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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1859
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Grand Ronde O.T.
    January 1st 1859.
Sir--
    I have the honor to report that the general health of the Indians on this reservation has been ordinarily good during the 4 quarter 1858. when we take into consideration the inclemency of the weather--it having rained about the entire quarter--and the fact that many of the Indians were just convalescing from the whooping cough and measles, and some of them were having these diseases in their acute stages, their mortality has been remarkably small.
    Many of the sick are entirely destitute of clothing, especially the Rogue Rivers. I would recommend the issue of small supply to them.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan
                Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 16; Letters Received, 1858, No. 282.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 3rd 1859
Sir
    Your letter of the 28th ult. reached me by the last mail, in relation to obtaining possession of the property of Dick Johnson decd. I concur with you that the most speedy and effective method perhaps would be for the officers of this department to take possession of the effects of the decd. In the event, however, that there is to be litigation I think the better way would be to proceed under our statutes and have an administrator appointed.
    As you state the law of the U.S. rests the general supervision and control of the persons and property of Indians in their respective agents--but all congressional legislation upon this subject treats of the Indians in the Indian country where alone the intercourse laws are in force.
    In the case under consideration there is a departure from the usual state of things, and the anomaly so presented of an Indian separating himself and family from the body of his tribe and adopting the manner and customs of the white man. Such a radical change in his condition--together with the fact of his having located in the settlements and beyond the contemplated jurisdiction of the Indian Department--would seem to me to place his estate under the jurisdiction of the probate court of the county in which he resided.
    Our statute upon the subject of administration treats of "inhabitants" without reference to citizenship or complexion. I am anxious that the property of the deceased should be secured for the benefit of the survivors, and desire that the most efficient and least expensive mode should be adopted to secure that end and only suggest the adoption of the usual legal mode of procedure for the purpose of preventing the murderers from pleading any irregularity in support of their thieving scheme.
    I shall direct Sub-Agent Drew to consult with you in reference to the matter, and having full confidence in your knowledge of the legal questions involved, together with a sincere desire to benefit the unfortunate survivors, I shall be satisfied with such measures as you shall see proper to adopt to accomplish that object.
    I would visit the Umpqua myself, but am prevented by a press of business which requires my presence at the office.
    I would state that on several occasions probate courts in Oregon have administered on the estates of Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
J. H. Chadwick Esqr.
    Roseburg Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 322-323.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 12th 1859
Sir,
    I deem it my duty to report to you the facts connected with the most barbarous and inhuman murder of two Indians in the Umpqua Valley on the 28th of November last.
    It appears that some time prior to the year 1853 a Spokane Indian known by the name of "Dick Johnson" had married into the Umpqua tribe, and at the time the treaty of 29th November 1854 was negotiated with the Umpquas, he was allowed by the then Superintendent of Indian Affairs to remain on and continue in the possession of a piece of land not included within any reservation and thought to be of little or no value
    When the remainder of the tribe was removed to the Grand Ronde Reservation, "Dick" with his family & father-in-law "Mummy" were permitted to remain behind in possession of the home and little farm which they had succeeded in improving by their own energy and industry.
    It seems that certain parties had their cupidity excited by the property and improvements in possession of these Indians, and determined to possess them. They therefore established a claim to the land by preemption, and after resorting to various modes for the annoyance of the Indians made application to me for their removal. The Indians declined to leave their farm, unless remunerated for their improvements, and I declined forcing them away. Matters remained pretty much in this position until the evening of the 28th November last when they were inhumanely murdered, the details of which transaction you will find in the enclosed copy of a private letter from a gentleman of integrity and responsibility residing in the neighborhood, but who for the present desires his name withheld from the public. Five men charged with the commission of the murder have been bound over for their appearance at the U.S. District Court, and it is to be hoped will meet the just reward which their outrageous conduct so richly merits.
    It is but justice to the community in which this outrage was perpetrated to say that it meets with nearly universal condemnation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon J. W. Denver
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 327.



Office, Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, January 20th 1859
Sir,
    Herewith enclosed you will find a joint resolution of the House of Representatives of this Territory requesting our delegation in Congress to apply for the establishment of a military post at or near Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon, and also for the appointment of an Indian Agent at the same place.
    I fully concur with the action of the Legislature, and believe the necessity exists for a military post in that region for the protection of white settlers, and for the appointment of an Indian Agent to take charge of the Indian tribes inhabiting that country.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.T.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
   

11th Session Legislative Assembly.
H. J. R. No. 1
In the House of Representatives
Dec. 9, 1858
Mr. T'Vault, of Jackson, offered the following Resolution:
A Joint Resolution.
    Resolved, by the House, the Council concurring, that our Delegation in Congress be requested to use their influence with the Secretary of War for the establishment of a military post at or near Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon.
    And with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the appointment of a full agent for the Klamath Lake Indians.
    Passed the House, December 9, 1858.
Jas. M. Pyle, Clerk.
    Passed the Council, December 10, 1858.
N. Huber, Clerk.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 1249-1251. The cover letter is also recorded in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 331-332.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, January 25th 1859
Sir,
    In January 1858 the legislative assembly of Oregon took steps to ascertain the number of persons massacred by Oregon Indians since the first settlement of the country, and appointed a committee for that purpose. Herewith I have the honor to enclose to you a report showing the result of their investigations. Much of the information contained in the report has been drawn from the files of this office, and from my own personal knowledge of the facts I am satisfied that the report is substantially correct and true. There have, however, been a few isolated persons murdered who were engaged in exploring, and in prospecting for gold, who are not enumerated in the list. The report with the exception of the persons murdered at Walla Walla and known as the "Whitman massacre" does not pretend to embrace the large number of persons who have been murdered by the Indians in Washington Territory, neither does it embrace the larger number of our citizens who have fallen in battle.
    When we contemplate that two hundred and seventy-three persons of the small population of Oregon alone have fallen victims to the treachery and barbarity of the Indians in so short a period we are impressed with the conviction that the sufferings of our citizens have been without parallel in frontier life.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 332.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 26th 1859
Madame
    Mr. T'Vault of Jacksonville deposited in this office a spoliation claim made out in your name, amounting to $2027 75/100. I presume that you desire to have the claim submitted to the Department at Washington, as I have no directions in relation to the matter. I shall hold the papers here subject to your order.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. &c. &c.
Mrs. Mary Huested
    Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 333-334.



Washington City
    January 26th 1859.
Hon. Jacob Thompson
    Secy of the Interior
        Sir;
            Having been appointed commissioner under the 2nd section of the act of the 14th June 1858, to "audit and state" the claims against the Indian Service in the Territories of Oregon and Washington originating during the year ending the 30th June 1858, and having concluded that labor, I beg leave to tender this my report.
    In pursuance of written instructions, on my arrival at Salem, Oregon, Sept. 6th 1858 I placed myself in communication with J. W. Nesmith Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs, with the view of entering upon the discharge of my duties. Finding that there were many claims outstanding which had not been presented to the Superintendent, I gave due notice in the public journals of the country of the mission upon which I was sent, in order that all persons interested might have an opportunity of presenting their claims.
    The claims offered for my examination and audit have been regularly entered upon the accompanying docket, which together with the various abstracts, vouchers and depositions, containing testimony bearing upon their merits, herewith, is made a part of this report, and by which will be seen the results of my conclusion concerning the claims and the proofs upon which it is based.
    Superintendent Nesmith manifested a disposition to afford me every facility necessary for a proper and satisfactory investigation of these claims, and urged the most thorough scrutiny into the management of Indian affairs within his Superintendency.
    Had I waited in my office for the creditors to present their claims for examination and audit, or had I required each individual who performed service or furnished supplies to make proof of the facts, the work would have been interminable, if indeed the indebtedness could ever have been fully ascertained.
    These claims constitute, in a good degree, the currency of the Territory, and are constantly changing hands. In many cases the payee upon the voucher has left the country and the holder knows nothing of its merits other than appears by the certificate of the agent issuing it. Instead of presenting the voucher itself, letters containing an abstract or list of claims held by persons in different localities were sent me, the parties not being able to furnish the evidence required to establish their justness, and disinclined to have them out of the market long enough for me to find the proof.   
    To hunt up the voucher in every case would have been to traverse the country from center to circumference. I therefore required of the agents to furnish me a copy of each voucher issued by them, and then began the search for persons cognizant of the facts required to establish them as just demands against the service.
    Here again I had much trouble, for one of the agents (R. B. Metcalfe) had conducted matters in a loose way, and was unable to render a perfect abstract. With the two or three imperfect ones furnished, and the data presented to the Supt. and at my office, I am persuaded that the indebtedness on account of his agency has now been fully "audited and stated." There were many difficulties in the way to a literal compliance with the terms of my instructions. For instance, I was expected to establish by proof the market price of each article procured for the Indian Service at the time of its procurement, such as flour, beef &c. &c., whilst such things are held and sold at widely different prices in different localities, and are everywhere there subject to most violent & sometimes unaccountable fluctuations. The discovery of new gold "diggins" is usually accompanied by the wildest excitement and keeps a large portion of the population constantly on the rush. At the "diggins" to which the gold hunters are attracted, the price of subsistence immediately runs up to a high figure, whilst at the point from which they have been "stampeded" labor is rendered scarce and as a consequence wages go up in proportion.
    You may obtain a hand for two dollars today when tomorrow the same hand could not be employed for six, or his place supplied at any price. During the past harvesting season, farmers were compelled to pay four dollars a day for labor whilst wheat varied in price (within six weeks' time) from four to one dollar per bushel. Again many of those who furnished supplies or performed labor for the Indian Service had transferred their claims to merchants and brokers and were scattered from California to Fraser River.
    The policy of locating the Indians of the Pacific coast upon the reservations and providing them with subsistence has up to this time been attended with no little expense, and it is not surprising that many who are unacquainted with the condition of those Indians, and the enormously high prices for labor and supplies throughout that new and most remarkable section of our country, should be appalled and discouraged at a system or policy requiring such heavy expenditures of money with such limited beneficial results as have been attained.
    Let it be remembered that those Indians occupied a widely extended country, abounding in game, fish, berries and roots, at one period of the year frequenting the coast and rivers, where an easy and competent subsistence was obtained in the salmon and shellfish, at another penetrating the forest for game and the prairie and valleys for roots and berries, with the posts of the Hudson Bay Company always in reach, and at which guns, powder, ball, blankets, tobacco, beads and everything pleasing to the eye and taste of a savage might be had in exchange for the products of the chase and the trap. They were free to roam wherever nature promised the readiest means for a comfortable support in mountain or swamp.
    Upon the discovery of gold the rapid settlement of their country by the whites circumscribed their wandering, curtailed their hunting resources, demoralized them with alcohol and disease, and thus made it necessary to initiate them into the reservation system from a wild state and before they had contracted by intercourse with the whites anything more than the vices of civilization, drunkenness and prostitution.
    In the effort to civilize and Christianize such a people, of course, very many striking beneficial results are not to be expected within a two or three or even five years. They are disinclined to surrender their roving habits and slow to adapt themselves to the pursuits of agriculture. The Indian male is reared in the belief that any sort of labor is degrading to a man, and it has been impossible to induce the chiefs or headmen to put their hands to the plow or the hoe. They were horrified at my telling them in council that the great chiefs of the whites were not above laboring in the field, and inclined to doubt my position as an agent of the government when I declared that I was accustomed to work. An incident (the truth of which is well established) may serve to illustrate their prejudices upon this point:
    A Protestant missionary named [blank] now residing near Salem, Oregon married the daughter of an Indian chief. With great exertion he at last induced his red father-in-law, with other members of his wife's family, to assist him in the cultivation of a small crop. Members of the chief's tribe discovered him in the field at work and would not again recognize or acknowledge him as their chief, but with scoffs and taunts and epithets so mortified and humiliated the old man that he committed suicide, or fled the country; at any rate, he has never been seen there from that day to this.
    The policy of the Department is to furnish a few farmers as instructors to the Indians. In view of the large promises made by the agents in their reports, their inability to get work out of the Indians and their anxiety to make some show in an agricultural point of view, too many white laborers have been employed.
    The temptations and inducements of mining operations are such as to attract all those who are willing to encounter hard work and are sufficient to enhance greatly the wages of labor. The consequence is that Indian agents have been compelled to employ idle, inefficient men, and to pay the high rates of the country.
    In reporting the result of my inquiries as to "the circumstances which have induced the incurring of the very heavy liabilities against the Indian Department and of the necessity therefor" I refer you to the reports of the Superintendent, agents and sub-agents for the years 1857 & '58 in reference to the condition of the Indians located at the Siletz, Grand Ronde and eastern agencies, and within the Umpqua Sub-Agency, which disclose a state of acts, corroborated in most particulars by the information I have obtained from personal observations, within the three first of these agencies (where much the larger amount of the liabilities were contracted) and by inquiries among the citizens deemed competent to impart it.
    Claims amounting to two hundred and sixty-five thousand and nine hundred and two 40/100 dollars have been examined by me, which amount covers, I doubt not, the entire liabilities against the Department for the year ending 30th June 1858. My docket and proofs establish these claims as outstanding demands against the service, less eight hundred 62/100 dollars disallowed.
    From this statement you will perceive that the deficiency is ninety-seven thousand one hundred and forty-three 69/100 dollars less than that estimated by Supt. Nesmith in January 1858, and exceeds the appropriation [by] one thousand, one hundred and one 4/100 dollars, unless you allow the amount rejected by me. In explanation of the discrepancy in the amount found to be due and that estimated by the Supt. I refer you to the accompanying letter, marked A.
    The liabilities contracted by Jno. F. Miller for the Grand Ronde Agency as shown by my docket and his certified abstract, amount to the sum of sixty-six thousand, seven hundred and twenty 98/100 dollars, as follows: Nineteen hundred and ninety-seven dollars for three carpenters, two thousand, five hundred and seventy-four 64/100 for five farmers, four thousand, four hundred and seventy-one 78/100 dollars for fifteen other white employees including miller, commissary, hospital steward, blacksmith and tinner, and six thousand, nine hundred and ninety-four 83/100 dollars for Indian labor, making in the aggregate sixteen thousand and thirty-eight 28/100 dollars for services performed and fifty thousand, six hundred and eighty-two 73/100 dollars for supplies.
    In July 1857 the buildings here were an agency house, storehouse, school house, slaughter house, hospital dwellings for the farmers and mechanics, shops and barn partially erected, the frame of a gristmill, and one hundred and ninety temporary buildings for the Indians. Within the fiscal year ending June 30th 1858 the shops and large barn have been finished, the dam of the sawmill repaired and the grist mill completed, so that both are now in good running order, a good farmhouse built for the miller and some new cabins for the Indians erected and the old ones made more comfortable. For these improvements and the running of the sawmill my docket shows a cost to the Department of two thousand, four hundred and forty-eight dollars.
    Very nearly all of the cultivatable soil at this agency (2,320 acres) is under good fence, nine hundred and twenty-three acres of which were tended the past year at a cost of two thousand, five hundred and seventy 64/100 dollars for supt. of farming and white farmers and six thousand, nine hundred and ninety-four 83/100 dollars for Indian labor, amounting to nine thousand, five hundred and sixty-nine 47/100 dollars, with a result of 3565 bushels wheat, 901 of oats, some peas, potatoes and turnips. By a census taken in October 1857, the number of Indians at this agency was ascertained to be eleven hundred and fifty. For the subsistence of these Indians and the employees I have audited and stated an outstanding indebtedness against the Department of twenty-one thousand, one hundred and thirty-six 49½/100 dollars. It appears that thirty-three thousand, four hundred and ninety dollars was received by the agent from Supt. Nesmith during the fiscal year ending 30th June 1858 for current expenses under the various heads of appropriation. What amount of this sum may have been expended upon the building and agricultural improvements and for subsistence I have no convenient means of ascertaining, but suppose it to be on file in the office of the Commr. of Indian Affairs. Sixty yoke of oxen and eighty milch cows have been purchased for this agency.
    Houses for the agent, employees and the Indians, both here and at the other agencies, were absolutely necessary. Now that they are erected, this item of expense need not occur again for many years.
    I am of the opinion that about as much has been done at the Grand Ronde as could be expected, in view of the insalubrity of the climate and the unproductiveness of the soil, and that Agent Miller is one of the most efficient as well as honest men in the service. The place is utterly destitute of game and fish, and as the experience of the past shows, most uncertain in an agricultural point of view on account of its elevation and the cold sea winds.
    I concur in the following language, found in the report of J. Ross Browne, who visited this place in Sept. 1857, under the direction of the Commr. of Indian Affairs, and who reported the result of his inquiries and observations in Novr. of that year. "From my own observation I should judge that it will be difficult to raise full crops in any of this land. It is for the most part barren, cold & clayey, hard and difficult to work. * * * I am inclined to think the farmers who sold out their claims here found them unprofitable and that the experience of government will be no more satisfactory."
    The Indians here are miserably poor and dependent upon the crops and the government for subsistence; if the first fail and the latter refuses and starvation [omission] or the plundering of the neighboring whites, with a bloody and expensive war as a consequence must be the inevitable result.
    The outstanding liabilities audited by me, and certified by E. P. Drew, in charge of Umpqua Sub-Indian Agency, amount to twenty-seven thousand, nine hundred and thirty-one 35/100 dollars. Of this sum twenty-two thousand, seven hundred and forty-two 45/100 dollars was contracted by Special Agent Wm. Tichenor in the removal of the Chetco and Pistol River Indians from the southern part of Oregon to the Siletz Reservation, leaving but five thousand, one hundred and eighty-eight 90/100 dollars, four thousand, seven hundred and eight 90/100 of which was for subsistence, and four hundred and eighty to physician as the actual indebtedness contracted by Sub-Agent Drew, on account of the Indians within his district, numbering in July 1857 six hundred and ninety. Eight thousand, eight hundred and thirty-nine 89/100 dollars of funds was received by Sub-Agent Drew from the Superintendent for the current expenses of the fiscal year, ending 30th Jun 1855. The manner in which this was expended I presume was explained in his quarterly accounts. The claims examined by me, and for which Agent Drew issued the vouchers, are believed to be fully established by the depositions herewith, as just demands against the service. Not having visited his agency I can say nothing from personal knowledge as to his faithfulness and "whether or not he has at all times exercised a judicious economy in the discharge of his duties," yet from the proofs advanced and the concurrent testimony of those who know him, I am persuaded that he is both honest and efficient.
    The liabilities of the Indian Department on account of the eastern district, Oregon, contracted by A. P. Dennis, as shown by accompanying abstract, is fourteen thousand, four hundred and fifty-one 22/100 dollars, divided thus: Three thousand, two hundred and ninety-one 71/100 dollars for a carpenter, farmers and other white laborers; seventy thousand, nine hundred and thirty 54/100 dollars for merchandise and subsistence; one thousand, three hundred and seventeen 30/100 dollars for work oxen, and the remainder in salaries to local agent, physician, clerk, office rent &c. There was also the sum of nine thousand, five hundred dollars, received by Agent Dennison for the current expenses of same year, the disbursement of which was not made a subject of inquiry by me. There are twelve tribes and parts of tribes in this district, numbering five thousand, two hundred and eighty souls, according to the estimate made by Agent Dennison in August last. Of these tribes, the Wascoes, Tyichs and a portion of the Des Chutes, John Day and Dog River Indians, numbering in all twelve hundred, have been located at the Warm Springs Reservation, on the eastern side of the Cascade Mountains and eighty miles south of the Dalles. During the year ending June 30th 1858, Agent Dennison removed the Wascoes (450) to this reserve, erected two very substantial agency buildings, one of them hewn timber sixty feet long, twenty side, containing three large rooms, with alleys above not yet entirely completed, the other of rough logs, thirty-six by twenty, and broken up and divided off among the tribes about one hundred and fifty acres of land.
    I submit that the services and supplies for which the claims were examined by me were actually rendered and furnished in good faith, for the use and for that year further than the completion of those that were being erected in July 1857, the hospital and two buildings for which the timber had been hewn and hauled, that but one hundred and twenty-five additional acres had been fenced, 325 broken and 212 put in cultivation, yet his certified abstracts accompanying my docket show that he employed as many as ten different carpenters and twenty-two farmers and white laborers during that fiscal year at a cost to the service of two thousand, eight hundred and forty-six 10/100 dollars for the carpenters, six thousand, four hundred and sixteen 37/100 for the farmers and other white employees, and four thousand, five hundred and ninety-three 16/100 dollars for Indian labor, making in the aggregate the sum of thirteen thousand, eight hundred and fifty-five 37/100 dollars for the completion of two or three ordinary buildings, the fencing, breaking up and cultivation of a few hundred acres of land in wheat, oats &c. This sum does not include amounts due to clerks, physician, hospital stewards, blacksmiths, commissary and what he calls general assistant, or subsistence for the employees, and is independent of the $54,146.67 of funds turned over to the agent and expended by him during the year. Well might he say, "Since my report of last year, there have been no very important changes made."
    In the Report of 1857, he says: "In a short time we will be able to do all the labor with Indians, except a few white men to instruct them," nevertheless in the succeeding year those few white instructors are found to number two score or more.
    The accompanying proofs establish the fact that these employees were actually engaged and vouchers issued to them for their services, yet the result are so entirely inadequate to the expenditures of money it is impossible to say that the agent has in all cases exercised a "judicious economy" in the administration of affairs in this agency.
    In July 1857 Agent Metcalfe estimated the number of Indians in his district at two thousand and forty-nine. His expenditures were fifty-four thousand, one hundred and forty-six 67/100 dollars of funds received by him from the Superintendent for the current expenses under the various heads of appropriation, during the fiscal year ending June 30th 1858, and the one hundred fifty-six thousand, nine hundred and seventy-seven 83/100 dollars now outstanding and which is audited and stated by me--two hundred and eleven thousand, one hundred and twenty-four 50/100 dollars. Arguments and calculations are needless; take the result of this expenditure as indicated by the last annual report of the agent himself, and it must be found to be wholly insufficient and unsatisfactory.
    As the object of my commission and instructions does not appear to contemplate an inquiry into the success obtained under the reservation system, further than as to the faithfulness and economy of the agents, I shall not take the question of civilization or improvement to the Indian into the account. Yet in order to a proper understanding of the circumstances which have induced the incurring of the heavy liabilities against the Indian Department, and of "the necessity therefor," it may not be improper to give my impressions of the soil, location &c. of the Siletz, with the view to ascertain its adaptation to the purposes for which it was intended. In my judgment, there is no better place for an Indian reservation to be found in the whole western country than this. I am at a loss to understand the statements which have caused the Commissioner to apprehend "that a great mistake was made in its location, the lands not appearing such as will afford the Indians a comfortable support by their cultivation, and that consequently so long as they are kept there they must be entirely sustained at an enormous expense to the government."
    The natural advantages of the place are most obvious, a rich soil, a convenient and plentiful supply of timber and water, fish, game, roots and berries tolerably abundant, and what is quite as material to the poor, whisky-loving savage, it is beyond the reach of grog shops and white settlements.\
    Located on the western slope of the Coast Range, it is inaccessible except by sea or a mountain trail, bad at best, and at times impassable for a distance of more than thirty miles to the nearest white settlement. The language of Mr. Bailey in reference to Nome Cult will apply in almost every particular to the Siletz. "With a soil extraordinarily fertile, a mild and equable climate, an unlimited supply of every variety of timber, and completely isolated by a belt of almost impassable mountains, if the reservation theory can be successfully worked out, it can be done here." The nights may be too cool to grow corn successfully, or any of the more delicate vegetables, but wheat, potatoes, peas, turnips and cabbage, together with many of the more hardy vegetables have been found to produce abundantly wherever a little labor was expended in killing that great bugbear the "fern," and I must be permitted to suggest the belief that the reason this place was "so entirely destitute of white settlers at the time of its selection as an Indian reservation" may not [be] because of its worthlessness in an agricultural point of view, but because of its inaccessibility from the Willamette Valley, the trail by which it is now reached not having been cut out and marked at that time. As well might we say that there is no gold in California, because the Spaniards did not find it during their occupancy of that country. Besides, I was informed that a party of settlers were working their way towards it when they were stopped by the difficulties of the route and the information that Genl. Palmer designed it for a reservation.
    Superintendent Nesmith, in whose judgment I have much confidence, has been deceived in relation to the advantages of the Siletz. A single visit, at a time, too, when the "fern" is most luxuriant, and a short crop, the consequence of little work on the part of the employees, together perhaps with representations designed to cover inefficiency have led him to suppose that the "entire reservation is the worst possible selection that could be made for agricultural pursuits." Mr. J. Ross Browne, in his report before referred to, says, "The arable lands of the reservation consist in bottom lands along the creek, and are very warm and rich. The first prairie lies fifteen miles from the source of the Siletz River. A series of prairies extend from that point west towards the ocean, bounded by strips of woodland along the river, the meanderings of which form very distinct boundaries to each prairie. These various spots of open land are estimated to contain altogether about five thousand acres. The soil is a rich warm loam, easily worked and remarkably productive. I have seen nothing to surpass these prairies in any part of Oregon, in position or quality, being thoroughly irrigated and fenced in by natural boundaries, almost dispensing with the necessity of wooden fences.
    "The agency is located in a central prairie, six miles from the embarcadero or depot at the head of Yaquina Bay. It is easy of access from the ocean, and presents unusual advantages in being at once accessible and isolated." This description meets my unqualified endorsement.
    It may be proper to state here that at the time of the visit referred to above, June 1858, the Supt. took steps to curtail the expenses of the agency by directing the dismissal of a number of the employees, and by circular of July 10th, herewith, marked B, made a still further reduction in the number of employees, and the amount of compensation for those retained, both here and at the Grand Ronde. As there were no outstanding liabilities against the Indian Service in Washington Territory, my commission was not required therein.
    As a matter involving the success and economy of the policy being pursued for the Indians of Oregon and Washington I would suggest the necessity of dividing the Superintendency. The great extent of country, and the large numbers of Indians, render it impossible for one Superintendent to exercise the necessary supervision over the different agencies. In order to secure faithfulness on the part of his subordinates and a "judicious economy" in the administration of affairs of the Superintendency, it is indispensable that the controlling head should be able, at least once in a twelvemonth, to visit each tribe within its limits. For the Superintendent of Oregon and Washington to do this is simply a physical impossibility. When it is taken into consideration that this Superintendency embraces a section of country reaching from the 42nd parallel of latitude to the 49th and from the 109th to the 124th degree of longitude, with more than sixty Indian tribes, estimated to contain thirty-three thousand souls, and the large number of agents, local and special, employed, it must be seen how utterly impossible it is that a single Superintendent could exercise that vigilant system of surveillance necessary for the management and control of these numerous and remotely situated tribes of Indians, and protect the interest of the service from inefficiency and unfaithfulness on the part of the agents and employees.
    Supt. J. W. Nesmith recommends that his district be divided into three separate superintendencies, as follows: One each for Oregon and Washington west of the Cascade Mountains and one for the country east of those mountains in both Territories. I am inclined to the opinion that two superintendencies would be found sufficient, and suggest that the Cascade Mountains be made the line of division, as it is a much more natural one than the territorial line. This range of mountains will not divide kindred tribes, the Indians east and west being dissimilar in many respects and necessarily connected in none. Many of the tribes living along the Columbia River and the forty-sixth degree of latitude east of the Cascades, which is the political line, live partly in Oregon and partly in Washington, and this division would separate members of the same tribe, Cayuses, Walla Wallas, Nez Perces, Flatheads &c., who would experience a difference in treatment on the part of the government as the policies of the superintendencies might vary. Another and most conclusive reason for the adoption of the Cascades instead of the territorial line is that the last-mentioned line runs directly through and near the center of the reservation provided in Gov. Stevens' treaty with the Nez Perces and cuts off the southern portion of the conditional reservation for the Flatheads. Again, the Indians west of the Cascade Range in both Territories number but about eleven thousand and are generally located upon temporary or permanent reservations, where they have become somewhat quiescent and accustomed to the control of our agents. Those east are estimated at twenty-one thousand, some of whom are the wildest and most vicious of their kind, whilst but few have heretofore experienced any of the restraints made necessary by the encroachments of the whites. Should the treaties made with these various tribes be confirmed by the President and Senate, the presence of a Superintendent within this large section where so many tribes would have to be located on the different reservations would be necessary in order to supervise their removal and the expenditures in erecting buildings, opening up farms &c.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        C. H. Mott
            Commissioner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 44.



Fort Umpqua, February 2nd 1859
Sir,
    On the receipt of your favor of the 25th ultimo ordering me to take charge of the property & effects of Dick Johnson & Mummy (two Indians recently murdered in Yoncalla) I ordered the commissary at this station to proceed at once to Yoncalla & take an inventory of the personal property belonging to that family of Indians & obtain such other information regarding the same as might prove important in the settlement.
    The fact of his being particularly acquainted in that neighborhood & conversant with all the facts relative to their residence & murder, I deemed myself justified in detailing him for that service instead of attending to it in person. The following is the substance of his report.
    Found the surviving Indians living at Mr. Miller's a short distance from Dick's residence. They number (7) seven in all, viz. Dick's widow & two children, Mummy's widow, Jim, his wife & one child. The improvements on the farms, comparatively speaking, are not so extensive as some at Yoncalla, yet more comfortable & convenient, consisting of about (50) fifty acres of land under cultivation & well fenced (2) two double log houses, hewn, (2) two stables, (2) two sheds, (1) one granary, (1) one smoke house & other outbuilding all spacious & well built, a fruit orchard of forty or fifty trees, (1000) one thousand or more feet of sawn lumber, (50) fifty head of stock, hogs, six (6) head of stock, cattle (10) head of horses, four of them matched work horses, one (1) large wagon with four (4) harnesses for the same, one (1) farming mill, three (3) plows (different size), saws, augers & chisels, together with other farming implements & mechanical tools, (100) one hundred sacks of wheat, (20) twenty sacks of flour, (10) ten sacks of beans, 30 bushels of peas, 200 bushels of oats, 150 bushels of potatoes & other articles in small quantities usually found in a well-regulated farm house.
    Much of the movable property is being stolen by bad white men as the Indians report & this report being substantiated by white testimony I deemed it advisable to dispose of those articles the Indians desired sold. I therefore appointed Mr. Dickinson (the probate judge of this county) to take charge of the entire property & dispose of such articles the Indians might wish to have sold on the best available terms.
    The Indians desire to remain where they are until spring, or until such time as those now held to bail for the murder of Dick & Mummy shall have been convicted or acquitted. I think it advisable for them to remain a few months. Propositions have been made by the residents of Yoncalla to provide for Dick's widow & children. Mr. Smith proposes to take them into his family & send the children to school. Charles Putnam Esq. offers Jim eighty (80) acres of land during his (Jim's) lifetime if he will build upon & cultivate it.
    The Indians all object to leaving that vicinity at present; the inhabitants also desire them to remain, except those suspicient of the murder. They object to the survivors remaining, thinking no doubt their chances of life--acquittal--will increase in the event Jim is taken away. For those & other reasons I would urge the Indians remaining at present.
    Indian Jim, whom I suppose we must now place at the head of the family, thinks the women should all belong to him, as they would according to the Indian usages fall to him. Dick's widow he says is not very old & he may eventually be able to sell her for a good price & that he can always find a ready market for the children.
    Dick's widow however is of the opinion that the property should go to her & the children, to be expended in their education, as she desires them to be educated like white children & Dick's desire was the same. His highest ambition was to see his children educated & living like white people. She objects to (if it is possible to avoid it) returning with her children to an Indian lodge.
    Mummy's widow is old & has apparently no choice, says she is satisfied with any disposition that may be made of her.
    Jim is anxious to return in the early spring to his own tribe (the Klickitat) taking his family & horses with him.
    They all strongly object to coming to the coast this winter. I deemed it proper therefore to await further instructions from you. In the meantime a part of the property will be disposed of. Please advise me what disposition shall be made of the proceeds of the sale.
    I am informed that Dick had on his person when shot three certificates for his land claim with the boundaries of the same definitely described & in proper form, one given him by Genl. Palmer, late Supt. of Indian Affrs., one from J. L. Parrish, late Indian agent one from Major Martin, late sub-Indian agent, all official & agreeing as to the bounds of the claim. That tract of land has also been returned & designated in the government survey as Dick Johnson's claim.
    I would suggest that steps be taken to obtain title to it in Dick's name for the benefit of the widow & orphans. I do not think it should be allowed to fall into the hands of Dick's murderers.
    The fact of [the] Indian Department being a branch of the Indian Department [sic] would no doubt facilitate matters & the result in all probability would be known in a few years. The supposed murderers are now residing on the claim & taking the benefit of the improvements placed there by Dick, living on the earnings of an Indian. They intend preempting it & have given notice to that effect.
    Having carried out your instructions to the best of my ability I will not attempt an apology for the long delay of this report.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Indian Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. of Ind. Affrs.
            Salem
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 19.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Feby. 17th 1859
Sir,
    Herewith I have the honor to transmit ten claims for spoliations committed by hostile Indians in this Superintendency and which amount in the aggregate to the sum of $25,495.97½, as per schedule herewith enclosed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. &c.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
Schedule of spoliation claims against hostile Indians in Oregon & Washington Territory, filed in the office of the Superintendent and forwarded to the Commissioner [of] Indian Affairs February 17th 1859.
Name of Claimant Tribe that Committed the Depredation Amount
Luke W. Saunders Cayuse Indians (Whitman massacre 1847) 2027.75  
G. L. McPherson & Peter McGuire Rogue River Indians 1856 3507.50  
[G. L. McPherson] &
L. Ducille
     "          "         "            " 1671.60  
Ben Taylor      "          "         "        1855 7280.00  
T. Gauthier Yakima Indians          1858 3915.75  
N. J. & P. Oronby Rogue River     "        1855 5230.10  
H. Saffarrans      "          "         "        1856 151.00  
W. P. Day      "          "         "            " 913.37½
Chas. Ogden Cayuse & Walla Walla  " 250.00  
Wm. Charles       "                "         "     "        600.00  
Total Amount $25,495.97½
J. W. Nesmith, Supt &c.
    Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem, Oregon, Feby. 17th 1859
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 337.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Feby. 28 / 59
Sir,
    Your report of the 2nd instant relative to your investigation of the "Dick Johnson affairs" has been received. The surviving Indians are at liberty remain in the valley, or to go to any of the reservations they may desire.
    The property may be divided among the Indians in proportion as they are entitled to it or sold and the proceeds distributed in like manner.
    The Indians may have some choice in the manner of the distribution of the effects, and you will consult with them accordingly . Endeavor to so divide the property or the proceeds that they will all be satisfied that no wrong is intended them by the Department
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. &c.
E. P. Drew
    Sub Ind. Agent
        Umpqua City O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 346.




Kalamazoo Michigan
    March 28th 1859
To the Hon. the Secretary of the Interior
    Sir
        We some time last month sent to your department a statement of the claim of Henry C. Rowland for property destroyed by the Rogue River Indians or their allies, with a copy of the certificate herewith enclosed, and in that communication as also stated that the claim was originally that of William Thompson & Henry C. Rowland & that the former (Thompson) had transferred this right to Rowland & had given Rowland a power of attorney to collect & receive the amount due to him Thompson. We sent our communication to Hon. D. S. Walbridge, Member of Congress from this district, who presented the same to to your department and on the 5th of this month Hon. J. W. Denver, Commissioner, sent us a letter through Mr. Walbridge acknowledging the receipt of our letter enclosing a copy of the certificate of award No. 8 and stating that the parties are entitled under the award to receive 34 77/100 percent amount to the sum of $357.78 upon the surrender of the certificate of award. And also that the power of attorney should be sent with the certificate and the draft would then be forwarded.
    In pursuance of the directions contained in the letter of the Commissioner we herewith enclose the duplicate certificate of award, and the power of attorney of Thompson to Rowland.
    The draft for the amount $357.78 may be forwarded to us at Kalamazoo Michigan or directed to Henry C. Rowland to our care.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servts.
        Giddings & May
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 842-845.



Siletz Ind. Agency O.T.
    March 30th 1859
Sir
    I herewith transmit to you my returns for the 1st qr. 1859 also my returns for the fourth qr. 1856 [sic]. It has been impossible for me to send them sooner as the roads between this place & the valley have been impassable for nearly two months. It commenced snowing on the 12th of Febry. and has snowed and rained every day since, sometimes for six or eight days without an hour's intermission, and still continues to rain every day. Unless there is a change of weather we will be thrown greatly behind with our spring crops.
    I have about three hundred & twenty-five acres in fall wheat and about two hundred acres broken for spring crops. I made an effort to harrow in a piece of oats, but my cattle mired down in the field and I had to abandon it and wait until the Lord knows when before we can resume farming operations. The schooner has not arrived, and we are entirely out flour and have not had a pound of beef for one month. The Indians have consumed nearly all of the potatoes except those reserved for planting and will suffer with hunger in less than ten days if the rains do not cease.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Indian Agent
To
    J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem
                O.T.
N.B. I would respectfully suggest that you would send your copy of the 4th qr. papers 1856 to Washington. If you do not wish to do so will you have Mr. Brooks examine them and attach your certificate that they are correct copies.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 47.



Grand Ronde, Oregon
    April 1st 1859.
Sir--
    I again have the honor of submitting a few remarks upon the sanitary condition of the Indians on this reservation.
    There has perhaps been no period since the settlement of Oregon by the whites in which the weather has been so disagreeably inclement as during the past few months. Since the 1st of February it has snowed or rained every day but four. There was also the usual amount of rain in January. It is therefore not surprising that bronchitis, pneumonia and consumption should have been very prevalent among the Indians.
    A variety of sore throat, called diphtheritis, and its kindred affection [i.e., infection] malignant sore throat, have also prevailed to a considerable extent. The Rogue Rivers have, as usual, been the greatest sufferers.
    I do not think, however, there has been as much sickness or near so many deaths among the Indians this season as during either of the two preceding winters.
Very respectfully
    R. Glisan
        Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 46.



Jacksonville Oregon April 8th / 59
Sir
    The snow on the mountains and high waters have confined me here up to the present time, but I start for Klamath on Monday morning and will probably be gone about a month. I have employed three men to accompany me. There is two families of Klamath Lake Indians here, and I learn from them that the Indians in the vicinity of the lake are perfectly friendly and are anxious to see the agent. I will take an Indian from here with me if it is convenient. I will return to this place in season to prepare my report and returns at the end of the present quarter.
Yours sir respectfully
    G. H. Abbott
        Sub-Indian Agt.
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
        Oregon & W. Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 51.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 9th 1859
Sir,
    You are hereby assigned to duty as sub-Ind. agent in that portion of Oregon known as the Klamath Lake country. Your district will embrace all the Indians residing between the southern boundary of Oregon and the Blue Mountains, and extend east to the eastern boundary of the state. Your immediate duty on reaching your district will be to ascertain as nearly as possible the number of Indians within your district--the name of each tribe and the numbers composing it, arranging the men, women and children in different classes. You will ascertain their wants and condition, their past history and present disposition towards the whites, and impress upon them the advantages which will accrue to them by remaining at peace with the United States and conducting themselves properly towards our people in passing through their country. It is also desirable that you ascertain the general character of the country within your district, its adaptation to agriculture, grazing or mining purposes. So soon as you have made inquiries and examination relative to the above mentioned subjects you will report to this office in detail upon all such subjects as you may deem of importance to the Department. You will also ascertain whether or not these Indians, or any portion of them, desire to dispose of their country or any part of it to the government.
    It is also desirable that you report the most eligible situation for the establishment of an agency for the district. It is anticipated that the most of the spring and a portion of the summer will be consumed by you in examining the country and in acquiring necessary information; it is, however, desirable that your report should reach this office on or before the first day of August next. In the meantime you will keep this office fully advised of the condition of affairs in your district.
    It not being contemplated to establish a permanent agency at present, you will only locate yourself temporarily. It is desirable that you should reside among the Indians, but if that should in your judgment be impracticable you will establish yourself at the most convenient point to them.
    The funds placed in your hands are to be used with the greatest economy compatible with the efficiency of the service, and you will in no event contract liabilities beyond the funds in your hands.
    Herewith is turned over to you a copy of laws & regulations of the Indian Department for your government.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Geo. H. Abbott Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 344-345.



Roseburg April 15th 1859
To the Honorable [blank] Nesmith
    Indian Agent--Your memorialists embracing the citizens of the northeast portion of Douglas County O.T.
    Respectfully solicit you, if consistent with your duty as Indian agent, at your earliest convenience to make some arrangement by which the Indians in our vicinity may either be taken to the reservation or provided for and settled in the vicinity of this settlement.
    We are informed that this small band of Indians, under their chief, named Samson, have had peaceable possession of the country lying on the east fork of North Umpqua for a number of years. Samson's father was an Umpqua and was buried here. The band at present number some twenty men and perhaps 3 times this number of women and children.
    When Gen. Palmer held his treaty with the Umpquas at Winchester and bought their lands, Samson was not there, and had no part in the treaty, and consequently never sold his claim to these lands, and has never received anything from government. His claim embraces some 10 or 15 small farms which include nearly all the tillable land on the east fork.
    We think these Indians' claim to these lands as just as any Indian claims that have been purchased in the country and that they ought to be paid for them. We think a small sum would satisfy them.
    At the commencement of the war of 1855 by improper management these Indians were frightened into the mountains, where they remained during the war, at the close of which some of us were authorized by the sub-agent to inform the Indians that if they would come into the settlement and behave themselves peaceably they should be protected, and we were also authorized to supply them with necessary food for a time for which we should be paid. Accordingly some of us saw them, invited them in, promised them protection and fed them for a time. They have still continued on our borders and have behaved themselves peaceably.
    When Gen. Lane came up in the summer of 1857 to procure the assistance of these Indians to hunt out the hiding places of the hostile Cow Creek Indians that were then depredating on the property of the citizens of South Umpqua and Deer Creek, he promised Samson to use all his influence to have his band settled at the fishery on the east fork in a small prairie containing some 15 or 20 acres, a place some 2 miles above the settlement east of the survey, and the highest and last opening on the river, at which place they have built them cabins and are comparatively comfortable. During the winter and this spring some two or three men have threatened to take possession of this prairie in which the Indians live by preemption. These measures greatly excite the Indians, and we fear, if persisted in, will cause serious trouble in the settlements.
    Will you not immediately make some arrangement by which these Indians will not be molested in this little spot, which is now their only home, and appoint some person whose duty it shall be to see that the Indians behave themselves and that the whites do not trespass upon them and as in duty bound we will ever pray &c.
    Enoch Wimberly James Watson                                                            
Thomas Shrum Asa Williams
Henry Shrum Martin Monahan
Peter Kernes [Kerns] Paul Fareclow [Fairclo]
John Shaw G. J. Chapman
John R. Reves
Z. C. Ball
A. J. Chapman
John H. Chapman
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 53.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, May 3rd 1859
To Enoch Wimbleton & others
    Gentlemen,
        I have to acknowledge the receipt of your petition dated April 15th requesting me to purchase the right of Sampson's band of Indians to their country on the waters of the Umpqua, or to take steps to secure them in the peaceable possession of the ground which they now occupy. In reply I have to inform you that I have no power to purchase their country without first obtaining the express and specific authority of the President of the United States, the laws relative to such purchases having been changed since the time General Palmer was Superintendent.
    While I have no power to comply with your petition relative to the purchase, I shall do everything in my power to secure those people in the possession of their present home.
I am very resptly
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Enoch Wimbleton & others
    Roseburg
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 351-352.



Jacksonville Oregon May 10th 1859
Sir
    I left this place for Klamath Lake last Tuesday but found the Cascade Mountains impassable on account of snow. I then tried to follow the trail of a party that left this (Rogue River) valley about two weeks before to go to the lake. We trailed them to the foot of the mountains on Big Butte Creek where after trying the snow they returned to the first prairie and encamped. From this camp we could find no trail, but a great many Indian tracks. We finally found that the Indians had taken three shod horses with them (for they had been living on the prairie near where the party had encamped, but had since left) to the northward along the foot of the mountains. After a more particular search we found four horses that were recognized as belonging to the party of white men tied to trees in the woods and shot with bullets. From those circumstances and others we supposed that the party had been cut off by the Indians, although we failed to find any bodies. I learn that the Indians that are supposed to have perpetrated the massacre [the Ledford massacre] are a party of Indians that have been skulking in the mountains since the removal of the various tribes to the reservation and a few of the La Lake tribe of Klamath Lake, who are connected with the mountain band by marriage. This I was told by an Indian of the La Lake tribe who was with me.
    Under those circumstances, my party being small, I determined to return to this place and await further developments.
    The citizens of Jacksonville and vicinity have organized a party to make search for the missing men and follow the trail of the Indians and if possible secure the offenders.
    The missing party number five men with seven horses. The Indians supposed to be connected with the massacre of the party number about fifteen. I would earnestly recommend that you use every exertion to procure a military force for the Klamath Lake country, as it is only removed by a few miles from the settlements of this valley, and the Indians are in my judgment not to be considered entirely friendly.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub-Indian Agent
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 79.



Jacksonville Oregon May 19th 1859
Sir
    Since my last I accompanied a party of volunteer citizens to the headwaters of Butte Creek in search of the bodies of the five white men that were killed by the Indians.
    We found four of them buried about two hundred yards from the camp where they were murdered. The fifth we were unable to find, but I think that he was burned in one of the Indian houses, as we found what appeared to be human bones in the cinders. The nature of the wounds on the four bodies that were found and the blood on the ground in the camp indicate the probability that the men were attacked while asleep in their beds.
    The murderers took extraordinary care to conceal all traces of their crime, so much so that I am satisfied that it was not intended as an act of war, but rather a murder for the arms and other property in possession of the victims. The grave where the bodies were buried was covered with dry pine leaves so as to be scarcely distinguishable from any other spot. The blood in the camp was also completely hidden in the same manner. The horses--four of them--were taken separately and by different routes into the deepest and darkest part of the forest and killed; even a dog that belonged to one of the party was killed and thrown in the creek, where he was found. In short, every precaution was taken to avoid detection, which is entirely unusual for Indians in time of war.
    I will use every exertion to open communication with the tribes on Klamath Lake as early as practicable and will leave nothing undone to prevent a war, in which I hope to be greatly assisted by the citizens of this county. Of course I will endeavor to get the murderers where justice can reach them. The absence of a military force or any other support than that voluntarily given by the citizens, rendered my situation peculiarly embarrassing. There is some four or five families of the La Lake band of Indians who have been living in and about Jacksonville the past winter and who were collected by the citizens a few days since. It is necessary that I furnish them with provisions until they can be sent to their homes which will be in a few days.
    The company of volunteers that went in pursuit of the marauding Indians have not yet returned but at last accounts were hopeless of finding them.
With many regards
    I am very respectfully
        Your obdt. svt.
            G. H. Abbott
                Sub-Indian Agent
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 83.




Jacksonville Oregon
    May 28th 1859
Charles Mix Commissioner
    Indian Affairs Washington City D.C.
    Sir: Enclosed I send you award No. 7 for spoliations in the Rogue Indian war of 1853 to Jacob Gall and a power of attorney from Roxana King, administratrix of the estate of Jacob Gall, to me to collect the same.
    Please make out the treasury warrant for the pro rata distribution payable at New York, N.Y. to Mrs. Roxana King, administratrix of the estate of Jacob Gall, or in the name of Wm. King the present husband of the administratrix according to the rules of the department. The facts are all contained in the affidavit of Mrs. King, which I enclose to you.
Yours very respectfully
    B. F. Dowell
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 834-836.



Jacksonville Oregon June 17th 1859
Sir
    Your circular of June 2nd received and the matter therein mentioned will receive prompt attention.
    I returned to this place from a trip through the Klamath Lake country on Saturday last and have the satisfaction to report favorably of the disposition of the Indians in my district generally. There is a few bad men among the Klamaths including two of the murderers of the five white men that were killed on the route from this place to Klamath Lake in April last, but the chiefs and a large majority of the warriors appear perfectly friendly. I made a formal demand on the tribe in council for the murderers, to which the chiefs expressed a willingness to comply but admitted that they were unable to arrest them at present. They were willing that the offenders should be given up to justice, but were unwilling to encounter the danger of a fight with their family and friends.
    Thus you will perceive that to protect the lives and property of the frontier settlers and of emigrants passing through the Indian country and to bring offenders to punishment a small military force is absolutely necessary.
    In compliance with instructions from the late Superintendent of Indian Affairs I will take up in my annual report all subjects of importance connected with my trip through the lake country, but I will here state that the Indians are willing to dispose of the greater portion of their country by treaty to the government. They insist on reserving a portion immediately about the lakes for themselves, and it is of but little value for anything else.
    A considerable extent of the territory that they are willing to part with is valuable as grazing lands.
    There is in this district one hundred and twenty-two warriors of the Klamath Lake tribes, and of the Modocs whose territory lies north of the forty-second parallel of latitude, seventy men, making a total of one hundred & ninety-two warriors, immediately on the eastern frontier of Southern Oregon and Northern California. The total number of Indians in this district will probably exceed one thousand souls. I will be at Salem with my returns for this quarter about the 15th of July.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub-Indian Agent
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn. & Washington Ty.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 97.



Janesville Wis.
    June 18th 1859
Wm. Hoffman Esq.
    Dr. Sir
        Yours of 16 April covering treasury draft endorsed by D. Birdseye is duly received. Please accept thanks.
    Enclosed you will find a paper endorsed "Voucher No. 9 Abstract of Purchases 2nd Quarter 1854." It is the return that was made by me, one copy of which is at the Ind. Dept. at Washington, one is in the Supt. Ind. Affrs. office in Oregon & one is retained by me. Speaking of getting pay for the beef must depend upon the report that Mr. Palmer made concerning the item: What it was I do not know. If Department money had been on hand I should have paid Mr. Birdseye for the beef, not as spoliation, but for beef that was necessary to keep the Indians from starving & which was actually yielded up to & consumed by them, being issued by me as agent to the Indians. The misfortune in this case is its liability to be confounded with spoliation claims. It was so much beef purchased & like many other articles went into the return as "purchased & not paid for" for the reason that no Department funds was in my hands. The account is correct & just, which I have certified to as agent.
    It is due to Mr. Birdseye that I add: This ox when wounded could have been slaughtered & sold for beef at Jacksonville but he consented to let the Indian Dept. issue it to starving Indians, because they must be provided with something to eat. The Department had no funds then & he consented to take the Dept. [voucher] for the sum. If a comparatively small sum had been expended in the same way since, probably the Indian war that cost many lives & millions of money would have been avoided. The true way to get action upon it by the Dept. at W. is to let the present Supt. make a report specially & then, in turn, the Dept. will decide upon it.
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        S. H. Culver
P.S. Please be kind enough to send me an occasional copy of the different newspapers published at Jacksonville & oblige.
C.
Rogue River Valley Dec. 12, 1853
The United States
                        To D. Birdseye cr.
To one ox                                           $125.00
    The facts attending the above account are as follows: An ox that belonged to the above named Birdseye was shot on or about the 12th December 1853, as was supposed by Rogue River Indians, though it was not known certain who the author was. I told said Birdseye (with consent of said Rogue River Indians) that as said Indians were suffering for food, that if he would permit them to kill & eat it that in case it proved to have been originally wounded by Indians that he would be paid for it. He gave the ox to said Indians & they made use of it for food. In the month of March last an Indian confessed on his deathbed to him to have shot the ox. I estimated said ox to weigh not less than seven hundred pounds at 20¢ per pound.
    Received Fort Lane O.T. of S. H. Culver, Indian agent, one hundred & twenty-five dollars in full [payment] of the above.amount account.
$125.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, no number.



Siletz Agency, June 28th 1859.
Dear Sir
    Quite a number of Indians have left this agency within the last ten days with the declaration that they were going back to Rogue River and the Coquille.
    Their intention is probably to see if they will be permitted to remain quietly there and if so to return when all will leave the reservation.
    They have taken what few arms I let them have for hunting and will doubtless do some mischief if they are not kindly received by the citizens of Rogue River.
    I would be glad to have you render as what assistance you can in arresting and bringing these Indians back to the reserve.
    You will please have your Indians keep a strict watch over their canoes so as not to allow any to pass in the night.
    If you are acquainted with any persons on the Coquille, you will please write to them and ascertain if any Indians have returned to that country this spring.
    If any have returned to Coquille, please write whether I can get the assistance of the military from Ft. Umpqua to recapture them.
    Please write by the return of messenger so that I may know that you have received this notice.
Very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant,
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
E. P. Drew
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Umpqua Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, enclosure to No. 165.



Grand Ronde, Oregon
    July 1st 1859
Sir--
    I have the honor to report that the Indians on this reservation have enjoyed tolerable health during the past quarter. There has been no epidemic disease among them, nor any contagious complaints, except the usual proportion of itch, gonorrhea and syphilis, diarrhea, dysentery, common inflammations of the lungs and consumption continue to be the most serious infections.
I have the honor to be
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan
                Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Indian Agent
    Dalles, July 11th 1859
Sir:
    Your circular of April 30th has just been received, and I hasten to answer.
    I know of no medical plants used by the Indians within my district, except what is known as the Oregon grape--which grows wild in many parts of this state.
    What quantities of it could be procured, I am unable to say; but presume considerable quantities, and at convenient points for shipping.
    I am informed by Dr. Fitch, physician of the Indians in my district, that the wild grape is a very powerful astringent--and is used by the Indians for the cure of gonorrhea, with great success.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servt.,
        A. P. Dennison
            Indian Agent
To
    Honl. Charles E. Mix,
        Commissioner ad interim
            Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 840-841.



Jacksonville Oregon
    July 12th 1859
Charles Mix Commissioner
    Dear Sir: Charley Gray informs me the Commissioners who were appointed to value the improvements on the Rogue River Indian Reservation and for property destroyed in the Rogue River Indian War of 1853 awarded to him and Mr. Christopher Thompson $386 for improvements; that afterwards he handed the duplicate certificate of the award to A. A. Skinner the former Indian Agent, and that Mr. Skinner has either lost the duplicate certificate of the award or he transmitted it with his papers to your office. Mr. Gray says he does not now recollect whether the certificate is in his name alone or whether Mr. Thompson's name is included in the award, that they were jointly interested. Please examine the papers and inform me if the certificate has been returned to your office and whether the claim is in the name of Mr. Gray alone or in the name of Mr. Gray and Thompson. If the certificate has not been returned to your office Mr. Gray will be compelled to get Mr. Skinner to make an affidavit of the loss of the certificate as he and Mr. Thompson both wish to draw their pro rata of the amount of this claim. I note this at the request of Mr. Gray and Mr. Thompson both.
Yours very respectfully
    B. F. Dowell
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 837-839.



(Copy)
Extract from a letter received from
Peter Ruffner Esq. dated Port Orford July 15th 1859.
    "Some Indians are lurking around in the neighborhood now--R. E. Sanders [sic] saw one three days ago near his house, who called to his wife several times. (Saunders [sic] married an Indian squaw and lives with her.) He says the Indian came to his house and called to his wife several times while he and his wife were lying in the bushes near the house. The whole country is becoming more and more excited.
    "We are so badly situated that it is a great inducement for the Indians to pitch in and clean us out, which they could easily do." &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, enclosure to No. 165.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Fort Umpqua, Oregon
        July 18th 1859.
Sir
    Since the second of February, the date of my report relative to the estate of Dick Johnson and Mummy, two Indians murdered at Yoncalla last November, the affairs of said estates have been partially settled by Hon. S. D. Dickinson, late probate judge of this county.
    It was absolutely necessary to secure the services of some person who resided in the neighborhood of Yoncalla, where the property belonging to the estates was situated, and under instructions from late Supt. Nesmith I authorized and employed the probate judge of this county, who lives within eight or ten miles of the homes of the deceased Indians, to divide their property among their surviving relatives or dispose of it for the benefit of their relatives.
    Judge Dickinson has already received four hundred and twenty-five and 90/100 dollars from the sales of their property, one hundred and forty and 90/100 dollars of which amount has been paid to Indian Jim and his family, consisting of his wife (sister of Dick Johnson, deceased), his wife's mother (the widow of Indian "Mummy") and a son of his wife by a former husband.
    The balance, two hundred and eighty-five dollars, has been paid to Dick Johnson's widow and her children. About two hundred dollars is still due for property sold, which amount is on interest and payable on demand to Dick Johnson's widow and children, yet if you so direct this sum can be applied to the payment of the enclosed accounts of Messrs. Miller and Dickinson, but I believe  you will conclude that these accounts should be paid by the Department, which justice to the surviving families of these murdered Indians, in my opinion, demands.
    The improvements upon the farms of the deceased Indians, which are particularly described in my report of February second, are now in the possession of white men, who reside upon the very soil once cultivated by those enterprising and industrious aborigines. These improvements are valuable on the farms where they are and where they belong, but they would bring but a small amount if sold to be removed to some other locality. A portion of last year's produce of the farms which was included in the inventory of the estates was consumed by the survivors during the last winter and spring, while other portions of the property were divided among them.
    About the first of June, Indian Jim and his family left Yoncalla for the Indian reservation north of Columbia River, where his tribe now reside, but I learn that he stopped at Grand Ronde Reservation. They took with them eight horses and other property. One of the horses belongs to Dick Johnson's widow, who now with her two children is living with the family of an old Indian, of the Calapooia tribe, named Halo, who has never yet been taken to the reservation, but is still living peaceably at Yoncalla on the farm of Lindsay Applegate Esq. It is the desire of Dick's widow to be allowed to live with Halo and his family for the present.
    I shall await instructions from your office relative to the payments of the enclosed accounts and any further action in the premises.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
Edward R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 117.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, July 20th 1859
Sir,
    Referring to a communication from this office of the 4th of June last, conveying the resignation of R. B. Metcalfe Esq. as Indian agent for Oregon, to take effect on the 30th September next, and also to a letter recommending a person as suitable for the position, I have to say that on more mature consideration, I deem it advisable should no appointment to the position be made prior to the receipt of this letter, to express my concurrence in the recommendations of Gen. D. Newcomb as the successor of Mr. Metcalfe. I am but slightly acquainted with Gen. Newcomb, but he is favorably spoken of by many of the most reliable citizens of the state. Gen. Newcomb resides near Jacksonville Oregon.
    I also fully concur in the recommendation of Joshua B. Sykes of Portland Oregon as a suitable person to receive the appointment of sub-Indian agent for Oregon, to take charge of the Indians now at the Umpqua Agency, in the event of the removal of said Indians to Yaquina Bay on the Coast Reservation, where they can be more economically subsisted, and from the abundance of fish and wildfowl and the fertility of a considerable tract of land in the vicinity, they will be able to contribute largely within a brief period to their own subsistence, an event without prospect of being realized on the barren beach--their present location.
    The place to which it is contemplated to remove these Indians being remote and isolated by a mountain barrier from the settled portion of the country, will also obviate many of the annoyances both to the whites and Indians growing out of their proximity, and will remove the miserable savages from influences only calculated to effect their deeper depredation, and accelerate a miserable destiny.
    I feel confident too that by this arrangement fewer Indians will be able to abscond from the reservation.
    It is not intended to interfere with the Indians on Siuslaw and Smith rivers, who have for a long time given considerable attention to agriculture and have cost the government but little for their maintenance.
    Should this charge be effected, there would be no further need of the Umpqua sub-agency, and just views of economy would demand its discontinuance.
I am sir truly and respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 372.


Our Indian Policy.
To the Editor of the New York Times:
    I send you for publication a letter from Anson Dart, Esq., late Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, which shows very conclusively the superiority of the peace policy over the war policy, in our mismanagement of the Indian tribes.
    Mr. Dart was appointed to this important Superintendency by President Taylor, and made it a condition of his acceptance that all troops be withdrawn from the Territory. This was complied with. [There were still troops in the Territory in 1851.] He then proceeded to effect a settlement of all existing differences between the Indians and whites, and for three years maintained a state of harmony between them, and at a trifling expense to the government, until he was superseded in 1853. [There were battles between the whites and Indians in 1851, 1852 and 1853.] Under Mr. Dart, the entire expense of the Department was less than $24,000 a year. Since his time it has never been less than $350,000 a year, and has reached $750,000, exclusive of war claims made by the people of Oregon and Washington, amounting to $5,000,000.
    In a report made to the House of Representatives by Mr. Colfax, from the Committee on Indian Affairs, in January last, it is said that "during the whole of his (Mr. Dart's) Superintendency, peace and quiet were maintained among all the Indian tribes under his care, and also between them and their white neighbors," that he "negotiated no less than thirteen Indian treaties, saving to the government the usual expense of commissioners for their negotiation; that he was disbursing officer for six Indian agencies; that during his term not a cent of money was expended to quell Indian difficulties; and that the expenses of the Superintendency were not over one-fifth as much as in California at the same time, with about the same number of Indians."
Very truly, &c.,
    J. R. ORTON,
        Secretary of Indian Aid Association.
No. 55 Broadway, July 16, 1859.
----
To the Indian Aid Association:
    I am fully persuaded that the effort you are making to change the present mode of treatment, as now practiced by our government towards the Indians, will meet with success, just in proportion to the amount of truth and correct knowledge that shall reach the people upon this subject.
    But while there are so many persons that are directly or indirectly interested in keeping up the present system, which calls for the expenditure of so many millions of dollars annually, you will find it very difficult to get the truths and facts before the people.
    The result of my acts, while Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in the country now the state of Oregon and Washington Territory, should have some weight in sustaining the position taken by you and others, that kind treatment to the Indians costs but little, while it is sure to make them peaceable and friendly to the white people.
    Before I entered upon the duties of my office, I procured the aid of the then able Delegate, S. R. Thurston, Esq., to persuade the Secretary of War to remove from Oregon all the United States troops. This request was complied with in a few months after I reached Oregon, in 1850; therefore, during my stay of about three years in that country, it was not armed justice that kept all of the Indian tribes of that extensive country peaceable and friendly to the white people.
    The entire cost to the government for every purpose connected with Indian affairs, for the three years in question, was about $71,000. This sum included about $28,000 expended for Indian presents, and about $12,000 for the Superintendent and agency houses, and the entire cost of negotiating thirteen Indian treaties, the salaries of the Superintendent and six agents, interpreters, clerks, provisions for Indians, traveling expenses &c.
    But the cost to the government for management these same Indians under the more popular system adopted from 1853 to 1856, under the sound of the drum and fife, has been from $300,000 up to $750,000 per annum. This, you will bear in mind, is over and above the little war debt of some five millions yet unpaid.
    The statements above you will find corroborated by reference to the files in the Second Auditor's Office at Washington.
    I am in possession of many other interesting facts connected with Indian affairs, which, if made public, would, I think, aid you very much in your laudable efforts in behalf of the aborigines of our country.
    I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
    ANSON DART,
        Late Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
New York Times, July 21, 1859, page 8


Long Tom Lane Co., Ogn.
    July 24th 1859
E. R. Geary Esq.
    Sir,
        My house was attacked by three Indians on the evening of the 20th inst. and clothing to the amount of $120.00 carried off. They were saw leaving the house by children returning from school. I alarmed the neighborhood & on yesterday (23rd) inst. we succeeded in capturing a man & two women. The man is a Rogue River belonging to Joshua's band. About two-thirds of the goods were recovered, though in a damaged condition. We lodged them in the Lane Co. jail by the advice of I. N. Smith, prosecuting atty. for this dist., who has written to Capt. Augur, respecting then the Indians. Mr. Smith is acquainted with the prisoners. Now I wish to know if this Superintendency or agency will pay me for my property stolen and if so in what manner must I present my demands. I can prove to the satisfaction of anyone that the Indians stole the property.
An early answer will
    Oblige yours &c.
        A. J. Campbell
            Long Tom
My post office is Lane Co., Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 108.



Corvallis Oregon
    August 3rd 1858
Dear Sir
    Mr. Brown has just arrived with the scythes & cradles, which are in good time. Our grain will not be ready to harvest for ten days yet. We are getting on well at the agency, putting up a number of large barns to shelter our grain.
    I was in hopes that you would accompany me to the Siletz and see what I have done.
    I shall suffer no inconvenience from not getting the cattle of Mr. Perham. I met Capt. Bledsoe, who has undertaken to furnish me for eight cents [a pound], which will be cheaper than to buy them myself, and take the expense of driving and risk of losing them on the way, as there are always more or less lost on the way over.
    Messrs. Hand and Manson refused to leave the reservation on my request, and Capt. Augur has sent a detachment of troops to remove them.
    I hope you will be able to get the oak lumber for logs (States oak or hickory) [i.e., hardwood lumber imported from the United States]. The mill dam will be completed this week, and the timbers for the frame of the mill are all hewn. Next week we will have the foundation laid. My returns for last qr. will be completed by the fifteenth of this month, and I will take them to Portland myself.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    E. R. Geary Esqr.
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 115.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 8, 1859
Sir,
    In looking over the record of letters from this office relating to the atrocious murder of the Indian Dick Johnson in the Umpqua Valley in the latter part of 1858 I find allusion to a letter or letters from you, detailing the particulars of that barbarous tragedy, which, after careful examination, I have filed to find in the files of this office.
    I hope sir you will not regard me as intruding, nor my request unreasonable, in now soliciting from you a succinct account of that affair, as the facts may be in your possession. I would be obliged in receiving that desired information from you at an early day, and desire to bring the subject to the notice of the authorities in Washington City, in order that full daylight may rest on the transaction--its antecedents, circumstances and sequence, and that the favorable consideration of the government may be elicited in behalf of the wife and children of the unfortunate victim of unscrupulous avarice and atrocious violence.
    Though without your personal acquaintance, my appreciation of your general reputation, and the nature and object of my inquiry, induce me without apology to make this request to expect your hearty reciprocation of my motives, and look for your response at your earliest convenience.
With sentiments of regard
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Jesse Applegate Esq.
    Yoncalla
        Umpqua Co.
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 376.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 5th 1859
Sir
    Your letter of the 18th ultimo covering accounts of Messrs. Dickinson and Miller for services rendered in the matter of the estate of Dick Johnson (Indian) deceased was received by last mail.
    I have to say that while I regard the family of Dick Johnson--the victim of a most atrocious conspiracy and murder--as justly claiming the special consideration and liberality of the government, I must dissent from your views in regard to the propriety of the Indian Department assuming the payment of such claims as those you have forwarded.
    I see no reason to depart in this instance from the statutory provisions making the estate chargeable with all expenses necessarily incurred in its settlement. To do so in this instance would secure no material benefit to the surviving family and friends of the deceased and would be a precedent opening a door of approach to the treasury of the United States for a class of claims of very doubtful validity.
    Your reference has directed my attention to your report of February 2nd last, and I will spare no pains to secure the surviving sufferers indemnity for their losses. I am at present much pressed by the duties of the office, but intend at the earliest practicable period to give the entire subject a thorough investigation.
    It is proper that this office should be placed in possession of a certified inventory of the property of the deceased, and a statement in detail as to the disposal of the property whether by sale or otherwise.
    These together with a copy of all the proceedings had in the premises you are now instructed to furnish this office.
Truly and respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
E. P. Drew Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 377.




Jacksonville Ogn., August 9th 1859       
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a circular from the office of Indian Affairs Washington D.C. requiring certain information relative to "what medical plants are used" by the Indians in my district.
    In reply to which I have to state that my opportunities for obtaining information on the subject has been somewhat limited: having been assigned to this district in April last, but from observation I am of opinion that the Indians under my charge depend on the powers of sorcery or enchantment, which their doctors profess in common with that class among all Oregon Indians, for the cure of all diseases.
    There may be plants used for medical purposes but as yet I have no knowledge of them, nor can I learn from the Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
Commissioner Indian Affairs
Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 794-795.




Jacksonville Ogn., August 9th 1859       
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of instructions from the Office of Indian Affairs Washington D.C. requiring information relative to the names of Indian tribes in my district.
    The number of souls in each, the number of schools, missionaries &c.
    For answers to the first and second inquiries I beg leave respectfully to refer to my annual report for the present year.
    I estimate the wealth of each tribe in individual property thus
The Klamath Lakes $8000.00
" Modocs 3000.00
" Snakes 5000.00
There is neither schools nor missionaries among the Indians of my district. Treaties have never been firmed with them and they are living in their primitive ignorance.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
Commissioner Indian Affairs
Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 796-797.



Yoncalla Oregon
    August 20, 1859.
To
    E. R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Sir,
                Your letter of August 8th is before me, and I hasten to inform you how very much I am flattered to find myself in such high esteem with the Indian Department. This being done I beg leave to decline a further reply to your letter.
    Having been at much pains clearly and correctly to inform the Indian Department of the murder of Dick Johnson and his father and the causes leading thereto, to repeat them again would not only be irksome to me, but presumptuous toward the Department. With all the facts before it, it is presumable the Department has acted in the matter to the extent of its sphere, and if letters are referred to in its correspondence that are not found on its files they may have been irrelevant or inadmissible in style or spirit. The latter reasons may have excluded mine, as they were written under the excitement of what I regarded a ruthless outrage, mainly (as I thought) attributable to the culpable neglect of the Indian Department and in violation of its solemn promises. Under such circumstances I may have forgotten the respect due official dignity, a fault my defective organs of veneration sometimes causes me unintentionally to commit.
    If the zeal of a new incumbent could be enlisted on the side of justice and in the protection of the rights of the weak and defenseless, my utmost efforts would not be wanting in the cause, but it is now too late. Dick Johnson and his father sleep in bloody graves. Their personal property is dissipated, and their farms and houses are in the quiet possession of their murderers. The wife of Dick while he lived is only a squaw since his death, and the little redskins he was so anxious should be taught the mysteries of "paper wawa" have nothing to distinguish them from, and perhaps are no better than, the hundreds of naked savages now being brutalized and starved on the reserve under the protection and at the expense of the government.
    As I am convinced neither my efforts nor yours can right the wrongs or benefit in any way the dead, and will perhaps be equally impotent to save the living from the "manifest destiny" of the race to which they belong, I hope you will not deem it discourteous that I decline at this time to review a subject which circumstances have made painful and vexatious to my feelings.
With the highest respect
    Yr. most. obdt.
        Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 144.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 24, 1859
Sir:
    As Mr. Yates will leave in a few minutes I have only time to say that regarding Capt. Dodge's rates of transportation to Siletz as altogether unreasonable and exorbitant I have as yet closed no contract with him for the delivery of goods at that point.
    I would also say that after careful examination and reflection I cannot see how the mill you have commenced can be paid for out of the very limited appropriations for the current year. I have determined only on the most extraordinary emergency to incur liabilities directly to consequentially extending beyond the limits of actual appropriations. Nor do I think it proper after having inferentially at least referred the matter of building that mill to the authorities at Washington by the estimates of appropriations forwarded from this office to proceed in the case without specific instructions from that quarter.
    In regard to the treaty goods for which you have estimated I have thought that in case the schooner was not chartered that I would load the goods on the wagons designed for the Siletz agency and hire teams for their transportation by land. I regret much your severe indisposition but trust you will soon be restored to the enjoyment of health. I will write you by the first mail.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Siletz Agency Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 386.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 24, 1859
Sir:
    It being of the utmost importance that the Indians of the Klamath Lake tribe and the renegade Molallas yet remaining of the party that perpetrated the murder of five white men last spring [the Ledford massacre] should be speedily apprehended and signally punished for their perfidy and atrocious crime, you are directed by this office to take, as promptly as possible, such measures as will secure this object.
    If necessary you will organize a small party of not more than ten men who will furnish their own riding and pack animals, arms and equipments, and proceed with them to the Klamath country and in order to secure the friendly cooperation of Lalakes and other influential Indians you are authorized to purchase a few goods for presents which however you will only deliver to the Indians on the surrender of the murderers.
    In the event of their capture you will deliver the culprits into the custody of the civil authorities at Jacksonville to be retained for trial.
    Regarding it as highly desirable to impress the Indian mind with a sense of the authority and equity of our laws, and to exhibit an example of the respect paid our civil tribunals by our citizens, you will spare no pains to prevent the killing of the Indians by popular violence and to secure them a fair and impartial trial.
    To meet the expenses of this enterprise in which you will use all economy consistent with success, vouchers for services and supplies, properly certified by you, will be duly paid on presentation at this office.
    You are however explicitly instructed not to issue such vouchers for an aggregate amount above the sum of twelve hundred dollars.
Respectfully, sir
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    G. H. Abbott Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Jacksonville Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 386-387.



Siletz Ind. Agency Oregon
    August 27th 1859.
Dear Sir
    Yours of the 24th inst. was handed me by Mr. Yates just as I was leaving Corvallis. I am sorry you have not been able to get a schooner. The articles purchased in Portland and those mentioned in the bill which I left at your office are much needed at this agency. There will probably be other schooners there which can be had at more reasonable rates.
    I hardly know how to regard your letter. You do not order me positively to stop operations on the mill, but it amounts almost to an order. If you desire to postpone the erection of a mill please write me again on the receipt of this. You say you are unwilling only on the most extraordinary emergency to incur liabilities beyond the appropriation. This I do regard an extraordinary emergency and firmly believe the Department would sustain you in four times the amount that it will actually cost. The waste that will inevitably be from issuing the wheat to the Indians would more than pay the whole expense of building the mill. I would regard a failure to complete the mill this fall as one of the most serious disasters that could befall these people. Humanity, justice, economy and everything pertaining to the good of the service demands that we should proceed with that work, and if I were to remain here I would pay every dollar out of my own pocket rather than see a work so important (both for the economy of the government and the benefit of the Indians) abandoned, but my zeal in behalf of these poor helpless mortals has probably carried me too far already and I will look with anxiety for your instructions in the matter.
    The Indians say they are willing to do without beef if we will only complete the mill, and I do not see the impropriety of using any funds that may be applied to the purchase of provision to the erection of a mill. The heaviest portion of the work is already completed. The dam is complete with the exception of a few days' labor nailing on some boards; we have about fourteen thousand feet of lumber sawed which will be enough to complete the building; the lumber for the frame is nearly all hewn, and in ten days everything will be on the ground, and by the first of October the dam and building will be complete ready for the machinery. The millwright says it will not cost one thousand dollars to start the mill to grinding after the frame and dam are completed. Now the expense of the building and the dam is already incurred, or nearly so, as well as the purchase of the machinery, and it certainly would be bad policy to stop the work for the want of one thousand dollars more.
    As we had no wagons I have had about three hundred Indians packing in the wheat, oats and peas. We will be through harvesting in one week more if the weather remains fair. Our potatoes will not be ready to dig before the fifteenth of October.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Indian Agent
To
    Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Portland
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 163.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Fort Umpqua, Oregon,
        August 27th 1859.
Sir
    Yours of the 8th inst. is received. The requisition for funds in my communication of July 20th was not made in anticipation of any extraordinary emergency, but only for the amount required for the usual and current expenses of this agency for the present quarter.
    I was surprised to learn that no "official information had reached your office of reported disturbances on the Siletz Reservation."
    Enclosed please find a copy of Agent Metcalfe's letter of the 28th of June, being the one referred to in my communication of July 20th, also [a] copy of an extract from a letter received at this office from Peter Ruffner Esq. dated Port Orford, Oregon, July 25th 1859.
    Mr. Gagnier of Siuslaw and the Siuslaw Indians reported to this office that on the first of July Indians from the Siletz agency were crossing the Siuslaw River on rafts, but I have never learned that they crossed the Umpqua and I am now inclined to think that those Indians who left the Siletz Reservation in June did not return to Coquille or Rogue River, as Agent Metcalfe informed me they intended to do.
Very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Edward R. Geary
    Supt.Ind Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 165.



Salem Aug. 29th / 59
Bro. Geary
    Dear Sir, I am sorry to inform you that Indian Charley, the man who was stabbed in July, is still a poor suffering object of pity. I supposed he was well, but a little more than two weeks ago I found him lying out on the ground back of the stores with the clotted blood oozing out of his wounds, and almost in a state of mortification. He was almost naked and groaning every breath. I felt that our common Christianity required that something should be done for him more than the care he was receiving. The Indians who were there would do nothing; his sister was sick with a young child and could do nothing. I tried to get a man to attend to him and promised to go among the citizens with a subscription to pay him. I found a man, an Irishman, that said he would do it. I worked that day to fit him up a room, put a stove of my own into it, and left him expecting he would be cared for, but the next day he left him, saying his wounds stunk so that he could not wash them. Poor Charley seemed deserted by all and left to die. I brought him to my house and have taken care of him thus far. Now, brother, I appeal to you, my cares are such that it is impossible for me to continue to do it much longer. It discharges a pint of matter a day or nearly that, filling his shirt and bedclothes. He has to have his dressing cloths & shirt changed three times a day, and all his blankets must be washed every other day, for by this time they are covered with maggots and fly blows. Without this increasing care he would be eaten alive, and yet with care he may get well. The broken knife blade was left for two weeks and more sticking in the bone (the shoulder blade) & this part, together with the flesh around it, is poisoned and so injured that it must slough off before it will get well. This is the cause of the amount of matter which passes away and the cause of the terrible stench. And now, brother, ought he not to be taken care of. Does not Christ's parable of the good Samaritan teach us this duty. He is a sufferer and a creature of God. Can you not provide some way for his care. I ask nothing for what I have done for him, but feel unable to do much longer. My child is sick and my own family with my public duties requires all my time.
    Write soon.
Yours in the love of Christ
    O. Dickinson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 146.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Fort Umpqua, Oregon
        August 29th 1859.
Sir,
    Private letters received from Portland by last mail inform the creditors of the Indian Department in this vicinity that funds sufficient to pay the accounts audited by Commissioner Mott were forwarded to you by the mail, which left New York on the 5th inst.
    If, upon the receipt of those funds, you are obliged to go to San Francisco to negotiate drafts, by making a deposit while in San Francisco with the U.S. Assistant Treasurer in my favor for the amount due claimants from this agency, you will enable me to pay their demands some from four or five weeks sooner than it can be done if funds should not be transmitted to this office until you return to Portland after your trip to California.
    The Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco has furnished me with a check book, and for the last two years late Supt. Nesmith has forwarded funds to this office by directing the Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco to place to my credit such amounts as were designed for the use of this agency, on which I have drawn from time to time as funds have been required here or as my checks could be cashed.
    The receipts or vouchers for any funds sent to this office will be promptly forwarded by mail or otherwise, as you may direct, to you at your office in Portland.
    Checks or drafts on the Assistant Treasurer at New York can be cashed at this post without delay by the agents of Wells, Fargo & Co.
    The anxiety and solicitation of holders of the outstanding claims against the Indian Department at this agency have induced me to make the above suggestions for your consideration. These claimants have been constantly pressing their inquiries relative to the earliest moment when their demands could be paid and urging me to do all in my power to hasten such payment.
    Doubtless you have had a similar experience at your office and can appreciate it.
    By reference to my accounts on file in your office, you will see that the amount audited by Commissioner Mott as due to claimants from this office is $27,931.35.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Edward R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 160.



Annual Report
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland, Oregon Sept. 1st 59
Sir:
    I have the honor to submit to your consideration the following annual report with the accompanying papers.
    Having so recently assumed the supervision of this extensive field, a minute review of the events of the past year, or extended reflections on the condition and prospects of the various tribes of Indians, so diversified in character and circumstances, is scarcely practicable.
    This is, however, rendered less important by the ample reports of the subordinate officers, which present much valuable information.
    With the exception of the rude and predatory bands of the Shoshones or Snake Indians, inhabiting a vast and but partially explored region in the southeastern portion, the Indians within this Superintendency may be regarded as maintaining peaceful relations with the United States. Many of the tribes and bands have always been well affected towards our government, and the severe tests which their fidelity and friendship have undergone during hostilities with tribes in their vicinity, afford a reliable guarantee that these relations will be perpetuated.
    The Indians implicated in the hostilities of the last four years may be considered as conquered and generally convinced of the folly of waging war against a nation so superior in intelligence, numbers, and resources.
    Yet with a people so inveterate in their superstitions and prejudices, and whose ignorance subjects them to the evil influence of the reckless and designing of both their own and the white races, the presence of a competent military force at judiciously selected posts, and the agents of the government, will long be required to afford our frontier settlements, now so rapidly extending, the assurance of safety.
    The signal chastisement administered last year by the U.S. troops on the hostiles of the northern interior, and the stern justice meted out to several of the chief instigators and actors in the atrocities committed against our citizens, have evidently had a salutary effect, and we trust will not need to be repeated. This, however, must greatly depend on the wisdom and integrity of those charged with carrying into effect the policy of the government, for so extensive and deep has been the sentiment of distrust and dissatisfaction produced by the influx of immigration to the Indian country, coupled with the protracted delay in the ratification of the treaties negotiated in 1855, that the most persistent efforts of the agents and other officers of the government have barely sufficed to preserve amicable relations, even with tribes heretofore friendly.
    The most salutary effects in quieting the apprehensions of the Indians have been manifested on the announcement of the ratification of the treaties, not only among the tribes immediately interested, but with others with whom as yet no treaties have been negotiated. If adequate appropriations be made without delay for fulfilling treaty stipulations, it is confidently believed that the remaining tribes will be eager to dispose of their country, and secure the protection and other advantages arising from the present policy of colonizing on reservations.
    Congress cannot be too deeply sensible of the importance of making the appropriations for fulfilling the recently ratified treaties at the earliest practicable moment, and to facilitate legislative action much care has been exercised in the elaboration of the estimates and accompanying explanatory analysis herewith transmitted.
    Sound views of economy, justice and humanity indicate clearly that as these treaties are required to go into operation during the current fiscal year, the appropriations should be made so early as to warrant the commencement of the improvements on the several reservations in February or March at the latest, otherwise the spring crops, of great importance to the economical subsistence of the Indians, and for which they are especially solicitous, will be delayed another year.
    When it is considered that this course will eminently tend to perpetuate the sentiments of peace and good will in powerful tribes, and prevent the recurrence of another savage war, necessarily bloody and devastating to our settlements, extended under the authority and sanction of the government--a war involving a vast expenditure of treasure and blood, and fraught with destruction to the cherished hopes of humanity with regard to the Indian race on these shores--it is confidently expected that the utmost promptitude in enacting the necessary law will commend itself to our legislators, and the immediate action of this office will be based on such expectation.
    The influence of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of the British name over the Indians in a large portion of this Superintendency, is well understood; and our present threatening relations with Great Britain have already had a perceptible influence on the Indians of Washington Territory, bordering the coast and Puget Sound. Should it again become necessary for the safety of the settlers to collect these Indians and guard them on reservations, it can be done most effectively and economically under the provisions of the ratified treaties.
    With a race so excitable and superstitious, such an emergency may arise from the slightest causes; and the lives and property of our citizens should not incur the jeopardy of savage violence for a moment through any delay to give effect to measures already determined by solemn treaty.
    Our Indian policy comprises two grand objects. The first is the protection of our citizens from their predatory and murderous attacks on the one hand, and on the other the Indians themselves from the wrongs and abuses to which they are exposed from the reckless and unprincipled of the white race unfortunately found in all communities.
    To save from extinction these waning remnants of the aborigines, ameliorate their circumstances, and elevate them, if possible, to the possession of the advantages, comforts and hopes of a pure civilization, is the second object.
    These are objects worthy [of] the consideration and endeavors of the statesman and philanthropist, and their energetic pursuit is alike due our citizens and the original proprietors of the soil on which we have become a happy and prosperous nation.
    As a means of mutual safety to the races, and for preventing the horrors of savage warfare, no scheme commends itself so strongly as that, now become the policy of the government, the collection of the Indians on properly located reservations.
    On these reservations they will be more immediately under the notice of the agents of the government, who will thus be able to detect the earliest manifestations of discontent, prevent hostile combinations, and arrest and punish the ill-disposed before defection becomes general. The benefits derived from their improved lands; the safety secured them from the hostile of their own race; their herds collected there, and especially their homes and families being there, will be so many guarantees and pledges of good conduct.
    Protected too from all encroachments on their rights and privileges, their reasonable desires gratified and their necessities relieved, they will be bound to us by a sense of interest and dependence, if not of gratitude, and provided with a fixed home and an individual right in the soil, from which they will be instructed to derive their subsistence, they will be stimulated to the exercise of a forecast which will save them from becoming the victims of sudden impulses, and create an adaptation to civilized pursuits never to be acquired while the nomadic character is retained.
    Thus they will become gradually assimilated in character, interests and pursuits, and discords and contentions yield place to mutual confidence and uninterrupted peace.
    Roaming unrestrained without a fixed abode, and mainly relying for subsistence on the spontaneous productions of nature, man has never risen high in the intellectual and moral scale. Approached by civilized and enlightened communities, his history has usually been--after a fierce but unequal contest--to succumb to superior intelligence, sink in degradation by losing the virtues of the savage and gaining only the vices of the superior race, and finally dwindle into extinction. Such has been the history of many aboriginal tribes on the Atlantic shores, and such in the natural and unrestrained operation of the laws of progress, is the impending destiny of the tribes of this coast. This destiny can only be arrested by the prompt, wisely directed and persistent efforts of humanity, sustained and protected by the resources of the government.
    Approached by the advancing and the refluent wave of civilization, there is neither respite nor escape. They must rise with the billows or sink beneath them. The alternative is civilization or annihilation. How the Indian may realize the happier destiny and have existence rendered a blessing is the problem presented to humanity and religion for solution.
    Amidst many failures, enough has been achieved to establish the improvability, intellectually, morally and socially, of the Indian race, that the impediments to their elevation are not innate and peculiar, but such as would be found in any other portion of the human family, in the same condition and affected by the same influences.
    Were the Indian natively inferior, that inferiority would be expected to follow his blood; but who knows not that some of our distinguished orators, jurists, and statesmen, have boasted this blood in their veins?
    One of much experience and acute observation declares that "the Indian youth is capable of equal mental culture with the white, and will learn as rapidly."
    This race also along its entire history, since an early period in the settlement of our eastern coast, has afforded examples of those who adopted our language and customs, and who, comprehending the Christian religion in the sublimity of its tenets, exemplified its elevated and pure precepts by irreproachable lives.
    Nor are we confined to cases of isolated individuality. No longer savage and barbarous, whole tribes are classed, and justly too, as having attained a high rank in civilization.
    To bring the Indians as far as practicable under the full energy of every meliorating influence, sanctioned by judicious observation and experience, is clearly the policy of our government, and this policy is in full consonance with the national sentiment. This sentiment and policy, finding its proper exponents in the officers of the government charged with the administration of Indian affairs, can scarcely fail of securing the achievement of many permanently good results. Yet to expect success in all cases to follow even the most judicious and benevolent endeavors, would be unreasonable and destined to frequent disappointment. Nor will any ephemeral, spasmodic endeavor redeem the Indian from his barbarism and ignorance.
    On this coast the Indian presents a great diversity of character and condition. On this diversity to a great extent I doubt not we may base our prospects of relative success. The Coast Indians generally, and all the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains, are allowed to be physically and mentally inferior to those of the interior. This inferiority is probably ascribable partly to their habits of life and sources of subsistence. Their degradation is, however, most directly traceable to the sad effects of intemperance and prostitution. These have, through the extent of whole tribes and bands, so deteriorated their physical and moral stamina as to leave little to encourage the hope of their elevation, or to keep alive the expectation or desire for their perpetuated existence. Humanity, however, demands an asylum for these miserable victims of debasement, where they may be restrained and protected, and the most sacred considerations demand that society be freed from their pestiferous presence. Such asylum the reservations are designed to afford, and that they should be strictly confined to their limits, especially in the vicinity of the white settlements commends itself to every rightly actuated judgment. Yet even within the section of this Superintendency, now under consideration, the major part of the Indians present a hopeful aspect, and with assiduous and rightly directed care their descendants may at some future day be found physically sound, and intellectually and morally elevated.
    Difficulties and embarrassments usually attend the initiation of any great enterprise, and many have been encountered on the existing reservations. Yet the success realized is sufficient to encourage hope and stimulate endeavor. The Indians are subdued and partially protected from the vitiating influences so potent to effect their ruin. Some progress has been made in the knowledge of agriculture; they generally have rude but comfortable houses, to which they resort during the rainy season, few being willing to forgo the luxury of an open camp during the summer. A few surrounded their dwellings with cultivated enclosures, exhibiting an encouraging degree of industry and thrift. An occasional family is found, usually of the mixed blood, where the social and domestic virtues are in a state of partial development.
    With the masses the moral and intellectual condition is not perceptibly advanced, and debasing superstition and inveterate attachment to savage customs continue to prevail without mitigation. Indolence and a propensity to a vagabond life are besetting vices with the savages. In order to effect his reclamation, these can no more be indulged in the savage than the child. So far as practicable, and consistent with prudence and safety, they should be compelled to perform regular labor for their own support. This might be done with some success by organizing them into squads under the direction of proper officers, whose duty it would be to direct and keep a proper account of their labor, and report delinquents to the agent in charge. The proceeds of their industry should in all cases, inure to their individual benefit. As a further stimulus a judicious system of rewards might be adopted; and stated festive days established, and innocent games introduced for their amusement. Withal, the kindness of parental authority should never merge into the arbitrary sternness of the master. In many cases too the Indian who has learned to perform labor would be benefited by permitting him to hire out (as is actually done) to persons of proper character, his wages to be for his own benefit. In permitting this, much care should be taken to guard against exposure to improper influences, and in no case should contracts be permitted without the approval of the agent. Humanity also dictates that the agent should be permitted to find homes in suitable white families for neglected orphans, where they might be indented for a term of years.
    With the exception of that on the Squaxin Reservation, the schools provided for in the several treaties have been, after a brief trial, discontinued. The success has, in no case, been of a marked character. The Indians' parents have been found generally either indifferent or opposed, the attendance has been limited and irregular, and the good influence of the schoolroom more than counteracted by the bad influence of their savage homes. Education is nevertheless an indispensable means for their improvement, and the industrial schools provided for in the several treaties should be established on a liberal and permanent basis. The children educated at these institutions should, in most cases, be taken entirely from the control of their parents and boarded under the care of a judicious matron, where habits of cleanliness, punctuality and order should be carefully cultivated. The education of these schools should not only embrace letters, but the boys should be instructed in agriculture and trades, the girls in the use of the needle and the various branches of domestic economy. These schools should be governed and taught by persons of not only capacity, firmness and amiability, but by those of decidedly religious character. You cannot displace a superstition, and leave the mind and heart a religious void. Man is by nature a worshiper, and a true religion can alone elevate him. Nor is it a dictate of good sense to suppose that those influences should be absent from the school where the savage is instructed, so generally deemed indispensable in the school where we educate our own children. Much less can we expect the savage to be elevated in the presence of immoralities that always serve to degrade the civilized. Teachers, and all connected with these institutions, should be of pure language and conduct. The plan of boarding the children who shall be instructed in the industrial schools, under the care of proper persons, seems to be the only measure promising success among the Indian tribes west of the Cascade Mountains, and this remark applies with nearly equal force to the Indians to be located at Simcoe and the Warm Springs, on the east side of the mountains. With regard to the educational provisions of the treaties with the other Indians east of the Cascade Mountains, as they are but little contaminated with the degrading vices so deplorably extensive among those before referred to. I believe that the schools of every character provided for should, as early as practicable, be carried into vigorous operation, and so located as to give the fullest facilities to the parents to send their children. The boarding house system should, however, be regarded as inseparable from the industrial schools.
    The labors of the missionaries, Protestant and Catholic, have had a salutary influence on many of the Ind. tribes of the interior, by which they have acquired a knowledge and appreciation of many of the arts and usages of civilization; and not a few of the more enlightened strongly desire the education of their children and look forward to the establishment of the contemplated schools with much interest. In regard to the schools I have to say, as of those west of the mountains, their success and utility rests mainly on a regimen embracing the inculcation.and practice of the pure and elevated maxims of Christianity.
    I embrace the occasion also to express my deep conviction of the importance of employing on the reservation those only of pure morals and correct deportment.
    Men of family should ordinarily, their qualifications being equal, be preferred to single persons as teachers, farmers and mechanics. The presence of enlightened females and well-ordered families can scarcely fail to exert Indian neighbors to imitate and even emulate their example.
    Since 1847 the Catholic fathers have been the only Christian missionaries among the Indians in this Superintendency. In that year the once-promising Protestant missions among the Spokanes, Nez Perces and Cayuses were broken up and abandoned. The missionary labors in the interior, both Protestant and Catholic, have resulted in manifest and, I believe, permanent improvement in the character and condition of many of the more influential tribes. Many of the Indians are imbued with religious sentiments and are most exemplary in the punctual observance of their devotions. This is true not only of many Indians receiving the uninterrupted instruction of the Catholic fathers, but also of a considerable number of those formerly under the care of the Protestant missionaries, though for eleven years deprived of their presence and counsels. These are suggestive facts, and worthy [of] the most serious consideration of those interested in the mission of Christian benevolence.
    On the several reservations now occupied by the Indians, as before intimated, the aspect of affairs is on the whole encouraging to continued efforts.
    Extensive improvements have been made by Agent Miller in the Grand Ronde Valley, at the eastern base of the Coast Mountains, the chief part of the lands valuable for pasturage and crops being enclosed by substantial fences. Large tracts are under cultivation, but the ungenial character of the soil, the prevalence of frost, and the extreme dryness of the present season render both the cereal and vegetable crops extremely light, and as heretofore a considerable expense will of necessity be incurred during the winter in subsisting the Indians.
    By careful management the soil of this valley may be eventually much improved, though the most of it can never become largely productive. The best portions of the valley have been parceled out in small farms to the Indians. The whole extent of arable land, however, is not sufficient for this purpose if divided according to the terms of the treaties made with the tribes residing there. In view of this fact I would, as heretofore done by my predecessor in office, recommend the purchase of two additional tracts, the greater containing 800 and the less 160 acres. The latter is entirely surrounded by the reservation, and is continually liable to trespass by the Indians, which is a constant source of annoyance both to the owner and the agency. The greater tract is found by a recent survey to take in a part of the buildings at the military post and a considerable part of the improvements made by the Cow Creek and Santiam Indians. A large part of this tract is situated in a sheltered cove, the soil being a sandy loam and very productive, being the only place in the immediate vicinity of the reservation where vines and the more tender vegetables flourish, or even succeed at all. This tract also is the only source from which firewood for the adjoining Indian improvements can be obtained. The addition of these farms will aid much in rendering the reservation self-sustaining, and it will scarcely ever become so without them.
    In the treaty with the Molels [Molallas], confederated with the Umpquas, there is provision made for an industrial school, for which no more eligible site could be found than in the sheltered cove referred to above. The provision "for the extinguishment of title to land," &c. in the 6th article of the same treaty is ample for the purchase and improvement of these farms and is embraced in the accompanying estimates with a view to this object.
    The crops of grain and vegetables at the Siletz agency promise a fair yield, and it is believed will fall little short of a sufficiency for the subsistence of the Indians collected there.
    The want of a mill at that agency is severely felt, and humanity, justice and economy so clearly demand this improvement that I have interposed no objections in the way of the agent, who has commenced its erection. As a portion of the Indians entitled by treaty to the benefits of the grist and saw mill erected at Grand Ronde are at the Siletz, and as the treaty with the Coast Indians, many of whom are at the same place, has failed to be ratified, sound policy and equity suggest that the mills provided for in the treaty with the Molels be erected at Siletz.
    The temporary reservation at the mouth of the Umpqua promises nothing in the way of improving the Indians, being on a barren beach wholly unsuited to agriculture. The Indians are also much exposed to the degrading influences of intemperance and prostitution. They are greatly reduced in numbers and should be removed up the coast to the vicinity of the Yaquina Bay, where fish and wildfowl are abundant and a sufficient amount of arable land can be obtained for cultivation. The Indians on Smith River and at Siuslaw are among the most thrifty and industrious of the coast tribes. The sub-agency at the mouth of Umpqua should be abandoned and the sub-agent required to reside at Yaquina Bay.
    A communication from this office has already informed you of the depredations of the Snake Indians on the Warm Springs Reservation. Several of the Indians have been murdered and taken captive by these freebooters and the white employees compelled to fly for their lives. A large amount of stock has been driven off, and the crops, at first supposed to have suffered but little damage, are found extensively injured. The loss to the government and the Indians will fall little short of $16,000. The Snake Indians have been notorious from the early settlement of Oregon to the present for their depredations on the lives and property of the immigrants. It is believed that at least a hundred whites, many of them women and children, have within the last ten years fallen by their hands. With the exception of the execution of the reputed murderers of the Ward family in 1853 by Major Haller, they have hitherto escaped with impunity. They have stolen many horses from government and the neighboring tribes of Indians. On these they move with celerity, and their excursions this summer have extended as far as the valley of the Bitter Root, whence they drove away over a hundred horses in July last. On presenting an account of their depredations on the Warm Springs Reservation to Genl. Harney, he ordered a company of dragoons to proceed along the Blue Mountains to recover the stolen property and punish the marauders, should they overtake them. A small detail was also made for the protection of the reservation. It is indispensable that a military post be established in that vicinity to inspire the Indians with confidence to return and to protect them thereon.
    It is important that an agent should be appointed for the Snake Indians, who should devote his entire attention to correcting the bad habits, and conciliate their good will. To effect this, however, it will first be necessary that they feel the heavy hand of chastisement and thus learn to respect our authority.
    Much solicitude was felt for a time in regard to the temper of the Nez Perces and the tribes on the route of the wagon road now opening into the Bitterroot Valley. The opening of the road had doubtless greatly alarmed their apprehensions; but advices from Agent Cain, who has recently met the Nez Perces in council, and from Dr. Mullan, give confident assurance that no serious difficulty need be apprehended.
    With a single exception, the Nez Perces' chiefs have all expressed much gratification at the ratification of the treaty, and look with interest to the time when it shall be carried into effect. Under its ample provisions, it may justly be expected this noble tribe will make rapid advancement in civilization.
    The annuity goods, machinery, tools and implements of husbandry provided for in the treaty with the Flathead nation should all be purchased in the eastern market and shipped to Fort Benton, now established as the head of steamboat navigation on the Missouri, where they can be conveyed by a practicable wagon road, a distance of less than 300 miles, to their destination. The proper schedules will be duly forwarded.
    These interesting and always friendly Indians especially deserve the fostering care of the government. The transmissions of the treaty goods should be at the earliest possible moment. The effect will be most salutary not only on them, but neighboring tribes.
    A delegation from the Flathead tribe, the Upper and Lower Pend d'Oreilles, the Colvilles, Coeur d'Alenes and Spokanes visited General Harney and the Superintendent early in June last. Great care was taken to impress them favorably, not only as respects our military resources, but also with regard to our agriculture, commerce, mechanical ingenuity, schools and the general comfort and good order of society, by which they might learn the superiority of civilization over savage life, and realize the value of our protection and friendship. We doubt not the best effects will follow their visit.
    The Yakima agency has been removed to Fort Simcoe, which has been abandoned as a military post, and the buildings and improvements turned over to the Indian Department. This is a valuable acquisition, and will save a considerable amount of expenditure in the execution of the treaty stipulations with the Indians there to be collected.
    The report of the agent and his subordinates in the district of Puget Sound are detailed and instructive and evince an energetic administration.
    The recommendation that the annuity provided in the treaty of Medicine Creek be increased from 2000 to 6000 dollars is founded on the valid reason that the Indians embraced in that treaty are nearly threefold as numerous as was supposed when the negotiations occurred, their number being not less than fourteen hundred souls. I therefore concur in the request for its augmentation.
    The operations of the several reservations under the provisions of this treaty have been peculiarly successful, so far as the subsistence of the Indians is regarded; and it is hoped that permanently beneficial results will accrue to the Indians there, from the praiseworthy efforts of the sub-agent in charge.
    I would respectfully present the importance of embracing the remaining tribes of this Superintendency under the provisions of treaty. And as a method best calculated to secure the quiet of the country and the greatest good to the Indians, as well as economical to the government, I would recommend that they be confederated and placed on reservations with tribes already treated with, according to their locality and affinities.
    The Klamath Lake Indians may be confederated with the Indians in Middle Oregon, embraced in the treaty of June 25, 1855; the Okinikanes on the north and the bands on the Columbia River above Fort Vancouver, with the Indians on the Yakima Reservation, the Colvilles, Lower Pend d'Oreilles and Coeur d'Alenes with the Flatheads, and the Spokanes with the Nez Perces.
    West of the Cascade Mountains, the Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis bands might be confederated with those included in the treaty of Medicine Creek. The Lower Chehalis and Chinooks would find their affinities with Qui-nai-elt [Quinault] and Quil-leh-ute, Indians of the coast. In Oregon, the Coast Indians and those of the Lower Columbia, not treated with, should be gathered to the several Coast Reservations. To all of these liberal annuities should be paid, and they should share equally with the tribes with whom they may be confederated in the soil, mills, schools, shops and other privileges.
    The importance of having a small swift war steamer on the waters of Puget Sound, so often pressed on the consideration of the government, is continually becoming more urgent. As a means of holding our own Indians in subjection, it is the most effectual, and will alone protect our settlements against the incursions of the daring and rapacious Indians from the regions beyond our national boundary on the north, who move with a celerity and boldness in their large war canoes, with which a well-manned and well-armed steamer can alone successfully contend.
    Five white men were most inhumanly murdered by a party of Indians, on the headwaters of Butte Creek, in Jackson County, Oregon, last spring. They were evidently attacked while asleep, and the pains taken to cover up all traces of the deed, indicate that it was not intended as an act of war, but perpetrated to possess themselves of the arms and ammunition of the victims. The murderers were a party of renegades who have skulked in the mountains since the removal of the various tribes of  Oregon to the reservations, and two of the La Lake band of Klamaths, connected with the former by marriage. Through the exertion of Sub-Agent Abbott, acting under instructions from the former superintendent, Col. Nesmith, the perpetrators of this villainy were all discovered. Three of them were killed by the Klamath Indians, and five are yet at large. Measures are now in progress, which, it is hoped, will result in their apprehension. I have directed that, if practicable, they be delivered over to the civil authorities for trial and punishment, believing that the effect will be more salutary on the Indians than any irregular and violent measures of revenge.
    The Klamaths and Modocs in  Oregon probably number about eight hundred souls. The Klamaths have had much intercourse with the Indians of the Willamette Valley, and are generally well-disposed. The Modocs are fierce and warlike, and till lately have been constant in their depredations on the whites who have fallen into their power. As these Indians live on the line of immigration to  Oregon, the presence of a small military command in their country for a limited period would, I believe, have a good effect, but as the extension of our settlements make it important that the country be purchased, and the Indians be confederated with others on reservations at an early day, and as a garrison will be necessary at the Warm Springs Reservation, through which the same thoroughfare of travel extends, I do not think it expedient to establish a military post in that region. [Geary is geographically confused. The Modocs terrorized the southern route of the Oregon Trail; Warm Springs lies on the northern route.]
    In conclusion, I with much pleasure express my high appreciation of the promptness, energy, and ability of the several agents, sub-agents and other officers throughout this Superintendency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. of Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner &c.
            Washington City
                D. C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 90-103.



Camas Valley Ogn. Sept. 6th 1859.
Hon. Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon & Washington
        Dear Sir, Some days ago four squaws and two children belonging to the mouth of Rogue River Indians (Joshut tribe) and from Siletz Reservation came to my place--Enchanted Prairie, on middle fork Coquille River in Coos County, Oregon, and have been in that vicinity until the present time.
    I write concerning them, for our community and for myself, and would respectfully request that they be removed to the reserve as soon as convenient.
    Our reasons for removing them must be obvious--or desiring their removal.
    By informing me what instructions you may give concerning their removal at or upon receipt of this you will confer an individual favor on
Your most
    Obdt. servt.
        W. H. Packwood
            Roseburg
                Oregon
Hon. Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem
        Oregon
P.S. I have special reasons for wishing to know what instructions may be given for their removal.
W.H.P.
P.S. (No. 2) One of the squaws had a government yager or rifle, which was taken away from her in Camas Valley by a Mr. Higgerson.
    The rifle the squaw says belongs to Joshua, chief of the Joshut tribe of Indians, and was stolen from him by her. If you will give me an order to take the rifle from Mr. H. I will do so and be responsible to the Ind. Dept. for it.
    It is wrong that Joshua should lose it, for he has uniformly been an honest Indian and good friend to the whites.
    I will be at home again in two or three days. If anyone comes for them while there  there will be no difficulty in finding them. How long they will stay I know not, as they intend going on to Rogue River.
    If the Supt. desires any information as to myself, he can inquire of Judge Terry, Salem & R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
Yours respectfully
    W. H. Packwood
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 167.



Jacksonville Ogn. Sept. 11th 1859
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of instructions from your office dated August 24th directing me to take measures to secure the arrest of the Indians remaining of the party that perpetrated the murder of the Ledford party last spring. The instructions will receive prompt attention.
    In case of it becoming necessary for me to visit the Indian country to make the arrest, which I think it will, I will take about ten men with me, which force I think will be sufficient to effect the arrest of the two Klamath Lake Indians if they can be found. The Molallas have gone into the mountains about the headwaters of the Willamette and will probably elude pursuit for the present.
    I will delay the purchase of presents for the Indians until I learn how they are disposed to act in regard to the surrender of the murderers, but will use every exertion to secure their cooperation
    P.S. Be so kind as to forward a check on San Francisco for my quarter's salary at the end of the quarter together with the necessary vouchers which I will receipt and return to you. Provided you can make the arrangement with any of the banks.
G. H. Abbott
    Sub-Indian Agent
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent &c.
With the utmost economy the expenses of the trip will be about twelve hundred dollars exclusive of presents.
    I will make up my returns for the present quarter before going to the lakes. At least I will get them as near complete as possible so that I can finish and mail them in a few days after my return.
Wishing you good health I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. svt.
            G. H. Abbott
                Sub-Indian Agent
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 180.



Salem Oregon Sept. 12th / 59
Bro. Geary
    Dear Sir, I recd. your kind letter in reference to Charley in due time, and thank you for the sympathy expressed. You also stated that you had directed Agent Miller to procure his transfer to Grand Ronde, but I hope you will recall the order so that no expense may be incurred in sending a team after him now. Charley is by far too sick and weak to take such a journey. He is better, much better than when he came to my house. His general health is good; he has entirely recovered from the terrible cough which he had when I found him. His bowels are perfectly regular; there is no internal disorder, but yet he is as weak as an infant and very much emaciated from the daily pouring out of such a mass of matter from his wound. He was very near to mortification when I found him, and I have no doubt but this fact, the cold which he took while exposed lying out on the ground, together with other causes mentioned in my former letter, have produced this constant flood of pus. I think he ought to be saved, and that the expense of caring for him ought to be shouldered by our common public treasury. You intimated your willingness to meet all expense which was proper in the case. As I said before I ask nothing for the four weeks' care which I have taken of him. I did not take him for money. I took him because he is a fellow creature and ought to be cared for by someone. But now my wife's health is poor and I wish to leave home for a while and I write you to ask if I may not put him into a neighbor's family with the promise that you will pay them for their care. Mr. Keller is a member of the M.E. Church, and I believe he will care for him well. I told him I thought you would be willing to pay twelve or fifteen dollars per week. (It is worth that to take care of him.) If this arrangement meets your approval I should be glad to know it, so that I can inform him that you are willing to meet the expense. I tried other persons before I found Mr. Keller but no one would take such a disagreeable task at any price.
    Please write soon.
Yours truly
    O. Dickinson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 168.



Siletz Ind. Agency Oregon
    September 14th / 59
Dear Sir
    Enclosed please find a bill of expenses already incurred on the mill. The memoranda has been correctly kept and shows exactly what the expense has been up to this time. The machinery has been paid for and is in Portland ready for shipment.
    The dam, which was a very heavy and expensive job, has been completed, and all the timbers hewn & hauled on the ground ready for the frame of the mill, which will be two stories above the basement, and all the lumber sawed for weatherboarding &c. Now in addition to the enclosed bill there will be nails, some iron, blacksmithing &c., which will come under the head of incidental expenses.
    Mr. Wood proposes to do all the labor necessary to put the mill in operation for twenty-five hundred dollars and wait for his money, the govt. furnishing everything on the ground. This would make the total cost according to my estimate $5296.06 (not including transportation of machinery). Should you conclude to let him have the contract please write me by return mail. You may be able to get a millwright in Portland to do it for less; if so please send him on at once.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Indian Agent
To
    Edward R. Geary Esqr.
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Portland
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 177.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Sept. 29, 59
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th instant referring to your expedition to the Klamath Lake country.
    Your request for a check on San Francisco for the amount of your salary for the current quarter I cannot comply with as I am not yet in possession of funds applicable to the present year. I may reasonable however expect them in a short time and immediately on their arrival arrangements will be made in accordance with your request.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Geo. H. Abbott Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 6.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Sept. 29th 59
Sir,
    The account of W. H. Packwood for $225.00, being claim on Commissioner Mott's docket No. 289, left by you in my care, I have examined as found on the docket corrected at Washington and find it approved.
    Referring to my instructions from the Commissioner of Ind. Affairs (see enclosed notice) you will observe that I am specially and positively instructed to make all payments to the parties named on the certificates.
    In order to facilitate the payment of this claim, I will on the presentation of Mr. Packwood's order pay over the money in cash, or by check on San Francisco, as may be preferred. Per this course I will not be following the strict letter of my instructions, but I feel no disposition to interpose vexatious delays in regard to the payment of those claims already so long delayed.
Respectfully &c.
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Geo. H. Abbott Esq.
    Sub-Indian Agent
        Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 6-7.



Jacksonville Ogn. September 30th 1859
Sir
    Herewith I forward my quarterly returns for this quarter, including property returns, abstract of disbursements for genl. incidental expenses, and account current.
    The expenses of this district for the qr. ending 30th of September amount to the inconsiderate sum of one hundred & two dollars & fifty cents, being traveling expenses and office rent.
    I start to Klamath Lake tomorrow in compliance with instructions from your office to arrest the murderers of the Ledford party.
    I learn from an Indian from Klamath Lake today that a small party of emigrants were massacred near Tule Lake about two weeks since by the Modoc Indians.
    If the report should prove true, it is a most horrid affair, for not one escaped "to tell the tale."
    I will visit the Modoc country while out and satisfy myself.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 201.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 1st 1859
Sir,
    Your letter of the 3rd September last advising me of the appointment of Gen. D. Newcomb Indian agent for Oregon, vice R. B. Metcalfe Esq. resigned, and of Joshua B. Sykes Esq. as sub-agent for Oregon to replace E. P. Drew Esq. has been received. These gentlemen will be duly informed, and on their qualifying and properly executing their respective bonds, will be assigned to official duty, in accordance with the tenor of their appointments.
    Proper steps will be taken as early as practicable for the removal of the Indians now at the Umpqua Agency to the Yaquina Bay on the Coast Reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner In. Aff.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 12-13.



Portland Oct. 3rd 1859
Sir
    Col. Jennings has requested me to address you a note and state what I know of the circumstances attending his contract with Superintendent Hedges for supplying the Siletz Agency with flour in the fall of 1857. As I was one of Col. Jennings' securities on the contract, and was actively engaged myself in aiding him to carry it out, I feel that I am competent to give a truthful history of the whole affair. The contract referred to required that the flour should be delivered at the Siletz Agency or at "Yaquina Bay." To deliver at the former place involved the necessity of packing it across the mountains before the rainy season set in, and to the latter place the employment of a vessel to go by sea to a port, which up to this time had never been entered by any vessel. At the earnest solicitation of Supt. Hedges, Col. Jennings was induced to fit out a vessel at great expense and make the pioneer voyage to this unsurveyed port, and thereby test the practicability of supplying the Coast Reservation through this channel. The voyage was successfully accomplished after surviving a gale at sea that made it necessary for the safety of the vessel to throw overboard her entire deck load of lumber and nails which was shipped by the Superintendent for the purpose of building a storehouse on the "bay." And thus by the enterprise and the risk of Col. Jennings was the practicability of entering this new harbor established, which as you know has since proved of such infinite utility to the government. The first cargo of the schooner Calumet (the vessel employed in this service) was delivered by agreement immediately inside the "bay." This involved the necessity of boating the flour some twelve miles up the bay and packing from that point about six miles by land before reaching the agency. Agent R. B. Metcalfe, who was in charge of the Siletz agency at that time, objected very much to having the balance of the flour delivered at "Yaquina Bay," as he had no facilities for boating and packing to the agency, and insisted that the next cargo should be delivered at the mouth of the Siletz River some 15 or 20 miles farther up the coast, stating at the same time that he believed the entrance to the Siletz River to be safe and practicable, and if so that he could then boat his supplies up the Siletz River to the agency (which is situated on said stream). At his earnest solicitations, backed up by those of Superintendent Hedges, Col. Jennings ordered the capt. of the schooner Calumet to make the attempt, but he (the capt.) refused to do so, stating that he would not risk his life for any salary to try it. His place was supplied at great expense to Col. Jennings by the appointment of Capt. Tichenor to the command, who is notoriously one of the most experienced coasters and daring navigators on the Pacific coast. Capt. Tichenor, agreeable to orders, attempted to enter the Siletz with his vessel but not finding water enough on the bar, he was driven ashore, where shortly after succeeding in getting the flour all out and apparently safe on the bank, a severe storm came up which drove the vessel at high tide across the headland into the river, completely dismantling her of mast, sails, boats, chains, anchors &c., and in fact everything but the naked hull (and that pierced in several places with drift logs) was swept entirely away and lost. The cargo too, that had been delivered on the bank, shared the same fate of everything else belonging to the vessel. This loss proved to Agent Metcalfe the impracticability of using the Siletz as a harbor for vessels laden with supplies for the reservation. At this time the Indians were almost in a starving condition, and every effort was made by Agent Metcalfe to induce shipmasters & owners to contract for supplying his starving Indians with flour. The pilot boat at the mouth of the Columbia was applied to, but all to no purpose. After exerting all other resources that could give him immediate relief, he applied again to Col. Jennings and his associates who entered into another contract to supply him at "Yaquina Bay" and fulfilled the contract at the most extravagant expense to themselves, having to pack sails, rigging &c. for the dismantled vessels across the mountains on showshoes at an expense of near one dollar per pound. This enterprise, far more hazardous and expensive than the first, was finally accomplished, and then it required longer time than was anticipated at first. The supplies that was too late for some was in time to save the lives of many who were starving for bread.
Very truly &c.
    J. C. Ainsworth
To E. R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs for
        Oregon & Washington
            Portland, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 186.



Salem Oct. 6th / 59
Rev. E. R. Geary
    Dear Sir, Indian Charley is gone. He died Sabbath evening and was buried Monday. Mr. Keller had him from Tuesday the 12th of Sept. till Monday the 3rd Oct., just three weeks. This time was given to his care. Charley was too sick for him to attend to any other business during this time except to take care of him. I think, brother, Mr. Keller has more richly earned fifty dollars in what he has done for Charley than Dr. Swigart did twenty dollars of the one hundred which I heard he had charged for his services in this case. I propose (as I do not doubt you wish to get at justice) that you pay less to the Dr. and more
to Keller. Understand me, I am no calumniator. I have no self-interest to influence in what I say. I ask nothing for myself, nor for any friend of mine, but I love justice and righteousness in the distributions of public funds, as I do everywhere else. The man who has rendered real service is the one I wish to receive an equivalent of the general government, as I would if he had worked for a citizen, and this I say simply as a suggestion to you and for your eyes alone. It simply shows where, I think, truth and right would point your mind.
Yours truly
    O. Dickinson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 169.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Oregon Oct. 7th 1859
Sir
    In compliance with the instructions contained in your letter of the 3rd September last I have this day written to Gen. D. Newcomb, directing him, in the event of his accepting the appointment tendered him by the government, to execute his bond and repair to this office without delay for instructions with a view to his being designated to official duty at the Siletz Agency.
    Owing to the feeble health of Agent Metcalfe & his request to be relieved, I appointed Joshua B. Sykes special agent to receive the funds and property of the Department from Agent Metcalfe, and take charge of the same, subject to the orders of this office. Mr. Sykes will be relieved as soon as Gen. Newcomb reports himself for duty.
    Mr. Metcalfe will be duly enjoined as to the necessity of transmitting his final accounts for settlement at the earliest day possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner I. Aff.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 13.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 10th 1859
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that this office is officially informed of your appointment by the President of the United States Indian Agent for Oregon in the room [sic] of R. B. Metcalfe Esq. resigned. In the event of your accepting the appointment you will proceed to execute your bond and transmit it to this office for approval and transmission to Washington.
    As Mr. Metcalfe has already left the Siletz Agency and expects soon to return to his home in Texas, it is highly important that you repair to this office with all possible dispatch, that the proper arrangements may be made for your entrance on your official duties at the earliest practicable period.
    In order to relieve Mr. Metcalfe, whose health has been very precarious, I appointed Mr. Joshua B. Sykes a special agent, authorizing him to receive and receipt to Agent Metcalfe for all public funds and property in his hands and take charge of affairs at said agency until your arrival.
    As Mr. Sykes has been appointed sub-agent for Oregon in the room of sub-agent, E. P. Drew removed, and as it is highly important that he enter immediately on the duties of his appointment by relieving Mr. Drew, it is hoped that this motive for your prompt assumption of the duties of your office will have your due consideration.
    Permit me to call your special attention to the instruction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in relation to the proper execution of your official bond, viz: Your bond is required to be in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars with two or more sureties, whose sufficiency must be certified by a judge or district attorney of a District Court of the United States and to take the oath of office before such judge or a justice of the peace, and if before the latter, then his official character must be certified by the proper court or officer under seal.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Genl. D. Newcomb
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 14-15.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 10th 59
Sir,
    I have the honor to inform you that I am officially advised of your appointment by the Secretary of the Interior a sub-agent for Indians in Oregon in the room of E. P. Drew Esq., removed. Your commission and form of official bond and oath were forwarded you by the last mail.
    You will, in the event of your accepting the appointment, be careful to execute your bond with the required sureties, whose sufficiency must be certified by a judge or district attorney of a District Court of the United States and to take the oath of office before such judge or a justice of the peace, and if before the latter, then his official character must be certified by the proper court or officer under seal. Your bond and official oath, when executed, you will deposit in this office for transmission to the proper department in Washington, if found executed in accordance with the foregoing requirements.
    As soon as you shall be relieved from your present duty as special agent in charge of the Siletz Agency you will repair to this office in person for further instructions.
    I have also to inform you that you will be directed to proceed to the Umpqua Agency at as early a day as practicable to relieve Sub-Agent Drew, who will be duly instructed to turn over to you all moneys and property in his hands in virtue of his office, you executing to him the proper receipts therefor.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Joshua B. Sykes Esq.
    Special Agent
        Siletz, Benton Co., Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 15-16.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Oct 10th 1859
Sir
    In reply to your letter of the 14th July last enclosing affidavits of Henry Fuller and others in regard to cattle and hides lost by said Henry Fuller and alleged by him to have been taken and stolen by the Indians then on the Coast Reservation at divers times in the winter of 1856-7, I have to say, on the verbal statement of Agent Metcalfe, that the tribes then at the Salmon River station, on the Coast Reservation, were the Tututnis, Makanotons, Chasta Costas, Port Orfords, Sixes, Upper and Lower Coquilles and a few others, all coast Indians, the treaty with whom has not been ratified. Mr. Metcalfe further states that at the time the cattle and hides were taken, the Indians were in a starving condition, many of them barely sustaining life by eating fern roots, and that a number of children actually perished from hunger, that the cattle and hides were not stolen, but taken with his knowledge and permission, prompted by a sense of justice and humanity to a famishing people, whom he felt the government, under the circumstances, was bound to succor and relieve.
    The coast Indians are much impoverished and possess no means of making payment for the cattle in question. Should the treaty with them be ratified, nothing could be spared from the annuity provided, even to repay Mr. Fuller in small installments, without great detriment to the Indians, nor do I think that Mr. Fuller should be indemnified out of any provision hereafter to be made for said Indians, but receive whatever remuneration he may be deemed entitled to by special appropriation.
    The letter of Mr. Metcalfe of the 10th instant, herewith, contains important statements affecting the validity of Mr. Fuller's claim.
    I return herewith the papers accompanying your letter. My reply has been delayed by awaiting a personal conference with Agent Metcalfe.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner Ind. Aff.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 17.



Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Fort Umpqua, Ogn. Oct. 10th 1859.
Sir,
    In compliance with instructions contained in your letter of the 8th of August last, I herewith forward to your office abstract and account sales of property belonging to the estates of Dick Johnson and Mummy, two Indians murdered at Yoncalla in November last, with a statement of the account of S. D. Dickinson, late probate judge of Umpqua County, with said estates and the surviving Indians.
    Mr. Dickinson sold the property and settled the affairs of those estates under my direction--in fact, he was, as I have stated in former communications to your office on this subject, employed by me as sub-Ind. agent to attend to the settlement of the estates and property of those murdered Indians and the surviving members of their families.
    Looking to the Indian Department for compensation for his services, he paid over to Indian Jim and the widow of Mummy all the money he obtained from the sale of the property belonging to Mummy's estate.
    The money now remaining in the hands of Mr. Dickinson has all been obtained from the sale of property belonging to the estate of Dick Johnson, and Mr. Dickinson considers that Dick's widow and children ought to have the whole of it.
    Under existing circumstances, Dick's heirs are not likely to derive any benefits from his farm or improvements, which are now in the possession of and appropriated by white men who claim a preemption right to the soil. The houses and buildings and fences were valuable where they are situated, but worth little to remove away.
    It seems to me that the account of Mr. Dickinson may very properly be paid by the Department, as he was employed by me under instructions from the Supt. of Ind. Affairs.
    Is it right that he should be paid out of the proceeds of the personal property belonging to Dick Johnson's estate, when his services were rendered in the settlement of both the estates of Dick and Mummy?
    It does not appear to me that any of Dick's personal property should be taken from the heirs, as they will, in all probability, lose the farm and improvements.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 205.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 24th 1859
R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Dear Sir,
        As it is your intention to visit old Chief John and his son Adam while at San Francisco, I have to request that you will endeavor to ascertain the state of their feelings towards the whites in Oregon, if practicable, and write this office a full account of your interview, and your impressions as to the propriety of their return to their friends on the reservation. If after sounding Adam you regard it safe to have him return you are hereby authorized to procure his passage on the steamer to this place. Any necessary expenses you may incur will be cheerfully met, and the amount remitted to your order.
    I would not at present hazard the return of Old John, as I fear his indomitable spirit might impel him to some deed of violence or to spread discontent among the Indians at the Siletz.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 22.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oct. 27th 1859
Sir
    I am informed from credible sources that parties of Indians from Grand Ronde Agency continue still to make frequent and protracted visits to Salem, and that their stay in that vicinity is generally connected with scenes of debasing drunkenness and prostitution.
    In view of those statements, which I would gladly learn to be false, but which come to me in so authentic a manner as to challenge my confidence, I respectfully urge that you adopt measures to restrain the Indians, and especially the Indian women, from visiting Salem and other places off the reservation, when you have any reason to suspect their objects to be as indicated above, or where your acquaintance with the parties leads you to believe these degrading indulgences will be likely to follow the opportunities their absence from the reservation may afford them.
    The most sacred interests of society--morality and social order--and every consideration rendering the continued existence of the Indian race desirable, demand restraint on their vagabond habits, and the prohibition of their sojourn in the neighborhood of our towns and villages, especially when accompanied by their women. The object, with rare exceptions of such sojourns, is well understood, through other objects are often quite plausibly assigned. As officers of the government, our duty clearly is to use every lawful endeavor to protect peaceful and orderly citizens from the annoyance and injury arising from the presence in their vicinity of drunken Indians and polluted squaws, and on the other hand humanity and a just appreciation of the policy of our government toward the Indian race equally require this course, which should we ignore it will render all other efforts for their physical and social improvement futile and unavailing.
    I would not be understood as intending to prohibit the Indians from making visits of reasonable duration to their friends and old homes, nor from spending a short time at their accustomed fisheries in the proper season. Neither is it designed to prevent the Indians from hiring out, to labor for persons who, in the judgment of the agent, will exercise a proper care and influence over them, but so far to restrain and regulate their conduct, that if practicable, we may protect the citizens of our villages from the evils complained of, and save these wretched beings from further degradation and accelerated destruction.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Gen. Jno. F. Miller
        Sub-Agent Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 25-26.  A copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 135-134.



Received at Siletz Agency, Oregon,
    of Edward R. Geary,
        Supt. of Indian Affairs, the following article of Ind. Department property, being for the sixth annuity for the Rogue River Indians, per 3rd article of the treaty of 10th September 1853, and being the pro rata share thereof, to which the number of said Indians, located upon the Siletz Reservation, are entitled, to wit:
6 Doz. Camp Kettles
6    "     Bread Pans
12    "     Tin Pans
200 Powhatan Pipes and Items
30 Boxes 600 Lbs. Soap
10¼ Lbs. Linen Thread
1 M Assorted Needles
100 Flannel Overshirts
1000 Yds. Prints
400    "     Brown Sheeting
400    "     Woolen Linsey
10 Pairs Satinette Pants
10 Wool Hats
14 Pairs 3 Pt. Blankets
10     "     Men's Brogans
20     "     Women's Shoes
10     "     Boys' Brogans
3 Ox Wagons Complete _______
$1250.00
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, enclosure to No. 85 of November 2, 1859.



Bill of Goods on Hand in Sutler Store
Nov. 12th 1859

Corvallis Oct. 10th 1859
Mr. R. Bledsoe bought of Nat. H. Lane
    4 Gross of matches @ $1.75 $  7.00
3 Pcs. bleached domestic 182 yds. @ 12½ cts. 21.93
4 Pcs. bleached domestic 162 yds. @ 12½ cts. 20.25
3 Pcs. prints domestic 109 yds. @ 13 cts. 14.17
½ Dozen prs. casr. pants @ 60.00 [a dozen] 30.00
1 Dozen prs. satinette pants 36.00
200 Lbs. soap @ 12 cts. 24.00
100 Lbs. China sugar @ 15 cts. 15.00
200 Lbs. N.O. sugar @ 17 cts. 34.00
100 Lbs. coffee @20 lbs. 20.00
50 Lbs. saleratus @ 12 cts. 6.00
10 Gunny sacks @ 20 cts. each 2.00
November 1st 1859
    1 Wool blankets $15.00
12 Yds. table linen @ 65 6.60
76 Yds. prints @ 13 cts. 9.88
3 Pcs. handkerchiefs @ $4.00 12.00
2 Pcs. bleached domestic 107½ yds. @ 14 cts. 15.05
6 Kegs island sugar 664 lbs. @ 12½ cts. 83.00
1 Sack coffee 100 lbs. @ 20 cts. 20.00
2 Kegs syrup @ $6.00 each 12.00
1 Box tea 56 lbs. @ 82 cts. 45.92
1 Dozen overshirts 20.00
1 Dozen undershirts & drawers 13.50
1 Case boots 60.00
1 Dozen woolen socks @ $6.00 6.00
3 Dozen cotton hose @ $2.25 6.75
½ Dozen brooms @ $9.00 per doz. 4.50
½ Gross hooks & eyes @ $2.50 1.25
2 Kegs dried apples @ 16 cts. 36.00
½ Dozen satinette pants @ $36.00 18.00
2 Dozen overalls @ $7.00 14.00
3 Dozen grey flannel shirts @18.00 54.00
1 Dozen white men undershirts #40 12.50
2 Dozen white men undershirts #24 @ 12.00 24.00
2 Dozen white men underdrawers #85 @ 11.00 22.00
1 Dozen white men underdrawers #84 12.00
1 Dozen grey men underdrawers 10.00
1 Dozen grey undershirts 10.00
50 Lbs. beads @ 75 cts. 37.50
2 Pcs. silk handkerchiefs #13 @ $4.00 8.00
2 Pcs. silk handkerchiefs #16 @ $4.50 9.00
2 Pcs. silk handkerchiefs #22 @ $5.00 10.00
100 Lbs. coffee @ 20 cts. 20.00
107 Lbs. butter @ 25 cts. 26.75
1 Keg for butter 1.50
3 Dozen yeast powders @ $4.50 18.00
2 Reams paper @$2.50 5.00
    I certify on honor that the above bills of goods are true and correct and were on hand at the time the bills and invoices were made out.
R. Bledsoe
    Sutler Siletz
        Indian Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



No. 18 Lagrange Place Boston
    October 28 1859
Hon. Eli K. Price
    Dear Sir,
        You will see by the enclosed that our movement in behalf of the Indians is making some headway, and I thought you would feel a pleasure to read as I do to communicate the knowledge of the fact.
    I have had about the same process and nearly the same experience here as in Philadelphia, only I profited by what I learned in your city and was more cautious about allusion to Missouri and to pecuniary matters. But notwithstanding this the case is about the same, for a printed private circular was addressed to each of the 140 pastors of the city, inviting them specially to occupy the platform, as a public invitation to the same effect was given from the platform at the meeting, yet only one (a Unitarian) made his appearance, although there were quite a number in the gallery.
    The circumstance was noticed by Wendell Phillips, who commenced his speech by saying that he appeared on the platform because he knew that the pastors would not and rather than a question of such magnitude should be left to be sustained by one alone he would do his part to help it onward. I have learned from several that they now regret their refusal to obey the invitation, as Phillips took the occasion to review missionary operations in general and denounced the whole as an insult to the common sense of the savage, affirming that the reason the Indians are not Christianized is because they are not depraved enough to accept it under the circumstances with which it is presented. So you see if I did not tell the whole truth it was told. And the Christians are now cowering under the rebuke. The result will be that when we call another mass meeting (as we shall do soon) the pastors will be on hand promptly in their place. One sign which is quite ominous is that Dr. Kirk, the president of the "American Tract Society," has asked me to prepare a tract in behalf of the Indian for the society to publish. (I shall do so next week.)
    In regard to money I resolved to do as I did for the first two years after my leaving Oregon: Say little or nothing about it. The consequence is I am using up my own resources in paying for the use of halls and printing, distributing bills and books, traveling expenses, board and an extensive correspondence. Occasionally a small donation is given to me, but all that I have received since I have been in Boston during three months does not amount to more than one-fourth of what I have expended. I am now paying interest upon borrowed money. And the good people suppose that I am supported by the rich men of the Quaker City and of New York whose names are associated with me in this cause.
    You are ready to say why don't you tell them the facts in the case? Because in the first place I am ashamed to tell the whole the very thought of a national association for an object so noble and so necessary and composed of the most influential men of two cities the most wealthy in the Union and this national association having but one agent actively employed and he living for the most part upon his own means, working for nothing in poverty and debt. I say all this is too humiliating for the public to know. And where I do tell it the feeling would be that the object is of no importance or if it was these wealthy and public-spirited gentlemen would give it a corresponding support.
    I say I have profited by experience and rather than run the risk of offending my colleagues and fellow workmen here as I did in your city by telling them my necessities, I will suffer a little longer in silence. I know the time will come when that which is done shall be published from the housetop.
    There is a society in Boston (composed for the most part of Unitarians) for the propagation of the Gospel among Indians and others I will meet next Thursday. I have placed in the hands of its secretary a written statement of my circumstances--places and prospects I have some hopes from the liberal and genial spirit which they have uniformly expressed towards me that some efficient aid will be given.
    Believe me, dear sir, that I love my home and my family as much as others. I have not seen them for more than three years. This, as you know, is a sacrifice of some account to a man of sympathy, especially when I know that my grown-up son is uneducated and that the means which he had worked hard to accumulate for the purpose is now expended. But, serious as the consideration is, it weighs light against the retribution which I see impending upon the proprietors and silent approvers of the wrongs as indicated in the last news from California.
    I shall be pleased to hear from your board and hope that it will determine to invite a national convention to be held in February 1860. I shall publish a first number at the convention as soon as I have $500 on hand and give the whole away in secret as specimen numbers.
Respectfully
    John Beeson
Beinecke Library



Bill of Goods on Hand in Sutler's Store
Siletz Indian Agency Oregon Nov. 12th 1859
8 Black sack coats (lot 2279) @ 15 120.00
15 Black sack coats (lot 525) @ 15 225.00
28 Janes coats @ $5 140.00
14 Light sack coats (lot 952) @ 10 140.00
4 Cloth coats (lot 582) @ 12 48.00
16 Plaid satinette (lot 1636) @ 8 128.00
2 Black overcoats (lot 1000) @ 10 20.00
5 Black overcoats (lot 2300) @ 8 40.00
5 Blue cotton coats @ 3 15.00
17 Dozen calico shirts @ 12 204.00
3 1/12 Dozen wool hats @ 18 55.50
4 Dozen tin pans @ 6 24.00
8 Indian rubber coats @ 5 40.00
5 10/12 Dozen red flannel shirts @ 20 117.66
4 Beaded pouches @ 5 20.00
1 Dozen small shawls @ 36 36.00
4 Dozen shawls @ 18 72.00
9 Silk shawls @ 7 63.00
15 Woolen shawls @ 5 75.00
2 Heavy cashmere shawls @ 10 20.00
8 Gross gilt buttons @ 2.50 20.00
4 10/12 Dozen plush & velvet vests @ 24 116.00
3 Marseilles vests @ 3 9.00
9 Pairs white blankets (4 pt.) @8 72.00
4 Dozen sleigh bells @ 1.50 6.00
24 Dozen small bells @ 2 48.00
266 Pounds tobacco @ .45 119.70
100 Pounds tobacco # .50 50.00
2 Boxes smoking tobacco @ 4 8.00
2 Dozen overalls @ 8 16.00
Dozen blacking @ 2 14.50
5 Gross brass buttons @ 2 10.00
42 Pairs men's shoes @ 1.50 63.00
2 Dozen pieces gold lace @ 12 24.00
5 Pounds gold beads @ 2 10.00
3 Dozen rubber blkts. # 3 9.00
9 Window blinds @ 1.50 13.50
3 Dozen redding combs @ 2 6.00
3 Gross pipes & stems @ 12 36.00
2 Dozen feathers (for hats) @ 6 12.00
3 Dozen bunches black ostrich feathers @ 18 54.00
350 Pounds sugar @ 20¢ 70.00
17 Package Chinese vermilion @ 1.87½ 31.87
4 Dozen pomade @ 2 8.00
4 Dozen hair oil @ 1.50 6.00
    I certify on honor that the above bill of goods is true and correct and were on hand at the time the bill was made and invoiced.
R. Bledsoe
    Sutler Siletz
        Indian Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Received at Siletz Agency, Oregon,
    of Edward R. Geary,
        Supt. of Indian Affairs, the following articles of Indian Department property, being for the fifth annuity for the Shasta Scotan and Umpqua Indians, per third article of the treaty of 18th November 1854, to wit:
116 Pairs 3 Pt. Blankets
104 Flannel Overshirts
100 Hickory Shirts
87 Pairs Satinette Pants
90 Black Wool Hats
87 Pairs Men's Kip Brogans
87     "        "      Socks
1000 Yds. Prints
800    "     Woolen Linsey
800    "     Brown Sheeting
36 Pairs Boys' Kip Brogans
36     "         "     Socks
60     "    Girls' Kip Shoes
60     "        "     Stockings
126     "    Women's Kip Shoes
126     "           "         Stockings
4 Gross Matches
2 Doz. Brooms
101 Lbs. Twist Smoking Tobacco
1000 Feet White Oak Plank _______
$2000.00
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, enclosure to No. 85 of November 2, 1859.



Received at Siletz Agency, Oregon,
    of Edward R. Geary,
        Supt. of Indian Affairs, the following Indian Department property, for the proper disposition of which I am accountable to the United States Treasury, viz:
600 Lbs. Soap
   "     [sic] Linen Thread
1 M Assorted Needles
200 Flannel Overshirts
2700 Yds. Prints
2038    "     Brown Sheeting
1530½    "     Woolen Linsey
150 Prs. 4 Pt. White Blankets
200   "     Sat. Pants
200   "     Men's Brogans
200   "         "      Socks
300   "     Women's Shoes
200   "           "          Stockings
36   "     Boys' Brogans
36   "          "    Socks
50   "     Girls' Shoes
60   "         "     Stockings
250 Gals. Syrup
1000 Lbs. Ch. Sugar
137 Men's Wool Hats
50 Powhatan Pipes & Stems _______
$3508.84
Also
Two (2) Stoves and Pipe
Six (6) Office Chairs
One (1) Straw Cutter
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, enclosure to No. 85 of November 2, 1859.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 3rd 1859
Sir,
    Your official bond, this day received, has been examined and forwarded for the approval of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The field of duty assigned you is that heretofore in charge of late Sub-Agent E. P. Drew, in whose stead you have been appointed, and whom you will proceed to relieve as early as practicable.
    Mr. Drew is instructed to turn over to you all public moneys and property in his possession together with all files and records pertaining to his office. You will secure from him a statement of the funds and services of the property transferred, in triplicate, and execute to him therefor receipts in triplicate. A statement of the funds received by you from Mr. Drew you will immediately transmit to this office.
    You will as early as practicable take the census of the Indians in the several bands, stating the number of males and females of the adults and children. You will also ascertain their resources of subsistence, their sanitary condition--the deceases existing, and their causes, and whether their numbers have increased or diminished within the last two years.
    Inasmuch as those Indians in the vicinity of the Umpqua are not within the limits designated as an Indian reservation, and as the soil is wholly unsuitable for agricultural purposes, the Department at Washington has ordered that they be removed and permanently located at a suitable place on the reservation. I have therefor to direct that you will select as early as practicable an eligible site for their settlement within the limits prescribed, and proceed at once to break and enclose a small tract for agricultural purposes, and erect suitable dwellings. As far as practicable you will employ Indian labor on these operations, particularly those for whose benefit the improvements are designed.
    You are also authorized to procure two or three yokes of oxen and plows and other farming implements that may be needed, and Agent Newcomb at the Siletz will be directed to turn you over a wagon. In all the measures required to affect the removal of the Indians from the Lower Umpqua you will incur no expense beyond the means that shall be actually placed in your hands.
    It is not designed to remove the Indians located on the Siuslaw, where they are already employed to some extent in agriculture. This pursuit you will encourage by providing them from time to time with such agricultural implements as they may need. For selecting the site contemplated for the Indians to be removed, regard should be had to its proximity to the fisheries, their habits being such as to make the productions of the sea staple articles of subsistence.
    You will keep this office duly advised of all important events connected with the service in your district. Enclosed you will find a statement of funds turned over to you by this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. of Ind. Affairs
Joshua B. Sykes Esq.
    Sub-Indian Agent
N.B. See statement of funds at the bottom of the page.
Statement of funds turned over to Joshua B. Sykes, Sub-Indian Agent.
For the general incidental expenses of the Indian service in the Territories of Oregon & Wash. &c. $250.00
For the defraying of the expenses of the removal and subsistence of the Indians in Oregon   350.00
$600.00
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 31-32.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 4th 59
Sir,
    It has occurred to me that in view of the superabundance of the potato crop on the Siletz, it would be a good measure to send a few hundred bushels by the schooner to be sold in the market for the benefit of the Indians. If therefore Capt. Dodge has not sailed on the receipt of this letter and will carry a consignment of potatoes, at a rate not exceeding ten dollars per ton, payable out of the proceeds of the sales at Portland, which I believe he will readily do, you will set the Indians to work to dig and ship them.
    The net proceeds will be placed in your hands for the benefit of the Indians interested, and I have no doubt the result of this little "adventure" if managed with economy will have a happy effect in stimulating industry and promoting contentment among the Indians. A copy of the "Rules and Regulations of the Indian Bureau"--as good as we have, I send you.
    I will write you more fully by mail. Sub-Agt. Sykes will hand you this.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Superint. Ind. Affairs
To
    Daniel Newcomb Esq.
        Indian Agent
            Siletz Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 32.



Portland Ogn. November 8th 1859
Sir
    In compliance with instructions from your office, I employed ten men and started from Jacksonville to Klamath Lake on the first of October last for the purpose of arresting the Indians accused of the murder of the Ledford party in April last.
    We entered the Indian country on the seventh day, counciled with the chiefs on the tenth and eleventh and continued exploring and looking for the murderers until the sixteenth, when we recrossed the mountains on our return to Jacksonville, where we arrived on the nineteenth.
    I am sorry to be compelled to report a total failure of the principal object of the expedition, viz. the arrest of the accused Indians.
    At first many of the warriors showed a decided disposition to be independent and impertinent, but after the council, during which I explained the nature of our business and the consequences of resistance on the part of the tribe, they expressed a willingness that the murderers should be arrested, but nothing could induce them to assist me, nor guide my party to their places of concealment, but on the contrary I am satisfied that while pretending indifference they were posting the murderers as to my movements.
    Consequently I never saw the accused parties, and of course they are yet at large.
    As authorized by you I offered presents to the tribe to induce them to assist in the arrest and as plainly told them that so long as they harbored and protected the murderers of white men they might expect nothing from the government.
    The chiefs replied that if they or any of their people should assist us, it would cause a lasting difficulty in the tribe, that the friends of the parties accused would kill as many of those that assisted in their arrest as they could. From this I inferred that the murderers had many friends and supporters in the tribe.
    I learned while counciling with the chiefs that the Snake Indians had proposed, through their emissaries, to the Klamath and Modoc tribes to join them in a general war against the whites and that the Klamaths are divided on the subject, one party being in favor of the Snake proposition.
    I am confident that it will require great discretion and a very correct administration of the affairs of the eastern and Klamath Lake districts to prevent serious troubles next summer. I presume that they will remain quiet until the winter breaks up.
    They can do but little while the snow is on the mountains.
    While in the lake country we explored a valley at the north end of Big Klamath Lake, most beautifully situated, of good soil, and well watered by six streams of very cold transparent water, a plentiful supply of good timber and grass, containing about one hundred & fifty sections of agricultural land.
    There is a vast extent of grazing lands in the country inhabited by those Indians, and so soon as the proper protection is extended to it our citizens will occupy it.
    The trail leading from Northern California to northeastern Oregon and Washington Territory runs immediately through the lake country, and the route from Great Salt Lake via Humboldt Valley to  Oregon and Northern California, which is probably the best immigrant route to Oregon, runs through the Modoc country.
    The Indians in that region have carried their depredations to such an extent that travel has been discontinued on those routes for several years past with exception of a very few adventurous parties.
    The mountain pass between Rogue River and Klamath Lake valleys is I presume the best and most easy of access of any pass through the Cascade Range, the highest altitude being about twenty-four hundred feet above Rogue River Valley (barometrical observations).
    A good road could be made over it at a light expense. Distance from Jacksonville to Big Klamath Lake sixty-five miles, with good grass and water at convenient distances for camps. The valley of Klamath Lake is about two thousand feet above Rogue River Valley, or about two thousand eight hundred feet above the level of the sea (barometrical observations).
    Hoping that the attention of the Department may be directed to that interesting portion of our young state, I have the honor respectfully to submit the foregoing facts.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. srvt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Sub-Indian Agent
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Oregon & W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 224.  A copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 121-124.



Siletz Ind. Agency
    Oregon Novr. 10th 1859
Sir
    According to instructions I proceeded to Salem and there found some eight Grand Ronde Indians together with some four or five from the Siletz Agency. I got them off after some little difficulty. I found them intoxicated and fighting the afternoon I arrived. I then proceeded to Corvallis where I found some more Indians and sent them home. I am now here waiting for the weather to hold up a little, when I shall make all haste for Fort Umpqua to relieve Mr. Drew. The schooner has arrived and sailed again for Portland.
Respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Sub-Ind. Agent
To
    Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Portland
N.B. Mr. Casey informs me that there were some receipts that were mislaid, and he has written for copies. Since that time they were found. I turned them over but some way they were in the wrong envelope and were overlooked by him (Casey).
Respty. your
    Obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Special Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 236.



Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Oregon Decr. 4th / 59
Sir
    On the 30th ult. Sub-Agent Drew turned over to me the property at this agency pertaining to the Indian Dept. Mr. Drew informs me he has no funds to transfer.
    I find the Indians belonging to this agency are at present residing in different localities being in quest of food such as game and fish, therefore it will be almost impossible for me to obtain a correct census list without going to considerable expense. I am informed however by Sub-Agent Drew that there was a census list taken by him in October which I expect is very nearly correct. The following is a copy of said list.
    Coos Bay Indians No. of Souls   292
Umpqua Indians   "     "      "     127
Alsea Indians  "     "      "         130
Siuslaw Indians   "     "      "        85
Total 634
The Coos Bay and Umpqua tribes reside here but at present there are small parties at Scottsburg, Ten Mile Creek and Coos Bay. So soon as they return I shall take a census list & forward to you. At present I have on hand near two months' rations, providing I make issues as Agent Drew has been doing. There is considerable venereal disease among these Indians, but as far as I can ascertain they are free or nearly so from other sickness. These Indians are in the habit of obtaining liquor, from what source I am unable to learn. I shall use my utmost endeavors however to suppress this evil and shall ascertain if possible the parties who furnish it and prosecute them. Should I be able to get the necessary evidence, economy and the interests of the Indians shall always be my guide in operating for the service.
    The only piece of land fit for agricultural purposes that I have been able to find is situated on the coast about six miles south of the Alsea and contains about 150 acres. I shall however in the course of a few days proceed up the coast and endeavor to look out some better location. I will return to the Umpqua in sufficient time to receive any communication from you.
    The nearest desirable point for the location of these Indians is from 40 to 45 miles from this agency over a very rough country, and it will be necessary to open the road to some extent prior to their removal.
    The Indians are very much opposed to their removal, the probable cause of which is that they are in the habit of cutting wood for the steamboats and thereby obtaining considerable money, also by prostituting their women to the whites. Their resources for subsistence are very meager; they manage, however, with the flour issued them by the Dept. and what money they obtain, to get along.
    The military physician at this post has been employed by the Dept. heretofore at a salary of $75.00 per month, he furnishing the medicines. Please inform me whether I shall continue to employ him. I consider it absolutely necessary for the welfare of the Indians that they should have medical attendance, as they have considerable faith in the "Boston doctor's" medicine.
    Since my arrival here I have been obliged to rent an office and storehouse at the rate of sixty dols. per month. There are no buildings here except those belonging to Mr. Drew, and I have been obliged to hire an office & storehouse. There is no grazing land nearer than 25 miles. I shall send four animals to that point to be ranched and keep one at this agency.
    So soon as I hear from you I shall immediately proceed with some Indians to the point I design for my agency and commence operations, and as the road is very bad I shall not be able to travel back and forth to any very great extent. I think my presence and cooperation at that point will very much facilitate operations. In consideration of these facts I wish to appoint Mr. W. A. Yates local agent at this place and ask your approbation in the matter. I wish to take this step because it will be absolutely necessary for someone to be located at this point for the present, and my presence will be needed elsewhere for reasons heretofore stated in this letter.
Very resptly.
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Sub-Ind. Agent
To:
    Edwd. R. Geary
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Portland
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 2.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, Dec. 13th 1859
Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th of October (4th December?) and am constrained to say that I am somewhat surprised and mortified at its tenor.
    In my instructions to you of the 3rd of November I directed you to take an exact census of the Indians within the Umpqua Sub-Agency, distinguishing between males and females, adults and children. You have forwarded to me a lumping enumeration of those Indians of an indefinite and unsatisfactory character which you say was made by late Sub-Agent Drew and you believe to be correct. If I had desired to obtain from Mr. Drew any information in his possession in reference to those Indians it is believed that he would have cheerfully furnished the same to this office without your mediation. Moreover we already have all that we desire from Mr. Drew on that subject, as the files of this office contain his reports and statements in that matter more in detail than the list you have forwarded. But there are contradictions in the reports of Mr. Drew himself upon this subject. In his annual report dated June 30th 1858 he states that the Coos, Scottsburg and Umpqua bands number 450 and that the Alsea and Siuslaw bands number 250, making a total of seven hundred. From the list he has furnished you it appears that the whole number in your agency is 634, being a diminution of 66 souls in one year, whilst the Alsea and Siuslaw bands which in 1858 numbered 250, number in 1859 only 215, being a falling off of thirty-five! This diminution cannot be accounted for by deaths from disease or otherwise because Mr. Drew, in his annual report dated July 4th 1859, uses the following language: "During the past year the number of Indians within this district has not materially changed, a few superannuated old Indians having died, while the increase by birth has been larger than in years previous. Disease and sickness among the young and middle-aged have very much diminished, and the general health of the different tribes is much improved" &c. What this office requires is a correct census of those Indians, and I have again to direct that you will attend to this matter without delay. In making your enumeration you will not be governed by the statements of any employee or other person, but will yourself make an actual count of those Indians.
    In the personal interviews had with you at this office you were informed that the appropriations for the Indian service for this Superintendency during the present year are less than they were last year by $147,200, or in other words that the appropriations have been reduced about one-half. You have also been informed that it is necessary in order to keep within the appropriations to reduce the expenses of the service in all quarters of the Superintendency in like proportion (one-half) so as to avoid contracting liabilities beyond our means, such being the imperative instructions from the Department at Washington to this office. You were also informed that the Umpqua Sub-Agency formed no exception to the rule, but that the expenses there must and should be reduced in a like proportion. In view of these facts I had supposed that your every effort would be exerted to effect the required curtailment of expenses. Instead of this, however, you propose to largely increase the current expenses of the Umpqua Sub-Agency. You have rented an office and a storehouse for 60 dollars per month! The rent charged by your predecessor Mr. Drew for an office, storehouse and stable was 33 dollars per month. In Mr. Drew's administration, the affairs of the Umpqua Sub-Agency received the supervision of but one agent; you propose to have two, a sub-agent and a local agent. I have to inform  you that these steps have my disapproval.
    You state that you have on hand near two months' rations providing you make issues as Agent Drew has been doing. The policy of the government is not to subsist the Indians in idleness at the public expense, but "to aid them in procuring their own subsistence." I have therefore to inform you that no issues of provisions to Indians will receive the approval of this office except to the old, sick and helpless or such as by account of their youth, or by reason of some special emergency, are unable to obtain their own subsistence, and that these facts must be made to appear upon the face of the proper vouchers of issue.
    You will be careful to observe that you are not authorized by my letter of the 3rd of November to take any steps towards the actual removal of the Indians as therein indicated until so instructed by this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    J. B. Sykes, Esq.
        Ind. Sub-Agent
            Fort Umpqua
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 43-44.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Dec. 15th 1859
Sir,
    I enclose you herewith a copy of the report of Sub-Agent George H. Abbott of an expedition to Klamath Lake and the surrounding country, made in pursuance of instructions from this office.
     Mr. Abbott was sent out for the purpose of effecting the apprehension of the remaining murderers [who] engaged in the unprovoked slaughter of five white men while asleep in their camp near the head of Butte Creek in Jackson County last April. I regret to say that this important object was not attained and that the murderers are still at large.
    The report contains valuable information in regard to the soil, extent and accessibility of the region explored, and of the disposition of the natives towards the whites. The hostile and predatory spirit manifested by their neighbors, the "Snakes," last summer, and the success of their forays, has evidently had an unfavorable influence on these bands, and excited an appetite for blood and plunder which I fear will manifest itself in deeds of violence on our exposed frontier early next summer, unless the timely presence of a military force prevent it. I would therefore urge the necessity of an early military demonstration in that portion of the interior as a measure of humanity to the Indians themselves, and absolutely required for the safety of our citizens, many of whom, attracted by the extensive ranges for cattle in Middle Oregon, and by the newly discovered mines on the northern boundary, will occupy the thoroughfares referred to in the report in passing from Southern Oregon and California to those regions. It is also urgently demanded that treaty stipulations with those Indians be authorized at an early day. The natural pastures of Western Oregon are exhausted, and the extensive grazing country, which is said to be also well adapted to agriculture in the vicinity of those lakes, cannot be much longer held in the exclusive occupancy of a few roving Indians. I would respectfully press the importance of this measure on your consideration, and ask that the way be prepared for entering into treaty stipulations with the Klamath and Modocs at a period not later than next spring. I believe the Klamath might be advantageously confederated with the bands to be located on the Warm Springs Reservation, while the Modocs might be all induced to remove within the jurisdiction of the Superintendency of California, to the Indians within which Superintendency they are assimilated in character. The Superintendent, if authorized to negotiate, should however be clothed with discretionary power in regard to the location of the Klamath, for the great interests of peace, humanity and the development of the country demand that these Indians be provided for on some reservation, and if not practicable to induce them to confederate, as just indicated, a part of their own country should be set off for their exclusive occupancy.
    I would also say in this connection that I am informed that the Surveyor General has recommended that the public survey be extended into that portion of Oregon next summer and refer you to a letter of my predecessor of the 20th January last transmitting a joint resolution of the Legislature, recommending a military post and an Indian agency in the Klamath country. Should it be practical to confederate and dispose of these Indians as I have first suggested, these might be dispensed with, but should a reservation for the Klamath be made in their own country, both a military post and an agency in that region will be highly important.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. of Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 41-43.  The original is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 116-119. Abbott's report is transcribed under date of November 8th, above.



Milwaukie Dec. 21st 1859
Honl. C. H. Larrabee
    Sir
        Allow me again to trouble you with my Indian claim here enclosed. I intended to have handed it to you before you left for Washington. I desire you to take charge of the claim and proceed as you think best. I would like, however, to get an advance on it if possible of about two or three hundred dollars which I very much need to carry me through the winter. I expect to realize out of my Chicago claim May next enough to keep me going. Enclosed you will find Judge McLein's decision in favor of the plaintiff allowing him to redeem and Mr. Newbury has allowed the plaintiff to do so, which would seem to establish my claim to 110 acres in the [illegible] of Newbury's and is precisely a parallel case to the one enclosed. My suit is now pending; [it] will be decided in April next.
    Mr. Larrabee, do if possible raise me some money on my claim and let me hear from you at your earliest convenience and oblige
Your obdt. servt.
    J. E. McClure
   

Inventory of property destroyed by the hostile Indians on Rogue River O.T. the 23rd, 24th & 25th February, 1856 and owned by J. E. McClure
    2 dwelling houses valued at 600.00
4 Blasdell's patent amalgamating machine with frames
    all complete $225
900.00
1 drop riffle sluice, complete 75.00
1 drop riffle sluice, unfinished 50.00
1 drop riffle sluice, second hand 35.00
1 tom, second hand 15.00
3 extra ironed toms, $25 50.00
2 axes, shovels, picks &c. 35.00
1 wheelbarrow & wheeling planks 30.00
125 feet sluice troughs 40.00
190 feet hose 25.00
1 endless pump 15.00
2 cast balance wheels, cranks and running gear for pumps $25.00 50.00
80 feet gutta percha pump belting 40.00
1 chest carpenter's & joiner's tools 95.00
1 set smith's tools 75.00
1 punching machine 50.00
75 lbs. tinner's solder 46.87
2 soldering irons 10.00
100 lbs. quicksilver (charged) 200.00
2 gold scales 20.00
1 retort, and a crucible 17.00
2 monkey wrenches 7.00
Provisions, cooking & table furniture 150.00
2 gals. oil & lamps 10.00
6½ prs. blankets @$8 52.00
4 beds & pillows 30.00
1 large trunk of clothing & books 125.00
2 India rubber coats & boots 30.00
Gold specimens & watch 150.00
8 oz. platina 56.00
1 diamond breast pin 25.00
1 small medicine chest & medicines 15.00
Money expended on mining claims 500.00
1 share in the I.C.P. Water Co., being 1/9 of the capital stock invested 845.24
1 share in the Log Town Water Co., being 1/5 of the capital stock invested   772.30
5276.47
    Personally appeared before me, William Tichenor, a notary public for and in the county of Curry O.T., J. E. McClure, and being duly sworn says that the above inventory of property destroyed by the hostile Indians on Gold Beach near the mouth of Rogue River O.T. and of losses incurred by him on account of the depredations committed by the on the 23, 24 & 25th of February 1856 is just and true.
J. E. McClure
Port Orford 25th April 1856
William Tichenor
Notary Public in and for the Territory of Oregon
Indian Creek Water Co.
   

     B. F. Perry & J. L. Evans, being duly sworn, say that they are personally acquainted with J. E. McClure, and that the foregoing inventory of property destroyed by the hostile Indians on the 23, 24 & 25 of February 1856, and of the losses incurred by him on account of the depredations committed by them, is just and true according to the best of our knowledge and belief.
B. F. Perry
J. L. Evans
Port Orford O.T. Apl. 25th 1856
William Tichenor
Notary Public in and for the Territory of Oregon
   

[written later:]
See United States Statutes at Large volume 10
Treaty concluded between the United States & above Indians in 1854, see page 1020 U.S. District Attorney office. See treaty of [Rogue] River also, in 1853, Section 16-17-18 (page 731)
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 508-513.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Dec. 22nd 1859
Sir,
    I herewith submit for your consideration copies of my instructions to Mr. J. B. Sykes, sub-Ind. agent, on his assuming the charge of the Umpqua Agency, of a letter from Mr. Sykes to this office, and my reply thereto.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
   

[Attached are copies of Geary's letter to Sykes of December 13th and his instructions of November 3rd, as well as Sykes' letter of December 4th, all transcribed above.]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 72-81.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Dec. 22, 1859.
Sir,
    Herewith enclosed is a letter to the Hon. Secretary of the Interior from John F. Miller Esq., Ind. agent Grand Ronde, Yamhill Co., Ogn., asking leave of absence to visit Washington, the better to effect a speedy adjustment of certain claims in his accounts suspended and disallowed by the Indian Bureau. I would respectfully ask for this application of Agent Miller your favorable consideration.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
   

Grand Ronde Agency, Ogn.
    December 17th 1859
Sir,
    In view of the fact that a large amount of the appropriation for deficiencies contracted at this agency, and which were audited by Mr. Commissioner Mott, had been suspended at Washington for want of more definite information as to the nature of the claim, and as the amount is justly due to men to whom the delay is almost ruin, I would respectfully solicit leave of absence to visit Washington, the better to effect a speedy settlement of the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John F. Miller
            Indian Agent
Hon. J. Thompson
    Secy. of Interior
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 84-86.



Grand Ronde Dec. 30th 1859
Sir
    I am happy to say one school is in successful operation.
    Below I give a detailed statement of each day the present week.
Dec. 26 Monday 9  scholars 5  girls 4  boys                                                          
Tuesday 18         "  9     " 9     "
Wednesday 27         " 25     " 14     "
Thursday 34         " 28     " 16     "
Friday 38         " 20     " 18     "
    The ages of the children will probably be within the years of five and fifteen with the exception of one girl. Umpqua chief Lewis' daughter is probably 16 or 17 years old.
R. yours
    Joseph Chamberlin
        School teacher
E. R. Geary
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 258.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Dec. 31st 1859
Sir:
    I received a letter from your predecessor E. P. Drew Esq. on the 18th of July last relative to the estates of Indian Dick Johnson and Indian Mummy, who were the victims of an atrocious murder perpetrated by white men at Yoncalla in November 1858. I have carefully considered the recommendation of Mr. Drew that the just charges of the Hon. S. D. Dickinson for settling said estates, yet coming due him, be paid by the Indian Department. While I would gladly relieve the estates of the deceased from these expenses I do not feel myself warranted in such application of any funds now in my hands without special instructions to that effect from the Indian Bureau, whither I have referred the matter. Meanwhile it is but justice to Judge Dickinson that his claim be paid, and it is I think best that he retain his fees from the moneys of the estates yet remaining in his hands, as the laws provide.
    I confidently hope however that I will be able to procure some indemnity from the government for the survivors of the inhuman and brutal tragedy. Certainly no case appeals more strongly to the sentiment of justice and humanity.
    I shall at least without a reasonable doubt be authorized to refund to the heirs all the proper expenses incurred in settling said estates. The pressure upon my time connected with the liquidation of perplexing claims audited by Judge Mott has occasioned a longer delay in regard to this subject than I intended. Judge Dickinson will be duly advised of the action I feel myself constrained to take in the premises.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
J. B. Sykes, Esq.
    Ind. Sub-Agent
        Fort Umpqua
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 55-56.



Grand Ronde, Oregon
    December 31st 1859.
Sir--
    I have the honor to report that nothing worthy of remark, in regard to the sanitary condition of the Indians on this reservation, has occurred during the present quarter.
    The number of severe affections of the chest is of course augmented as the rainy season advances, and the Rogue River Indians, with their constitutions enfeebled by scrofula and venereal [disease], have as usual the greatest proportion of sickness among them.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan
                Acting Physician
Capt. Jno. F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 17; Letters Received, 1859, No. 45.




Last revised July 4, 2017