheep." At this I took hold of him without any show of indignation on my part, laid him upon the floor, sat astride of him, holding his arms down with my legs, and began shearing him.
    "Hold your head still; you are acting again like sheep that flounce around and get pieces cut out of their hides. Whoa."
    His hair was cut close to the skin, and his scalp found covered with a festering mass of dandruff, blood and matter, alive with lice, some of them of enormous size. An application of shaving soap and warm water cleansed it; my wife put a cap on him that she had constructed during the operation, and Charlie was helped from the floor, very different in his mood. His antagonism went with his hair seemingly. Contrary to my expectation, he showed no sign of retaliation or revenge.
    "Cheer up, Charlie, we are going to make you over into a white boy. You can eat at the same table with us and be the same as my boy."
    I soon learned by observation that he had a great amount of pride of personal consequence. According to his infant ideas, the brave, the warrior stood at the head of creation, and this was borne out by his head, which was high in the center of the crown, showing to a phrenologist firmness and self-esteem; and lower down the development indicating large combativeness, secretiveness and destructiveness. He had also good intellectual faculties, was not wanting in affection, and while a little slow of temperament, was apt to learn. There was no use, therefore, of appealing to such an organization with the "beauties of holiness" to influence his conduct. If the truth and a proper regard for the welfare of others could not be got into his mind as especially characteristic of the warrior, the brave, his advance in civilization must be hopeless. To make of right doing a chivalrous function, consonant with his rude ideas of personal worth, was my purpose. So, an untruthful person was denounced as a coward; a rude, unkind person, as an inferior sort of being, who did not belong to the true and the brave. A brave boy dared to do right, to shield the weak and helpless, to put them on their feet and help them to an equal chance in life. This was the kind of tuition, and while he stayed in my family it bore fruit. He could be relied upon to tell the truth though damaging to himself. He would care for our two little girls and obey me without hesitation and with seeming pleasure to himself, but to obey my wife was a sore trial to his pride, which was ever on the point of revolt against what some white masculines call petticoat government. Her requests he executed grudgingly, and once he positively refused and stood in battle array. When informed of it, I asked him to give a reason for such treatment of the person who was performing the duties of mother for him.
    "Does she not cook your victuals, wash your clothes, give you a soft, warm bed, teach you to read and treat you as her own boy? And is this the return you make for all her goodness? Can't you see that your refusal to do what she requests is the act of a cowardly cur that should be kicked out of decent society? Now, Charlie, if you are intending to be a man and hold your head up among men, never let that occur again."
    And he didn't, though he had lived too long among those who thought it humiliating for braves to obey a squaw. His education did not begin soon enough.
    We had a flock of sheep, and it was Charlie's duty to bring them to the corral every evening before dark to secure them from wolves, a task which he performed punctually with one exception. Upon coming home one night at ten o'clock, I found him sitting before the fireplace in a moody state of mind, and upon inquiring the cause learned that the sheep were not penned as usual; that Charlie had been on a visit that day to one of the neighbors, did not get home until after dark, and that he had had an unsuccessful search for them.
    "Well," said I, "you do not propose to leave them out overnight for the wolves to kill, do you?"
    My wife interposed with the remark that Charlie was afraid, and being a little boy she could not ask him to go again.
    "Why, he has been big enough all along to drive sheep, and I guess he is big enough now."
    "Well, but he suffers from fear," my wife said, "and it is cruel to force him out at this time of night."
    "Charlie, what are you afraid of?"
    "The dark," he muttered.
    "Nonsense, the dark never hurts anybody."
    "It is the boogaboo," he simpered.
    "There are no boogaboos. Did you ever see a boogaboo?"
    "No."
    "Well, nobody ever saw a boogaboo. There is nothing to hurt you, and a coyote would run away from you. You are no coward and not afraid of anything. If you are afraid something will catch you, stand still and say, 'Come on,' and you will stand there until you are gray-headed unharmed. Now, go for the sheep and don't come back without them if it takes all night."
    He went and returned with them in an hour.
    After he had gone, my wife chided me for cruelty in forcing the little fellow to endure such punishment and put the question to me squarely how I would relish such treatment of my boy.
    "That is a very different case. Charlie is not imaginative and sensitive like most white children; he will not be injured.''
    When Charlie entered the house after his return, his dark eyes shone with a light never seen before; and he had the step and visage of a conqueror.
    "Charlie, you will sleep better than you would if you had gone to bed without securing the sheep."
    One day a peddler came to our home and unrolled his pack for trade. There were pocket knives, pistols that shone with fine mountings, watches of gold and silver, pins, needles, ribbons, etc. The children had never seen such a dazzling display. Especially was Charlie intent upon viewing the outfit. I said:
    "Charlie, look over this man's goods, and pick out one article, only one, and I will buy it for you.''
    My wife whispered, "There is a gold watch for which he asks a hundred dollars, and we can't afford to buy that for him, and you must not deceive him."
    "Never fear, I know what I am saying," and I repeated the offer. "Charlie, look well to the goods, pistols, knives, watches, and pick out one article that you prefer and I will buy it for you.''
    My wife was on nettles and the peddler exhibited the gold watch conspicuously.
    "Hold on there," I said, "let the boy have his choice."
    He did, and Charlie delightedly snatched up a bolt of very bright, deep-red ribbon an inch and a half in width, to the utter disgust of the peddler, who said:
    "I'll be damned if you don't know an Indian from the ground up."
    "Charlie, this is your day. Ogle that ribbon until you are tired out."
    With my wife's assistance there were festoons upon his arms and legs, a band with bows around his black head, and from his neck to his heels flowed streamers that fluttered in the breeze.
    Fashionable white people put on finery to please others, but Charlie had no thought of pleasing others; it was purely self-satisfaction; enjoyment coming with the exercise of faculty, and I believe an innate love of bright colors. What philosopher will show how such ecstasy can come from the vibrations of red upon the Indian's optic nerve? Are white children so affected and is it a phenomenon peculiar to childhood? If so, mature Indians are never more than children, for the preference for red never fades. There were various patterns and colors in the calicoes of the annuity goods, but the squaws preferred the red.
    After my brother's marriage, Charlie was taken to live with him in the little town of Phoenix in Rogue River Valley, an unfortunate change for Charlie. There he was in company with white boys who loved his company and who rallied him for obeying my brother's wife. His early repugnance to feminine control was revived to such an extent as to threaten her safety, and Charlie was turned over to Captain Truax of the Oregon Volunteers. He was taken to Fort Walla Walla, and there, falling in with those of depraved habits, became diseased and died miserably while a mere youth. But others with white skins did the same. The American Army, I believe, is not a moral reform institution. One company recruited in Marion County, mainly an agricultural district, was composed almost entirely of young men not addicted to the use of alcoholic liquors or tobacco, and I was informed by the Hon. W. R. Dunbar, one of them, that only one stuck to his temperance habits, the others soon taking to smoking and drinking, and some of them went even lower in the descending scale.
Timothy Woodbridge Davenport, "Recollections of an Indian Agent," Oregon Historical Quarterly, September 1907, pages 258-264





Last revised May 12, 2017