HOME


The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1860
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.



Siletz Indian Agency
    Oregon, January 1st 1860.
To
    Edward R. Geary Esq.
        Superintendent &c. for
            Oregon and Wash. Terrs.
                Sir:
                    I beg leave to submit the following report regarding the Siletz Indian Reservation.
    The agency is situated about fifty-five miles from Corvallis, the county seat of Benton County, about thirty-five miles from Fort Hoskins, the United States military post, and about the same distance from the nearest white settlement.
    The climate, soil and productions of this reservation are peculiarly favorable and adapted to the Indians which the government has placed upon it.
    The number of Indians located at this point is about twenty-five hundred, collected from the mountains and the seacoast of Southern Oregon.
    On this reservation the Indians are enabled to live under a climate to which they are accustomed, and to follow pursuits which are familiar to them and which conduce to their happiness and contentment, and also to some extent enable them to obtain subsistence. Located, as this reserve is, upon the seacoast, extending back into the Coast Range of mountains, it enables the Indians to live in localities similar to those from which they have been removed. The Coast Indian has access to the sea to procure fish and other sea productions to which he has been accustomed. The hunter and digger finds a large field for his labors in the mountains above mentioned.
    Taken as a whole this point is naturally well fitted for an Indian reservation.
    I will now make you a statement of the condition of the Indians at this agency, the amount and state of the crops on hand, and my views in relation to what will best promote the interests of the Indians and the government.
    There are six farms established at different points on the Siletz River. At the agency farm farming is done for about one thousand Indians; at the remaining five farms, situated as follows, two about eight miles, one two miles, one five miles and one six miles from the agency building, the farming is done for the remainder of the Indians.
    The produce raised last year, and which I found on hand when I took charge of this agency, amounted to about twenty thousand bushels of potatoes, enough wheat for seed this year, and about two hundred bushels of oats. You see that the Indians of this agency have nothing to subsist upon except potatoes, part of which have already been issued to them, and from their number and the small amount of food on hand, it will be seen that they will be out of subsistence long before the next crop comes in. The soil is good, and I think that by retaining the number of farmers now employed they can derive their subsistence from the farms with the exception of meat, which, however, the great body of them can obtain from the mountains and the sea. Those who are employed on the farms, and thereby deprived of the advantages of the chase, should be supplied with meat.
    When I took charge of the affairs at this agency, I found an accumulation of work which required immediate attention. There had been but little seeding done; the wheat had to be threshed, and that by the slow process of beating it out with sticks; the potato crop was to be dug and housed etc. etc.
    A few days after my arrival here, the schooner arrived at Yaquina Bay with the Indian annuities. Among the articles received were some wagons and millstones. To enable me to get them from the depot to the agency it was necessary to do considerable work on the road, as nothing had been previously brought from that place except by pack animals.
    I found seven white men employed on the farms; the business appeared to require their constant attention. I retained that number. The knowledge and experience which I have acquired has conclusively proved to me that the farming operations of this agency cannot be successfully carried on with fewer white men than are now employed, and that a reduction of that number would seriously affect the prosperity of the agency. I will endeavor to give you the reasons which have led me to the above conclusions. These Indians are, as before stated, at six different points, at suitable places for farming purposes. My acquaintance with these Indians has confirmed me in the belief that at each farm there should at least be one white man, and at the agency farm not less than two, located for the purpose of instructing and directing the Indians. There are but few of the Indians of this agency that know anything about farming, and those will do nothing without compulsion; withdraw the white manager from any farm on this reservation, and in a short time it will be a wilderness and a waste. They have no thoughts for the morrow. The fences would be burned down, the potatoes rooted up before they were half grown, the wheat gathered in a green state, and they would to their hearts' content indulge in their native passion for theft until there would be nothing more to steal or destroy. That such would be the consequences I am convinced by every day's experience.
    If there was no other object than the preservation of the property of the government, it would I think be a sufficient reason for the retaining of the number of the white men now employed, without the further reason of instructing the Indians, that they may at some future time know something about farming and be able to make a living for themselves.
    In relation to the wages paid to farmers on this reservation I would offer the following views. I think that the wages paid to farmers in the white settlements should be no criterion by which the salaries of farmers suitable for this reserve should be judged. In the white settlements if he has the physical ability to plow, hoe and sow he is fully capable of filling the position as farmer, but here it requires some abilities of the mind as well as of the hands. In fact, it requires certain mental faculties, habits of life and attainments to make an effective farmer among Indians; he should be a man of good moral character, of habits of sobriety and industry, should be possessed of a great deal of patience, firmness and decision of character and should know something of their language or jargon. Whenever a man is found who combines all these requisite qualifications, it is to be presumed that his services would be worth more than those of a man of whom nothing but physical labor is required. It is of great importance to have farmers who can talk to them in their own language or the jargon, as there are but very few, say three or four, Indians on the reservation who know anything at all about the English language.
    The provisions for the farmers, and all other employees, are packed over a very bad trail, at high rates, and the prices which they have to pay for their supplies will take nearly all of the wages which they now receive, [though] they may live ever so economically.
    This difference in the price of living should be considered when a comparison is made between the wages paid the farmers on the reservation and those paid to farm laborers in the settlements; the privations, the seclusion, the nearly entire separation and non-intercourse with the white race should also be taken into account. Some of the distant farmers of this agency frequently do not see a white face oftener than once or twice a month. I think the true policy of the government is to give such wages as will secure the services of good and suitable men.
    I would report to you that the work cattle of this agency are in a bad condition; every day that the weather would permit they have been at work; they are becoming poor; the number is not sufficient to make changes of teams and to recruit those that are in a worn-down condition. I would recommend the purchase of twelve more yoke of oxen. There are also two blind steers. With the exception of a few yoke of young cattle partly broken, the cattle are all old and worn out.
    There is a dam partly built and some timbers gotten out for the purpose of erecting a flouring mill; in order to prevent the dam from being carried off by the high water, I would urge the necessity of having the dam completed and the mill frame put up in order to preserve the dam and timbers. If this is not done, the work already finished will be an entire loss. I feel very anxious that this mill should be completed; it is very much desired by the Indians. I think that it would make them much better satisfied with their situation; it would hold out to them an inducement to sow and reap, and it would undoubtedly add much to their comfort. I am sowing all the wheat raised last year, which when harvested and manufactured into flour will go a long way toward maintaining the Indians. The nearest mill in the settlements is about forty miles from here, with no road except a mule trail. It would cost as much for packing the wheat out for the purpose of having it ground, and back again to the agency, as the flour could be delivered here for.
    I will now give you some description of the modes of communication to and from this agency and my views as to the best policy to be pursued in relation to them. There are two mule trails leading out from this place, one to Fort Hoskins, and the other to Yaquina Bay. Both trails are bad; there has been some work done on both of these trails, but from the character of the country through which they pass they require frequent repairs. I regard the trail to the depot at Yaquina Bay as the most important at this present time. The distance from the agency to the depot is about eight miles. It is most likely that the annuity goods will continue to come by the way of the bay and that trail. I think it would be a great saving to the government if a wagon road should be made from the agency to Yaquina Bay; the amount paid for packing in one year would nearly build the road, after which transportation would cost the government nothing, as there are wagons and teams enough on the reservation to do the work.
    In regard to the road to Fort Hoskins, it would certainly be desirable to have a good road to that post, but considering the great distance between the two points, the fact that most of the goods and supplies for this agency are received by way of Yaquina Bay, and the large amount of money it would cost to construct a wagon road, I would not recommend the building of said road, but I think that a good pack trail should be opened, which for the present would answer the purposes of the agency.
    When I took charge of the affairs of this agency, I found in possession of the Indians obligations (given during the administration of my predecessor Mr. Metcalfe) for work done by them, the nonpayment of which must necessarily lessen their faith in me.
    I have the pleasure to report to you that now, and since I have had charge of this agency, the health of the Indians has been good. I know of the death of but one adult from natural causes.
Daniel Newcomb
    Ind. Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 251-257.  A copy is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 8.



This Indenture

    Made and entered into this, the first day of January A.D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty, between Danl. Newcomb, Ind. agent at Siletz Ind. Agency, Coast Reservation, Oregon, as agent for the Ind. Dept., party of the first part, and M. M. Williams, party of the second part: "Witnesseth"
    That for and in consideration of the sum of one dollar to him in hand paid by said party of the first part and the matters and things in hereinafter contained has this day contracted and agreed with the said party of the first part to erect and complete upon said reservation upon a stream known as Mill Creek, near the junction of said creek with the Siletz River, one flouring mill, of the following description.
    To be thirty-eight feet in length and twenty-seven feet in width, two and one-half stories high, to be enclosed and painted, the frame of said mill house to be of a substantial character, and to put into said mill a first-class water wheel, one run of burrs with smut machine, bolting apparatus with a sufficient number of wheat and flour elevators, sieve for cleaning wheat, two stock hoppers, one flour chest with such apparatus and machinery as may be required to make said mill a first-class merchant flouring mill, all of the above mentioned works to be done in a good workmanlike manner, and at the same place to erect, finish & put in good and complete running order one sawmill of the following description, to wit: the frame to be forty feet long and twenty feet wide, two stories high with sash saw, gigback carriage and such other machinery as may be necessary to make a complete sawmill, and all of the work about said mill to be done in a good and workmanlike manner.
    And the said party of the first part as agent as aforesaid hereby agrees to furnish said party of the second part with all of the hewed timber and building material to be used in the erection and completion of said flouring mill & sawmill and to furnish smut machine, bolting cloth, castings, mill irons and all other material necessary for the erection & completion of said mills and to build and complete the dam and abutments for said mills within the time hereinafter mentioned for the completion of said mills.
    And it is further agreed that the said party of the second part shall use in the construction of said mills such material and machinery as the said party of the first part may furnish provided that the same is of a suitable quality to be used in said mills and to complete said mills in manner and form as above stated in perfect running order and to put the same in complete operation on or before the first day of December A.D. 1860.
    And the said party of the first part agrees to pay the said party of the second part for the labor herein specified in his agreement out of the funds appropriated for the purposes of erecting mills under the Molel treaty the sum of seven thousand two hundred and fifty-two dollars.
    And it is further agreed by said party of the second part that if default shall be made in any of his agreements herein contained that this agreement shall be forfeited and the said party of the first part to this contract to consider this contract at an end, and the said party of the second part shall be liable to the United States for damages arising out of the same.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands & seals the day and year first above written.
    Done in the presence of
I. N. Smith
Wm. Kapus
Danl. Newcomb
M. M. Williams
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  A copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 301-304.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon January 4th 1860
S. D. Dickinson Esq. Judge of Probate
for Umpqua County, Oregon
    Sir:
        Referring to your account and that of James Miller for fees and charges against the estates of Dick Johnson and Mummy, Indians murdered by white men at Yoncalla in November 1858, which accounts with the certificate of Sub-Agent Drew as to their being covered and just were sent to this office in July last, I have to say that I do not conceive myself warranted to assume the responsibility of their liquidation from any funds in my possession, or without special instructions thereto from the Indian Bureau.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 56.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Org. Jan. 5th [1860]
Sir,
    In view of the enormous expense connected with the subsistence of the Indians at the several agencies on the Coast Reservation and the palpable and mortifying fact that but little if any real progress has been made in accomplishing the benevolent designs of our government towards those tribes, I am impelled to the conviction that radical defects exist in the administration policy hitherto pursued, and that in regard to economy of expenditure and the restraint and control of the Indians, reform is imperatively demanded.
    When these agencies were first organized, before farms were opened and brought under cultivation, many of the Indians being untamed savages and untaught to labor, and especially pending the war, full rations of subsistence were necessary. It was not contemplated, however, that this system of feeding should to any great extent outlive the emergencies of their removal, and the state of war then existing. The treaties were never intended to provide support to able-bodied Indians living in idleness or wandering without restraint but as in terms expressed to aid them in procuring their own subsistence. The present system therefore of indiscriminate issues of flour and beef the year through to the young and robust whose moderate industry under direction of the helpers provided in the treaties would secure them ample supplies, fosters habits the very reverse of those designed to be formed, and permanently saddles the public treasury with expenses properly of a temporary nature, and the maintenance of a race of debased and miserable drones. This system is well calculated to obliterate the little provident forecast the Indians had before we undertook to be their benefactors, and stands in vital antagonism to every endeavor for the amelioration of their condition, and to confer on them the blessings of civilization.
    I am impelled to say what I doubt not you have yourself felt that a material change in this regard is needed at Grand Ronde. Little can be effected it is true during the cold rains and privations of winter. It would be inhuman to cut off or even restrict their accustomed supplies now. You will, however, let the Indians know that after the spring opens, only the aged, the helpless, the sick and orphans unable to provide for themselves, or children whose parents are unable to provide for them, will be allowed rations, except on occasions of emergency; all such cases to be promptly reported to this office. You are also instructed hereafter to state opposite each name on your vouchers of issues of subsistence, the nature of the necessity therefor.
    I have also to require that you furnish this office, as early as practicable, with a statement of the Indians who have been absent from the reservation for any considerable time, with or without your permission, within the last quarter, carefully giving the names and the band or tribe to which they severally belong, also the period of their absence. You are moreover required to furnish this office hereafter with a full list of absentees, prepared as above directed, at the close of each quarter to be prepared in duplicate, one to accompany your returns sent to Washington.
    You will spare no pains to prevent the Indians from vagabondizing over the country, and to induce, by every proper motive, each Indian, on or off the reservation, to be industrious in procuring the support of himself and family, if he have one.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. of Indian Affairs
John F. Miller Esq.
    Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 56-57.  A copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 136-138.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Jany. 6, 1860
Sir,
    I respectfully call your attention to the enclosed letters addressed to J. F. Miller Esquire Indian Agent at Grand Ronde, on the 27 Octr. last, and on the 5th instant.
    They indicate some general views of policy in Indian affairs, and my administrative course in the particular cases referred to.
    The letters themselves, and their transmission to your office, are by no means intended to imply any censure of the long- and well-tried officer to whom they are addressed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 60.  The original is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 130-131.  The enclosures referred to are transcribed above and on this page.




Portland Oregon
    January 9th 1860
E. R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
            Dear Sir--
                In the invoice of property turned over to Major John Owen, sub-Indian agent for the Flathead tribe, was a Papé patent portable sawmill, new, never used, and with extra gearing, saws and rigging complete. This mill was purchased in St. Louis and it cost me at Fort Benton sixteen hundred dollars. In the invoice to Major Owen it was put down at one thousand dollars, some six hundred dollars less than cost, as Major Owen was doubtful as to its working and thinking that a sawmill might be sent him from this side. Since leaving to mts. the mill has been put up and works admirably, cutting from four to five thousand feet per day and has doubtless ere this paid for itself.
    As this mill was purchased by me out [of] the appropriation for the construction of the mil. road from Fort Walla Walla to Fort Benton, and as the price at which it was turned over was placed at one thousand dollars on acct. of the doubt as to how it might work, and since this doubt has been removed, I now respectfully ask that the price at which it be turned over to the Indian Dept. be the original cost of the same.
I am sir
    Truly & respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            John Mullan
                Lt. U.S. Army
                    Chg. Mil. Road from
                        Ft. Walla Walla to Ft. Benton
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 810-812.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, January 12th 1860.
Sir:
    In the absence of Supt. Geary from this office (on a trip up the Willamette Valley), it becomes my unpleasant duty to inform you that the U.S. Mail Steamer Northerner on her trip from San Francisco to this place was wrecked on the 5th instant off Cape Mendocino.
    A portion of the U.S. mail that washed ashore after the steamer went to pieces was saved and conveyed to this place by the steamer Columbia, which arrived here this morning.
    I have to advise you that by the steamer Columbia two letters from you were received at this office, viz: one of Dec. 2nd acknowledging receipt of a letter from this office of 25th October enclosing [the] quarterly report of Agent Simmons, and one of Dec. 3rd acknowledging receipt of a letter from this office dated 11th October enclosing statements of property destroyed by the Snake Indians.
    If therefore other letters from you for this office were forwarded by the steamer which sailed from New York on the 5th of December, they have failed to reach their destination, and it is reasonable to conclude that they have been lost.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Quincy A. Brooks
            Secy. to Supt.
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 125-127.  Attached is an extra from the Daily News of January 12, 1860 concerning the wreck of the Northerner.



Umpqua Sub-Agency Oregon
    January 24th / 60
Sir
    I have the honor herewith to transmit to you my account for the fourth qr. 1859. At the expiration of that quarter I discharged my commissary and have since made issue of subsistence in very small quantities and only to the sick & old, although I fear the consequences which will result from the stoppage of rations. The Alsea and Siuslaw bands have no means of obtaining subsistence except that which nature provides, and it will not I think be policy to issue to them and not to the Coos and Umpqua bands. The want of food has already caused the latter to scatter around the country and become a source of annoyance to the white settlers, and will likely lead them to steal and also prostitute their squaws to a greater extent than heretofore. As you state, "The policy of the government is not to support the Indians in idleness," but in their present position there is no way of their gaining a livelihood by industry. Could they be located on some good farming land they would soon I believe be able to support themselves with very little assistance from government, but until that period arrives it would be policy in my opinion to feed them in part at any rate. If flour is provided for them they can make enough money to purchase other necessaries of life. They have suffered considerable during the past month from hunger, and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction amongst them, which places me in anything but an enviable position. I trust you will authorize me to issue them flour again.
    I have just returned from a trip to Alsea & Siuslaw, having gone up there to ascertain the correct no. of Indians. I should have attended to this matter before, but the weather has been so severe as scarcely to admit of traveling on the coast. Next mail, however, I shall endeavor to forward you a correct census of all the Indians in my district.
    Your favor of Dec. 31st / 59 regarding the Dick Johnson estate as also that of 5th Jany. have been received.
    My salary for the months of Nov. and Decr. as also that of interpreter for December would be very acceptable if convenient.
    Hoping you will find my accounts correct, I remain
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Ind. Sub-Agt.
To
    Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Portland
                Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 29.



Fort Umpqua Oregon
    Feb. 2nd 1860
Sir
    My successor Mr. Sykes appears to be in a slight dilemma just now, & at his request I beg leave to make a few suggestions regarding the Indians at this point, believing that there is some misunderstanding. No subsistence has been issued to the Indians for the past five weeks, agreeable as I am informed to your instructions. During the remainder of the winter months it would be an act of charity to provide subsistence in part for these Indians. The flour now on hand which was transferred to Mr. Sykes was intended when purchased by me to subsist the Indians in this district until spring when the fishing & hunting season commences. I had also engaged for five hundred bushels of potatoes, to be used in connection with the flour, they being much cheaper, $1.20 (one dollar & twenty cents) per bushel, & far more healthy & acceptable to the Indians. Heretofore I have always disbursed potatoes during a part of the winter months.
    I would furnish five hundred bushels of potatoes delivered to Mr. Sykes for six hundred ($600.00) dollars & collect my voucher at your office in Portland & those with the flour now on hand would be sufficient to subsist them until the fishing season, when they will be able to take care of themselves. I hope at all events you will conclude to give the Indians what flour is now on hand & advance six hundred dollars for potatoes. I have been with the Indians so long & know them so well that I do not wish to see them so sadly in want of the means of subsisting until spring as they now are.
    Such limited supplies furnishes them with an excuse to prostitute their women, which they would not do under a more favorable administration.
    I hope both for the spiritual & material welfare of the Indian you will cause the flour to be disbursed & potatoes purchased & take them through until spring, when they will be able to take care of themselves.
    Again allow me to beg pardon for obtruding myself, yet I do it from the fact that a great deal has been said regarding this agency & as you have always befriended me contrary to the wishes or desires of some of my friends I take this method to cancel a part & anything I can do for you on the coast I will do with pleasure.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 33.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon Feby. 6th 1860
Sir,
    I have to call your attention to the 6th article of the treaty of the 18th November 1854 with the Shasta Scotan and Umpqua Indians, which provides for assigning small tracts of land to such Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege.
    I have to direct that you will spare no efforts to foster individual enterprise and encourage habits of industry among the Indians, and to this end and in compliance with treaty stipulations, you will mark out small farms of from twenty to eighty acres, according to the number of persons in a family, and assign the same to such meritorious Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege and that the services of such employees and teams as can be spared from the general farms be employed in assisting such Indians in the cultivation and improvement of the small farms referred to.
    These small tracts must not interfere with the general farms, and will embrace a due proportion of prairie and timber land.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Daniel Newcomb Esq.
        Ind. Agent
            Siletz Agency, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 69-70.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon Feb. 11th 1860
Ed. R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir
            I have the
honor to report my arrival here on the seventh inst. on account of the inclemency of the weather I have not yet visited the Yaquina Bay nor will I be able to do so and make the necessary examination before the weather becomes settled for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability and probable expense of building a fishery at that point. From the information I have been able to collect from reliable sources in regard to it I am compelled to say I do not think that the benefit arising from a fishery, although much needed on this agency, would at present time justify the heavy expense that would be required to build a sufficient and substantial one to withstand the heavy weather that is so frequently at that bay.
    In regard to the land in cultivation and under fence on the different farms of this agency I have the honor to state that I have it measured and find that there is in all 933 acres of land under fence and in cultivation and that there is only 1,308 rods of fencing. None of the fields with the exception of one [on] the farm 8 miles north of the agency farm and on the opposite side of the Siletz River have fencing on but one side, and that is fenced on three sides.
    The following is a list of the farms or fields of land under cultivation, viz:
    Agency farm, three fields, first field contg. 262 acres and has one side fenced or 160 rods, second field contg. 154 acres and has one side fenced or 80 rods, and the third field is on the opposite side of the Siletz River from [the] agency building and contg. 64 acres and has 20 rods fencing.
    The fields are all made in bends of the Siletz River and are protected by it on three sides. The farm six miles north of [the] agency building has two fields in cultivation, the first contg. 153 acres and has one side fenced or 248 rods, the other contg. 35 acres and has 90 rods of fencing and is on the opposite side of the Siletz River and one mile from the first field.
    One farm seven and one-half miles from [the] agency has two fields one contg. 33 acres and has one side fenced or 85 rods the other field contg. 26 acres and has one side fenced or 65 rods and is also protected by the Siletz River on the other three sides.
    And one farm 8 miles northeast of [the] agency building and on the opposite side of Siletz River has one field contg. 150 acres and three sides fenced or 480 rods of fence and is protected by the mountain on the one side.
    With regard to the agency buildings I have the honor to state that there are six buildings within the agency enclosure consisting of the agency, a log building, a commissary, storehouse, carpenter shop, a smith shop and clerk's office, all of which are log buildings except [the] clerk's office, which is a small frame [building]. The other buildings need recovering. The buildings are enclosed with a picket fence eight feet high and contains five acres of ground.
D. Newcomb
    Ind. Agent
        Siletz Oregon
Edward R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 36.



Fort Umpqua, Oregon
    Feb. 13th 1860
Sir
    On the arrival of J. B. Sykes Esq. to assume the duties of this agency he applied to me for agency buildings, at the same time stating that a good & reasonable rent would be allowed there for which occupied by him.
    Accordingly I vacated a building which I occupied for a stable, storehouse & various other purposes & gave him a room in my own house until an office could be built which was in about three weeks a building with an office in front with sleeping rooms in the rear, all furnished & arranged to his satisfaction.
    A few weeks since he informed me that you had taken advantage of my leniency towards the Department & positively refused to allow him for agency quarters any larger sum than I charge for a single room in my own house. Unless it pays no one desires to have Indians about their house & as agent must have a house & the whole control of it this Mr. Sykes now has.
    All I ask is simple justice a reasonable compensation for the rent of my property--thirty dollars for office rent & twenty dollars for other buildings in all fifty ($50.00) dollars per month.
    Should you conclude government is unable to pay that amount he can have the use of them this quarter free of charge or at his own price. The Department at Washington allowed the collector at this place fifty ($50.00) [dollars] per month for office only one room ( no storehouse or stable).
    Should the Department desire to build an agency building I will sell them a lot on which to build the same for a mere nominal compensation. I do not wish to take advantage of the U.S. Treasury.
    I should dispose of a lot to them as to others with a proviso that no liquor should be sold from it. I have now the entire control of this claim & do not wish to subject myself to any risk of that kind when the building passes out of the hands of the Department.
    I might here remark that I have frequently within the past few weeks refused seventy-five $75.00 dollars per month rent for the building now occupied by Mr. Sykes as an office for the reason that I did not wish to be annoyed by a whiskey shop so near a military post & Indian encampment.
    I hope you will think of this matter & do as you deem best & proper. I have no fear (judging from the post) but what I shall receive a liberal compensation.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 41.



Office Ind. Sub-Agency
    Umpqua Oregon
        Feby. 19th 1860
Sir
    In accordance to instructions received from you I have taken a census of the Indians in my district and would respectfully submit the following as being the correct number thereof.
"To wit"
Name of Tribe   Where Located   Men Women Boys Girls "Total"
Umpqua, Jim "chief" Mouth of Umpqua 21 38 14 26   99
Coos, Taylor [chief]     do.   do.    do. 53 74 19 34 180
Siuslaw, Eneas [chief] Siuslaw River 28 46 15 15 104
Alsea, Albert [chief] Alsea River 34 24   9 10   77
Total 136   182   57 85 460
    There are a few families of the Umpqua tribe located at Scottsburg some twenty-five miles up the Umpqua River, also five or six lodges of the Coos tribe at Coos Bay 20 miles down the coast, all of which are included in the above report.
    The resources of subsistence are very meager for those living at this point except in fishing season, as the coast for twenty-five miles both north and south is but one continuous sand beach, affording but very few shellfish and scarcely any game.
    The Siuslaw tribe are located near the mouth of the Siuslaw River and are but little better provided for. They have however cultivated a few acres of land in the past year and show a willingness to do something for themselves in the way of farming. I shall endeavor to encourage them by providing for them a few farming implements and seed the coming season.
    The Alsea tribe subsist at present entirely upon roots and shellfish. They hunt but very little, and are naturally inclined to be indolent.
    It is impossible to obtain a correct number of the deaths during the past two years, as the Indians are very superstitious and dislike to converse about their dead. It is my impression however that very many have died during that period. There has been two deaths in the Alsea tribe, one in the Siuslaw, one in the Coos, and one in the Umpqua tribe since Novr. 30th / 59, four of which have resulted from scrofula. In fact, the majority of the Indians seem to be more or less afflicted with that disease.
    Hoping the above report will contain the information desired on the subject
I remain very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Ind. Sub-Agent
To
    Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Portland
                Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 53.



Siletz Indian Agency Ogn. February 22nd 1860
To
    Edward R. Geary Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Dear Sir
            I have the honor of acknowledging the receipt of your two communications of the 6th inst., in one of which you call my attention to the 6th article of the treaty of the 18th of November 1854 with the Shasta Scotan and Umpqua Indians which provides for assigning small tracts of land to such Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege. In the other you instruct me in relation to the number and character of the employees at this agency and a reduction of compensation as now allowed, to take effect from and after the first day of March next. My course of action will be governed by your instructions, but I am fearful that the reduction of employees and the compensation as now allowed will have a very injurious effect upon the prosperity of this agency.
    Three farmers and the blacksmith Mr. Weston have notified me that they will leave, and I am not sure of retaining but one man. I must look out for other men, but I do not know where to go to find suitable men to fill their places. I regret very much losing Mr. Weston. He is a man very acceptable to the Indians and cannot be surpassed by any man in Oregon as a blacksmith. I gave you my views in detail in relation to the condition of things here, and the best policy to be adopted in relation [to] this agency in a communication dated January 1st 1860, and I would respectfully refer you to that as containing my views in relation to the number of employees required at this agency and the compensation they should receive.
    As it regards assigning small tracts of land to such Indians as desire it I think I shall succeed. I think the plan will be acceptable to a good many Indians. Several have expressed a desire for such an assignment.
    I send you by the bearer of this, Mr. Joseph Davidson, the vouchers of Mr. Robert Hill and Thomas Briggs.
    The receipts of Mr. Jos. B. Sykes have been previously forwarded.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    Daniel Newcomb
        Indian Agent Siletz
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 48.



Siletz Indian Agency Ogn. February 22nd 1860
To Edward R. Geary
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Sir
            I have requested Mr. Joe E. Davidson to call on you and present to you a bill of articles not received and belonging to the wheat thresher and horsepower attached. If the articles cannot be found, Mr. Davidson would be the most suitable person to procure them or have them manufactured. He put the machine together. He knows what is missing, size, kind and &c. He says there is a driving wheel, cog wheel, pulley & belt missing. He can give you further description. The thresher as it now is is entirely useless.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Daniel Newcomb
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 49.



Private
Siletz Indian Agency February 22nd 1860
To
    Edward R. Geary
        Portland, Oregon
            Dear Sir
                I have concluded to address you a private letter in relation to the mill at this agency. If I could retain the services of a carpenter the state of advancement this mill has now arrived at is such that I think I could nearly complete it. The Indians are very anxious upon the subject and will render all the aid they are capable of, sawing, getting out shingles and the like. I have no use for a physician, and if a carpenter could be substituted in his place I could be able to go on with the mill and do other work advantageous for the agency. If you think that a carpenter can be retained I should like to employ Mr. Davidson. He is an industrious man and a good carpenter. I would like very much if you would visit this agency and personally see the condition of affairs here, its necessities &c.
[Daniel Newcomb]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 50.



Proceedings of a council of chiefs of the several tribes and bands of Indians located at the Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon, convened on the 26th day of February 1860, for the purpose of ascertaining who they preferred as their teacher and religious instructor.
    The following chiefs were present
viz:
    Ki-a-kuts Chief of the Willamette Tribes
Doctor do. do.
Dave do. do.
Wa-cha-no do. do.
Qui-a-ki-ty do. do.
To-to do. do.
Joe Hudson do. do.
Shoofon do. do.
Joseph Se-na-ga-ret-te do. do.
Louis Napesa do. Umpqua Tribe
Peter do. do.
Joe do. do.
Sam do. Rogue River Tribe
Tom do. do.
Agent Miller explained to the assembled chiefs that Louis Napesa, chief of the Umpqua tribe, had received several letters from Father Blanchet, requesting him to see the agent and have a council of chiefs called to decide who they preferred to come amongst and reside with them as their religious adviser, and to acquaint the Superintendent of Indian Affairs with their decision.
    The agent asked them if they wished Mr. Chamberlin to be present, and said that he wanted Mr. Chamberlin to be there, so that he can hear what you have to say.
    Umpqua Louis: "I wish my people to say who they want."
    Agent Miller: "I do not wish to interfere with your selection. The priest has been here and had a talk with you, and as Mr. Chamberlin is present, I wish him to speak for himself."
    Mr. Chamberlin: "I had thought for some time that it would be proper and right that I inform this people my object in coming amongst them. My proposed object incoming among you is to do you good. I know enough about the white men and the Indians to know that men pretend to do one thing and perform another. I have learned from my own experience that I am in duty bound to believe a man when he speaks, but since I have thought it best to believe action before words. I came among you as a friend, and am willing that you should judge my actions and know that I am doing right.
    "I do not think it right to praise myself but leave it to you to judge me. I love you, have lived amongst you, and for that purpose I have come among you.
    "Some people think that it is no use to try to instruct the Indians. I think different, for I know better. I cite one instance where the Indian has been taught.
    "When I was a little boy 11 years old, my father took his family into the Indian country. I used to see them often and talk to them. I never felt like abusing them, even when I saw them lying in the road drunk, but would go round them, and always felt sorry for them, and tried to reclaim them.
    "They continued on their bad habits until they were reduced to a few, and the chief came to the conclusion to give up all hopes of ever adopting the manners of the whites, and he said he would spend all they had for liquor, and have one big drunk and die.
    "Then some missionaries came from Canada to instruct the Indians, and it proved that they were the friends of the Indians.
    "They told the Indians that there was a chance for them, and not to despond, as they had a chance left them to stir about and try to do what was right, and they done so and are now in comfortable circumstances.
    "I believe that an Indian can be as respectable as any white man; the only difference in the Indian and white man is the color the skin.
    "I believe if these people would pursue the course recited you would do well. My only object in coming to this country is to do you good. I have been among you some time; you know my actions and have some knowledge of my heart.
    "I have come here without any assistance, and you cannot expect me to do any more at present than teach your children.
    "When I first met Sam, he was glad I came here, and said I would be treated well.
    "I left the States to come to this country for the purpose of instructing these Indians. I want to remain here if it is your wish, and if it is not your wish I will not remain.
    "If you wish your children brought up as mine, I shall expect my wife and children to use every exertion to further your interests, and it remains with you to decide.
    "I do not want you to act hastily, but use discretion and weigh the matter well.
    "I shall now conclude, and if it is your wish for me to talk to you at any future day, I will acquaint you with what the President and Genl. Palmer have said."
    Agent Miller: "I want you to decide for yourselves. I want to hear what Ki-a-kuts says."
    Ki-a-kuts: "What you are talking is good; it is not for Miller to say who shall come here to teach school, and he does not want anything to say, and if my people want to say let them speak."
    Louis Napesa: "When Chamberlin first came, he told me to tell the Indians to come to school. I did not do so, because Mr. Chamberlin had not been to the agent for the purpose of having a council of chiefs called. I told him to see the agent and let him know and have the council. That is the reason we do not know what to do and are divided in our opinions. I want a priest to come amongst us. I think the priest can do more for us than any other teacher. One reason why we do not like Mr. Chamberlin is he went to the States without our knowledge or consent, as he says, to intercede for us."
    Sam: "I am old. I have no young men to go to school. My people are nearly extinct. When Mr. Chamberlin came first I had a large family and wished a teacher. Since then they have all died, and I have no use for a school. Therefore I leave it for others to decide. If I had the family I had once I should prefer Mr. Chamberlin, though as it is I have no use for a teacher."
    Wa-cha-no: "I have nothing further to say than that I wish a priest."
    Qui-a-ki-ty: "I have only to say I want the priest."
    Peter: "I have only to say I want the priest."
    To-to: "I want the priest."
    Joe: "I want the priest."
    Joe Hudson: "I do not want either priest or teacher."
    Shoofon: "I do not want either amongst us."
    Ki-a-kuts: "I do not wish a priest or teacher."
    Wapato Dave: "If I had a family of children, I would like a teacher, but as it is I do not want any."
    Joseph Se-na-ga-ret-te: "In place of throwing away our money for such schools as we have had, I would rather have the money used for the completion of the grist mill."
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 61.



Grand Ronde Feb. 28th 1860
Sir:
    I embrace the earliest opportunity to make this, my monthly report respecting the Indian school at this place.
    For several causes (not necessary here perhaps to mention) there has been quite a falling off since my last. The number of attendants any one day has not exceeded 30 nor being less than 18.
    There was up to the last an increasing interest on the part of those who did attend.
    I have nothing to add particularly to my previous reports further than I deem it advisable to discontinue the school for a short time, hoping the dust will have passed away and the stream become pure again.
    Hoping to see you here soon or at least to hear from you upon the reception of this report, I close by subscribing myself your friend and servant
Joseph Chamberlin
    Teacher Mission School
        Grand Ronde
E. R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Portland
            Ogn.
P.S. I handed this to Agent Miller in due time and he returned it, saying it was too blind or indefinite.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 63.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. March 3rd 1860
Sir
    Referring to your letter of the 20th February last in which you speak of the difficulty of effecting the removal of the Indians to a new location on the Coast Reservation in the absence of adequate funds, I have to reply that as soon as the funds for the current half year are received at this office, I will make you as large a remittance as the limited appropriations will permit, with a view to your taking some efficient steps toward accomplishing this desirable object.
    You will, therefore, while you keep in view the established policy of this Superintendency to avoid as far as possible the contracting of pecuniary liabilities beyond the means at command, do everything in your power to accomplish the relocation of the Indians of your district on the Coast Reservation in compliance with the instructions of the Ind. Department, communicated to you through this office.
Very respectfully
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Indian Affairs
Joshua B. Sykes Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 74.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon March 12 1860
Sir,
    Ya-ka-tow-it, a Klickitat from Vancouver, tells me that he last fall traded his horse to an Indian residing on the reservation named Sel-ti-a-quin for a small girl that Sel-ti-a-quin has not yet delivered to him. I feel it important to put an end to this miserable traffic of their own flesh and blood, and have accordingly forbidden the trade to be consummated by the delivery of the child to Ya-ka-tow-it.
    As he desires to recover his horse, I have permitted him and another Indian to visit Grand Ronde for that purpose and have given him this note to present to you. If you find the case as I apprehend it to be, and have stated above, I have no doubt you will accord with me in your views as to the impropriety of allowing the child to be transferred and carried by an Indian from the reservation. If the child is an orphan, with none to care for her, it would be a dictate of humanity to provide her a home in a worthy whole family.
Yours respectfully
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    J. F. Miller Esq.
        Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 89.



Grand Ronde March 22nd 1860
Dear Sir:
    I write a few lines to accompany my last report. As expressed in that, I found it necessary to close the school, very much to my sorrow. For I am confident under reasonable favorable circumstances a school can be sustained here and such a school too that will bespeak credit to the Department and of course prove a great blessing to this people. There can be but one mind respecting the issue of this enterprise or the destiny of this people if this branch of this system (educating the children) is neglected.
    In this I wish to refer to some of the embarrassments connected with the prosecution of the school.
    The impression is very general on the minds of Indians that the moneys paid for school purposes is just that amount taken from them. And if the school continues it will absorb those funds that otherwise would be used for finishing the grist mill, hire a miller, or in other words they must do without the school or bread.
    The last Sunday of Feb. the principal chiefs of this place were called together for the purpose of deciding who they prefer as their spiritual guides and school instructors. Doubtless ere this you are advised of its result through the agent. I will fairly say those who expressed their preference were in favor of the priest. I am unprepared to say how the popular vote would stand when this matter is fairly and properly presented to them.
    I am sorry to say, Mr. Superintendent, that in addition to these embarrassments and those on the part of the Indians connected with or growing out of their superstition which none but those who have experienced them can fully understand, that there is an entire want of cooperation on the part of the agent. I have yet to learn of a change of purpose or heart on his part since he positively declared there should be no school and made ridicule of the idea of educating these Indian children. I am frank to say I have used every means in my power to secure his cooperation, even to expostulation. I say this with a full understanding of what has been furnished. At the discontinuing of the school I informed him by note that when the Indians were properly advised as to the true policy of government respecting their children being educated and proper arrangements for forty scholars, I would warrant perfect success to the school or no pay.
    I have continued this already further than I intended when I commenced, still I hardly know how to withhold saying more. I will close this by saying if the above embarrassments and others too grievous to be borne cannot be obviated without a full and thorough investigation of the matter we will furnish you with a full detail of all that I now or heretofore had implied or experienced in relation to this Indian matter. However unpleasant or tedious the task I cannot be consistent with my professed object in coming among this people or faithfully discharge the duties growing out of the relations I sustain to them without giving to the proper authorities a full and fair representation of the bitter wrongs perpetrated upon these helpless, downtrodden ones--especially as they cannot successfully prevent their own grievances and wrongs. My greatest regret respecting it is my inability to do justice to so worthy a cause. I trust, Mr. Superintendent, that if reports respecting the school are not as encouraging as you could wish them to be you will not attribute the defect to an unwillingness or inability on the part of the children to receive instruction nor want of proper effort on the part of your humble servant.
With sentiments of high regard
    Yours truly
        Jos. Chamberlin
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt of Indian Affairs
        Portland
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 64.



Ho. of Reps.
    24th March 1860
Dr. Sir
    Allow me to call your attention to the enclosed report & bill in favor of Anson Dart & ask you to furnish me such information as may be in your office touching the subject matter of the same.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        Geo. S. Houston
Hon.
    A. B. Greenwood
        Indian Office
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 501-502.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, March 26, 1860.
Sir:
    Having on the 10th of December last addressed you a letter making requisition for funds for the service of the last half of the current fiscal year, and having as yet received no reply thereto, I have again to call your attention to the subject and enclose herewith an estimate of the funds required.
    I have to state that the balances of funds in my hands are nearly exhausted, and that the failure on the part of the Department to forward, as they are required, the meager appropriations made for this Superintendency, will have seriously embarrassed the operations of the service before the funds can now reach me. This embarrassment is peculiarly unfortunate at this season of the year, as it is of great importance to the welfare of the Indians, besides conducing materially to economy of expenditure that a large spring crop be planted.
    I would also say, in this connection, that unequivocal indications of uneasiness among the Indians of the interior on account of the long delay in the execution of existing treaties and the large influx of whites into their country attracted by the extensive pastures and reputedly rich gold mines of the north, has rendered it important to make purchases of farming implements for those tribes in advance of appropriations.
    Entertaining the hope that the funds referred to will be forwarded without further delay, I am, sir,
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
[estimate of funds not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 183-186.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn., March 26th 1860
Sir,
    Your letter of the 16th February last approving the instructions from this office to Sub-Agent Sykes has been received. Mr. Sykes has since promptly and fully reported to this office, in accordance with the instructions referred to.
    I extract from his report the following census table showing the number of male and female adults and children in the several bands in his district, which I have no doubt has been carefully ascertained and may be relied on as correct, viz:
Name of Band Where Located Men Women Boys Girls Total
Umpqua, Jim Chief Mouth of Umpqua 21 38 14 26   99
Coos, Taylor     "      "       "          " 53 74 19 34 130
Siuslaw, Enos    " Siuslaw River 28 46 15 15 104
Alsea, Albert     " Alsea River   34     24     9 10   77
Total   136   182   57 85 460
    The number reported by Mr. Drew last year was 700, which as there seems to have been but little mortality in the interval, was doubtlessly inaccurate and exaggerated.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 107-108.  The original is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 180-182.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland April 4th 1860
General:
    Captain Augur informs me that among the military stores at Fort Hoskins there is a portable sawmill which is not likely to be required for any use connected with the fort.
    The Siletz Agency is in pressing need of a sawmill, and I write to request that if in accordance with your views, the machinery referred to may be transferred to the Indian Department. It is intended to propel the mill by water power, consequently the horse-power attached to the mill at the fort would not be needed. Any terms of equitable transfer will meet the concurrence of this office.
    I expect to set out for Siletz tomorrow morning and will be obliged to you for a definite reply by the return of the bearer of this note.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Gen. W. S. Harney U.S.A.
        Commdr. Ogn. Division
            Fort Vancouver
                W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 112.



Yoncalla April 7th 1860
To
    The benevolent:
        The bearer of this is the wife, sister and children of the Indian Dick Johnson who together with his father was murdered for his property in this valley about 18 months ago. Except the old mother they are all that is left of his family, and the two miserable ponies that bear them is all that is left to them of property to the value of some three or four thousand dollars they had accumulated by their honest industry.
    They are trying to return to their own people. They have applied in vain to the white man's law for justice. They now appeal to your charity for food and shelter for a night.
Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 9.



Washington 11th April, 1860.
Sir,
    Please furnish me with a copy of the letter requesting me to come to Washington in 1852 to fetch Indian treaties and for other purposes per order of the Commissioner.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart late Supt. &c.
The Hon. Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 44-45.



[undated; received April 11, 1860]
Genl. Lane desires the date of Dr. Dart's appointment--
2. When his pay commenced,
3. The expense incurred in his going to Oregon,
4. Time he left his post & returned to Washington and the time he spent at Washington and the expense he incurred while there & returning to Oregon,
5. The time he left to return to his post & his arrival there,
6. Amount expended in constructing a building for Superintendency & what was done with it,
7. At what time he left Oregon after forwarding his resignation & the expense to the govt. incident to his return to the States,
8. The amount he disbursed or was furnished him for disbursement,
9. The amount furnished Supt. Palmer, his successor, for disbursement.
This information is desired by Thursday morning.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 516-517.



Umpqua Ind. Sub-Agency
    Oregon April 17th / 60
Sir
    I forward by today's mail my accounts in triplicate copies for the first qr. 1860.
    On the 1st day of April I started three men with 3 yoke work oxen and the Dept. animals belonging to this agency for the point designated for the future location of these Indians. I also sent 6 Indians to assist in opening the trail to that place and open the farms. I gave Mr. Joe E. Davidson orders to proceed to the Siletz Agency & procure some agricultural implements & tools and return & proceed immediately to work to break up the land & plant potatoes and &c. for the Indians.
    Hoping you will find my accounts correct,
I remain
    Very respty.
        Your obdt. servt.
            J. B. Sykes
                Ind. Sub-Agent
Edward R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 100.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. May 9th 1860
Sir
    Your communication of the 17th April, transmitting your accounts in triplicate for the first quarter of 1860, has been received at this office. Your accounts will be examined and transmitted to the Indian Bureau in Washington as early as practicable.
    I am pleased to hear of your preparations for the removal of the Indians. You will confine your efforts at present mainly to the cultivation of the soil at Yaquina, or the point you have selected for the future abode of the Indians, erecting only the necessary buildings of a cheap and temporary character. In the direction just indicated you will press forward your operations with vigor, being careful however to observe a just economy of expenditure.
    In the employment of laborers you will be careful to engage only men of good moral character, and will strongly prohibit the use of profane language, gambling, the use of intoxicating liquors, and licentious intercourse with the Indians, within your district on the reservation. A pure and elevated deportment is especially important amongst those persons engaged on the reservations to carry into effect the benevolent objects of the government toward the aboriginal race, as those persons are really the exponents of the civilization designed to be introduced among them.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    J. B. Sykes Esq.
        Sub Agent
            Fort Umpqua
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 123-124.



Olympia May 16, 1860
Dear Bush,
    I've collected your $5 from W. A. Strickler & will hand it to your agent in Portland in about two weeks. Please send one copy of the Statesman to D. L. Phillips & Silas Gallaher, each in this place. They are both good men & will pay before the year is up.
    In God's name what is going to be done with our war debt? Will it never be paid? A bill has passed the Senate appropriating over one million to pay the expenses of an Indian war in Texas which occurred within 12 months! Minnesota has been paid her "war debt"!! Florida has received $413,000 for hunting out a few stray Seminoles since 1857!!! But Oregon & Washington get nary red [i.e., nary a red cent]. Cannot your lone Senator and our "vigorous" Delegate do anything at all? "The rising young statesman" from your state seems to be at work. But where are his colleagues? Is one of them chasing the ignis fatuus of his Presidential aspirations, and the other writing long-winded "statements" for the special benefit of his constituents at home? Will both of these "noted characters" go on in their folly and permit that 3rd auditor to cut down, and cut down, the just claims of our people until they will not pay for collection? If so how long will the people bear with such dereliction of duty? Surely not always.
In haste
    Yr. friend
        Butler P. Anderson
May 17. Mr. Garfield has just asked me if I will join him & talk to the Democracy in Portland on the 30th or 31st. I told him I would "be thar" and if the occasion demands it & my talk could do any good they should have it. Our party needs wise counsel now and full, free, honest public discussions will do us much good. On this "layout" I am ready to talk anywhere and at any time when there is a chance to do good by it. I'm honestly and sincerely no aspirant for any office on earth, but am filled with a most earnest, ardent desire to see our party begin to look to it that they select none but true & faithful men for high positions. We must stop this miserable man-worship. We must select for public offices men who have principles and possess the ability, the will and the integrity to carry them out. But what I opened this letter to say is that if Garfield has an appointment at Portland & you notice it in the Statesman don't do it in such a way as to make it obligatory on me to speak. I want Garfield to take his time & consume just as much [end of letter lost or not filmed]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington May 17th 1860
Sir
    Having learned that the Dept. contemplates purchasing in New York the annuity goods, agricultural implements &c. for the Indians in Oregon, I respectfully submit the following observations which have suggested themselves to my mind as having a very important bearing upon the service of the Dept. in Oregon. For the last three years my observation and experience have convinced me that the agents of the government in Oregon can purchase such goods, agricultural implements &c. as are required by the Indians under treaties cheaper in Oregon than the Dept. can purchase them in New York and ship them there. Some three years ago the Dept. purchased a quantity of goods for the Oregon service in New York and sent them to Oregon, a part of which was turned over to me. When they were received I took occasion to compare the prices paid in New York (adding cost of transportation) with the prices paid in Oregon for similar goods, and found the purchases made in New York were from 10 to 15 percent higher than those made in Oregon, besides many of the articles sent from New York were comparatively worthless to the Indians, because not the kind of goods required. It seems to me (and I think you will at once see the force of it) that the agent who is in charge of a reservation is better able to judge of the wants and necessities of the Indians and the kinds and quantities of goods required by them than it is for the Dept. to determine the matter at this remote point. There are manufactured in Oregon as good blankets as are made in the United States, and agricultural implements that are better adapted to the labor of the country than any that can be imported. I have taken great interest in the service and become warmly attached to the Indians under my charge, therefore I feel it my duty to say and I believe the facts will warrant me in doing so, that in placing the moneys to be expended under the treaties in the hands of their agent you will enable him to exert more influence over them and cause them to be more respectful to him and also to produce a much better feeling between the whites and Indians, that results I feel sure would follow.
    In my district there are two reservations, the Umatilla and the Warm Springs. The Indians upon the latter about three years ago in council requested me to say to the President that when their treaty was ratified they desired three thousand dollars out of the first year's annuity money and one thousand dollars annually for four years from the same fund should be placed in my hands to be invested in livestock for their benefit. They said they wanted this stock kept as common property upon the reservation under the charge of their agent for ten years and then to be divided among the several families. I communicated their request to the Superintendent who approved it and said he would recommend the same for the action of the Dept. Last February when I left this reservation they again earnestly requested me to attend to this matter for them, and I now respectfully ask in their behalf that their request be granted.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. P. Dennison
            Indian agent
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Comr. Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 46-49.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. May 21, 1860
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose you herewith the copy of a special report of Agent Newcomb made in pursuance of a request from this office.
    The details of this report are in the main accurate, and I respectfully ask for the facts and observations presented therein your careful consideration.
    You will observe that the crop of potatoes at the Siletz last year fell very much below the estimated yield.
    The number of Indians reported by Agent Newcomb is not the results of an actual census, and my impression is that it will be found four or five hundred in excess of the true number.
    I may here add that in view of the great importance of mills (grist and saw) at the Siletz Agency and the great dissatisfaction of the Indians arising from the want of these important conveniences I have authorized the agent to contract for their erection, trusting that the suggestions contained in my annual report would induce the securing of an adequate appropriation for these objects under the provisions of the Molel [Molalla] Treaty.
   
The progress of these improvements has infused a spirit of satisfaction and subordination among the Indians at that agency of the most marked and gratifying character.
    The agent is a practical farmer and has given much attention to this part of his duties. The result is a fine prospect of an abundant harvest.
    The acres cultivated are 550 in wheat, 180 in oats and three hundred in potatoes, cabbages and peas.
    I believe the time not far distant when all the Indians on the Coast Reservation might with much advantage to themselves, and economy to the government, be located in the valley of the Siletz.
    Several prairies equal in all respects to those already occupied at that point can at comparatively small expense be brought into cultivation. The location in respect to soil, climate, game and fish has a decided superiority over the Grand Ronde Agency.
    I, however, merely allude to this subject without feeling prepared to recommend at present so marked a change of policy.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To the Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner of Ind. Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 128-129.  The original is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 247-250.  The special report referred to is transcribed above, under date of January 1st.




New York 24th May, 1860.
Sir,
    Will you please to have answers prepared to the following questions so that I can get them on Saturday next, viz:
    What was the date of my first instructions in 1850, and at what time were they forwarded to me in New York. Were the commissions and instructions to the three treaty commissioners in Oregon placed in my hands to deliver to them, and when were they forwarded to me in N.Y.
    At what time were the treaties made by me, got ready and submitted to the President of the U.S. States in 1852.
    Was the account for my expenses in Washington and the traveling to and from there in 1852 approved of by the Hon. Chas. E. Mix, and certified to as being reasonable and right?
    Are you aware of any imperfection in the U.S. title to the four acres of land on which was erected the house for the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon? Or, that there has ever been possession of the house asked by a Superintendent, and such possession not peaceably obtained?
    At what time did I leave Oregon City to visit the large tribes of Indians residing east of the Cascade Mountains in 1851, and at what time did I return.
    Was there more than one full Indian agent in Oregon at the time I left Oregon City at the time in question. How many agents, and sub-agents, were there in Oregon during my Superintendency? And how many are there now?
    Was all the govt. property, receipted for to me by Lot Whitcomb, turned over to my successor in office, J. Palmer Esq., and the receipt acknowledged by Palmer?
I have the honor to
    Be very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Supt. &c.
To the Hon. the
    Commissioner of
        Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 53-55.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon May 26, 1860
Sir:
    I have the honor to submit the enclosed estimate of funds appropriated and required in fulfillment of treaty stipulations with certain tribes and bands of Indians within this Superintendency for the year ending June 30th 1860.
    As nearly the whole of the year for which the appropriations were made is now gone, I have included in this estimate the entire amount appropriated for the fulfillment of treaty stipulations during the current fiscal year, and would respectfully urge a prompt remittance of the same.
    For a more detailed statement of the various objects of expenditure for which these funds are required in fulfillment of treaty stipulations, and the great necessity therefor, I respectfully refer to the letter from this office dated Sept. 2nd 1859 and its enclosed estimates, as also to the various communications from this office upon that subject.
    As there are a great number of Indians in this Superintendency not embraced in any treaty, whom it would be an act of benevolence to save from the ravages of the smallpox likely to be introduced among them by immigrants, gold hunters and other whites passing through their country, I have estimated for a small portion of the general amount appropriated "for expenses attending the vaccination of Indians." I deem this a step of sound and humane policy and trust that it may be so regarded by the Department.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
[estimate of funds not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 241-246.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, May 30th 1860
Sir:
    I have to call the attention of the Department to the failure of Congress to make an an appropriation for the annuity of the Umpquas and Calapooias of Umpqua Valley for the year ending June 30th 1861, and have respectfully to ask that an estimate for this object be submitted by the Department to Congress. The desired appropriation should be in words something like this, viz:
"Umpquas and Calapooias
"of Umpqua Valley, Oregon.
"For the first (second series) of five installments of annuity for beneficial objects, to be expended as directed by the President per 3rd article of the treaty of 29th November 1854, two thousand three hundred dollars."
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frame 839.



(Sabbath morning)
Corvallis June 3rd 1860
Rev. Mr. Geary--
    Sir I have to notify you that the agents at the Grand Ronde & Siletz have let loose upon us their Indians, who get all the whiskey they want at Corvallis and then come into the country with threats of violence against all Bostons.
    Today (Sabbath) about 10 passed, drunk, using the worst of language to me & family. I told them to go away--they then came at me with knives & clubs. My wife & children ran to the house; some of my children hid in the brush. My father-in-law tried to protect me when they knocked him down with a club & would have killed him with knives had not then got an ax helve & went to his relief, dealing blows heavy & hard. They left with threats of vengeance.
    I have wrote to both agents to come & take them away & also now to you, that if there is not a change soon made in letting Indians loose with squaws to be used in exchange for whiskey--here in a civil community--that our appeal will go hereafter to Washington City & insults, threats & blows will end in every Indian's & squaw's death--let the consequence be what it may.
Respectfully yours &c.
    Richard Irwin
I have notified my neighbors who have armed themselves & will keep up a night guard until your Indians are taken back onto the reserve.with a protest not to be permitted again to leave. We are advised that officers makes money by letting them loose in that of their rations such pay don't satisfy us citizens for insults, blows & threats from drunken Indians & their squaw whores.
R. Irwin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 125.




Treasury Department
    Second Comptroller's Office
        June 23, 1860.
Sir
    In reply to your communication of yesterday's date relative to the adjudication of the accounts of Anson Dart, late Supt. of Indian Affairs, Oregon, under an act for his relief, approved the 16th June 1860, I have to state that by my admission of the action of the second auditor on the claim of Mr. Dart as presented by him for adjustment under the said act, I regard the sum stated to be due, vizt. $7,259.63, as the full amount due to him under the provisions of the said act, and that I deem our action final.
Very respectfully,
    Your obedt. servt.
        Madison Cutts
            Comptr.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commr. of Ind. Affs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 30-31.



LAW AND LAND AGENCY, WASHINGTON CITY, D.C.
YOUNG & NILES,
OFFICE, NO. 480 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE
Commr. Indian Affairs,
    Washington City, June 24th, 1860.
Sir:
    Enclosed is authority to investigate the claim of J. A. Dickey, John Dorman, & H. A. South, claiming certain damages against the tribe of "Rogue River" Indians, Oregon, for depredations committed by them prior to hostilities in the year 1855.
    The claim was furnished, as I understand, to your Dept. by J. W. Nesmith, late Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon. By informing me of the condition of the claim, I will be very much obliged.
With respect,
    Your obdt. servant,
        Saml. Niles
   

Linn County Oregon May 2 1860
    I hereby authorize M. M. McCarver & Young & Niles of the city of Washington D.C. to prosecute a certain claim for spoliation against the tribe of Rogue River Indians for depredations committed on the property of J. A. Dickey, John Dorman & H. A. South just previous to the commencement of general hostilities with that tribe of Indians in 1855 during amity with said tribe, the testimony to establish all the facts in the case having been taken before William Hoffman Esqr. on the 15th day of July A.D. 1857 & forwarded to the proper department at Washington City by J. W. Nesmith, late Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon & which claim has been transferred to me by the parties above named with full power of attorney to collect & receipt for the same with power of substitute duly acknowledged by law & do hereby authorize my attorneys to prosecute the above claim to a final settlement before the proper department at Washington at the earliest period possible & use the testimony above referred to to establish the claim.
Joseph Crank
Messrs. Young & Niles
    Washington City
        D.C.
Examine treaties with the tribes made by Genl. Lane in 1853.
M.M.M.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 539-543.



Office Sub-Indian Agent
    Fort Umpqua June 28th 1860
Sir
    The company of soldiers stationed at this place having been ordered to the Klamath Lake, I am desirous to know whether this absence is temporary or whether it is the intention of General Clarke to abandon this post altogether. I am anxious for this information in order to be able to adopt measures accordingly. As the removal of the military from here may materially affect the adjoining agency I embraced the first opportunity to transmit such intelligence to Agent Newcomb.
    Please to send me 1 ream of blank vouchers, say, one-third of a large and the balance of a small size. I would suggest that they be forwarded by Wells, Fargo Co. express.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. B. Sykes
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Edward R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 155.




Grand Ronde Indian Reservation
    June 31st 1860
Sir
    I take this opportunity to report respecting the Indian school at this place for and during this month.
    The whole number of scholars fifty-two.
    The average daily attendance are a fraction over thirty-three.
    The children are easily managed and quite regular in attendance--one-third have been present every day through the month.
    Our most sanguine hopes are fully realized in the success of this enterprise as far as the scholars are concerned in respect to attendance, behavior, improvement in appearance and proficiency of studies.
    In concluding this report I beg the privilege to say that inasmuch as this is a work of faith and love we purpose to pursue it, however great and various the embarrassments attending it.
With much esteem I subscribe
    myself your friend and servant
        Joseph Chamberlin
E. R. Geary
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 38.



Grand Ronde Reservation, Oregon
    July 1st 1860
Sir--
    In regard to the sanitary condition of the Indians on this reservation there is nothing worthy of remark. During the early part of the quarter typhoid fever prevailed to some extent, also a typhoid form of pneumonia, but at present the Indians are enjoying as good health as could be reasonably expected when their general disregard of even the common principles of hygiene is taken into consideration.
I have the honor to be
    Most respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. Glisan
                Acting Physician
Genl. John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
            Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 120.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Ogn. July 5th 1860
Mr. R. Irwin
    Sir
        Your letter of the 3rd June last was received at this office during my absence in the country of the Snake Indians, whence I have but recently returned.
    A copy of your letters is today enclosed to Agent Newcomb with instructions to investigate the grounds of your complaint--to ferret out and properly punish the individuals guilty of the outrage against your family--also to use every effort to restrain the Indians and especially the squaws from leaving the reservation without special permission.
    You will find Gen. Newcomb ready at all times promptly to use his authority for the protection of our peaceable citizens, and no proper application to him for the redress of any wrong sustained from the Indians will fail of receiving his careful attention.
Very respectfully &c.
    Edward R. Geary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 136.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, July 6th 1860
Sir:
    Referring to your letter of the 15th February 1860 transmitting the sum of $6,994.83/100 from the appropriation for "Restoring and Maintaining Peace with the Indian Tribes in Oregon Territory," I have to advise that in compliance with your direction the amount was turned over to Agent John F. Miller, accompanied with the proper instructions.
    In accordance with your instructions the agent has furnished this office with the receipt of B. Jennings, sutler &c., together with the orders referred to, which are herewith transmitted, to be filed with the agent's accounts, thereby, if satisfactory, to relieve the same of the suspension for the above sum.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 279-280.



Yaquina Bay, Oregon
    July 12th 1860
Sir:
    In compliance with the regulations I have the honor to submit the following as my first annual report.
    The Indians under my charge embrace the Umpquas, Coos, Alsea and Siuslaw Indians, numbering four hundred and sixty souls, of which the Coos and Umpqua tribes numbering two hundred and seventy-nine are living in the vicinity of Fort Umpqua, the remainder being located upon the Coast Reservation.
    In accordance with instructions received from your office I commenced making some improvements on a portion of land selected by me for their future location situate on the Coast Reservation about six miles south of the Alsea River and sixty miles north of Fort Umpqua, where I have caused to be erected two small agency buildings and have had planted almost twenty-five acres of potatoes and garden vegetables. I have employed Indian labor in making these improvements, as far as practicable.
    The Umpqua and Coos tribes located at this place are naturally industrious, but owing to the fact that they have always had for a number of years free intercourse with the whites they have acquired many vices, such as the use of liquor &c. Notwithstanding my most strenuous efforts to the contrary they sometimes obtain liquor from unprincipled white men. After their removal to the Coast Reservation, however, which I hope to effect at an early day, their intercourse with that class of men will be entirely cut off, and the nefarious traffic wholly suppressed.
    The Siuslaw tribe live upon the Siuslaw River, and are the most advanced and most industrious of the tribes within my district. I have furnished them this spring with some agricultural implements and some seeds, and they have without assistance cultivated small gardens which bid fair to yield a good crop.
    The Alsea tribe are not so enterprising and industrious as the Siuslaws but are inclined to be lazy and indolent. I have however induced a few of them to work on the farm, and hope with proper encouragement to effect in a few years a salutary change in their disposition and place them in a condition to support themselves.
    In obedience to the direction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs contained in his letter of the 3rd September 1859, I have taken preliminary steps for the removal of the Umpqua and Coos Indians to the place designed for their future home, and shall proceed to this work at once, hoping to be able to effect the desired object at an early day. These Indians should be removed as soon as possible, as it will be impracticable to do so late in the fall, and if it is done early it will afford time to build houses for the coming winter.
    Since I took charge of these Indians (on the 30th November 1859) there has been 11 deaths and 7 births. During the spring months there was considerable sickness, but those affected having received careful medical attendance, it did not prove serious. The general health at present is quite good.
    It will be remembered that the Indians in my charge are not parties to any existing treaty with the United States, and of course are not beneficiaries under treaty stipulations. They are embraced in the treaty with the coast tribes of Oregon negotiated by Supt. Palmer during the months of August and September 1855, but which treaty has not as yet been ratified by the U.S. Senate. Great dissatisfaction has long existed among these Indians on account of this matter. They are continually asking why it is that the great father (the President) does not send back their paper (i.e. treaty) as he promised and pay them for their lands. They say they are tired waiting for it, and complain bitterly that their land has been taken from them without their having received any compensation therefor. I would respectfully urge that either their treaty be ratified, a new one made, or some congressional action be taken in reference to these Indians by which they will be placed upon an equal footing with the other Indians on the Coast Reservation who are provided for by treaty stipulations. None of the Indians in my charge have ever been engaged in hostilities against the whites.
    Last fall Major J. B. Scott, commanding Fort Umpqua, issued to these Indians a large amount of condemned clothing which enabled them to pass the winter quite comfortably without assistance from the Indian Department. Many of them now, however, are nearly destitute of clothing, and without a proper supply will be exposed to great suffering during the inclemency of the coming winter.
    The Coos and Umpqua Indians will be removed to a point upon the reservation where they can be instructed in manual labor.
    I trust that the proper steps may be taken at an early day for the establishment of a school at this point, as I am satisfied that the children, could they receive the benefit of instruction, would improve rapidly.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. B. Sykes
            Indian Sub-Agent
To
    Edward R. Geary Esq.
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 159.  Another version is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 391-393.



Office Umpqua Sub-Agency Ogn.
    July 24 1860
Sir
    Your circulars of May 28th 1860 have been received, and in reply I would beg leave to submit the following report.
    The tribes of Indians under my charge number four, viz., the Umpqua, the Coos, the Siuslaw and the Alsea--number of souls as follows.
    Umpqua Males 33   Females 69   Total 102
Coos do. 70 do. 106 do. 176
Siuslaw do. 42 do. 59 do. 101
Alsea do. 42 do. 35 do. 77
    The Umpqua tribe are worth in individual property such as canoes, horses & house furniture say one thousand eight hundred dols.
    The Coos tribe in like property say one thousand four hundred dols.
    The Siuslaw tribe are worth in horses, canoes &c. say twenty-one hundred dols.
    The Alsea tribe say one thousand dols.
    Nothing has as yet been done for them in the way of schools, as their treaties have not been ratified, and no missionaries have yet been among them. They are all located at present off the reserve except the Siuslaw & Alsea tribes, and they should be moved when the reservation & schools [are] established.
    Hoping I have tendered you the information wished for I remain
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Ind. Sub-Agt.
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 165.





Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. July 26th 1860
Sir
    I have just found your letter of the 28th inst. which I presume was mislaid in my absence.
    I am not advised of the intentions of Genl. Clarke in regard to the military post at Fort Umpqua. My impression is however that the absence of the troops will be temporary or that they will be replaced by another detachment.
    The vouchers for which you send are today sent by Wells Fargo & Co. Express with blank forms of receipt therefor, which you will sign and return to this office.
    You are authorized to proceed with the most convenient dispatch to remove the Indians to their new abode on the coast, provided, in your judgment, you are satisfied that they can be comfortably housed and subsisted during the coming winter at their new abode without a large increase of expenditure.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Joshua B. Sykes Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Ft. Umpqua Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 142.



Office Grand Ronde Agency
    Oregon August [blank] 1860
Sir
    In accordance with instructions received from Hon. A. B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated June 15th 1859, I have the honor to reply to the interrogatory therein contained as follows:
    1st. "Give the names of the tribes within your agency?"
The Umpquas & Calapooias of Umpqua Valley
Willamette Valley tribes
Cow Creek tribe, and a part
of the Rogue River and Shasta tribes
    2nd. "The number of souls in each of either sex?"
    Males Females
Tillamooks 41 40
Umpquas & Calapooias of Umpqua Valley 110   162  
Willamette Valley tribes 162   155  
Cow Creek tribe 16 48
Rogue River & Shasta tribe 97 146  
Nehalems 27 21
Nestuccas & Clatsops 24 26
    3rd. "The approximate wealth of each tribe in individual property?"
    The Umpquas & Calapooias about $5500.00
Willamette Valley tribes " 8000.00
Rogue River & Shasta " 1200.00
Cow Creek tribe (none)  
    4th. "The number of schools?" None.
    5th. "The designation and location of each?" None.
    6th. "The number of scholars in each of either sex?" None.
    7th. "The number of teachers in each?" None.
    8th. "Under the charge of what religious societies, if any?" None.
    9th. "The amount of money contributed by the society?" None.
    10th. "The amount contributed by individual Indians?" None.
    11th. "The number of missionaries to each tribe, and of what denomination?" None.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        John F. Miller
            Indian Agent
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 197.




Jacksonville, Aug. 14th 1860
E. R. Geary:
    Dear Sir:
        To better denounce [sic] and develop the quartz gold mining resources of this section, Mr. R. S. Jewett, of Rogue River, desires to procure from one of the reservations under your superintendence an Indian formerly of this region, who is believed to possess valuable information concerning the whereabouts of rich quartz rock.
    I can sincerely bear testimony to Mr. Jewett's integrity and worth as a man, and have no hesitation in saying that if the Indian be entrusted to his guardianship a comfortable home and good protection will be afforded him.
    I have no interest in this matter beyond the desire to have the mineral wealth of the country developed to its highest degree, but would esteem it a favor if Mr. Jewett's request is complied with.
I am sir
    With high respect
        Yours &c.
            Jas. O'Meara
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 186.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, Aug. 24, 1860
Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your two communications of the 18th and 19th ultimo, advising that steps had been taken to have remitted to this office for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian service, and for fulfilling treaty stipulations, various sums amounting in the aggregate to $242,306.21/100, enclosing tabular statements thereof, advising that a large portion of the annuities would be invested in goods in the northern cities, giving instructions &c.
    The policy of the course which the Dept. has seen proper to adopt in retaining over $150,000.00/100 of the amount appropriated in fulfillment of treaty stipulations with Indians of this Superintendency to be invested in goods in the northern cities will form the subject of a communication per next steamer. At present I will merely observe that such a step taken in the inauguration of these important treaties is, in the opinion of this office, a sad mistake, and that the information is received here with profound regret.
    Your instructions will be strictly complied with, and your suggestions in regard to the proper mode of carrying into effect certain treaty stipulations, being deemed judicious, will also be carefully observed so far as it is practicable to do so.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commr. Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 281-283.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 25 1860
John F. Miller Esq.
    Ind. Agent Grand Ronde
        Sir
            The bearer of this note Mr. [blank] Jewett of Jackson County is personally known to you.
    Mr. Jewett informs me that he has good reason to believe that a certain Indian on the Coast Reservation of the Rogue River tribe is in possession of valuable knowledge in regard to auriferous quartz leads in Southern Oregon, for the discovery of which he is desirous to avail himself of the aid of said Indian. I see nothing unreasonable in this request, and granting it may possibly tend to a fuller development of the mining resources of the country. I refer the matter to your judgment and discretion, and your action in the premises will I doubt not be in accordance with the best interests of the country and the Indian service.
    Mr. Jewett will obligate himself to secure the safety and return of the Indian should you permit him to go.
Yours truly
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 148.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, August 26, 1860.
Sir:
    Referring to that portion of your letter of the 19th July last advising that no appropriation had been made by Congress for "defraying the expenses of the removal and subsistence &c.," I have to say that the failure to make such appropriation will seriously embarrass the operations of the service in this Superintendency during the entire year. The amount of my estimate under that heading for Oregon and Washington based upon data which I conceive is entitled to serious consideration was $150,000, and this sum was greatly below the aggregate of the estimates for that purpose made by the several agents.
    I will call your attention to the following paragraph in your letter of the 3rd September 1859: "The Secretary further approves your views relative to the proposed removal of the Indians now at the Umpqua Agency to Yaquina Bay on the Coast Reservation and directs that you will take the earliest measures to that end &c." When this letter was received the season was too far advanced to effect the removal with convenience, safety and economy, and the undertaking was necessarily deferred to the present season. And I have now to state that in obedience to the foregoing direction and in anticipation of an adequate appropriation from which these expenses could be paid, the removal referred to was commenced early in July, and is now nearly completed, farms being opened at the new home of those Indians, fences made, ground broken, buildings erected &c. Besides this, in compliance with the requisitions of Sub-Agent Sykes, in charge of this important movement, the necessary supplies for the clothing and subsistence of those Indians (none of which are provided under any treaty stipulations) as well as the subsistence of his employees during the coming winter have been shipped to Yaquina Bay, and other expenses connected with the undertaking have been incurred for the payment of which no adequate appropriation has been made.
    The reason stated by you for the failure of Congress to make the appropriation is that it was "considered that ample provision had been made under the several treaties for these purposes." It is a serious mistake to suppose that all the Indians of this Superintendency are parties to treaties and are provided for in the appropriations for fulfillment of treaty stipulations. The enclosed statement will exhibit the fact that there are no less than 16,314 Indians in this Superintendency who are not parties to any treaty and of course are not beneficiaries under treaty stipulations with the United States. On the Coast Reservation of Oregon alone there are 2099 Indians who are not parties to any treaty (treaties were made but have never been ratified), and the treatment of these Indians must be placed upon an equality with the other Indians on the same reservation or serious dissatisfaction will be the result. It is obviously the imperative duty of this office to care for these Indians in order to maintain peace and prevent outbreaks, and to do so funds are necessary.
    It is obviously the duty of this office to care for these Indians in order to
    The necessary operations in the Snake country in order to prevent the forays of those Indians upon the Warm Springs and Umatilla reservations, referred to in previous communications, will also be attended with considerable expense.
    I will therefore respectfully but earnestly urge that early steps on the part of the Dept. may be taken to secure the passage of a deficiency appropriation for the purposes above indicated in the full sum of my estimate above referred to.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commr. &c.
            Washington D.C.
   

Statement of Indians within the Oregon and Wsahington Indian Superintendency not parties to any treaty with the United States.
Washington Territory
    Lower Chehalis 217
Upper Chehalis 216
Cowlitz & Tastinapan 240
Lower Chinooks 112
Upper Chinooks 330
Coeur d'Alenes 450
Lower Pend d'Oreilles 450
Colvilles 500
Okanagans 600
Spokanes 1,100 4,215
Oregon
* Chetcoes 278
* Shasta Costas 141
* Coquilles 170
* Jashutes 160
* Tututnis 168
* Mikonotunnes 186
* Sixes 123
* Euchres 121
* Port Orford Indians 77
* Flores Creek 36
* Tillamooks 81
* Nehalems 48
* Nestuccas & Clatsops 50
* Umpquas 99
* Coos Indians 180
* Siuslaws 104
* Alseas 77
Klamaths 635
Modocs 365
Mountain Bannocks 1,500
Shoshones: Mountain Snakes 6,000
                     Diggers 1,500 12,099
Total in Oregon and Washington 16,314
*These Indians are located on the Coast Reservation of Oregon. Treaties were made with them by late Supt. Palmer, but they have not been ratified.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 294-299.  A copy is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 152-153.



Office  Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, August 26, 1860.
Sir:
    I have respectfully to request that the following balances of appropriations for fulfilling treaty stipulations in this Superintendency for the years ending June 30th 1860 & 1 be remitted at once, viz:
    Molel Indians. "First of ten installments for the erection of one saw and flouring mill &c.," $5,000. These mills have been in process of erection for several months and are now nearly completed.
    Also all balances on account of annuities due the Indians of this Superintendency. This is especially required for the Coast Indians of Oregon, who can only be reached with supplies during the months of August and September, the navigation at that season being comparatively safe. The proper shipment will therefore be made at once without waiting the arrival of funds. It is also very desirable that the annuities due the other Indians should be furnished before the commencement of the rainy season.
    Trusting that the desired remittance will be made without delay, I am, sir,
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Sup. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Comm. Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 300-301.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 27, 1860
Sir
    Referring to your letter of the 18th July last relating to the remittance of funds to this office and to your statement that "for the present no portion of the 42,000 dollars for expenses of transportation is remitted," for the reason that "it is as yet unknown what proportion thereof can be properly placed at your command," I would say that the failure to receive a liberal portion of this appropriation at this time involves this Superintendency in much embarrassment.
    The whole appropriation for transportation of treaty goods is not only meager but inadequate for the necessary expenses of transportation within this Superintendency alone, to its various remote agencies, and from no existing appropriation can it, without equally serious detriment to other interests of the service, be supplemented.
    A large liability has already been incurred in the transportation of farming implements, mechanics' tools and mill fixtures with other necessary supplies under the provisions of the lately ratified treaties for the Flathead, Nez Perces, Umatilla and Yakima agencies.
    The fixed conviction of this office that longer delay to inaugurate the treaties would lead to consequences disastrous to the peace of the frontiers, and probably involve the country in war, has induced this action. I regard it as absolutely necessary to preserve the faith of the Indians in our oft-repeated and still unfulfilled promises. I also felt confident that the necessity of adequate appropriations, and prompt remittances, could not fail of being fully realized by Congress and the Indian Bureau. Hence the responsibility of initiating action in the premises, which I have assumed.
    I have therefore earnestly to ask that a remittance of at least one half of the appropriation for transportation &c. be immediately made, and that the necessity of a very liberal additional appropriation for this purpose within this Superintendency be urged on the early attention of Congress at the approaching session.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City
            D.C.

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 305-308.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Aug. 30th 1860.
Sir:
    Your letter of the 20th ult. advising me of the reappointment of John F. Miller Esq. as agent for Indians in Oregon, with instructions in regard thereto, has been received. The commission with form of bond and oath has been forwarded to Agent Miller with the proper instructions for his guidance in their execution and the disposition of funds that may be in his hands belonging to the United States.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 311-312.



Oregon City Sept. 11th 1860
Dear Sir,
    Mr. T. Healy is the gentleman I have the honor to present for a teacher among the Indians of Grand Ronde Reserve. He is sufficiently qualified for the task, particularly on account of his good and moral character. I hope then that he will give me and the agent of the place the full satisfaction we expect of him for the important charge conferred on him as a teacher.
With much regard I remain
    Dear sir
        Yours truly
            F. N. Blanchet
                Archbp. of Oregon City
Mr. E. R. Geary
    Supt. of Ind. Affrs.
        Portland
P.S. Please hire for a year.
F.N.B.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, No. 202.



Annual Report
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 1st 1860
    The pressure of business connected with the inauguration of ten treaties with tribes of Indians in this Superintendency, ratified in March and April 1859, but for the fulfilling of which no appropriations were made till the last session of Congress, has compelled delay in rendering my annual report beyond the prescribed period.
    The length of time intervening between the negotiation and ratification of these treaties, being a period of over four years, naturally produced much dissatisfaction and distrust in the minds of the Indians. In the meantime, too, the country east of the Cascade Mountains ceded by these treaties being rapidly filling up with settlers, and traversed in all directions by large parties in search of the precious metals, served especially to arouse the apprehension of the large and warlike tribes of the interior that their country was about to be occupied by the whites without their receiving the consideration agreed upon.
    So intense had this feeling become that I have no doubt the peace of the country has only been preserved by the prudence and conciliatory course of the several agents, and the awe inspired by the military forces of the country.
    Among the tribes referred to, no overt act of hostility has occurred, and I cherish the confidence that the measures already taken to carry the treaties into effect will not fail to allay the feeling of discontent and restore relations of the most amicable character.
    The Indians in this Superintendency do not exceed thirty-eight thousand souls, seven thousand being in Oregon and thirty-one thousand in Washington Territory.
    Dividing the Superintendency by the Cascade Mountains, about fourteen thousand souls are found between that range and the Pacific Ocean, and twenty-four thousand in the interior.
    In Washington Territory over 12,600 Indians, and in Oregon over 3,700 Indians are not embraced in the existing treaties.
The Indians of the Coast Reservation
    The Indians formerly inhabiting the valleys of the Willamette, Umpqua and Rogue rivers, and the seacoast in Oregon, do not at present exceed 3,000 in number. Of these, all except the Tillamooks, Nehalems and Clatsops, numbering together but one hundred and seventy-nine persons, are now collected on the Coast Reservation. 1134 of these Indians are provided for by treaties, and 1866 are without such provisions.
    A treaty was made with the latter in 1855 , by General Palmer, then Superintendent, containing many liberal provisions, in pursuance of which they relinquished their homes, and the larger portion were removed to the Coast Reservation, but this treaty has never been ratified.
    Most of those Indians referred to as not embraced in treaties were collected on the Coast Reservation and at Fort Umpqua during the hostilities of 1855-6, where for a time they were clothed and fed from the ample appropriations of the government made during that period, and for two years subsequent. These appropriations being now discontinued, and that for general purposes being so meager as to be scarcely adequate to meet the current administrative expenses of this extensive Superintendency, leaves me without the funds applicable to supply their necessities.
    Owing to the abundant crops harvested at the Grand Ronde and Siletz agencies the present season, the Indians in the respective districts of agents Miller and Newcomb can be subsisted at little cost to the government, but the Coos Bay Indians and Umpquas, recently removed to the Alsea by Sub-Agent Sykes, in pursuance of instructions from the Indian Bureau, owing to the entire failure of the crop at that point, must be fed. If this is not done, these Indians will be driven to the alternative of starvation, or in obedience to the strong instincts of self-preservation, of begging and stealing their subsistence in the neighboring settlements. Adequate clothing, at least equal to that supplied to Indians embraced in treaties, must be given to the other class, or discontent 'and the abandonment of the reservation will be the consequence; and deprived of this supply they cannot endure the rigors of the approaching winter without being decimated by the disease and suffering that must inevitably result from such privations.
    I have accordingly authorized the several agents on the Coast Reservation, having this class of Indians in charge, to make purchases adequate to relieve their emergent necessities; believing that so clear a dictate of humanity and justice will have the favorable consideration of your office, and that appropriations will be made by Congress at an early day to discharge the liabilities thus incurred.
The Necessity of Permanent Provision for the Indians
Not Embraced in Treaties on the Coast Reservation
    As mills have been erected and extensive farms opened at the Siletz, which together with the school, hospital and mechanic shops will inure to the benefit of these Indians as well as those on the same reservation embraced in the treaties, I do not regard it as desirable that the treaty with the coast tribes should be ratified, nor the formality and expense of another treaty with [omission] as necessary. Yet permanent provision should be made by congressional enactment extending to them annuities, to be paid in such articles as their necessities may require, and for the payment of such additional employees and the erection of such buildings as will in all respects secure them equal advantages and comforts with those under treaty. If some provision of this kind is not made it will be exceedingly difficult to restrain them from leaving the reservation, and should they escape to their old haunts, besides the injuries they would doubtlessly inflict on the settlements, the cost of again subduing them will be immensely greater than that of supplying their few simple wants. This measure of simple justice will inspire the Indians with confidence, and cause them to yield cheerfully to the restrictions and instructions so essential to their physical welfare and moral and social elevation.
    For a more detailed view of the operations of the Indian service on the Coast Reservation, I would direct your attention to the reports of agents Miller and Newcomb, and Sub-Agent Sykes, herewith transmitted.
    The Warm Springs Reservation, deriving its name from the existence of several springs upon it of a high temperature, was designated for the use of the Indians in Middle Oregon, parties to the treaty of the 25th of June 1855. This reservation extends from the Mutton Mountains on the north to the Metolius, a tributary of the Deschutes River on the south, a distance of about fifty miles, and from the west bank of the Deschutes to the crest of the Cascade Range of mountains. The area is about eight hundred square miles. The general surface is rugged, mountainous and barren, and unless found to embosom the precious metals is not likely for ages to come to tempt the cupidity of the white man. It contains, however, extensive natural pastures, capable of sustaining numerous herds, and several narrow valleys, separated by elevated table lands and. mountains, are fertile and well adapted to the production of the cereals and garden vegetables. Game abounds in the mountains, also nutritious roots and berries, and the streams are well stocked with fish.
    Though the treaty was not ratified till April 1859, this tract has been occupied as a reservation since 1856.
    Under the supervision of Col. Dennison, the agent, extensive farms have been opened on the Chetike and its branches, and many of the Indians induced to cultivate the soil, in which the more industrious have had encouraging success. A commodious structure, built for defense in the form of a blockhouse, affords comfortable quarters for the resident employees.
    Notwithstanding the difficulty of reaching this reservation with wagons, and its remoteness from the salmon fisheries secured to the Indians by the treaty, it would now be impracticable to find another location less objectionable and better adapted to promote their physical, social and moral welfare.
    The more intelligent Indians regarding this reservation as an asylum from influences, which, if not arrested, would speedily effect their ruin, were generally contented, and erected their rude but comfortable cabins with confidence, feeling assured of the fostering care and protection of our government.
The "Snake" Difficulties
    It has been, however, their misfortune to encounter not only the vexations connected with the long delay to ratify the treaty, but also the loss of life and property by the frequent forays of the Snake Indians, who may be regarded as their hereditary enemies, and have long been noted for their predatory and treacherous character.
    Failing to receive the adequate protection of the troops, though often solicited by the agent, in attempting to recover their stolen property they came in collision with the marauders, a number of whom were slain in the encounter. The effect on the "Snakes" was to superadd the spirit of revenge to the desire of booty.
    At a time when all except a few women and children were absent hunting and gathering berries in the mountains, the enemy appeared in strong force, killed or captured the women and children, drove off the cattle and horses belonging to the Indians and the government, compelled Dr. Fitch, then in charge, and the employees to escape for their lives, plundered the agency and the huts of the Indians, and left the reservation a desolation.
    It is useless in this connection to dwell more minutely on the causes which led to this disaster. Properly authenticated statements of the losses sustained by the government, the agent and employees, and the Indians, were duly rendered by Agent Dennison, under instructions from this office, and forwarded to the Indian Bureau.
    The spoliation of the private property of the persons in the Indian service is clearly the basis of an equitable claim on the Treasury of the United States, and an act for their indemnity should be passed by Congress at an early day. The duty of the government to remunerate the Indians for their lost property appears equally clear, as they were on the reservation in obedience to its requirement and with the guarantee of its protection.
    When Sub-Agent Abbott took temporary charge of Agent Dennison's district in December last, during the absence of that gentleman in the Atlantic States, I directed him to proceed to the reservation, and, if practicable, fix his headquarters there. This was done to protect the buildings and fencing from destruction, and maintain possession. Many of the Indians were thus induced to return, with their remaining horses, and resume the cultivation of their fields. Their confidence was so far restored that several comfortable houses [were erected] in the vicinity of the agency. The "Snakes" did not, however, cease from their incursions. Alarms were frequent, and, on one occasion a small body of troops were sent out from Fort Dalles, but the stealthy enemy being nowhere visible, they immediately returned. Not less than eighty Indian horses were stolen during the spring and summer. Indeed, a constant guard by day and corralling by night alone availed to save any.
Expedition to Harney Lake
    Impelled by a desire to discover the rendezvous of these mysterious marauders and if possible establish amicable relations with them, by which they might be induced to desist from their predatory incursions on this reservation, and on the Indians in amity with our government, I availed myself of the presence of a military force, traversing their country, to proceed, accompanied by Sub-Agent Abbott and nine men, five of whom were Indians, in search of the marauders.
    We left the Dalles on the 1st of June. After a fruitless journey of two hundred and fifty miles through the wilderness, in which we found not an Indian, though we frequently placed fires by night on the hills, the usual signal for a conference, we overtook the command of Major Steen on Buck Creek, a small tributary of Crooked River, about forty miles west of Harney (Malheur) Lake.
    Here we had the first intimation of the presence and hostile attitude of the "Snakes." They had attacked the camp of the military guide near this place two nights previous to our arrival. From this point onward we had almost daily indications of the vicinity of the hostiles, but not in great numerical force. On the the 14th of June our Indians brought in two shod American horses. On the following evening, as we were pitching our tents, two men rode into camp. They belonged to a company of fifty-four men from the Willamette Valley, who while en route for the Owyhee River to prospect for gold had been attacked by the "Snakes" at a creek about 30 miles northeast of Harney Lake and robbed of seventy horses. Being on foot, with only animals enough to pack their provisions, they commenced a retreat. The next day they were intercepted by the enemy, when a battle ensued, in which one of the white men was severely wounded, and six or seven Indians killed. The miners continued their retreat without further molestation from the Indians, and after much suffering from hunger and fatigue all succeeded in reaching their homes.
    On receiving this intelligence, Major Steen immediately sent a messenger to advise Capt. Smith, who with his company had left us two days previously to proceed to the City Rocks, on the route to Salt Lake. The next day Major Steen with his command proceeded to Stampede Lake, a little north of Lake Harney, in order to be nearer the scene of the late disaster, and the more readily to communicate with Capt. Smith. Here we spent two days reconnoitering, without discovering any indications of Indians in the vicinity.
Harney L. and Miller Creek Valley
    Lake Harney is in length seventeen miles from east to west, and about 12 miles at its greatest width. The elevation is over 4,000 feet above the sea level. It is fed by two small streams--Moose Creek flowing from the west and Willow Creek through a succession of tule lakes and marshes from the north. Harney Lake has no outlet; the waters contain salt and sal aeratus in strong solution, and are exceedingly offensive in odor and taste. The immediate surroundings are dreary and barren in the extreme. No fish live in it, though its tributary--Willow Creek--contains immense numbers. This stream drains a beautiful valley commencing twelve miles north of the lake, having an area of not less than fifty miles; it is a luxuriant meadow, bounded by cliffs of basaltic rock on the west and the timbered slopes of the Blue Mountains on the east. Its great altitude renders this beautiful valley wholly unsuited for agriculture, yet its luxuriant pastures may someday allure thither the hardy adventurer with his flocks and herds.
    It is not a suitable site either for a military post or an Indian reservation.
    No enemy being discovered, on the [19th of June] Major Steen set out to accomplish the chief object of his expedition, the opening of an emigrant (wagon) road into the Willamette Valley, by the way of the middle fork of 'the Willamette River.
    In our return to Buck Creek, urgent business demanding my presence at an early day in Portland, I left my party and the military and returned with the expressman a distance of two hundred and sixty miles to the Dalles, which I accomplished in five days without seeing an Indian.
    Two days after I left Major Steen's command, Capt. Smith was attacked by a large body of the stealthy "Snakes," and Major Steen was recalled from his road survey to cooperate with Capt. Smith against the enemy.
    These troops have but lately returned to the Dalles, after a toilsome campaign of over 3 months, in which, from the rugged nature of the country, they have been able to effect but little in the way of chastising the enemy.
    A reliable report has just reached me that these adroit thieves, following close on the rear of the returning troops, have made a sudden descent on the Warm Springs Reservation and driven off all the stock found there. These repeated disasters on this reservation leave no alternative but the establishment of a permanent military post for its protection, or its abandonment. The establishment of a post at that point is evidently the true course.
These Marauders Not to Be Confounded
with the Mountain Shoshones and Bannocks

    These Indians, though known as "Snakes," are by no means to be confounded with the Bannocks and Shoshones of the Rocky Mountains. The latter are well mounted and annually hunt the buffalo on the headwaters of the Missouri & Yellowstone, while the former are a miserable race, clad in skins, without houses or enclosures, hiding like wild beasts in the rocks, or cowering beneath the sagebrushes and deriving a precarious subsistence from roots and insects and occasionally small game, except when their predatory forays afford them better fare. Stealthy as the fox and fierce as the wolf, they seize the unguarded moment to pounce on their prey and bear it away in triumph.
    There are no indications that the Snakes are numerous; few trails, and seldom an old camp are found. Having but few guns and being generally armed with bows, they cannot be formidable, yet they are the terror of the surrounding tribes, and alike a mystery to the red man and the white. As to the country they inhabit, with the exception of an occasional valley and the declivities of the Blue Mountains, it is a barren desert. Our government could well afford to permit them to possess it without molestation, would they but cease their incursions into more favored regions, and suffer the traveler to pass unmolested. To this, however, they will not consent till overtaken and taught, by severe chastisement, the white man's power. Then made the recipients of our bounty, they may be brought to appreciate and enjoy the benefits of peace and honest labor.
The Indians Belonging to the Warm S. Reservation, Their Character &c.
    As to the Indians embraced in the treaty of the 15th June 1855, they are among the most docile of their race, and adopt with facility the dress and habits of civilized life. Removed from the evil influences that so often degrade and ruin the Indian, on a reservation remote from the scenes of temptation, the efforts of the government in their behalf will not fail to ameliorate their condition and elevate their character. Every dictate of humanity and justice therefore forbids that they should any longer fail to receive adequate protection in the home which by solemn treaty our government has allotted them.
The Cayuse & Umatillas
    Since the return of Agent Dennison , Sub-Agent Abbott, who was in temporary charge of the Warm Springs Reservation, has been assigned to duty on the Umatilla Reservation and charged with the care of the tribes and hands embraced in the treaty of the 9th June 1855. These Indians, as nearly as can be estimated, number one thousand and fifty. The Cayuses and Umatillas, once proud and powerful tribes, are now greatly reduced in numbers and wealth, which consisted chiefly in great bands of horses. They are still comparatively free from the degrading vices to which the Indians have so generally fallen victims, and it is hoped that, under a wise and judicious administration of the existing treaty they will make rapid advances in civilization.
    The chief of the Umatillas is an intelligent man, a Christian in profession and deportment, and is very desirous that his people should adopt the habits and customs of the whites.
The Walla Wallas
    The Walla Wallas have less marked characteristics, and are much deteriorated by vicious indulgences.
The Umatillas
    The Umatilla Reservation, situated south of Wild Horse Creek on the Umatilla River, was estimated by General Palmer to contain an area of 800 square miles. A large portion of this tract is mountainous, diversified with prairie and forest, and is valuable for its pastures and game. At the western base of the Blue Mountains a belt of land of varying width, extending in length from ten to fifteen miles, and well watered by mountain springs, contains much fertile land which would, I have no doubt, under proper culture well repay the labors of husbandry. As a natural pasture it can scarcely be excelled for beauty and productiveness. The bottoms on the Umatilla are, to about half their extent, covered with a thick growth of cottonwood, alder and birch. The remaining half is open prairie, much of it very fertile, though portions are rendered unproductive by the presence of alkali. These fertile spots can be readily irrigated and are well suited for gardens.
    On the north side of the Umatilla the country is an elevated table land, swelling into rugged hills towards the east, which are skirted by a limited tract fitted for agriculture. Covered with luxuriant bunchgrass, it affords a pasture ample for thousands of cattle and sheep. The winters are said to be mild, the snow never falling to a great depth or lying long.
Proposed Diversion of the Emigrant Road
    The emigrant road now traversing this reservation can, it is said, be easily diverted to the south, passing the Blue Mountains by a shorter and more eligible route. The appropriation already made will, it is believed, be ample for its survey and construction. The distance of this reservation from the Dalles is about 125 miles by an excellent natural road.
    Having explored this reservation twice, first in February and afterwards in July last, I feel confident that in regard to soil, climate and the extent of the adjacent hunting and root grounds, it has peculiar facilities for becoming self-sustaining at an early day. Being in immediate contiguity to the settlements, especial vigilance will be required to guard the Indians from the corrupting influence of unprincipled white men. Military protection, both to the reservation and the white settlements in that neighborhood, may also be required against the predatory forays of the Snake Indians, whose country lies contiguous on the opposite side of the Blue Mountains.
The Nez Perce Reservation
    The reservation provided for the Nez Perces is an immense tract extending from the Palouse on the north to the crest of the Salmon River Mountains on the south over one hundred miles, and has an average width of sixty miles from east to west.
    The chief rivers are the Snake or Lewis River and its tributaries, the Clearwater and Salmon rivers.
    The Snake River to the mouth of the Clearwater and the latter for fifty miles up are navigable for bateaux, and probably small steamers, and are quite eligible for rafting purposes.
    A finely timbered country is found on the Clearwater, consisting of pine, cedar and larch, of which the country for hundreds of miles south and west is almost destitute. The lumbering business might, therefore, under judicious management be made a source of large permanent income to this tribe.
    About one half of the reservation on the east is made up of rugged mountains, the remaining portion is an elevated plain, often divided by deep chasms, untimbered and abounding in grass.
    The principal streams flow through ravines and narrow valleys at an immense depth below the general surface. They are usually walled in by massive walls of columnar basalt. Within these rockbound limits the margins of the streams seldom expand to any considerable extent, and only at wide intervals are a few acres found of fertile soil. A few fertile valleys of larger extent are found, but the destitution of timber renders their occupancy exceedingly difficult, if not impracticable.
The Lapwai Old Mission
    The largest tract of agricultural land west of the mountains is on the Lapwai, a small tributary of the Clearwater. On this creek was located the once-prosperous mission of Rev. Mr. Spalding.
The Root Ground
    The Weippe Valley, about 60 miles east of the Lapwai, has a fertile soil, but the elevation subjects it to summer frosts.
    As a whole this reservation has great natural resources. The timber of its mountains can be floated to a certain market on its rivers; its extensive pastures are adequate to sustain numerous flocks and herds; game and fish are abundant, and its valleys, though limited and widely separated, are fertile and productive and capable of supplying the agricultural wants of the tribe.
Results of Mission and Labor Among the Nez Perces
    This people received their first lessons in civilization from the Rev. Mr. Spalding. A considerable number profess Christianity, and are exemplary in their conduct. This is a remarkable fact, proving the depth of the impression made by the teaching of the missionary, as they have been now for thirteen years without a white religious teacher. Their small fields are cultivated with considerable skill, and irrigation is often resorted to for the maturing of their crops. They have large herds of horses and begin to give attention to improving the breed; a few of them also own cattle.
    Many of their young men annually hunt the buffalo on the waters of the Missouri. A few can read and write their own language, which is said to be copious, flexible and expressive.
    The Nez Perces are characterized by mental vigor, energy, bravery and docility, and are larger and more muscular than most of the surrounding tribes. The loathsome diseases common among the coast Indians are almost unknown. It is to be regretted that since the extension of our settlements into the interior the degrading vice of intemperance has extended among them, and unless arrested, it will produce the same disastrous consequences so often witnessed among the Indian race.
Measures to Check the Introduction of Ardent Spirits
    The main pass into the Nez Perce country is by the Alpowa, and I have instructed the agent to place a suitable person at that point to examine‘all packs brought in, hoping thus in a great measure,to break up this traffic and avert the destructive evil.
    The expression of a determination on the part of an armed company to enter their Nez Perce country in search of gold created a great excitement among the Indians, and would certainly have been resisted by them had it been attempted. The judicious measures of the agent, with the concurrence of the military authorities, has happily averted a disastrous collision, which at one time seemed imminent. A faction of the tribe, who appear to have never cordially approved the selling of their lands, has at various times evinced a spirit of insubordination and sullen opposition to the wishes of the agent, and made vigorous efforts to spread disaffection through the tribe on account of the long delay attending the ratification of the treaty, but the friendly party has remained firm and continues to command a controlling influence.
    As remarked before, these Indians have large bands of horses, which they sell to the traders, or drive to Walla Walla and the Dalles and exchange for blankets, clothing, and groceries. They have generally adopted the American costume and evince their progress in civilization by attaching comparatively little value to the gewgaws and trinkets that so commonly captivate the savage.
    This reservation has the advantage of an isolated position, and there is but one eligible pass into their country in the direction of the settlements, i.e., by the Alpowa, already mentioned.
The Confederated Yakama Nation
    The reservation provided for the various bands and tribes confederated under the name of the Yakama Nation is situated east of the Cascade Mountains in a northwesterly direction from the Dalles of the Columbia.
    It contains an area of about 800 sq. miles, the chief habitable part of which is the Simcoe Valley, which extends fifty miles from east to west and averages twenty miles in width. Large portions of the valley are rocky and sterile; in other parts the pastures are extensive and luxuriant and are adapted to cattle and sheep. In the lower localities alkali abounds, leaving the tracts suited to agriculture of limited extent. Enough of arable land will be found, however, to produce all the cereals and vegetables required by the Indians. Springs of remarkable beauty rise in many places and supply the valley plentifully with pure water. Many nutritious roots are found here, rendering the valley a place of common resort by many bands and tribes for the purpose of laying up their supplies of subsistence. Timber of excellent quality is found in the mountains. Numerous bear, a few deer and elk, ducks, geese, grouse and curlew constitute the game. Beaver and other animals valuable for their furs are said to be rapidly increasing in numbers.
    This is probably the most isolated of all the reservations, being surrounded by a wide belt of country that will not soon attract the settler. Yet it is of easy access by a well-constructed military road, excepting in the winter season, when communication is cut off by the deep snows that fall in the mountains.
The Home of Kamiakin
    This valley was the home of the noted chief Kamiakin, the leading spirit in the late Indian war, and was the scene of many of the most marked events of its history.
    The entire Yakama tribe proper, and most of the other bands confederated in the treaty of the 9th June 1855, were to a greater or less extent among the hostiles. The disasters of their infatuated outbreak fell heavily upon them; the survivors are well satisfied of their folly and the benefits of peace. Henceforth we may regard them as wholly subdued and subservient to every reasonable behest.
    Kamiakin is now a fugitive, and has declined to return to this reservation, though offered by the agent a full amnesty for the past and the chieftainship of the confederated bands, with the salary and emoluments provided in the treaty. He distrusts the white man, and is more intent on personal safety than official emoluments and honors. Regarding him as of a suspicious and treacherous nature, and strongly attached to the habits and customs of savage life, I have at no time approved the policy of making him head chief, and have temporarily designated "Spencer," an intelligent and. friendly Klickitat chief, to that position. He has always been well disposed to the whites, ready to adopt their dress and customs, and noted for integrity and temperance.
The Improvements at the Agency
    The buildings at this agency are of a superior construction, and well adapted to all the uses required.
    They are those of the military post established in that valley during the Indian war of 1855-6, and afterwards turned over to the Indian Department. On my visit there last spring, I found the agent occupying the house erected for the commanding officer and in the enjoyment of comforts and conveniences seldom found in an Indian country.
Prospects of Improving These Indians
    Though the Indians to be collected on this reservation are, in their physical and mental developments, and in their habits generally, greatly inferior to the other interior tribes, their location combines so many advantages that a judicious administration of their affairs by the agent of the government, in accordance with its adopted policy, can scarcely fail of marked success.
    Having carefully explored the several reservations east of the Cascade Mountains, to which I have referred, and finding them all peculiarly adapted to grazing purposes, I am fully convinced that the interests of the Indians will be prominently advanced by encouraging the rearing of sheep and cattle--an occupation more consonant with the character of their country and their previous pursuits than agriculture. I have accordingly purchased under contract a few hundred cows and heifers for the Nez Perces and Indians in the Umatilla and Warm Springs Reservations and placed them in the hands of the respective agents. I also authorized the agent at Simcoe to make a similar purchase of cattle, and also of about 600 sheep, which he has accomplished.
    These purchases have given the highest satisfaction to the Indians, and I believe that a large portion of their future annuities would be judiciously expended in a similar way.
The Flathead Nation and Their Reservation
    Owing to the troubles in the Snake country demanding my presence in that direction during the late military expeditions, I have not been able to visit the Flathead Reservation this summer. I am, therefore, indebted to other sources than my own observation for my information in regard to the condition and prospects of that agency.
    The reservation provided for the tribes confederated as the Flathead Nation is situated in the remote interior six hundred and fifty miles from this office, and can only be reached by a toilsome journey of at least twenty days. The main reservation provided for these Indians contains about two thousand square miles and is nearly equally divided by Clark's Fork of the Columbia River. The general characteristics of the region conform to those of the reservations in the interior already described. It is well timbered and watered, and contains an ample amount of good soil and valuable natural pastures.
    At the negotiation of the treaty the Flatheads proper, occupying the Bitterroot Valley, expressed a great unwillingness to remove from their old homes, to which they are strongly attached. A conditional reservation was accordingly provided by the 11th article of the same treaty for said Flathead Tribe, on which it was agreed to permit them to remain, if after proper examination it should be found better adapted to their wants than the general or main reservation. This tribe still adheres pertinaciously to their original desire, and I do not think it would be judicious at present to coerce their removal to the general reservation.
    All the permanent improvements, however, provided for by treaty, should be placed thereon, and it is hoped that they will at no distant day be induced to remove of their own accord. I have no doubt their general welfare will be most promoted by their removal, as the main reservation is ample for the accommodation of all the confederated tribes, and as the Bitterroot Valley is desirable for the purpose of a white settlement, being traversed by the military road to Fort Benton, recently opened, I would recommend that measures be taken for its evacuation by the Indians at an early day.
Character of the Flatheads
    The Flatheads and the cognate tribes are a noble race, magnanimous and brave. They have been for twenty-five years under the spiritual direction of the Catholic missionaries, and all profess Christianity. They have abandoned most of their savage customs and may indeed be regarded as a partially civilized people. They have been taught to cultivate the soil, which, besides the hardier vegetables, is well adapted to the production of barley and peas. Wheat also yields a fair crop, but is liable to be affected by smut. They are less attached than formerly to the precarious fortunes of the chase, and disposed to look to the more certain and ample resources of agriculture. Grass abounds, and the rearing of cattle and sheep should be assiduously fostered and aided by the government.
    It is a matter of regret that the character and wants of this people had not been better known to the authorities at Washington prior to the late purchase of annuities, as a much more judicious expenditure might have resulted. As it is, many articles purchased will inure but little to their benefit, while the large appropriations, which if properly expended would have tended to the most beneficial results, are now exhausted.
Indians in Region of Colville
    Major Lugenbeel U.S.A., in charge of the Colville depot, who has kindly acted as a special agent for the Indians in his vicinity, at the latest advices represents them as well disposed, but suffering much from the influence of unprincipled whisky traders, whom it is difficult to reach with the law, or to restrain. Major Lugenbeel has been authorized to employ an interpreter and to pay a physician a limited compensation for services and medicines rendered to Indians.
West of the Cascades in W.T.
    For a detailed account of the condition of the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains, in Washington Territory, you are referred to the reports of Agent Simmons and Sub-Agent Gosnell.
    The Indians embraced in the treaty of Medicine Creek are in charge of the last-named officer. These Indians occupy the three reservations of Squaxin, Puyallup and Nisqually. There has been a marked improvement in the habits and circumstances of these Indians. They have generally comfortable houses, and their farms and fisheries afford them ample subsistence.
    The recommendation of Sub-Agent Gosnell so to alter the boundaries of the Nisqually Reservation as to include an addition of about two sections of pasture land is judicious, if this reservation is regarded as permanent. But in view of the policy of ultimately collecting all the Indians west of the mountains at Tulalip, I deem it inexpedient to make the proposed change.
Justice Required in Increase of Annuity &c.
    I would, however, urge the propriety and justice of increasing by at least three thousand dollars the annuity of the Indians embraced in the treaty of Medicine Creek, which is at present wholly inadequate--the number of the Indians being much larger than at first estimated--even to afford them a decent blanket apiece.
Of the School
    The school would be of much greater utility if located on the Nisqually Reservation.
Agent Simmons' Report &c.
    The extensive report of Agent Simmons contains much valuable information and important suggestions. His remarks as to the inadequacy of the appropriations for the last year should have careful consideration. It is difficult to improve the character and condition of the Indians when the means afforded are so limited as to compel the abandonment of farms and other improvements already provided under the more liberal appropriations of former years. The meager provisions for the inauguration of the treaties with the Indians on Puget Sound and the coast, and for incidental purposes, unless relieved by the early passage of a deficiency bill for the current year, will leave that important district still embarrassed by difficulties similar to those now the subject of just complaint.
The Incursion of Northern Indians
    The incursions of the Indians from beyond our national boundary lead to constant collisions with our Indians, and place even the lives and property of our exposed settlers in jeopardy. Some effective measures should be taken to exclude these formidable freebooters from the waters of the Sound. The employment of a small and swift war steamer for this purpose, heretofore repeatedly recommended, is again respectfully urged on your consideration.
State of Affairs at San Juan
    The liquor traffic, especially on the island of San Juan, despite the efforts of the Indian service and the military, receives but little check. In the words of Capt. Pickett, of the Army, commanding at that point, "the consequences are but too obvious--robbery and even murder." Counteracted by such influences, all efforts to elevate and improve the Indians are almost wholly ineffectual, and their progress to utter extinction is fearfully accelerated. I would gladly appoint a special agent for duty at San Juan, had I the means to spare from even more pressing claims, to meet the expenses incident to the undertaking.
    It is hoped that under the operation of treaties about to be initiated, many of the Indians may be induced to fix themselves permanently on the reservations, and thus be withdrawn from influences ruinous to themselves and rendering them the pests of society. The failure of Congress to provide for additional agents west of the mountains in Washington Territory--a measure of great importance to the service--has led me to transfer the Quil-lai-utes and Qui-nai-elts [Quinaults], and a part of the S'Klallams, to the care of Sub-Agent Gosnell, and also the bands and tribes not embraced in treaties, found west of the mountains in Washington. In other respects the district of Agent Simmons remains as heretofore.
    I have directed this officer, as soon as practicable, to establish his agency at a suitable point on the central reservation of Tulalip, and to have regard in its location to its eligibility for the industrial school, shops and dwellings provided for in the 14th article of the treaty of January 22nd 1855. Also, in view of the policy indicated in the 3rd article of the same treaty, I have directed that as few improvements as practicable, of a permanent character, be made on the other numerous reservations connected with the recently ratified Sound Treaties. This consideration is not, however, intended to preclude the opening of farms and the erection of necessary buildings at any of these places that the present wants of the service may require.
    For a detailed description of the special reservations and information as to the changes in their boundaries and locations recommended by the agent, see his report.
    Less than two employees on each special reservation would not answer the demands of the service.
Purchase of a Schooner
    The purchase of a small schooner of seventy or eighty tons, recommended by the agent, I would regard as judicious and economical, being well adapted to subserve the various objects to which his report refers. I accordingly recommend that the purchase of such a vessel be authorized.
Proper Deposits of Annuities
    I fully concur in the observations of the agent in regard to the payment of annuities. Goods and gewgaws are little less pernicious than the payment of money. Let the money be expended, in the opening of farms and the purchase of stock, in accordance with the wise intentions of the treaties, to aid the Indians in procuring their own subsistence. Such investments cannot be squandered, and will be a permanent source of income. Their farms and possessions, thus made constantly to accumulate, will be a check on their wandering propensities. It will give them a fixed home, with its attending moral and social benefit.
The Importance of Confederating the Indians
West of the Mountains in W.T. not Treated with &c.

    I again present the recommendation contained in my last year's report, that the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains, not embraced in existing stipulations, be immediately confederated with the Indians on the reservations already designated. They are entitled to the care of the government, and our citizens justly complain of the annoyance and demoralizing influence of their presence among them. Their demand for their removal is one to which a just policy requires a favorable response, and the voice of humanity calls with equal cogency for the rescue of the Indians, if possible, from the blighting influences so destructive to their race. Public sentiment is so aroused to the evils attending the presence of the Indians among the whites, that I believe a bloody catastrophe impends, only to be averted by the prompt action of the government.
    The necessity for treaty stipulations with the remaining tribes east of the mountains, in Oregon and Washington, is daily becoming more manifest. The settlements are extending; exploring parties are abroad in search of mineral treasure; the Indians are uneasy and excited; their apprehensions are aroused that their country is to be wrested from them; the long delay attending the ratification of treaties already made fills all with distrust as to the fidelity of the government to its contracts and engagements; unprincipled traders cheat them of their possessions and fire their passions with rum, and their sullenness and indisposition to communicate with the whites for several months past, and councils held for secret purposes among themselves, impress many most conversant with Indian character that hostilities are meditated and another war on the threshold.
    Such indications are not to be disregarded, as a savage war on our extended frontier, however brief, would fall with terrible disaster on the families of our hardy pioneers.
    Apart from this consideration, the including of all the tribes of the interior in similar treaties at an early day is essential to the system of Indian policy now adopted by the government.
    While the dissatisfied and insubordinate on the reservations can fly to these outside tribes for refuge, or they in turn can visit the reservations, an influence of evil tendency will be constantly reciprocated between the two classes, and the benevolent plans of the government continually thwarted.
    The prosperity of the State and Territory in which these Indians are found--the development of their resources and the augmentation of their population--hinge, in a great degree, on the perfecting of treaties with these tribes by which they may be withdrawn from lands needed for new settlements.
    I therefore respectfully recommend through you to the consideration of the President the importance of authorizing additional treaties with the natives at an early day, and that Congress be asked to make such appropriations at the coming session as may be required to meet the necessary expenses.
    I would further recommend that as few additional reservations as possible be made. Those already provided are more than ample in extent and resources, and, by consulting the habits and affinities of the Indians, there is not a tribe to be treated with that cannot find a congenial and advantageous home on some one of them.
    I regret to say that education on the existing reservations has made little if any progress. In most cases the efforts in this direction have been crude and ill sustained. The schools have failed to be attractive, and the indolent and wandering habits of the parents have prevented the punctual attendance of the children. They soon grow weary of restraint, and the parents have too low an appreciation of the benefits to be obtained to use coercion.
    There is no want of capacity in the Indian, yet, for the reasons assigned none have made any available progress in education. The civilizing influence of the school room, great in itself, is wholly counteracted by the associations of their savage homes.
    Industrial schools, where the most promising children may be placed, boarded and brought under proper discipline, away from their homes and savage associates, presents, in my judgment, the only feasible plan for the accomplishment of valuable results. The success, however, of this system will depend on the wisdom, religious sentiment and devotion to the enterprise of those to whom its operations are entrusted.
    The educational interests of the Indians should be placed in the hands of those who from a sentiment of humanity, guided and energized by the strong convictions of moral obligations, have devoted their lives to the efforts of Christian beneficence.
    In this connection, I am also impelled to express the conviction that too little regard has been paid to moral and religious influence in the efforts on this coast to ameliorate the condition of the Indians. So far as I am advised, no stated religious services have ever been maintained on any of the reservations. The Indians have the moral faculties common to the human race, and while their culture of those faculties is neglected, no effort for  his elevation and social improvement will be marked by distinguished success.
    Missions should be encouraged among all the Indians of this coast, and the way fully opened for their cultivation in Christian sentiment and obligation.
    Reference to the several lately ratified treaties made with the Indians of the interior of Washington and Oregon will show that the chief objects to which the large sums embraced in the first payments for their lands ceded to the United States are applicable, are such as "providing for their removal to the reservations," "breaking up land and fencing farms," "building houses," "supplying provisions and a suitable outfit," &c. The aggregate amount of these first payments, to be expended for such objects as above specified under the five treaties with the Indians east of the Cascade Mountains, and appropriated by Congress at the last session, is $231,000. Of this sum, $111,000 was expended in the purchase of dry goods, groceries and hardware on the Atlantic Coast. This expenditure does not appear to be in accordance with the spirit and intent of these treaties, nor does it meet the just expectations of the Indians.
    The whole amount appropriated for first payment of annuities to the Indians embraced in four treaties in Washington Territory west of the mountains is $26,500--of which the entire amount has been expended in purchase of goods in the same markets as above.
    These purchases, by which large sums have been diverted from their original intention, have greatly embarrassed the operations of the agents, and occasion a loss to the several tribes that can only be made up by a remunerative appropriation. If this is not done, many of the benefits expected to result to the Indians from these treaties are already irretrievably lost.
    Many of the dry goods are not adapted to the condition and habits of the Indians on this side of the Rocky Mountains, and one half the amount of the goods would have sufficed for their present wants.
    Suitable goods of the best quality can be purchased in this market at prices ranging but little above those paid for similar articles shipped from New York. Thus the freight might have been saved, and the risk and exposure avoided, by which many articles have been damaged in the transportation.
    Had one half the amount laid out in these purchases been expended in opening farms on the reservations, and the buying of stock cattle and sheep, it would have inured to the great and permanent benefit of the Indians, and thus have been made a source of constant income, going far to enable them "to subsist themselves" in accordance with the express object of the treaties. The tendency, too, would be to lead the Indians to the pursuits of industry and the forming of domestic habits, to break up their wandering propensities, and create a love of home, without which efforts for their civilization will avail but little.
    Their acquisition of this kind of property by the Indians is also a guarantee of peace, both among the several tribes and with the government, for without peace there would be but little security for such possessions.
    Peculiar circumstances will alone hereafter justify purchases without first ascertaining the necessities and wishes of the Indian, and with the exception of the annuities for the Flatheads, the supplies required can be more economically and judiciously purchased hereafter in this market, without incurring the risk attending their transportation on the ocean.
    The duties of agents and sub-agents in this Superintendency are identical--equally onerous and responsible, while the salary of sub-agent is only $1000 per annum, or $500 less than that of an agent. This discrimination is inequitable. I therefore recommend that the sub-agencies be changed to full agencies, and that in lieu of the present sub-agents four additional agents for Washington and three additional agents for Oregon be authorized, their fields of duty to be assigned them as the service may require, and their salary to be at the rate of $1500 per annum.
    I cannot close my report without expressing my high appreciation of the prompt and efficient manner in which Colonel Wright, the commanding officer in this military department, has responded to every call from this office.
    I also feel under many obligations to Major E. Steen, and Capt. A. J. Smith, of the first dragoons, for kind attentions while in the Snake country last summer.
I remain sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                for Oregon & Washington
To the
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 223-241.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Oct. 3rd 1860.
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th August last advising me that you had instructed Superintendent McDuffie to receive and re-ship to Olympia and this city the goods and hardware purchased for payment of annuities in this Superintendency and shipped from New York to their destination via Cape Horn and the Isthmus, and instructing this office as to payment of freight and charges thereon.
    The invoices transmitted by Special Agent Roche, with contents of packages, have been received, and the goods for this place are now being discharged ex steamship Brother Jonathan. Those marked for Olympia W.T. I have directed Agent Simmons to receive.
    The freight will be paid as you direct, though my limited amount of funds applicable to the object subjects me to great inconvenience and embarrassment. I will immediately transmit as you direct an estimate of the expenses incurred for transportation of treaty goods, at this office, hoping you may be able from some existing appropriation to make an early remittance to reimburse the fund on which I will be compelled to draw.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner of Indian Affrs.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 388-390.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    November 16th 1860.
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that I have succeeded in removing the Coos and Umpqua tribes of Indians to the Alsea Sub-Agency, Coast Indian Reservation, Oregon, and I would also state that they would have been removed sooner had I not have been interfered with by unprincipled white men. I would here mention the names of some, one Hebrew (an alias), a perfectly worthless cur who lived with the Indians above Scottsburg, one Hastings who formerly carried the mail from Port Orford; these men and many others were constantly annoying me by talking to the Indians and telling them not to go, that the President had not given orders to move them and that I was taking the responsibility on myself, advising them to hide in the mountains &c., and I am so informed by the Indians and have every reason to believe that E. P. Drew, the former sub-agt. at Umpqua, pursued the same course in regard to the matter.
    At Coos Bay I also had trouble; there lived a band of men of just such [a] stamp, most of them living with squaws;. The better citizens were most all in favor of the removal of the Indians; those that opposed it were persons, who if living in a city would be arrested under the vagrant law. They would work a few days on the coal bank, obtain a few dolls., then spend it with the Inds., giving them liquor &c. They not only advised the Indians to hide but hid some squaws themselves and carried to them their daily subsistence. I endeavored to find where the squaws were hid, but was unable to do so, and as I had but a limited number of men and no funds on hand, I was obliged to relinquish the search for the present. I left about twenty souls in the mountains at Coos, but as the troops have returned to Umpqua I shall in a few weeks make a requisition on the commanding officer for some men, proceed to Coos Bay and try to arrest the remaining Indians and convey them to the reservation. I can assure you sir there were times during the trip when I heartily wished myself anything but a sub-agent.
    On my return to Umpqua after receiving the goods shipped from Portland I found but few Inds. at the agency, most of them having gone to Coos Bay and the mountains. I immediately proceeded with one employee to a point above Scottsburg and got all the Indians stopping there started to Umpqua, but not without great difficulty and much exposure, one night in an open boat traveling down river, raining all the time, also on my trip to Coos Bay and up Coos River in an open boat and out for days and nights in the worst of weather.
    After collecting nearly all the Indians at Coos Bay I returned to Umpqua and sent back the train of mules to bring those left the day previous. One of my employees according to instructions from me crossed the bay in order to ascertain if possible the whereabouts of the hidden squaws; he found where they were hidden. They were in the house of a county official and were secreted by the said official and a young man named Wm. Luce, but he was unable to obtain possession of them.
    When the employee arrived in Empire City he found the gang of rowdies drunk and waiting for him. They first attacked an Indian, and the employee interfering, they all started towards him with the intention of beating him, but as he did not run from them they concluded it best not to try it on. They then ordered him to cross the river that night if he wished to avoid being hurt, which he refused to do, saying he sought no affray but was attending to his business and warned them not to molest him.
    Such are the men and obstacles with which I have had to battle all through the removal of these Indians, camping out at night in inclement weather, riding over mountains; fatigue of body as well as mind has well night worn me out.
    The expenses proper to date of the removal of these Indians amounts to within a few dollars of thirty-five hundred. The Indians complained much of leaving their canoes. I promised to represent the matter to the Dept. and endeavor to have them paid for. The value of them will be about five hundred dollars, and justice demands that they should be paid for them.
    I would say in conclusion that the Indians are better satisfied at present with their new home than I had any right to expect.
    All of which is respectfully submitted.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Ind. Sub-Agt.
To Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Portland
            Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 819-823.



Siletz Indian Reservation Oregon Nov. 22 / 60
Friend Geary
    My Dear Sir
        The schooner has not arrived, and I fear will not this winter. I regret this much, as I have lost much in consequence of not having shoes and some other things necessary to enable the Indians to work.
    I am informed that the goods have never passed out of the mouth of the Columbia River but were discharged there and that the schooner has been engaged in carrying goods to other places. If this is the case I certainly have cause to complain of the owners of that kind of treatment.
    If the bolting has arrived please send it at your earliest convenience to Corvallis in care of Nat H. Lane, who will forward it to me. The mill is now entirely complete with the exception [of the bolting] and I am anxious to get it as soon as possible.
Respectfully yours
    Danl. Newcomb.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 18; Letters Received, 1860, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, Novr. 27, 1860
Sir:
    I herewith transmit an estimate of appropriations required to be provided in a deficiency bill for the Indian service in Oregon and Washington for the year ending June 30th, 1861.
    It will be recollected that no part of the appropriation for defraying the expenses of transportation of annuity goods to the Flathead, Nez Perce and Yakima reservations has been transmitted to this office, and, in all probability, it has already been exhausted in the transportation of the annuities from the eastern markets to this Superintendency, leaving the heavy liabilities already, or about to be, incurred for transportation of annuity goods, machinery, tools and supplies within the Superintendency to the several reservations, in conformity with treaty stipulations, without any proper provision for their payment. These expenses, from the difficulty of access and distance in the interior of the reservations above named, are necessarily great, and the service cannot be accomplished at an expense short of $29,000.
    The transportation of supplies &c., as per treaties with the Indians on the Sound, will require at least $6,000 in addition to all that can be afforded from existing appropriations. This renders it necessary to increase the appropriation for general incidental expenses for the current year $35,000 for Washington Territory.
    The sums required for the Warm Springs and Umatilla agencies, in Oregon, are based on the estimates of the agents respectively in charge, and are regarded as exceedingly moderate by this office. A large proportion of Indians under Agent Newcomb, and all under Sub-Agent Sykes, are not embraced in the provisions of any treaty, and must therefore be, to a great extent, dependent for their supplies and improvements made for them, or the general incidental fund. The estimate of $3000 for the former and $2000 for the latter, in addition to what can be spared them from the existing meager appropriations, is regarded as moderate and actually necessary. The agency at Grand Ronde can only be extricated from embarrassment by the appropriation of the sum of $1500. The energetic measures that it will be important to initiate in regard to the Snake Indians in the early spring will greatly increase the expenses of the Superintendent, and the sum of $2100 is accordingly asked for this office. The whole is an additional amount of incidental fund for Oregon of $22,600.
    The expenses of removing the several tribes to their respective reservations and aiding in their subsistence thereon for the first year or two will be necessarily great. The estimate of funds of this class required within this fiscal year is based on careful analysis and inquiry, and is made with an eye to the most rigid economy and on the estimates of Agent Simmons, submitted herewith. The amount is $35,205.46 for Washington and $21,500 for Oregon.
    The estimate for buildings at Puget Sound Agency is based on the statements of Agent Simmons, and the amount, $10,750, required for that purpose, when it is considered that this agency is on the general reservation to which it is contemplated eventually to remove all the Indians of Puget's Sound, is not extravagant. The estimate for pay and subsistence of a miller and sawyer at the Umatilla Reservation is to supply an omission in the appropriations for fulfilling the treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse and Umatilla Indians. The sum of $2,200 is reasonable and just.
    The late painful disaster in the Snake country in which 29 persons--men, women and children--have fallen by the hands of the savages, or perished by famine and other privations in their efforts to escape from their cruel enemies, accumulates the evidence of the atrocious character of the Snake Indians, to whom the communications of this office have so frequently called your attention, and recent information, from reliable and efficient sources, evinces that our relations with the interior tribes generally are in a precarious state, and that another Indian war will only be prevented by the most assiduous vigilance and care. In this aspect of affairs, the sum of $24,000 for adjusting difficulties, preventing outbreaks and maintaining peace in this vast region, dotted over with a sparse and defenseless population of emigrants, must be regarded as moderate.
    It is now reduced to a certainty that gold exists, in paying quantities, in extensive districts of the interior of Oregon and Washington, and there is little doubt that, at no remote day, thousands of our citizens will be found rushing to these new fields of enterprise and wealth. It will therefore be a policy worthy of a great and magnanimous nation to promptly make such provisions in behalf of the Indians as will secure them a desirable home on their reservations, quiet their apprehensions and secure their respect and good will. If action in this regard, on a basis of liberality and Christian philanthropy, is postponed or neglected, devastating feuds and wars will result, mourning and death by savage hands will often spread the pall of gloom over our frontier settlements, and the extirpation of the Indian race will speedily ensue.
    I trust, sir, this subject--so deeply affecting the interests of both whites and Indians--a proper disposition of which may save the government millions of money and the country scenes of desolation and blood--will receive your early attention and prompt action.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1210-1214.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Nov. 28th 1860
Sir,
    The service of this Superintendency is at present greatly embarrassed from the want of funds, and the demands are of so pressing a nature that relying on the immediate approval of my new bond bearing date October 30th 1860, on which are the names of the most substantial business men of Oregon, and on the declaration of your letter of the 28th July 15 to this office, that the funds returned by me under cover of the U.S. Treasury would be immediately replaced to my credit on the receipt of my bond, I regard myself as warranted to recommence drawing on the Asst. Treasurer in New York before the arrival of your official notice or that of the Asst. Treasurer that the deposit has been made in my favor.
    I will therefore commence to check on the Asst. Treasurer in N.Y. as heretofore on and after the 10th of December next, presuming that the deposit in my favor has been made in accordance with the tenor of your letter above referred to.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 468-470.  A duplicate is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 744-745.



Treasury Department
    Third Auditor's Office
        December 14, 1860
Sir--
    Please receive herewith for the appropriate action of your office the enclosed papers in support of a claim of four hundred and fifty dollars in favor of Frederic Rozenstock of the state of Oregon for property of his destroyed by the Rogue River tribe of Indians, in their hostilities with the whites in said state in 1853, and represented by a duplicate certificate numbered 54 for said amount, dated February 9, 1855, and signed by a board of commissioners consisting of L. F. Grover, A. C. Gibbs and George H. Ambrose, accompanied by a power of attorney in favor of Messrs. Burnett & Hasty. These papers appear to have been transmitted to the Commissioner of Pensions by the last-named gentlemen, who have been advised of this reference to your office.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        R. J. Atkinson
            Auditor
T. J. D. Fuller Esqr.
    Second Auditor
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 28-29.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Dec. 18th 1860
J. B. Sykes Esq.
    Sub. Ind. Agt.
        Sir:
            I have received your letter of the 16th November enclosing your report on the removal of the Indians to Alsea. It will receive my early attention and you will then be duly advised in regard to the views of this office thereon.
    Your diligence in providing for the Indians' good and substantial dwellings has my approbation.
    Owing to an injury received by the schooner Gull in leaving the Yaquina Bay, she will not be able to make another voyage before February. I hope the flour you have on hand may suffice till then.
    It is my intention to set out for the Siletz in a few days when I will endeavor to drop in at your quarters.    
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 214.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Decr. 28th 1860
Very Revd. Sir,
    I have the honor to inform you, in reply to your note of the 11th inst., that the treaty under which a teacher was appointed, on your recommendation, for the Indian children on the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, contains no provision for the appointment of a Superintendent of Instruction, and that this office is not regarded as having any discretion to provide for a position not contemplated in the treaty.
    Mr. Healy is expected to superintend and govern the school committed to this charge, under the general supervision of the agent in charge of the reservation.
    No objections will be interposed to the Rev. Dr. Croquet, should his charity or duty lead him to any special effort whatever, for the spiritual welfare, education and improvement of the Indians whether adults or children, but there is no treaty provision for his support.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To the
    Vy. Rev. F. N. Blanchet
        Archbp. of Oregon City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 217.




Last revised November 10, 2016