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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1861
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Jany. 4th 1861.
Sir:
    Referring to your letter to this office of the 3rd September 1859 authorizing the removal of the Indians from the Umpqua Agency to the Yaquina Bay on the Coast Reservation, and directing "the taking of the earliest measures to that end," I would respectfully say that in pursuance of instructions from this office, Sub-Agent Sykes commenced early last spring to prepare the way for the carrying of this purpose into effect, by opening a farm and breaking a considerable extent of ground at the contemplated place of location, which he planted in potatoes. This crop, however, on account of the want of sufficient time and means to properly prepare the soil, proved an almost entire failure.
    In the latter part of the summer and fall the Indians were removed to their new location, and the agent informs me [they] have already succeeded in preparing for themselves comfortable cabins with but little expense to the government. In view however of the failure of the crop above referred to, their subsistence for this winter, and until crops can be gathered, must be almost entirely derived from the appropriations of the government. It has also been necessary to incur considerable expense in providing suitable clothing to protect them from the severities of the winter season.
    It will be remembered that no treaty with these Indians has ever been ratified, and that consequently the only source from which to meet the expenses of their removal and subsistence is from appropriations of a general character. You will at once perceive the inadequacy of existing appropriations to meet the liabilities that have been incurred for the objects indicated, and that the sums specified in the Estimate of Deficiency Appropriation for this Superintendency for the current fiscal year, recently submitted as required for the sub-agency of Mr. Sykes, will, every dollar, be needed. What is obvious in this connection is equally true in regard to the entire Estimate to which I allude, and the cutting of it down will only arise from an inadequate view of the wants of the service, and must result in wrong to the Indians, the great embarrassment of the several agents, and injury to those who, to aid in meeting emergencies and performing duties for which no adequate provision existed, have become the creditors of the government.
    In regard to Mr. Sykes, the energy and perseverance with which he performed the duty assigned him of removing these Indians from scenes of deep degradation, and of pernicious influence to society to their present abode, which it is trusted will prove an asylum, is deserving of special commendation.
    A copy of his report in regard to this service is herewith submitted. The aggregate expenses, inclusive of those of an extraordinary nature, for the current year, in the agency in charge of Mr. Sykes, will be considerably less than in former years.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
P.S. I concur with S. Agt. Sykes as to the equity of paying the Indians for the canoes they were obliged to abandon. I would respectfully ask for instructions on this subject.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 815-818.  Sykes' report, referred to in this letter, is transcribed here, under date of November 16th.



Umatilla Agency Oregon
    January 8th 1861
Sir
    I hereby respectfully tender my resignation of the appointment of sub-Indian agent, which I have had the honor to hold in the service of the United States, to take effect as soon after the first of May 1861 as my successor can qualify and relieve me.
    I beg leave to state in this connection that nothing but the earnest respect entertained by me for the present administration could have induced me to hold the position of sub-agent so long as I have. The salary is barely sufficient for the maintenance of the agent, while active and continual service is required, in the performance of which life is frequently imperiled, while the responsibility as disbursing agent is great. In that the pay is entirely inadequate to the service required.
    Hoping that these remarks may be instrumental in calling attention to the necessity of reform in this respect,
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servt.
            G. H. Abbott
                Sub-Indian Agent
To A. B. Greenwood
    Hon. Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 631-632.



Jacksonville Ogn.
    Jan. 13th 1861
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent
        Indian Affairs
            Portland Ogn.
                Dear Sir
                    My absence from Jacksonville for a few days will account for the delay in answering yours of the 3rd inst. containing my appointment as special agent for the Indians of this locality.
    I thank you dear sir for the confidence this manifests. I hope I do not underestimate the responsibilities of the position by accepting the position without further reflection or consultation.
    The emergency of the case requires that someone should look after these degraded people who are daily accused of petty thefts & burglaries which would soon lead to serious difficulty.
    Their number in this county is estimated at about one hundred. They are absolutely destitute of provisions, are poorly clad with the rags they pick from the streets & beg from our citizens. They are principally of the tribes of Klamath Lake & Shastas. Some few [are?] Modocs & claim to be here for protection from the assaults of the Modocs [sic].
    La Lake (the chief of the Klamath Lakes) is here and is anxious to have a good understanding with the whites, expresses great fear that some Modoc Indian will commit depredations for which he (La Lake) will be held responsible.
    It will be quite difficult to maintain peace & good will between them & our citizens while they thus remain in so close proximity without some provision for their subsistence.
    Hoping soon to be authorized to provide something for their subsistence that they may be removed from the immediate vicinity of Jacksonville where they will not daily come in contact with a class of our own citizens who have not at all times the fear of God before their eyes or the good of country at heart.
    There is a small party of them on the waters of Butte Creek in this county adjacent to the settlements where they all could be taken & maintained at much less expense & equal security from the attacks of the Modocs & where they would not annoy our own citizens.
    Allow me to assure you dear sir that it is with pleasure I accept this appointment and pledge you I will discharge the duties of the post to the best of my ability.
Very respectfully your obedient servant
    Thos. Pyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 25.



Fort Umpqua Oregon
    Jany. 18, 1861
Sir
    Your favors of Dec. 18th & 24th are before me, together with triplicate receipts of D. Newcomb. I will on my return to the agency forward him the invoices.
    I regret to learn that the next vessel will be so long delayed and would urge the necessity of her departure as soon as possible, as I shall be entirely out of flour by the end of January, and as I am so worn down with the anxiety attendant on the removal of these few remaining Indians that I shall hardly be able to go to the valley and obtain supplies by the Alsea River. I am however happy to state that I have succeeded in getting the remainder of the Coos tribe as far on their way as this point and weather permitting shall endeavor to start with them for home tomorrow, when I will duly advise you of all my proceedings.
Very respty.
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. B. Sykes
            Ind. Sub-Agt.
Edwd. R. Geary Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 19.



Fort Umpqua, Jan. 25th 1861
Sir
    Enclosed I forward my account against the Indian Dept. for subsistence and forage furnished on the order of J. B. Sykes, sub-Ind. agt., on his two expeditions to Coos Bay in search of Indians.
    Sub-Agt. Sykes left his place several days since. He failed to leave any vouchers for me acknowledging the indebtedness, and I have not been paid anything on the bill.
    The charges are reasonable and were not disputed by Agt. Sykes at the time I presented my bill to him two days before he left here.
    I can only attribute his failure to issue vouchers to neglect.
    I am informed that Mr. Sykes does not intend to return to this place, and as he is some sixty miles from here up the coast where I have no means of communicating with him, I have concluded to enclose my account with this letter and forward to your office.
Yours respectfully
    Abel Fryer
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        O.&W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 27.  Fryer's notarized bill for $33.87½ was attached.



Jacksonville Jany. 27 / 61
Mr. Geary
    Sir Mr. Hoffman wrote to you some time since in regard to a claim for beef contracted by Mr. Culver, Indian agent for the Rogue River Indians, in A.D. 1854. He informed me today that you could find no a/c of it and wished me to state the time that it was used. I think that he told me he returned it in the quarterly returns in the spring of 1854. It is a just debt, and you will do me a favor to look after it.
Respct. yours D. N. Birdseye
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 19.



Jacksonville Oregon
    Feb. 4th 1861
    Mr. E. R. Geary
Dear Sir
    As nothing of importance to the Indian Department has transpired in this section since I last wrote you (Jan. 13th) I will expect to be excused for not writing you sooner.
    Your own experience with Indian character has undoubtedly caused you to observe that the most accessible avenue to their affections or confidence is by way of their stomachs. It is almost useless to attempt to exercise any influence or control over those Indians here without contributing something to their wants.
    There is now about forty of them encamped near Jacksonville. About twenty are in the neighborhood of Sterling, and I learn this evening that a small party are in the vicinity of Williamsburg in Josephine County. They do not appear to contemplate any acts of hostility towards the citizens, but through some sources they get whiskey, and scarcely a night passes without hearing or seeing some of them intoxicated. I have petitioned the board of trustees of this town to pass an ordinance prohibiting the sale of spiritous liquors to any Negro or Kanaka, which I think will arrest their drunkenness at this place.
    They have had several drunken melees among themselves of late, in one of which one of their number (a Shasta) was wounded. I think it will prove fatal. This is however but the result of the use of strong drink among the untutored Indians. The recent homicide in this county resulting in the death of Butterfield and the ruin of one of our estimable citizens (Williams) is attributable to the same cause.
    I would have no apprehension of any collision between our citizens and those Indians if they were removed from the vicinity of the town and provided with a few hundred lbs. of flour & few beef cattle for their subsistence until spring, when they expect to return to their own country.
    For cash good 2- & 3-year-old beef cattle can be had for ten dollars per head. Flour is worth $5.00 per cwt. Now can I not be authorized to make a small purchase of this kind for those Indians? If they were taken onto the waters of Butte Creek and not altogether out of the settlements they could nearly supply themselves with meat from the wild game that abounds there.
    Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain your
Obedient servant
    Thos. Pyle
To
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 29.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Orgn., Feb. 10th 1861.
Sir:
    I have the honor to enclose herewith the copies of two letters from this office, an acknowledgment of the receipt of which has not as yet come to hand.
    The first letter dated on the 30th May last is in regard to the 6th annuity of the Umpqua and Calapooia Indians, located at Grand Ronde Agency. The second letter dated on the 24th August last is in regard to the salary of Agent Dennison.
    As the subject matter of these letters is of great importance I have respectfully to again call the attention of the Department thereto.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Commr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 835-836.  The May 30th letter referred to is transcribed here.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. Febry. 27, 1861.
Sir:
    With the view of securing the more efficient and beneficial administration of Indian affairs, and promoting the benevolent purposes of the government regarding the Indians within this Superintendency, I have the honor to submit the enclosed draft of a proposed act of Congress, designed to regulate the Indian Service in Oregon and Washington Territory. Being about to retire from my present position, with neither the expectation or desire of again holding a place of official trust, I do not regard any preliminary explanation or apology as necessary.
    The first section of the act abolishes the office of sub-Indian agent in this Superintendency, and replaces the six officers of this grade with seven additional full agents, four for Washington Territory and three for Oregon.
    The distinction between agents and sub-agents is not only unnecessary and absurd, but unjust. Whatever propriety for the distinction there may be elsewhere, it certainly does not exist in this Superintendency. The title sub-agent would seem to indicate that officer as being under the control of an agent--an arrangement which the interests of the service here does not admit of. The great extent of country embraced in this Superintendency inhabited by 38,000 Indians requires each sub-agent to be placed in charge of a distinct field of duty, and that he, like a full agent, be under the immediate direction and control of this office. Even with such arrangement the entire number is inadequate for the proper occupancy of the whole field, and today three agencies involving important interests and grave responsibilities are of necessity in charge of so-called sub-agents.
    Should the proposed act become a law, the several Indian agents thus provided for and by the acts respectively of June 5th 1850 and July 31, 1854 might be assigned to duty as follows, viz:
For Washington Territory
One agent for the Indians on the Yakima Reservation
One agent for the Indians confederated as the Flathead nation
One agent for the Indians on the Nez Perce Reservation
One agent for the Spokanes, Coeur d'Alenes, Lower Pend d'Oreilles, Colvilles and Okanagans with an agency at Colville
One agent in charge of the Central Agency at Tulalip on Puget Sound
One agent in charge of the Nisqually, Puyallup, Squaxin and Skokomish reservations, and also the Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz and Taidnapams, not treated with, this field to be called the Squaxin Agency
One agent in charge of the Coast Reservation of W.T. embracing the Quinault, Quileute, Lower Chehalis and Chinook Indians. This field is to be called Quinault Agency.
For Oregon
One agent for the Indians on Warm Springs Reservation. One for the Umatilla Reservation. One for the Snake Indians. One for the Nez Perce Reservation. One for the Grand Ronde Agency. One for the Siletz and Alsea, and one for the Klamaths, Modocs and adjacent bands of the Digger Snakes.
    The 2nd section regulates the force of the Superintendent's office, as also his salary and that of his immediate employees &c. It also provides that the Superintendent shall be the sole disbursing officer for this Superintendency, a provision which will devolve upon him an immense amount of additional labor and responsibility, but one that will greatly promote economy in the service and efficiency on the part of the agents. Remove from the agents the labor and responsibility attending the care, disbursement and accountability of the public funds in their several agencies, and their entire time, attention and energies can then be given to the promotion of the interests and welfare of the Indians under their charge.
    There is another consideration equally important. Where the public funds of a Superintendency are divided for disbursement among the many persons it is obvious that the chance of one or more of such persons proving unfaithful is greatly increased. The advantages of this provision in promoting efficiency, economy and faithfulness are so obvious that further comment is unnecessary.
    The 3rd section regulates the salaries of employees and are at reasonable figures. The compensation of each employee under treaty is stated in this section, and is the same as is contained in my estimate of treaty appropriations for the year 1862, deducting the sum of $200, the cost per annum of subsisting each employee--the subsistence of employees being provided for in the 5th section.
    The proviso contained in the 3rd section as also the provisions of the 4th and 5th sections I regard as wise, proper and judicious.
    The 6th and 7th sections provide for the removal and consolidation of other tribes not parties to any treaty and makes specific provision for placing them upon a footing of equality with those who are beneficiaries of the government under treaty stipulations. This policy was recommended in my first annual report, and subsequent observation has confirmed my first convictions as to its propriety and practicability. The justice of the provisions is obvious, and they commend themselves to all intelligent persons comprehending the true interests of the country and desiring the welfare of the Indians.
    The salary of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs as at the present fixed by law is wholly inadequate, and should be increased, and especially is such a provision proper if his duties and responsibilities are increased as proposed. In no other branch of the public service is an officer, discharging such important, responsible and laborious duties, so poorly compensated. The salary of chief clerk should also by all means be increased as stated in the proposed act submitted. Trusting that the provisions of the enclosed paper will meet the careful consideration of the Indian Bureau, I am, sir
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To Hon. A. B. Greenwood
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
   

N.B. I inadvertently omitted to call your attention to the 10th section, providing for the appointment of a commr. to negotiate treaties with the "Snakes" and other Indian tribes. This provision, for reasons assigned in my last annual report, and especially in view of the hostile attitude of many of these tribes, is highly necessary and important to the peace of the country, the safety of immigrants and settlers on the frontier, and the early development of the resources of Oregon & Washington.
Supt.
See Report of Commr. Ind. Affrs. 1860 page 23 and page 184.
   

An Act Regulating the Indian Service
in Oregon and Washington Territory.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House and Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in lieu of the six Indian sub-agents provided by law for Oregon and Washington Territory, which offices are hereby abolished, there shall be appointed in the manner prescribed by law seven additional Indian agents, three for Oregon and four for Washington Territory, who shall each receive the same annual compensation, discharge the same duties and give bond for the faithful performance thereof as is provided by law for other Indian agents in Oregon and Washington Territory.
    Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That from and after the thirtieth day of June next, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon and Washington Territory shall receive an annual salary of thirty-five hundred dollars, that he alone shall be authorized to receive and disburse all moneys appropriated for the Indian service in his Superintendency, that he shall give bond with three or more sureties in a penal sum of two hundred thousand dollars for the faithful performance of his duty according to law, that he shall establish his office at Portland, Oregon, that he shall be allowed the services of two interpreters (one for the Indians of Oregon and one for the Indians of Washington Territory), one chief clerk, two assistant clerks, one storekeeper and one messenger and laborer.
    Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That from and after the thirtieth day of June next, the employees provided for in this Act, or provided for in treaty stipulations with the Indian tribes in Oregon and Washington Territory, shall receive an annual compensation for their services not exceeding the amount herein specified for each:
Superintendent of farming, one thousand dollars.
Farmer, six hundred dollars.
Assistant farmer, five hundred and fifty dollars.
Superintendent of teaching, one thousand dollars.
Teacher or instructor, eight hundred dollars.
Assistant teacher, six hundred dollars.
Blacksmith, one thousand dollars.
Carpenter or carpenter and joiner, one thousand dollars.
Physicians, twelve hundred dollars.
Hospital steward, six hundred dollars.
Miller, one thousand dollars.
Sawyer, eight hundred dollars.
Tinner, one thousand dollars.
Chief clerk to Superintendent of Indian Affairs, two thousand dollars.
Assistant clerk to Superintendent of Indian Affairs, fifteen hundred dollars.
Storekeeper to Superintendent of Indian Affairs, sixteen hundred dollars.
Laborer and messenger to Superintendent of Indian Affairs, one thousand dollars.
Interpreter to Superintendent of Indian Affairs, seven hundred and twenty dollars.
    Provided that no persons shall receive appointments to positions provided for by treaty stipulations except such as possess an actual and practical knowledge of the duties of the positions to which they may be respectively appointed, and that no such employees shall be continued in service for any greater period than their services may be actually necessary to promote the welfare of the Indians.
    Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That appropriations for pay of school teachers or for other educational purposes provided for by treaties may be applied to the tuition and subsistence of the Indian children contemplated in such treaties under contract for that purpose approved by the Secretary of the Interior.
    Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That each Indian agent employee in the Indian service, and white woman the wife of an agent or employee, whilst actually living on an Indian reservation, shall be allowed one ration of subsistence equal in kind to the ration provided by law for the army of the United States.
    Sec. 6. And, Whereas the following tribes and bands of Indians, to wit, the Tututnis, Mikonotunnes, Chetcos, Shasta Costa, Coquilles, Jashutes, Sixes, Euchres, Port Orfords, Flores Creeks, Nehalems, Nestuccas, Clatsops, Kalawatsets, Cooses, Siuslaws and Alseas, are not parties to any treaty with the United States, and are consolidated on the Coast Reservation of Oregon with Indians beneficiaries of the government under treaty stipulations; And to the end that the treatment of all the Indians on said reservation may be placed upon a footing of equality; Be it further enacted, That from and after the thirtieth day of June next after the execution of a deed of cession to the United States by the said Tututni and other tribes and bands of Indians, as set forth in the ninth section of this Act, Congress shall annually make such provision for the said tribes and bands as will secure to them benefits equal to those which may be provided for the "confederated tribes and bands of Indians in Middle Oregon" in fulfillment of their treaty of the twenty-fifth June eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
    Sec. 7. And, Whereas the following tribes and bands of Indians located west of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory, to wit, the Upper and Lower Chehalis, the Upper and Lower Chinooks, the Cowlitz and Taidnapam Indians, are not parties to or beneficiaries under any treaty with the United States; And to the end that the treatment of all the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory may be placed upon an equal footing; Be it further enacted, That the said Upper and Lower Chehalis, Upper and Lower Chinooks, Cowlitz and
Taidnapam Indians shall be removed to and consolidated upon such reservation or reservations established by law west of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory as the President may deem most advisable, and that from and after the thirtieth day of June next after the execution of a deed of cession to the United States by the said Chehalis and other tribes and bands of Indians, as set forth in the ninth section of this Act, Congress shall annually make such provision for the said tribes and bands as will secure to them benefits equal to those which may be provided for the "Duwamish and other allied tribes of Indians in Washington Territory" in fulfillment of their treaty of the twenty-second of January eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
    Sec. 8. And, Whereas the following tribes and bands of Indians living east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory, to wit, the Coeur d'Alenes, Lower Pend d'Oreilles, Colvilles, Okanagans and Spokanes, are not parties to or beneficiaries under any treaty with the United States; And to the end that the treatment of all Indians east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory may be placed upon an equal footing; Be it further enacted, That the said Coeur d'Alenes, Lower Pend d'Oreilles, Colvilles, Okanagans and Spokane Indians shall be removed to and consolidated upon such reservation or reservations established by law east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory as the President may deem most advisable, and that from and after the thirtieth day of June next after the execution of a deed of cession to the United States by the said Coeur d'Alenes, and other tribes and bands of Indians, as set forth in the ninth section of this Act, Congress shall annually make such provision for the said tribes and bands as will secure to them benefits equal to those which may be provided for the "Nez Perce tribe of Indians" in fulfillment of their treaty of the eleventh of June eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
    Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, that the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and the several Indian agents in Oregon and Washington Territory, are hereby authorized to secure the execution of deeds of cession to the United States on the part of the tribes and bands of Indians mentioned in the sixth, seventh and eighth sections of this Act, whereby shall be ceded, relinquished and conveyed to the United States, in consideration of the provisions of the said sixth, seventh and eighth sections of this Act, all the right, title and interest of said tribes and bands to any and all lands in Oregon or Washington Territory, which may have been at any time heretofore occupied or claimed by said tribes and bands.
    Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That the President be authorized to appoint a commissioner to negotiate treaties with the following tribes and bands of Indians in Oregon and Washington Territory, to wit: the Klamaths, Modocs, Diggers or Digger Snakes, Mountain Snakes or Shoshones and Bannock Indians, for the extinguishment of their claim to lands in Oregon and Washington Territory, reserving from and within the country so ceded such tract or tracts of land as may be necessary for the use and occupation of said Indians; also for obtaining the assent and submission of said Indians to the existing laws regulating trade and intercourse with the other Indian tribes in said state and Territory; the compensation of such commissioner not to exceed the rate heretofore allowed for similar services.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 840-848.



Vancouver, Wash. Ter.
    March 4, 1861.
My dear Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th November last, informing me that after a careful examination of the files in the departments &c. you could find no trace of the papers in the matter of my claim against the government for depredations committed by the Rogue River Indians in Oregon.
    Having just called at the office of the Supt. Indian Affairs I have ascertained by the records of the office that all the papers in my claim were duly forwarded to the Commr. Indian Affairs by J. W. Nesmith Supt. Ind. Affairs per his letter of November 15th 1857--my claim being numbered 14 on a schedule of 40 other similar claims forwarded at the same time.
    Gen. Nesmith, who was then Supt. Ind. Affs., is now one of the U.S. Senators from Oregon, and by calling upon him you may probably learn something about the claim.
    I trust you will find the papers made out in proper form. Hoping that you may find them, that they are all right, and that you will write to me soon informing me how the matter stands,
I am, sir, respectfully
    Yours truly
        H. H. Conelly
To
    John S. Edwards Esq.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 740-741.



Jacksonville Oregon
    March 4th 1861
Edward R. Geary
Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dear sir
        I enclose you duplicate vouchers for 1000 lbs. flour of Messrs. Anderson & Glenn, the style and wording of which I hope will come near enough [to] the usual form to answer their purpose.
    I am not accustomed to that kind of business and having no form had to draw on my own ingenuity. If it is not correct please return with a proper form.
    The Indians hereabouts are highly pleased to know that they are not to starve. I have also purchased 620 lbs. of beef for them, which is not all yet issued, nor have I given vouchers for it for the reason that I thought it would not meet their absolute wants while they remain among us. They express a willingness to return to their homes as soon as the weather will permit and the trail can be traveled through the mountains, say, about the 1st of April.
    The Calapooia Indian "John" I am satisfied is not now this side of the mountains. He is much dreaded by the majority of the Klamath Lake tribe by reason of their having pointed him out as one of the murderers of the Ledford party last spring. The Indians here believe him to be in the vicinity of the Dalles.
    There will not be sufficient time for you to forward me blank vouchers &c. for the present quarter or I would ask you to do so. However if any emergency should require my services longer than the time for which my present appointment extends I would take it as a great favor to have a few blanks furnished.
Respectfully your obedient servant
    Thos. Pyle
        Special Agent
            For Southern Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 42.



Jacksonville Oregon
    March 9th 1861
Edward R. Geary
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dear Sir
            I enclose you duplicate voucher for 1500 lbs. flour, which I hope is the last flour purchase necessary to be made this spring. The Indians have all agreed to start for their homes within three days if I will accompany them, which I purpose doing as far as the settlements extend.
    I am induced to believe that this portion of the tribe that has been within our settlements this winter are well disposed towards the whites but are greatly in the minority in their own country or at least have little or no control over a portion of unfriendly Indians that do not visit our settlements except to commit unlawful depredations.
    They acknowledge our right to arrest "John," who participated in no small degree in the murder of the Ledford party, but dread an unsuccessful attempt, as it would greatly exasperate him and his party and cause him to vent his spleen upon them, our informants, who are but poorly armed & munitioned for hostilities.
    Many persons in this section evince a disposition and desire to go into their country this spring to prospect for gold and silver, look out locations for farms &c. which if carried out will contribute nothing beneficial to the condition of the Indians.
    They have heard through some source that a treaty would be made with them the coming summer. That there is now goods at Portland which they are to receive in part payment for their lands which they exhibit great anxiety about, and about which I should be pleased to be able to give them some reliable information.
    "Spokane Jim," who speaks our language and that of the Klamaths, will remain here. Through him I can communicate with them without having them come into the settlements.
Respectfully yours
    Thos. Pyle, Special
        Agent for Southern Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 47.



Jacksonville Oregon
    March 18th 1861
Edward R. Geary
    Supt. Indian Affairs
Dear Sir
    Herewith I transmit you certificates of all the purchases and distributions made by me during the present quarter. And as the Indians under my charge have all returned to their homes (except three or four who are sick), they will require nothing more for their subsistence during the summer.
    Peace and good will towards the whites prevails among them to a much greater extent than heretofore. I accompanied them on their homeward trip as far as the settlements extend in that direction, where I left them. They promised not to return again the coming summer unless some unforeseen circumstance compelled them.
    As to the probabilities of arresting "John," the murderer of Ledford, nothing has been developed since I last wrote you. If his whereabouts should come to my knowledge I shall try to arrest him.
Respectfully yours
    Thos. Pyle, Special
        Agt. for Southern Oregon
P.S. I also enclose you original and duplicate vouchers for horse hire of Messrs. Clugage & Drum, which I settled with them. You will please remit the amount to me if correct as allowed.
Thos. Pyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 51.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon March 18, 1861
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the statement of John F. Miller Esq. Indian Agent together with the accompanying papers therein referred to, the same being respectfully transmitted by him in reply to or in explanation of the remarks made by you on the examination of his accounts from the 3rd quarter 1857 to the 4th quarter 1859 inclusive.
    I have carefully examined the statement of the agent together with the accompanying papers in connection with the various accounts therein referred to, and the explanations and answers being deemed by me entirely sufficient, the same have received my approval.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
[Enclosure in the above letter.]
Sir,
    I have the honor herewith to transmit an explanation in detail to the various objections made my accounts to the end of the 4th qr. 1859, and in accordance with the direction of the Commissioner I would respectfully submit the following report in reference to the schools on this reservation. At the time I took charge in Nov. 1856 I found 2 school teachers employed on the reservation who had received their appointments from A. F. Hedges, Supt. It was then the depth of winter, and I had no opportunity of forming my correct judgment as to the efficacy of the schools under their charge, the roads being in such a bad condition that but few of the children could have attended school if they wished.
    By the time I made my annual report in July 1857 I had become convinced in my own mind from personal observation as well as from the report of the teacher that they were effecting little or no good, and so reported to the Depart. to that report as well as the accompanying reports of Rev. J. Ostrander and Mary C. Ostrander I would respectfully refer. One of these schools was abandoned in June 1857 by order of Supt. Nesmith. In these reports will be seen the opposition of the Indians to the schools, growing out of their superstitions, which we then experienced, and in the report of Supt. Nesmith in 1858 he says, "The Indians with but few exceptions manifest a determined aversion to school, and in one or two instances have demanded their discontinuance." And in my report for 1859 to which I would again refer you, I wrote as follows in reference to the school: "Much has been written on the subject of the ultimate civilization of the Indian race, and it must necessarily be an object of solicitude to every reflective mind, but more particularly with the agent under whose charge they are placed. With those unacquainted with the Indian character, with their various prejudices and superstitions, this may be thought to be an easy matter, but those who see the Indians in this state of social degradation turn from that view almost hopeless of accomplishing anything. Schools may be established, and the most zealous instructor engaged in the work, and the children may be taught the rudiments of an education, but the question arises have they advanced a single step towards civilization? The child returns to the lodge of his parents, there to view the same scenes to which he had been accustomed, and to witness the same depravity and social degradation, and in one single hour forgets all the instructions of his teacher.
    "Entertaining these views, the present system of training the Indian children has always appeared to me to be of little or no benefit, but if it were practicable to take the children away from their parents and place them by themselves under the charge of competent persons, I sincerely believe much might be done."
    And my experience since that time has only tended to confirm me in the above opinion that no real and permanent good can be effected unless the children are taken away from their parents. If this were done and a manual school established where the children could not only be taught to read and write, but also instructed in agriculture and some of the mechanical arts, I believe a lasting benefit could be conferred. This could, however, involve a large expense of money to put in operation. In reference to the remarks of the Commissioner [in] regard to the expenditure of public money, I would here state that I have at no time expended money until after consultation with the Supt. of Ind. Affrs., and with his approval, and in all the purchases that have been made I have had in view to render the reservation self-sustaining, and this had been so far effected that our expenses are not near one 10th what they were at the time I took charge, as the present disbursement will show.
    Notwithstanding we have fenced in about 3000 acres of land, all of which is subdivided by good and substantial fences; we have broken and put in cultivation sufficient land to sustain all the Indians on the reservation; our saw and flouring mills are in good running order, and all the Indian families have good and substantial dwellings.
    It has always been my constant endeavor to charge every expenditure of public money to the proper appropriation, but the great number of the different appropriations under the various treaties with the Indian tribes on the reservation has rendered it extremely difficult to avoid complication of the accounts in some instances.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John F. Miller
            Indian Agent
To
    Hon. A. B. Greenwood
        Comr. Indian Affairs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 258-260.



Washington 18th March, 1861.
Sir,
    Will you be kind enough to inform me how much money was expended by me for the use of the government while I had charge of Indian affairs in Oregon from the 1st of July 1850 to the 4th of May 1853, and also how much was expended in the same service by J. Palmer, my successor in office, during the next three years, which included his whole term of office.
I have the honor to be
    Respectfully your
        Obt. servt.
            Anson Dart, late
                Superintendent &c.
To the Hon.
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 718-719.



Treasury Department
    2nd Auditor's Office
        March 26, 1861.
Sir
    Be kind enough to inform me what rate of compensation is allowed to the blacksmith (per annum) for the Umpqua & Calapooia tribes of Indians in Oregon agency, and by what rule or in what manner it is fixed.
    An early reply will oblige.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. svt.
        T. J. D. Fuller
            Auditor
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 637-638.



Treasury Department
    2nd Auditor's Office
        March 27 1861.
Sir
    Be kind enough to inform me what rate of compensation was allowed to a farmer or a superintendent of farming at the Grand Ronde Agency in 1856, and the authority for the same.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. svt.
        T. J. D. Fuller
            Auditor
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 639-640.



Tansy Point
    March 27 1861
Sir
    Chilliman, an Indian belonging to the 
Tututni tribe of Indians, is here on pass for two months. He is exceedingly anxious to be permitted to remain here for the following reasons:
    He has always lived here from a child till he left with Agt. Culver for Rogue River as interpreter.
    He is afraid of his people; they accusing him of being the cause of their selling their country and moving out of it.
    He is old and of no use on the reservation but could do much here taking salmon.
    He says he would consider it a great favor to be allowed to remain here. He is well disposed and industrious for an Indian. I have known him for 19 years, and he is one of the few who have had no charges brought against him.
    I would not have troubled you and added to your other more important cares but for his importunity.
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. W. Raymond
Hon. E. R. Geary
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 60.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, March 30th 1861
Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 18th inst. with its enclosures.
    You will please sign the enclosed vouchers, obtain the proper signatures to the same, and forward them to this office without delay.
    I have this day paid to Mr. Barron of this city the sum of $106.25, being the amount certified by you as being due to Messrs. Anderson & Glenn.
    You are authorized to draw upon me for the sum of $216.66, the amount of your traveling expenses paid to Clugage & Drum, and also for $31.70, the amount due Messrs. J. L. & Brothers.
    Upon the receipt of the enclosed vouchers properly executed, you order or orders for the above sums will be promptly paid.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Thomas Pyle Esq.
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 261.



Grand Ronde, Oregon
    April 1st 1861
Sir--
    I have the honor to report that the sanitary condition of the Indians on this reservation has, if the inclemency of the weather be taken in consideration, been comparatively good during the past quarter.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. Glisan
            Acting Physician
Genl. John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
            Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 931-932.



Treasury Department
    2nd Auditor's Office
        April 4, 1861.
Sir
    Not having received any reply to my letters of the 26 & 27th ult. relative to the pay of a blacksmith and farmer, I would respectfully call your attention to the same, as it is very desirable that the accounts of Agent Miller, which are of long standing, should be settled at as early a day as practicable.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. svt.
        T. J. D. Fuller
            Auditor
Wm. P. Dole, Esq.
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 641-642.



Washington D.C.
    April 5th, 1861.
Hon. S. P. Chase
    Secretary of the Treasury
        Dear Sir:--I have a claim for $590 for improvements upon land taken for an Indian reservation "named in the second article of treaty of tenth September 1853 with the Rogue River Indians" in Oregon, which provided for in the act of Congress "making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian Department" &c "for the year ending June 30th, 1862." The money for this, and other claims growing out of the same transaction, has been once before appropriated but misapplied by Indian Superintendent Joel Palmer. I, in common with the other claimants, have suffered loss and great inconvenience by the misapplication of the money so appropriated. I now desire to leave for Oregon in a few days and would esteem it a very great favor if I could receive the amount due me before I go. I have great need of it at the present time and beg you to give the matter your favorable consideration and at your earliest convenience.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    W. C. Griswold
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1216-1219.  Search term: Table Rock Reservation.



Jacksonville Oregon
    April 6th 1861
Edward R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
Dear Sir
    Your letter of the 30th ultimo is before me. The proper signatures were obtained and the vouchers returned by yesterday's stage. I have given C. C. Beekman Esqr. an order on you for $284.36, the full amount you authorize me to draw.
    The term of my appointment has expired, and there is yet a little unfinished business that I will be expected by the Indians to complete.
    There is two white men in this vicinity living with Indian women of the tribe of Modocs against the will of the Indians claiming the women, some five or six of that tribe having returned to the town to obtain possession of their women, which the white men refuse to give up. These I have undertaken to remove, which will be attended with some little traveling expense that I will ask to be reimbursed in. When those women are here it is will be impossible to keep the other Indians out of the settlement and next to impossible to avoid a hostile collision.
    Realizing the great efforts of politicians to secure your early removal from office I will not ask to be continued in the service of your office more than three or four days more or until those women are removed beyond the settlements, when I will transmit you my bill of expenses.
Respectfully yours
    Thos. Pyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 63.



Umpqua City Oregon April 13th 1861
To Mr. E. R. Geary
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Sir I have engaged 4 Umpqua Indians to come and cut cordwood for me at my place on Scholfield River, about 10 miles from this place (Umpqua City), providing they can get permission from you to leave the reservation for 2 or 3 months. I am very anxious to have them, and they are extremely anxious to come. I pay them 2 dollars per cord. My nearest neighbor lives about 3½ miles from me. There is not a person from Scottsburg to the light at the mouth of the river that will object to 4, or ten times four, Umpqua Indians coming back on the river to get a livelihood by honest labor; in fact, everybody wishes that a few of them were allowed to come and live here as they formerly did, but I suppose that cannot be done very well. The Indians I want have each one wife & one of them has two children about 12 and 14 years old. The others have no children; they want to bring their families with them.
    I will vouch for their good behavior while they shall remain in my charge.
    Time is very valuable now that good weather has set in, and every day that passes before they receive permission to come down to work is a great loss to them. My reasons for writing to you instead of Mr. Sykes are first that I understand Sykes is not at the Alsea farm now & secondly if he was there he would probably refer the matter to you before giving me answer, and that would take time, so much time that it prompts me to write to you at once with[out] any ceremony. I have not the honor of your acquaintance, but I am acquainted with Mr. Sykes and Judge Deady. If you should wish to know anything about me that I have not written please ask either of them. If they speak well of me then I shall be highly gratified and much obliged to them, but if they speak ill then I shall be at a loss to know what I have done to justify them in so doing. I am well acquainted with the Indians, can understand them well & make myself well understood by them. Now if you conclude to give them a pass, will you be kind enough to send the pass to me by return mail. I can go to Siuslaw in one day & from there I can dispatch an Ind. to Alsea, & the Indians would come down immediately and get to work & earn a good living as long as they should be allowed to stay.
I am dear sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            Joseph B. Lewis
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 65.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon April 22nd 1861
Joseph B. Lewis Esq.
    Sir,
        In reply to your letter of the 13st inst. received yesterday I have to say that the Indians of Umpqua and Coos Bay were during last summer and fall removed to the Coast Reservation in compliance with explicit instructions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This action of the Commissioner was in pursuance of the established policy of the government of the United States in regards to Indians generally found within white settlements, and especially those in Oregon.
    The objects of this policy are to secure peace and quiet in the country, to relieve society from the bad influences exerted by the presence of a degraded race, and to place the Indians aloof from the temptations to intemperance and prostitution and under restrictions and training, tending to ameliorate their physical, moral and social condition.
    While I have no doubt that the Indians for whom you ask a permit would be well cared for by you, and I would be pleased to extend you the favor and personal grounds from what I have learned of your character from those enjoying your acquaintance. Yet in view of the instructions above referred to, based as they are on the established and well-defined policy of the government, I feel myself unauthorized to comply with your request.
    Hoping, sir, that the inconvenience resulting from being deprived of the labor of the Indians will be but temporary, and feeling confident that the liberal prices you offer for that work you have to execute will enable you to secure the services of white men who will add much more to the development of your section than Indians.
I am sir
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 262-263.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, April 25, 1861.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the following claims against the Indian Department contracted and certified to by late Agent R. B. Metcalfe, viz: in favor of James Hawkins for $60, in favor of G. W. Berens for $16.50, and in favor of Henry Fuller for $120. Also a claim in favor of Bradford & Co. for $45--contracted and certified to by late Gov. & Supt. Stevens of Washington Territory.
    As none of these claims were contracted during my official term, I know nothing of their respective merits except what appears upon the face of the papers. There are no funds in my hands applicable to the payment of these claims, and I have respectfully to ask for instructions in reference to thereto.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Wm. P. Dole Esq.
        Commr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
[invoices for Hawkins, Berens and Fuller not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 909-916.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. May 1, 1861
Sir:
    I herewith enclose certain sworn statements respecting a claim of E. P. Drew Esq. against the United States for the rent of certain buildings occupied by Sub-Agent Sykes as an office and storehouse at Fort Umpqua. The claim of Mr. Drew appears well founded and equitable, and the rate of rent in accordance with that usually paid for similar buildings in that section of country. I therefore regard the claim as one that should receive your approval, and be ordered to be paid.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To W. P. Dole Esq.
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington City
            D.C.
   

State of Oregon       )
County of Umpqua  )  ss.
    I, Wm. Helbert, county clerk of said county, do hereby certify that Frederick M. Johnson and Edw. P. Drew were duly elected justices of the peace in and for said county, at the regular election held on the fourth Monday of June A.D. 1860 and were as such duly qualified and authorized by law to take acknowledgments and depositions and to administer oaths within said county, and that they from the 29th day of June 1860 (the day of their official qualification) up to the present time were and still are legally acting as justices of the peace, and that full faith and credit are due to all their official acts.
    Witness my hand and seal of said county this 8th day of March A.D. 1861.
Wm. Helbert
County Clerk
   
State of Oregon       )
Umpqua County       )  ss.
    E. P. Drew of the county and state aforesaid, being duly sworn, says that during the whole of the year 1860 and until the 10th day of January 1861, one J. B. Sykes, an Indian sub-agent, occupied and kept possession of two buildings belonging to him (this affiant), which said buildings are situated in Umpqua County near Fort Umpqua and were rented by this affiant by the aforesaid Indian sub-agent for an office, warehouse and stable.
    Affiant further says that during a part of the month of October 1860 the buildings above mentioned were occupied in person by the said Sykes and one or more of his employees, that during a part of the month of November 1860 said buildings were personally occupied and used by one or more of the employees of the aforesaid Indian Sub-Agent Sykes, and that the keys of said buildings were retained and kept in the possession of said Sykes or of his agents or employees until the 10th day of January 1861, when they were delivered to this affiant, at which time the furniture in the building occupied as an office was removed therefrom and possession of said building was given to one George Mansell, who had desired to rent and occupy said building ever since the first of December 1860.
    This affiant further says that he should have given possession of said building to said Mansell upon his first application for it early in December 1860, had not the building been occupied by said Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes, who had possession of the keys thereof and had retained, in said building, furniture consisting of desk, chairs etc. belonging to [the] Ind. Department and furniture consisting of stove, bedstead etc. belonging to this affiant, which had been loaned to said Sykes for use in his office.
    Affiant further states that at no time prior to the 10th day of January 1861 did the said Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes or any of his agents or employees offer to deliver up the keys of said buildings, and at no time prior to the 1st day of January 1861 did the said Sykes or any of his agents or employees express to this affiant any wish or indicate in any way to this affiant any disposition, desire or willingness to relinquish the possession and occupancy of said buildings or to remove or allow the removal of the furniture therein, whether belonging to the Indian Department or this affiant.
    This affiant further says that the aforementioned George Mansell did in December 1860 offer to pay this affiant for the use of the building then occupied by the aforesaid Sykes as an office a much larger sum per month cash for the rent thereof than the said Ind. sub-agent had agreed to allow this affiant for the rent of the two buildings used for office, warehouse and stable, and affiant further says that the said Mansell has occupied the building rented by said Sykes for an office ever since the 10th day of January 1861 and still occupies it and pays the affiant monthly cash in advance for the use of it, more than fifty dollars rent for each and every month.
    Affiant further says that he is informed and believes that he has a just and equitable claim against the Indian Department for the use of the buildings above mentioned at the rate of, at least, thirty-three dollars per month from the 1st day of October 1860 until the 10th day of January 1861, but this affiant says he is willing to release the Indian Department from all further claims on this account, whenever he is paid for the rent of his buildings to the thirty-first day of December 1860 at the rate of thirty-three dollars per month.
E. P. Drew
Subscribed and sworn
to this twenty-eighth day of
February 1861, before me
Frederick M. Johnson
    Justice of the Peace for
        Umpqua County, Oregon

   

State of Oregon       )

Umpqua County       )  ss.
    Joseph W. Drew of the county and state aforesaid, being duly sworn, says that he is acquainted with E. P. Drew of said county and state and with J. B. Sykes, Ind. sub-agent, and that of his own knowledge, his affiant knows that the said Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes, during the whole of the year A.D. 1860 and until the 10th day of January of the year 1861, occupied and kept possession of two buildings near Fort Umpqua, both of which buildings the said Ind. sub-agent rented of E. P. Drew, the owner thereof, one of which the said Sykes rented for an office and the other for a stable and warehouse or storehouse.
    Affiant further states that he resides near where the buildings above mentioned are located and that of his own knowledge he knows that the said buildings during the month of November 1860 were personally occupied and used by one George Collins, whom this affiant believes was at that time in the employ of the said Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes.
    Affiant further says that he is informed and believes that the buildings above mentioned were personally occupied and used by the said Ind. sub-agent and his employees during the early part of the month of October 1860 and at least until the ninth day of said month, and affiant further says of his own knowledge that the keys of said buildings were retained in the possession of said Sykes or of his agents or employees until the 10th day of January 1861, when they were delivered to E. P. Drew, the owner of said buildings, and the affiant further states that furniture belonging to said Sykes, or the Indian Department, was kept in the building rented for an office until the 10th day of January 1861, and that furniture loaned to said Sykes by E. P. Drew, for the use of said Sykes in said office, was kept in said building until the 10th day of January 1861, when the keys of said building were delivered to E. P. Drew, and the furniture belonging to [the] Ind. Dept., consisting of desk, chairs etc., was removed and the furniture belonging to E. P. Drew, consisting of stove, bedstead etc. was also removed from said building and possession thereof given to one George Mansell, who, early in the month of December 1860, desired to rent said building, then occupied by said Sykes.
    This affiant further says that of his own knowledge he knows that the said George Mansell made repeated applications to E. P. Drew for the use of said buildings rented by Sykes for an office, offering said Drew frequently during the month of December 1860, a larger rent per month, cash in advance monthly, for the rent of said building than the said Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes had agreed to pay for the use of the two buildings rented by him of said Drew for an office, warehouse and stable, but this affiant knows of his own knowledge that the said E. P. Drew was prevented from renting the building above mentioned to the said Mansell and was debarred from obtaining in cash in advance of said Mansell a monthly rent therefor of over thirty-three dollars per month until the 10th day of January 1861 when Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes relinquished the possession thereof, surrendered the keys and removed the furniture or allowed it to be removed. Affiant further says that of his own knowledge he knows that the said Mansell took possession of said building, rented by Sykes for an office, as soon as Sykes relinquished his possession of it and said Mansell has ever since occupied said building and still continues to occupy it, paying said Drew as rent for the use of it more than thirty-three dollars per month cash in advance, the amount which the said Sykes agreed to allow said E. P. Drew for the use of the two buildings above mentioned.
    This affiant therefore is informed and believes that the account for rent of the aforementioned buildings in favor of E. P. Drew is a just and correct account and one that should be allowed and paid by Ind. Sub-Agent Sykes or some other office of the Indian Department.
Joseph W. Drew
Subscribed and sworn to
this twenty-eighth day of
February 1861, before me
Frederick M. Johnson
    Justice of the Peace in and
        for Umpqua Co., Oregon
  
State of Oregon       )

Umpqua County       )  ss.
    George Mansell, of the county and state aforesaid, being duly sworn, says that he has read the foregoing affidavit and knows the statements therein made to be true.
Geo. Mansell
Subscribed & sworn to this fourth
day of March 1861, before me
E. P. Drew
    Justice of the Peace for Umpqua
        County, Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 935-945.



Treasury Department
    2nd Auditor's Office
        May 3, 1861
Sir
    Again I would respectfully ask a reply to my letter of the 27 March relating to the rate of compensation of a farmer, or superintendent of farming, for the Grand Ronde Agency in 1856, 7, 8 & 9, and the authority for the same. The payments made to this officer by Agent Miller do not correspond with the estimates of the Department. (I addressed you on the 27 March & 4 April & have recd. no reply.)
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. svt.
        T. J. D. Fuller
            Auditor
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 645-646.



Umpqua City Oregon
    May 13th 1861.
To Mr. E. R. Geary
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Sir I received today yours of 22nd ult. declining my request. Also one from Judge Deady of the 23rd ult. saying that he had spoken to you on the subject and that you had changed your mind. The judge says, "Mr. Geary told me today that he would write to Sykes recommending him to allow you to have the Indians and would send the letter to your care. The letter will go out in the morning, so I think you will have no trouble about it."
    No such letter has arrived at this post office (so says the postmaster here). If there had I should have carried it direct to Sykes. Now if nothing has happened to prevent your starting [i.e., sending] such a letter, it certainly has miscarried, in which case will you be kind enough to send another. As soon as possible, you might direct to me at Umpqua City & I will carry it to Sykes. I can assure you sir the Indians I want will be greatly benefited by being allowed to come and work for me, the general policy of the Department to the contrary notwithstanding, for where is there is a general rule without its exceptions. It shall be my greatest endeavor to retain the confidence & esteem of those to whom I referred you to learn something about me. I will close by saying that I will regard it as a great favor if you will lose no time in complying with the above request and believe me, dear sir, ever to be
Your obedient servant
    Joseph B. Lewis
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 88.



Jacksonville Oregon
    May 15th 1861
Edward R. Geary Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
            Dear Sir
                Enclosed I send you vouchers of expenses for my last expedition in conducting those Indian women out of our country.
    On the trip I saw George, the head chief of the Klamath Lakes. He is desirous of cultivating peaceful relations with the whites but says that John, the murderer of Ledford, has about fifteen men and will not permit a white man to pass through their country if he can help it with the force he now commands.
    If this account is allowed you will please inform me of the fact. It being contracted after the term of my appointment expired causes me to doubt.
Very respectfully yours
    Thos. Pyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 96.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon June 3rd 1861
Sir,
    I enclose you herewith the resignation of Mr. J. B. Sykes, Indian Sub-Agent for Oregon. Mr. Sykes is in very feeble health, and his recovery requires his removal without delay from the chilling winds of the coast. I have accordingly appointed Mr. Linus Brooks of Marion County Oregon a special agent, and have instructed him to proceed immediately to relieve Mr. Sykes and receive and receipt for all the public moneys, papers and property in the hands of Mr. Sykes in virtue of his office and have authorized and instructed him to perform all the duties of a special agent in the district of Mr. Sykes from and after the date at which Mr. Sykes shall be relieved by him. I have required Mr. Brooks to execute a bond for the proper performance of the duties of the trust committed to him in the penal sum of $2000.00. His compensation will be at the rate of $1000.00 per annum, being that allowed a sub-agent. This appointment I regard as absolutely necessary, as Mr. Sykes' health will not permit him to remain at his post a day longer than he can be relieved, and the dispersion of the Indians would quickly ensue if left without the presence of an authorized agent.
    For the political and social status of Mr. Brooks I refer you to Senators Baker and Nesmith of this state, to whom Mr. Brooks is well known.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. J. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 275.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 951-953.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon June 3rd 1861
Sir,
    Early in April, as my recollection serves me, I enclosed for your consideration a certain ratified claim of E. P. Drew Esq. of Fort Umpqua Oregon for rent of an office and warehouse, due him from Sub-Agent J. B. Sykes. The facts as nearly as I recollect were that Mr. Sykes on leaving Umpqua for the Yaquina Bay had failed to surrender the possession of the above-named building to Mr. Drew, had left some articles belonging to the Indian Department in the office, and had retained the keys so that Mr. Drew was deprived of the use of them.
    On referring to this matter today, I find that my letter transmitting the account of Mr. Drew had not been placed in the records of his office. I have therefore to ask that a copy thereof be sent from your office, and also to recommend that the amount of Mr. Drew's claim for the rent as above stated be allowed and ordered paid.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Commr. Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, pages 275-276.



E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs for Oregon
            Sir I have taken the responsibility of the sub-agency for which I had the honor of being your special appointee. I will endeavor to discharge its duties with honor to the Superintendent and credit to myself.
    So far as I can judge from the short time I have been here I am favorably impressed with the character of the Indians and think great credit is due to Mr. Sykes for the accomplishment of the amount of labor which has been performed, and for the apparent moral condition of the Indians on this reservation. I can hardly believe that improprieties have to any observable extent been permitted or practiced here.
    I anticipate opening a trail to Alsea Valley. If I can succeed in so doing, a material saving will be realized to the government in the transportation of supplies for subsistence. So soon as I can be in possession of more minute intelligence in regard to the condition and wants of the Indians under my charge I shall desire to report the same to the Superintendent.
Respectfully your
    Obedient servt.
        Linus Brooks
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent
        of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 111.  The transmittal is dated June 21, 1861.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Ogn. June 3rd 1861
Sir:
    Early in April, as my recollection serves me, I enclosed for your consideration a certain certified claim of E. P. Drew Esq. of Fort Umpqua, Ogn. for rent of an office and ware house, due him from Sub-Agent J. B. Sykes. The facts as nearly as I recollect were that Mr. Sykes on leaving Umpqua for the Yaquina Bay had failed to surrender the possession of the above-named buildings to Mr. Drew, had left some articles belonging to the Indian Department in the office, and had retained the keys so that Mr. Drew was deprived of the use of them.
    On referring to this matter today I find that my letter transmitting the account of Mr. Drew has not been placed on the record of my office. I have therefore to ask that a copy thereof be sent from your office, & also to recommend that the account of Mr. Drew for the rent as above stated be allowed and ordered paid.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 933-934.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, June 17th 1861.
Sir:
    I deem it my duty to submit for your consideration and to recommend the policy of making the Superintendents of Indian Affairs for Washington Territory and Oregon the sole disbursing officers in their respective superintendencies.
    The following are some of the advantages which will result from the adoption of the proposed policy, viz:
    1. Greater results will be attained in the welfare and improvement of the Indians, because the several agents, having no longer the labor and responsibility consequent upon the safekeeping and disbursement of public funds, as well as a proper accountability therefor, will have more time to attend to the practical duties of their positions.
    2. It will place it beyond the power of the agents to make an improper use of public funds, or to contract liabilities beyond the extent of the appropriations, the latter evil being a fruitful source of annoyance to the service and of injury to citizens who thereby become creditors of the government.
    3. It will obviate in a great measure if not entirely any necessity for the employment of clerks by the several agents.
    4. It will greatly facilitate the auditing and settlement of accounts, the accounting officers of the Treasury having to pass upon the cash account of only one officer in Washington Territory instead of six, and of only one in Oregon instead of five.
    5. It will save to the government in the two superintendencies from five to eight thousand dollars per annum, now annually spent in traveling expenses by the several agents in going to and from points to purchase supplies and in visiting the Superintendent's office to receive funds.
    6. The office of Indian agent, thus no longer involving the disbursement of large sums of public funds, will cease to be an object of desire on the part of mere politicians, who are totally unfit to discharge the duties of so high and important a trust, and the Department will be enabled to secure the services of such agents and subordinate employees as will faithfully carry out the benevolent designs of the government announced in our several Indian treaties.
    It may be objected to this policy that it is not prudent to charge the Superintendent with the disbursement of such large sums of money, there being the danger that he may make an improper use of the same. To this objection I reply:
    1. No additional risk will be created in the adoption of the proposed policy, as all funds of the Superintendency do now and should pass through his hands.
    2. The office of Supt., being one of greater importance and responsibility than that of Indian agent, greater capacity and higher character for integrity will be required in the person to whom such an important trust is confided, and of course greater care and consideration will be exercised by the appointing power in selecting a person to fill the position.
    3. If a Supt. should attempt to be dishonest the chances of his being detected and held responsible are, by the proposed practice, greatly increased, because as he should only purchase supplies for an agency upon the requisition of the agent whose receipt for the articles he should obtain and should only pay an employee at an agency upon the certificate of the agent that the services charged for have been faithfully rendered, each agent will be a check upon the Supt.
    Of the entire feasibility of the proposed plan, if placed in competent hands, there can be no doubt. And feeling satisfied that its faithful execution will be attended with all the beneficial results claimed, and that it will place the service here upon a sound, economical, efficient and healthy footing, and thus command the public esteem and respect, I have called your attention to the subject with a view of obtaining such positive instructions in the premises as will justify my successors in taking the necessary steps to carry it into successful operation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon Wm. P. Dole
        Commr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 963-966.



Washington D.C.
    June 19th 1861.
A. B. Condon, Esq.
    Dear Sir:--I am requested by Colonel Baker to notify you of your appointment as an Indian agent. It was expected at the time your appointment was made that your commission would be sent to you at Albany by the mail of the 21st, which will carry this, but there is a difficulty with regard to your name which may delay the matter a few days longer. Colonel Baker left here to join his regiment at Fort Schuyler, New York before the commissions for Oregon were made out--leaving, or rather authorizing, me to look after them. In doing so I found that he had given your name as John G. I notified the department immediately of the error, and action in your case is suspended until I can get authority from Colonel Baker to make the proper change. When the error first came to my notice I thought it was only in regard to the initial "G," but upon reflection I think the Colonel has got the first name wrong also. If I remember correctly your name is James B. I have written to the Colonel to make the requisite correction, and it is possible that it can be made in season for the commission to go out with the rest. I will do my best for it at all events. If not successful then I will get it off by the succeeding mail, or if I am anywise flush with funds will send it by Pony.
Very truly your friend and servant
    C. S. Drew
    I came nigh forgetting to say to you that Colonel Baker desired you to confer with Mr. Gilmore and J. R. McBride with regard to such appointments as you have to make, except that of physician. He requests that you employ Dr. Warren of Salem in that capacity.
Yours &c.
    Drew
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Ogn. July 16, 1861
Geo. H. Steward Esq.
Lafayette Oregon
    Dear Sir,
        My absence from the office the greater part of the time since the receipt of your letter enclosing the claim of Jesse N. Baker against the U.S. for the cultivation of two acres of potatoes for the Deer Creek band of Umpqua Indians in 1854 as per contract with Supt. Palmer has caused it to be overlooked till now.
    Many difficulties are in the way of the payment of this claim. It lacks proper certification. Mr. Martin's certificate three years after he ceased to be an agent will not suffice.
    The contract which Mr. Martin alleges he made with Mr. Baker by order of Supt. Palmer would be required before the account would be allowed by the accounting officers of the government. Mr. Martin's certificate does not state that the contract was fulfilled by Mr. Baker. There is no part or balance of any existing appropriation applicable to the payment of the account if the first-named difficulties were all removed.
    I re-enclose you the account.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 8; Letter Books G:10, page 282.



Department of the Interior
    July 19th 1861.
Sir,
    I acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th instant, transmitting a letter of resignation of Sub-Agent Sykes of the Oregon Superintendency, which you have accepted, and referring the matter of the appointment of Linus Brooks by late Supt. Geary to fill the vacancy for my action.
    The appointment of Mr. Brooks is hereby approved, and he can continue to discharge the duties of sub-agent until a successor is appointed to relieve him.
    The papers submitted by you are herewith returned.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Caleb B. Smith
            Secretary
Wm. P. Dole Esqr.
    Comr. Indn. Affairs
   

Alsea Sub-Agency Ogn.
    May 18 1861.
Sir
    I would most respectfully tender my resignation as Ind. sub-agent for Oregon.
    Hoping that I will be relieved at as early a day as possible
I remain sir
    Very respty.
        Your obdt. servt.
            J. B. Sykes
                Ind. Sub-Agt.
To
    Edward R. Geary
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 983-986.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Salem July 21 1861
Sir
    Your scythes & fish net twine will be here tonight on boat. I wish you would make an estimate of the amount of flour required at your agency for winter's supply, aside from what will be raised. Also state whether you would not prefer some if not all of the amount coarse. My opinion is that we can buy here as cheap as any place, unless you can buy near the agency. Your teams can haul from here as cheap as from Dayton. Let me hear from you on the subject fully. Tell Earhart to hyak ["hurry"]. I am mired down. Boss is gone, and the devil to pay generally. I am in a worse fix than ever & can't see out.
In haste yours
    Patton
P.S. I paid Hodge Haley for you. $100.07 in full of all demands.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Agency July 23rd 1861
E. R. Geary Esqr.
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs Oregon
            Sir, I came to this sub-agency having received a special appointment by your honor and took possession of its charge on the 24 day of June last. I found the Indians apparently peaceable and well disposed. Under the charge of my predecessor Mr. Sykes, a farm had been commenced. Twenty-five or thirty acres of ground had been broken and was under cultivation. Probably twenty-five acres were planted to potatoes; the remainder was sown to peas, turnips, onions and carrots. The potatoes and turnips promise an abundant crop. The peas, onions and carrots are inferior and doubtful, probably in consequence of the newness of the ground. I can have no doubts of the adaptation of the soil and climate to the successful culture of all the garden vegetables raised in Oregon, but doubt the practicability of raising wheat, in consequence of the proximity to the ocean, possessing, as it does, no protection from the storms incident to the sea beach. But this sub-agency is happily provided with rich bottom land and prairie adapted to the culture of grains. I have just returned from a tour up the Labush Creek, at the mouth of which this agency is situated, and find, at convenient distances, prairie and bottom land amply sufficient to render this agency self-supporting so far as breadstuffs will be required. I desire to commence farming operations upon this prairie without delay. The facilities for obtaining game, such as elk, deer & bear, cannot be supposed in Oregon, while for scale- and shellfish it is satisfactory to the Indians. I think the Indians, and the chiefs particularly, desire to abandon the chase as a means of their support, and as they say, live as the white man does. They manifest a willingness to work and appear to take interest in it.
    I am nearly destitute of flour and bacon. This gives some dissatisfaction to the Indians. The working must be fed, and I shall be under necessity of obtaining supplies soon.
    I found on my arrival at this agency two men engaged in beach mining, distant from the agency eight or ten miles. I permitted them to continue under the guarantee that they would maintain a strict observance to the laws regulating intercourse with Indians. I have had no cause for complaint in that quarter, but on the contrary a benefit has resulted to the government, as well as to the Indians, several of them being employed, get not only their board, but one dollar a day for wages in clothing such as they need.
    These mines are believed to be limited in extent and yield only from one to four dollars per day. The gold is in fine powder, and requires much skill and experience to save it. Three months at the site they are working the mines will have gone over the entire gold field now known on this reservation south of Yaquina Bay. From this fact, I do not anticipate any excitement hurtful to the interests of this agency.
    The number of sacks of flour now on hand is 39.
    Bacon 250 lbs.
    Sugar 425.
    I am issuing sparingly.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Linus Brooks
            Special Agt.
                Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 131.



Indian Uprisings in the Early Days
    Captain I. D. Applegate, who recently moved from Klamath Falls to Ashland, where he is fitting up a residence on Granite Street for his future home, was a former citizen of this city. Away back in the early development of the Rogue River Valley, Captain Applegate, then a young boy, lived here with his parents. His father, Lindsay Applegate, was one of the first settlers who crossed the plains in 1843, when this country was simply the outpost of civilization. Lindsay Applegate and his brother, Jesse, organized a small exploration party in 1846 who penetrated the Willamette Valley and made the first trail through to the Rogue River Valley. [It wasn't the first trail.] Here they made a home in the scenic valley where Ashland now stands.
    Captain Applegate, who figured prominently in the Modoc War in 1873, where he gained his title, has many interesting personal recollections of the early days of the Rogue River Valley, and can relate instances that would give thrillers to the moving picture business. The country was very new then, and the lives of the hardy settlers often hung in a balance, for this was at that time in the heart of the Modoc country. [The Modocs lived on the other side of the Cascades.] Shortly after these emigrants made their homes here the Indians went on the warpath, and the settlers throughout this valley were in constant danger.
    In a reminiscent mood recently the captain told of the rescue of an emigrant train from the Indians which occurred a short distance from Ashland, and in which he participated when he was a young man.
    "In the summer of 1861 relatives of the Andersons and Hyatts, who lived in this settlement, were expecting relatives from the East, coming with an emigrant train across the plains," the captain related. "Shortly before their arrival was expected, a party of men reached the valley bringing tidings that a cattle train had been attacked by Indians, and the leaders, Bailey and Evans, had been killed. A few of the party had escaped, and these had made their way to Ashland.
    "The tidings of this uprising caused consternation among the settlers who were expecting friends from the East, and a call was sent out to rendezvous on Kink Creek to go out and escort the travelers to safety. Provisions were furnished by the settlers, and a company of 42 men with my father, Lindsay Applegate, as captain, and Christ Blake first lieutenant hurried out across the mountains to the Modoc country.
    "On reaching Lost River our party went east where we left the emigrant trail and went through the tule marsh around a narrow point, known in that section as Bloody Point, between a high bluff and Tule Lake. Here we camped for the night on the shore of Clear Lake, not far from the emigrant road as it passed Clear Lake.
    "In the morning John McCoy and I started out to reconnoiter. We rode about one-half mile to the margin of Clear Lake, where we found marks of an emigrant trail, which our party had evidently missed by not following the regular trail past Bloody Point.
    "When we made this discovery we hurried back and notified the company. Captain Applegate immediately detailed four men to follow the emigrant train and try and ascertain whether or not they had escaped from the Indians. These four men, Marlon Anderson, Rev. George Brown, John McCoy and myself, followed the tracks of the wagons until they came down off the main bluff. Here we left the trail and went to the edge of the bluff overlooking an open plain, through which the trail was discernible.
    "From a high ridge we could see Indians in the valley on ponies flying in every conceivable direction. At first we could not see the train, but after awhile we discovered the wagons on the edge of the tule marsh and could see Indians between the lake and the marsh, cutting off the emigrants' escape.
    "Orders had been given us to keep in the open country while reconnoitering, in order to avoid ambush, and there to wait for the rest of the company. Instead of waiting for reinforcements, however, we started pell-mell for the wagons. As we got near we were much puzzled, as we could not see any signs of the people nor their stock. We rode more rapidly towards the barricade, but could see no life until we reached the wagons, when the besieged party were discovered lying on the ground with their guns sticking through the spokes of the wheels, waiting for an attack. At first they thought we were of the attacking party, and as we came nearer they came near firing on us. But when they saw we were white men, the wagons immediately took on life. The men sprang up with cries of relief, while women and children came from the wagons where they had been hiding. Their joy at their rescue was indeed great. They had been ambushed there for two days, and their cattle were starving.
    "Possibly the happiest person I ever saw in my life was an old man clad in Missouri jeans, the trousers of which only came to his knees. Barefooted and covered with sand where he had lain on the ground for the greater part of two days, he made his way to me and asked: 'Do you happen to have any tobacco about you?' I did 'happen' to have some blackstrap and cut off the old fellow a generous slice. After filling his mouth the old man walked away, the personification of happiness. He had just been rescued from death or a terrible fate from the hands of the savages, and had received the tobacco he craved for the past two days.
    "The Indians fled as soon as they saw us coming. They knew about our entire party within reach, and that we were armed, while their weapons were only bows and arrows. The rest of the rescuers, on hearing the shots, came riding up, and we were able to take the train out in safety. Among the men rescued was Floyd Farrer, whose death occurred in California a short time ago.
    "From the emigrants we learned that the party we were expecting had been warned of the Indian uprising at Reno, Nevada, and had turned off at that point and were following another trail through California. An escort was immediately started and met them somewhere in the south and brought them safely to Ashland.
    "Shortly after this, a rumor reached us at Ashland from Yreka that the year before Indians had attacked a wagon train at Bloody Point and had massacred the entire train with the exception of two women, who were taken to Klamath, where they were traded to the Klamath Indians. A company of men started out on an exploration tour in order to investigate this rumor. Following the trail we came out at what is now known as Klamath Falls, and there we saw what we thought was an Indian village, with smoke rising from their fires. On a nearer approach we saw for the first time the wonderful hot spring in that section, and what we took for smoke was steam rising from the spring. Passing over the hills from the hot spring we were astonished to come out upon a vast body of water. This was the great Klamath Lake. While we do not claim to be the first white men to discover it, it was the first time we had ever heard of it or knew that such a body of water was there.
    "As we came out on the rim of the lake we could hear a great commotion among the Indians on the river leading to the lake. We had been observed, and as the Indians had already had a taste of the white man's weapons, all the red men on the east side of the river were joining their companions on the west side, where they could easily make their escape.
    "We followed the margin of the lake around Rattlesnake Point and took the trail by Crooked Creek to where an agency had been established on what is now Pelican Bay, then home through the Dead Indian country. In our exploration we suffered no casualties, neither did we learn of the captured white women."
    Two other men besides Captain Applegate reside in Ashland who lived here during those stirring times, and who participated in these adventures. These are William Songer and John Mills, both aged men now, but with memories keen about the adventurous days when this country was young.
Ashland Tidings, April 25, 1918, page 8



William Rector Esqr.
    Superintendent of Indian
        Affairs for Oregon
            Sir, I have not taken a census in person
of the Indians under my charge at the Alsea Agency. As taken by my predecessor Mr. Sykes they number 600, I think, including the Alseas on Alsea Bay, the Siuslaws at Siuslaw River, and the Coos & Umpquas, which are not now at the agency, that they will number between six and eight hundred. The number which are now depending upon the government for subsistence & clothing is three hundred, and all manifest a desire to move onto the agency farm if they can be subsisted in part & I should require them to do so.
    Now, sir, if, as I suppose, the policy of this government is, first, the peace and safety of our citizens, and 2nd benevolent design toward the Indians, it seems indispensable that they should be encouraged in agricultural pursuits upon localities where they have been placed for that purpose. I have no means of knowing the effort which has heretofore been used or the amount expended for the Indians now under my charge. I have only to say that they have not up to this time produced anything for their support. I have no doubt, however, that they will be well rewarded for their labor this season by a full crop of potatoes & turnips. What cannot be successfully grown on the agency prairie, it being immediately upon the sea beach, I have therefore deemed it essential to open a new farm distant from the agency six miles. This prairie appears to me to be well adapted to the growing of small grains, as wheat & oats. This prairie is situated on Labish or Elk River, which is navigable with canoes from the agency to the prairie. I desire to break and fence forty acres this fall for the purpose of sowing wheat next spring. This accomplished will render the sub-agency at Alsea self-supporting so far as subsistence is concerned. In order to do this I must have subsistence supplies at an early day.
    I herewith transmit an invoice of articles of subsistence, clothing &c.
300 Indians ½ lb. flour per day
          "          ¼ lbs bacon
2000 lbs. salt
1000 lbs. sugar
        Clothing
150 coats
150 men's shoes
150 women's & children's shoes
300 pair pants
1500 yds. calico
300 pr. blankets
300 woolen shirts
3000 yds. domestic for shirts
300 yds. satinets for children's pants & coats
200 hats, woolen
6 doz. cot. hkfs.
500 pair assorted sizes men, women & children stockings
        Miscellaneous
1 gross coarse needles
1 doz. boxes soap
12 gross fish hooks
5 lbs. linen twine for fish lines
25 lbs. cotton twine for nets
3 doz. sheath knives
4 lbs. cot. thread
2 lbs. blk. linen thread
4 gross pant buttons
2 kegs powder --DuPont
3000 percussion capts
100 lbs. lead
100 lbs. tobacco
        Blacksmith tools & 50 lbs. steel
300 lbs. assorted iron
1 anvil
1 sledge
1 hand hammer
1 screw plate
1 vise
1 monkey wrench
Leather for bellows or one bellows
4 10-inch plows
1 doz. axes            2 brush scythes            ½ doz. mattocks
1 gross matches
2 gross ax handles
2 boxes candles
6 long-handled shovels
Respectfully submitted
    Linus Brooks
        Special Agent
            Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 137.  The transmittal for this letter is dated July 30, 1861.



Treasury Department
    Second Auditor's Office
        30 July 1861
Sir,
    In relation to the further claim of Mr. Anson Dart for traveling expenses as Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon $350 under the act of June 16th 1860 for his relief recd. from your office this day, I have to say that I do not consider that I have the authority or warrant of law to reopen the case, having once adjudicated the claim. The decisions are very uniform to the effect that where either departments or accounting officers have adjudicated upon a claim, they have no authority to review their decisions afterwards upon the same or similar state of facts. At the request of Dr. Dart the a/c is respectfully returned.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. J. D. Fuller
            Second Auditor
Wm. P. Dole Esqr.
    Comr. Ind. Affs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 658-659.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, August 1st 1861.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the official bond of my successor, Wm. H. Rector Esq., Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon, which I find duly executed.
    In compliance with your direction I have this day turned over to Mr. Rector the moneys, property, books and files appertaining to the office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Edward R. Geary
            Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
                for Oregon
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Commr. Ind. Affrs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 976-977.



Umatilla Agency, Oregon
    August 1st 1861.
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication bearing date June 1st requesting suggestions relative to changes in the existing laws and regulations of the Indian Bureau:
    I am of opinion that the intercourse laws are amply sufficient if properly executed, and if the exact proceedings necessary to bring offenders before the proper courts was explicitly stated in the regulations nothing more could be done for the efficiency of that branch of the service.
    It is desirable that the relative powers of the superintendents and agents of the Indian Department and the officers of the army on the frontier be fully and clearly defined by congressional action.
    When the interference of the military arm of the government is required for any purpose relating to the Indian service, the question of "necessity" frequently leads to a difference of opinion and a refusal on the part of the military to support the agent. Thus leading the untutored Indians to suppose that the agent is destitute of authority to enforce the laws or any regulation deemed necessary for the public peace or even to command respect. In my judgment the agent residing among the Indians and in continual intercourse with them should be the proper authority to determine when the necessity for the employment of force should arise.
    The relative duties of superintendents and agents should be clearly defined, since agents are authorized disbursing officers of the government. Dissatisfaction and hard feelings is frequently engendered by what is deemed an unwarrantable assumption of authority by superintendents in contracting for goods, stock, supplies, transportation or services, for certain agencies without the knowledge or consent of the agent in charge, and it is asserted frequently to the prejudice of the efficiency of the public service and interest of the Indians.
    It would appear that the laws and regulations (in the form of circulars from the Department) relating to accountability are sufficiently stringent. But I would submit that the allowance of mileage to superintendents, agents and others, traveling in the service, would greatly simplify and condense the accounts of expenditures for that purpose. Ten cents per mile would probably be about equal to the actual expense of traveling on the Pacific slope of the Rocky Mountains.
    The medical branch of the service will require a complete set of regulations and forms.
    I would suggest that the agent be required to purchase all drugs, medicines and hospital stores, on requisition of the physician, and turn them over to the physician, taking receipts, and drop them from his accounts, the physician being held responsible under certain regulations prescribed for that purpose subject to the approval of the agent.
    The physician's returns to accompany the agent's quarterly returns.
    In order to make the physician's accounts as short and explicit as possible, he should be authorized to expend such medicines as are administered in pills, tinctures, essences and mixtures, and take them up on his returns in the name of such mixtures known to the pharmacopoeia.
    It will be observed that the forms attached to the regulations of 1850 are almost entirely inapplicable to the service at present, but as you doubtless have every facility for the revision of the general forms in your office, I will only submit a few applicable to the foregoing suggestions relative to the medical branch, which you will please to find enclosed.
    Hoping that the foregoing suggestions may be of some importance,
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            G. H. Abbott
                Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Act. Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
[sample medical forms not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 672-678.



Portland Aug. 1st 1861
Sir--
    I deemed it might not be out of the way to drop you a private note. We do not know whether you have recd. your commission or not. You had better make arrangements by which you will get it as soon as recd. When it comes, you will necessarily have to come & get your bond approved.
    Mr. Rector desires me also to request you to make no removals, especially about the farming matters--I presume Capt. Miller's clerk will be busy in fixing up his papers. I would advise you by all means whoever you design to employ to have him obtain of Mr. Davenport (this present clerk) all the information he can.
    Capt. Miller says he will have everything ready at any day, and if you could go by Monday to take charge so much the better.
Yours truly
    T. McF. Patton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Aug. 1st 1861
Sir,
    I herewith enclose you an appointment as special Indian agent for the Grand Ronde Reservation. In making this appointment I am prompted in so doing for various reasons. Capt. John F. Miller, the present agent at that point, has expressed a desire to be relieved before any arrangements are made for securing the crops now matured, preferring that the new agent shall make all the arrangements & contract all the liabilities rather than he should assume the duties after they had been made. Anticipating your appointment by government as agent for that post, and desiring to accommodate Capt. Miller, I enclose you your appointment.
    You will give to Capt. Miller receipt for all moneys and property which he may turn over to you. In making the necessary arrangements for securing the crops now fully matured you will exercise your own judgment, contracting only such liabilities in that behalf as the interest of your agency requires.
    Further and more complete instructions will [be] sent you in due time.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Superintendent Indian Affairs
                State of Oregon
To
    J. B. Condon Esq.
        Special Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Aug. 2 1861
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the reception your communication of June 25th, informing me of my appointment and enclosing my commission and official bond. Having complied with your instructions thereto I proceeded to Portland on the 29th ult. Mr. Geary, being temporarily absent, returned on the 30th ult. On the 1st  ult. I answered the duties of my office.
    For all public moneys and other property turned over by my predecessor I gave the necessary receipts. I have appointed T. McF. Patton of Salem as my clerk. I have been intimately acquainted with Mr. Patton for years and I know him to be well qualified for the position which I have assigned him. I have also appointed Mr. James Brown as messenger. Mr. Brown has long been in this service under former superintendents, is well conversant with his duties, prompt, energetic and faithful, and his services in this Superintendency cannot be dispensed with. Other clerical force will, in all probability, be immediately required, but in no case will such be employed unless the interests of the Superintendency imperatively demand it.
    I take pleasure in testifying to the Department that I find the records, files and papers in excellent order, so far as I have examined the same, and I have no doubt but that further examination will strengthen this belief. I am much indebted to Mr. Geary for his kindness and the willingness manifested to impart any information which I might desire.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                State of Oregon
To
    Hon. Chas. E. Mix
        Acting Commissioner
            Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1042-1044.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Aug. 6th 1861
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the resignation of Capt. John F. Miller, Indian agent at Grand Ronde. Mr. Miller informs me that he forwarded his resignation to the Department sometime in May, and as no advices have been received in regard to it, he again tenders it and asks to be relieved. I have accordingly appointed J. B. Condon of Albany, Linn County, Oregon as special Indian agent for that agency. I have directed Mr. Condon to proceed at once to the Grand Ronde and relieve Mr. Miller. Instructions have been sent to Mr. Miller directing him to turn over all public moneys and other public property in his hands, taking the necessary receipts therefor. I have required Mr. Condon to execute a bond in the penal sum of twenty thousand dollars for the faithful performance of the duties of his office, which will be transmitted in due time.
    I would respectfully urge upon the Department the necessity of making an appointment for this agency immediately, if it has not already been done.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon.
    Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner Indian Affairs
   

Portland Oregon
    August 1st 1861.
Sir:
    I have the honor to tender you my resignation as Indian agent in Oregon, to take effect as soon as you can authorize some person to relieve me from any further official duties. If possible I would prefer that I be relieved on the 5th inst., as I do not wish to serve longer than that day unless compelled to do so.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John F. Miller
            Ind. Agt.
                Oregon
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Portland
                Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1064-1067.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland, Oregon, August 7th 1861.
Sir,
    In accordance with your instructions under date of June 25th 1861, I have the honor to transmit herewith my requisitions for funds appropriated by Congress under treaty stipulations with the Indians of Oregon and for general purposes of this Superintendency for the semi-fiscal years terminating on the 31st December 1861, amounting to the sum of eighty thousand one hundred dollars ($80,100.00/100).
    The treaty fund asked for embraces half the amount appropriated for this fiscal year, and the requisition is made from the laws of Congress making the appropriations, no other data being on file in this office (except copies of the treaties) by which the requisition could be made.
    You will observe that I have asked for the annuity fund due the "Umpquas" and "Bands of the Willamette Valley" under treaty stipulations, amounting in the aggregate to six thousand one hundred and fifty dollars ($6150.00/100).
    By reference to the laws of the last session I find that Congress failed to make any appropriations for the Indians above referred to, and as those Indians are entitled to the money by treaty with the government, I would respectfully ask that some assistance be given them from the contingent fund if it is possible to do so.
    As the appropriations for the fiscal year are so meager for the general purposes of this Superintendency, my requisitions have necessarily been very small, and trust the amount asked for may speedily be remitted.
    I would respectfully suggest that the funds be placed to my credit at the U.S. Sub-Treasury, New York, and authority given me to draw therefor as the money may be required.
I am respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon
Charles E. Mix Esq.
    Acting Commissioner Ind. Affs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1053-1055.




Salem August 7th / 61
J. B. Condon Esq.
    My dear sir
        Yours per express of the 6 instant is before me, for which I am obliged to you. You wish me to inform you whether I will accept of the appointment of physician to the Grand Ronde Agency, of which you are agent. Permit me to say to you that so far as you are concerned under all of the circumstances, if I should accept of the position I could not be better situated so far as the agent is concerned, yet there are objections that come up in my mind, and the greatest as I wrote you by our mutual friend Dr. Griffin, which is if I accept of the appointment I must be free from Rector as the first and 2nd I must have a steward, then I would accept of the appointment. So you see how I stand, and you will please inform me by return express or mail and oblige yours truly.
W. Warren
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Grand Ronde Agency
    August 8, 1861
Sir
    Your letter of the 6 inst. per express was received at noon today.
    I took possession of the agency on the 5 inst. On my arrival I endeavored to have the employees continue in charge, but in spite of all my entreaties they all left with one exception.
    We are getting along finely in saving the crops--the cattle are all well, and notwithstanding many embarrassments the prospects are brightening up. I am making no contracts for labor. I am endeavoring to have the Indians work and take their pay by taking a portion of the surplus grain belonging to the government and thus save the crop without any expenditure of money.
    I will do as you request in relation to the annual report. I will endeavor to make it complete. I will also attend to my bond immediately.
    I have appointed A. A. Skinner Esq. my clerk, who is now here.
    We are deficient in proper harvesting tools, but think we can get along with such as we have.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. B. Condon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 139.



Ashland Mills Oregon
    Aug. 10th 1861
Hon. W. H. Rector (Supt. In. Affrs.)
    Salem Oregon
        Dear Sir,
            Some time last season Thomas Pyle was appointed as a kind of temporary Indian agent to see after the Indians in this county or such as might come into it.
    Mr. Pyle I regard as an inefficient officer first on account of extremely bad health, 2nd his secession proclivities are so very strong that he cannot conscientiously discharge his duties as an officer under the present administration.
    As the time of year is now at hand when we have the most to fear from Indian depredations I would earnestly recommend the appointment of some thoroughgoing man in the place of Mr. Pyle until such times as there can be a primary agency established east of this. I know of no one better calculated to enter upon the duties of that office now in this county and who would accept of it than Capt. Lindsay Applegate. If such would meet with your approbation I am sure it would with the people out here.
    Having learned, from a creditable source, that some 60 or 70 of the Rogue River Indians had returned to this county, I thought it proper to acquaint you of that fact, and also urge the appointment of someone who would have the authority to inquire into their object & who would do it.
    It is suggested to the minds of many of us that there is mischief ahead in this part of the state.
    The government has enemies in this county that, I think, would do anything in the power of demons to set the law at defiance & bring about a reign of terror, and should these who are about to give up their Indian agencies be possessed of the same evil spirit and counsel the Indians under their charge to "secede"  and will undoubtedly have hot times--too much care & attention cannot be bestowed.
Respectfully yours &c.
    J. C. Tolman
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 146.



Fort Yamhill Oregon
    Aug. 11 1861
Dear Sir,
    This Indian Peter begs of me to intercede for him to go to Dayton to get his family & a load of salmon which he has there. He is very anxious to get a wagon & oxen.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. &c.
        P. H. Sheridan
            Capt. Comdg.
To
    Judge Skinner
        Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Indian Agency
    August 12 1861.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            Before making the usual fall purchases of clothing &c. for the Indians on my reservation, I would suggest to you the superior advantages, in my opinion, to the Indians as well as to the government of obtaining some articles that are manufactured here instead of as heretofore been done, purchasing eastern-made articles. In my last year purchases I obtained a small quantity of the blankets manufactured at the Willamette Woolen Manufactory, which cost less [than] the eastern-made blankets and have given much better satisfaction to the Indians, being a better and more endurable article. Instead of purchasing pants ready made I can obtain a suitable article of cloth from the said factory and have it made up by the Indians on the reservation at a less cost than the ready-made articles can be procured besides being much preferable. I can also purchase the yarn for their socks and get them made in the same manner. I have some Indians who can now make up the aforesaid articles, and there are plenty who can soon be taught.
    This in my opinion is a much better course to pursue than purchasing & giving them the articles ready made. It will be less expense to the govt. [and] will give the Indians better and more endurable articles, besides which it will be learning them habits of usefulness to themselves, which of course is one of the main features intended in our present system of reservation.
    I have no funds on hand at present applicable to this purpose and would request your opinion as to whether I had better wait until the necessary funds come on or purchase the material now on the credit of the government so that they may be made up and ready to distribute to the Indians in time for the approaching winter.
Daniel Newcomb
    Ind. Agent
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 142.




Siletz Indian Agency Ogn.
    August 12th 1861.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            I would respectfully submit the following statement of present existing circumstances at my agency and ask your instructions in the premises.
    My crops are about ready to harvest, for which I shall require the labor of some five hundred Indians for about two months, and while these Indians are at work I shall be compelled to furnish them some means of subsistence, or I fear it will be impossible to get them to perform the labor. Besides these I have a number of Indians, some blind, and others owing to various physical & bodily infirmities that are totally unable to procure their own subsistence, who will necessarily require some assistance until the crops for this year are gathered in.
    You will perceive by my quarterly report to June 30, 1861 that I have no means of subsistence on hand but potatoes, and they owing to being kept so long, being last year's crop, are now almost wholly unfit to use. Large crops of grain were raised on the reservation last year which have entirely subsisted the Indians here up to the present time. These supplies are now exhausted, and I have no funds on hand applicable to this purpose. I am therefore compelled to request instructions from you as to what course I shall pursue.
Daniel Newcomb
    Ind. Agent
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 143.



Jacksonville Aug. 12 1861
Wm. H. Record Esqr.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs Oregon
        Dear Sir, I heard yesterday that over 400 of the Rogue River Indians had returned to their old camps on Rogue River & that the reason for so doing was that the government had not furnished supplies as formerly. Now what I want to get at is this: Are they to be fed by the government. If so, what kind of provisions & can I have something to do with it. I have considerable beef & would be glad to dispose of it at remunerative prices. Beef is trading from 6 to 10 cts. per lb. & could be furnished on foot for 5 or killed for 6. Will you please communicate to me your intentions. I am rather hard up. Property is coming down & not much hopes of a raise. If the Indians are to be returned I would like to know it. In fact, I fear they will not be safe out here, though the hard cases are not so plenty as formerly.
    I would take it as an act of friendship if you would write me & if you can favor me without detriment to the government or friend I shall feel under lasting gratitude.
Your friend
    L. A. Rice
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 149.



Siletz Ind. Agency Oregon
    Aug. 15, 1861
Sir
   
I have the honor herewith to transmit my second annual report of affairs at this agency.
    Since my last report I have made some improvements in the way of potato houses, quarters for Indians &c., but have not been able to do as much as was required on account of not having funds to purchase building material.
    The crops for this year with the exception of the wheat will be about as good as last. The wheat was injured materially by the long continued rains during the spring and will not be an average yield; it is also very much injured by smut. It will be necessary to procure fresh seed wheat for next sowing; that raised here this season will not be fit for that purpose. We raised this year about 235 acres of wheat, 550 acres of oats, 400 acres of potatoes and about 30 acres of turnips. Peas were sowed, but owing to the bad quality of the seed are almost an entire failure. Cabbages & other garden vegetables are raised by some of the Indians.
    Before commencing farming operations this fall it will be necessary to procure some fresh work oxen. Some of those on hand now were old when they were brought here and are now totally unfit for any further service.
    The health of the Indians has been good as a general thing during the past year. Considerable sickness prevailed among them during the first spring months, in consequence of their eating green roots &c., with that exception though they have been as well as their habits and manner of life will admit of.
    In my last report I referred to the fact that in consequence of the treaties with the coast tribes of Indians not having been ratified, much dissatisfaction existed among them. That feeling, instead of diminishing, is steadily increasing, and it has been with great difficulty that I have succeeded in pacifying them thus far, and I fear unless some immediate action is taken with regard to them it will be utterly impossible to restrain them.
    These tribes constitute by far the greater proportion of the Indians on this reservation. There are but two tribes, viz: the Shasta Scotan & Rogue River, with whom treaties have been ratified. These are in regular receipt of their annuities, and with them I have no difficulty. They are entirely peaceable and apparently perfectly contented, while the others complain, and with apparent great justness, that though treaties were also made with them, and they gave up their lands and came here to live, thus fulfilling their part of the stipulation, they are receiving nothing that was promised them on the part of our govt. I would respectfully and urgently suggest that some immediate action be taken for their relief; either that their treaties be ratified, new ones made with them, or special appropriation be made that will place them on an equal footing with the other tribes. Unless this is speedily done I fear it will be impossible to keep them under control; that they will return to their old homes (now in many instances settled and occupied by white families), with feelings embittered by what they consider the bad faith of the whites. Should this occur it will cost the government vastly more to subdue them again and bring them in than to provide for them here now, besides probably involving considerable loss of life and property to our citizens.
    I regret to be obliged to report unfavorably of my school. Though the children exhibit a capacity for learning, it is impossible while under the control of their parents to get them to attend school. I have therefore abandoned it for the present.
    The mills referred to in my last report as in course of erection, viz: a grist mill and sawmill have been completed,and have been of great benefit during this year. The nonarrival of the funds appropriated for that purpose has caused me considerable embarrassment, but 5000 dols., half of the sum appropriated, has been received.
    Before making the usual fall purchases for annuities, present goods &c., I would respectfully suggest the advantage to be derived, both to the Indians and the govt., in purchasing blankets and most of the articles of clothing from goods that are manufactured here, instead of, as has heretofore been done, procuring those made in the eastern states. In making my purchases last fall I obtained a small quantity of blankets made at the woolen factory at Salem, which cost less than the eastern made, were superior to and gave greater satisfaction to the Indians than any I have before received. Instead of purchasing their pants, shirts and other articles ready made, cloths, flannels and yarns for socks might be procured from the said woolen factory, and their clothing be made up by Indians on the reservation. I have several who can make all those articles now, and there are plenty who can soon be taught.  This course would furnish the Indians better articles than they have usually received, at a much less cost to the govt., besides which it would inculcate habits of usefulness to themselves, which, of course is one of the principal objects intended by our present system of reservation.
    I herewith transmit a census of the various tribes of Indians located on this agency, to wit:
Tribes under treaty
    Men Women Children Total Horses Cattle
Rogue River 42 49 52 143 22 -
Shasta Scotan 20 28 68 116 12 3
    Total 62 77 120 259 34 3
Tribes not under treaty
    Men Women Children Total Horses Children
Coquille 55 71 95 221 19 2
Mikonotunne 49 84 114   247   8 2
Noltanana 14 17 40   71   3 -
Tututni 44 54 70 168 14 3
Sixes 32 41 53 126   2 4
Joshua 41 63 84 188 14 4
Flores Creek 11 13 34   58 - -
Shasta Costa 48 59 107   214 10 3
Port Orford   5 12 17   34 10 1
Euchre 34 57 86 177 12 4
Chetco 62 96 104   262 13 3
   Total 395   567   804   1766   105   26  
Recapitulation
    No. of Indians under treaty 259
No. of Indians not under treaty 1766
Total No. of Indians on reservation 2025
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Daniel Newcomb
            Ind. Agent
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, no number.



Salem Aug. 16th 1861
Mr. J. B. Condon
    Indian Agent Grand Ronde
Dear Sir, Quiniba, the bearer of this, is a good, industrious Indian, is much liked by all who have employed him--is honest so far as I have any knowledge after a year's acquaintance, has worked for me--and for my neighbors--can do any kind of common hard work and do it as you tell him, and do it well. He is no nuisance to us or to any place where he lives. I hope you will give him a large liberty unless some evil is known of him. With which I have no knowledge.
Yours truly
    O. Dickinson
P.S. Mrs. Gaines has just come in. She wishes me to say to you that if your brother has the place of teacher (as I have heard since I wrote) she would like to come into an appointment under him. Please write if such an opportunity offers--the terms &c.
Your brother.
    O. Dickinson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Aug. 17th 1861
Sir,
    The office having been duly advised from authentic sources that immediate danger is to be apprehended from the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians on the confines of the settlements of Rogue River Valley, and that a large band of Indians formerly located on the reserve is now prowling around in the settlements from whom trouble may reasonably be expected, I hereby appoint you special Indian agent in the service of this office for the Indians in Southern Oregon, and especially the Klamath Lake and Modoc tribes. Your appointment will continue for six months, until the Department can be advised of the immediate necessity of establishing an agency in the Klamath Lake country.
    Your salary will be at the rate of one thousand dollars per annum, to commence from the time of entering upon the discharge of your duties, and payable at this office at the close of each fiscal quarter.
    You will advise this office immediately upon the reception of your appointment whether you will accept the same.
    Should you do so you will spare no pains to discover these Indians, reported as having left the Grand Ronde and Siletz agencies, and ascertain from them the cause of their leaving--whether they [are] provided with passports &c. and report at once to this office.
    In the discharge of your official duties you will contract no liabilities on their behalf without first advising this office, and receiving written instructions authorizing the same.
    I trust that in the exercise of your official duties you will be able to communicate much valuable information in reference to those Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians, which may be useful in assisting the Department in determining upon the propriety of establishing an agency in that locality.
    I trust that you will accept the appointment here tendered, and that your presence in an official capacity will have a tendency to prevent annoyances and disturbances among the settlers so seriously apprehended.
    Hoping to hear from you promptly and fully concerning all matters and things of interest to the service,
           I remain
Very respectfully
    Your obt. srvt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. of Indian Affairs
Lindsay Applegate Esq.
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 20-21.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland  Aug. 17 1861
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge yours of the 10th inst. transmitting information to this office in regard to the presence of a large band of Indians in Rogue River Valley, and expressing fears in regard to depredations being committed by the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians. I have had the matter under consideration and from other authentic sources similar fears having been expressed I have deemed it advisable to appoint Capt. Lindsay Applegate special Indian agent for the Indians in Southern Oregon.
    His appointment with necessary instructions will be transmitted to him by tomorrow's mail.
    I regret exceedingly to learn that these Indians have returned to Rogue River, and I fear that they have no good designs in so doing. Their proper place is on the reservation, and if they are parties to any treaty they should know that without "written permission" from their agent they have no rights beyond the limits of the reservation.
    I am satisfied that the appointment of Mr. Applegate will give general satisfaction to that section of Oregon, and I trust that he will receive the hearty cooperation of all good citizens in his endeavors to preserve peace and order among the Indians in that locality.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. James C. Tolman
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 21-22.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Aug. 17 1861
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge yours of the 12th inst. in regard to the presence of Indians in your valley. In answer I would state that I have appointed Lindsay Applegate Special Agent for Southern Oregon and who is fully authorized to attend to all matters pertaining to them.
    I would state however that this office will not countenance the furnishing of any subsistence to these Indians whatever, as long as they remain outside of the reservation.
    Their proper place is on the Grand Ronde and Siletz reservations, and unless they remain there they cannot receive any favors whatever.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
L. A. Rice Esq.
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 22.



Office Alsea Sub-Agency
    August 20th 1861
    I have the honor to transmit to the Superintendency of Indian Affairs for Oregon my first report of the Alsea Sub-Agency.
    The location of this sub-agency is at the mouth of Labush River, nine miles south of Alsea Bay, and twenty-two south of Yaquina Bay. Its location in regard [to] those advantages which are promotive of the best interests of the Indians is all the government could wish for, or the Indians reasonably desire. The prairie is well protected from encroachments on the south by Labush River, on the west by the ocean, and on the east by a high mountain range. The necessity, therefore, of fencing these three sides is dispensed with; a fence of eight hundred yards in length across the north end makes the enclosure complete. This prairie extends along the sea beach two miles north from Labush River and averages one thousand yards in width and contains 724 acres of tillable land, unsurpassed in richness, and though doubts may be entertained in regard to the successful cultivation of wheat upon it, yet experience demonstrates the practicability of obtaining abundant crops of potatoes, turnips, carrots and peas, and it is believed that spring wheat, barley, oats and rye may be grown with equal success.
    Labush River is fifty yards wide at its mouth and is navigable for canoes a distance of six miles. Its valley ranges from fifty to two hundred yards in width and is slightly covered with maple, alder and white cypress. Extending, as it does, into the heart of the Indian hunting grounds, it is their favorite retreat, many of whom have selected their garden grounds and are now cultivating potatoes upon them. Bear, elk and deer are abundant, while the sea beach furnishes them with all the varieties of shell and scale fish. With these advantages, I can see no reason why, under the fostering care of the government, these tribes may not become a prosperous, happy and self-sustaining people at an early day. It may be well to remark that on the 24 day of last June, when I took this sub-agency in charge, I found the Indians disheartened and faithless in regard to the cultivation of their lands. J. B. Sykes, my predecessor, had been unsuccessful in his efforts to obtain remunerating crops for the Indians in the past year, probably in consequence of unavoidable casualties, yet the Indians were incapable of discovering the cause of the failure. The same ground, twenty-five or thirty acres in all, had been broken up and planted to potatoes, sown to turnips, onions, carrots & peas previous to my arrival. Either from the backwardness of the spring or some other cause unknown to me, the seeding had been deferred until the first of June; consequently, at the time of my arrival the prospects of a crop the present season was the most unpromising, but by careful cultivation, in which the Indians reluctantly participated, the crops in their vigorous growth have far exceeded my anticipations, and I am happy to say that I now entertain no doubts that the Indians will realize ample rewards for their labor in an abundant supply of potatoes until another crop may be raised. No longer disheartened by former discouragements, the Indians are exultant and happy and manifest a willingness to labor at my bidding.
    Although doubts, as I before observed, may [be] entertained in regard to the practicability of raising wheat on Labush Prairie, yet from a personal examination of the prairie at the head of navigation distant six miles, I entertain no doubts that fall-sown wheat may be raised there in sufficient quantities to answer the demands of this sub-agency. For a wheat farm it is all we could desire, and to place this prairie under cultivation seems to me to be highly important, as no agency can be self-supporting until by [its] own labor it can subsist itself.
    I have no means at my command of knowing the amount of appropriations applicable to these tribes under my charge. I infer, however, that they are limited and inadequate to place them on an equal footing with those tribes, whose treaties have been ratified. Just complaints are made upon this point, and much dissatisfaction prevails. The Alseas complain that the government has placed the Coos, Umpquas and Siuslaws upon their hunting grounds and fishing without paying them a just compensation for their lands, while all are murmuring about the treaty they made with the government through Gen. Palmer, which, they say, not only promised them farmers but mechanics, school teachers, doctors, a plenty of stock and farming implements, which they have never had and never can have unless the old treaty is ratified or a new one made with them and ratified. And permit me here to suggest that a new treaty may now be made with these tribes much more favorable for the government than the old one, and be both adequate to meet their wants and satisfactory to the Indians, for this reason. They are now on this reservation. They esteem it as their home and wish to move no farther. They are tribes friendly to each other and more or less related by intermarriage. Their growing crops convince the more intelligent of them that this farm is capable of giving them the permanent comforts of subsistence, which they have never had, and I feel no hesitancy in saying that, with proper management, their expectations will be fully realized to them. Nevertheless they will require government aid in subsistence supplies until they can raise their own, which may be accomplished by the end of another year. It will be remembered that these tribes were collected into this reservation last season and that this crop, now growing, is their first. If the incidental and subsistence fund cannot in their application to these Indians render the assistance which they need, then justice requires that they should be paid something for their lands, which by treaty they were induced to leave, and which are now possessed by the whites.
    I cannot withhold my convictions that intense suffering will be experienced this coming winter by them, exposed as they are upon the sea beach, unless timely aid is afforded by the government in blankets & clothing.
    The subsistence supplies which you had the kindness to forward per sloop Fanny will, with careful management, with their potatoes and other articles of subsistence which they may otherwise obtain, suffice them for six months, yet then there may be great difficulty in getting supplies to them. The months of March and April are unfavorable for vessels to make a safe entrance into either of the two harbors, Yaquina or Alsea. Yaquina might be preferable at that season of the year, and transports have usually been landed there. But to receive them there would add one-third to their cost through the expense of packing a distance of twenty-two miles, and being intercepted by Alsea Bay. The risk and damage of goods ferried across this bay in open canoes may also be taken into the account.
    From this view of the case it seems indispensable that the supplies for this post should be obtained and forwarded in the summer months when a landing can be effected in Alsea Bay with apparent safety. Nor is this all the advantage that would accrue. Usually there is a depression in trade at this season of the year, and all of those supplies, both of clothing and subsistence necessary for the Indians, during the winter months may be purchased at reduced rates.
    Being prompted by a desire to render the most efficient service to the government, I had made arrangements, so far as was practicable for me, to break and fence forty acres of the land referred to at the head of navigation on Labush River, for the purpose of sowing wheat in the spring, but my limited means indicates the propriety of suspending all further efforts in that direction for the present.
    There being no necessity of keeping in employ two employees on the agency farm, I shall dispense with one so soon as the subsistence supplies which you sent are received and secured.
    Mr. George Collins and Mr. Cutler E. Hume have been in employ on this sub-agency farm in the care and cultivation of the crops, the repair of the agency buildings, building of a potato house and cellar, cutting and putting up hay for winter &c. since the 24th of June last. There being no blacksmith allowed to this sub-agency, I labor under great inconvenience, as I can get no repairs done at any point nearer than forty miles. It is essential that a person competent to do both the blacksmithing and carpenter work for this agency farm should be supplied by the government. There are those competent to do the work of both, and the labor would not be excessive.
    The Indians under my charge are peaceable and ask only to live where they are, enjoy the blessings which the government has promised and be permitted to remain, as now, unmolested. I have never had occasion to call the aid of the soldiery to suppress any unlawful acts, nor resort to violent treatment in order to control them. Not one drop of spiritous liquors has been introduced among them, nor any violation of their rights perpetrated during my stay with them. This  may be attributed to the isolated position in which they live. It is too far out of the way to be liable to those pernicious influences which unprincipled men often exert over Indians by the violations of the law of intercourse with them.
    After a careful and economical calculation I find the necessary appropriations for the Alsea Sub-Agency for the fiscal year commencing with the first of July 1861 to be as follows
For farming implements $275.00
   "   purchase of two mules 200.00
Subsistence for laborers 1650.00
Old and infirm 500.00
Bacon for 192 laborers in addition to subsistence above, for 200 days 3600.00
Clothing for men including blankets 3627.80
Clothing for females in calico, domestic, socks, shoes &c. 2000.00
Clothing for children 300.00
Medicine & groceries for the sick 500.00
Incidental for expenses not enumerated     2000.00
$14652.80
Added to the above, for transportation of supplies     1200.00
$15852.80
I have the honor to be
    Your obedient servt.
        Linus Brooks
            Special Agt.
                Alsea
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Superintendent
        of Indian Affairs
            for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Aug. 24th 1861
Sir
    At the earliest solicitation of several prominent citizens of Southern Oregon who have expressed fears in regard to their safety on account of the presence of several bands of Indians in that vicinity, I have appointed Capt. Lindsay Applegate Special Indian Agent for that section of country for the period of six months from the date of his acceptance.
    His compensation will be at the rate of $1000 per annum. Capt. Applegate is an old citizen of this state, and well qualified for the duties assigned him.
    I trust his appointment will meet with your approval.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 27.  Original letter on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1087-1088.



Ashland Mills Ogn.
    Aug. 28th 1861
Wm. H. Rector Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Portland
        Yours of the 17th inst. was duly received, also the appointment of a special Indian agent for Southern Oregon is now in the possession of Capt. Applegate's family--he being absent.
    Owing to the well-known hostility of the Indians in the vicinity of Goose Lake, fears were entertained for the safety of the emigrants coming in on the southern route to Oregon. Consequently a company was raised & started out in great haste to guard the emigrants through. By the earnest solicitation of the volunteers Capt. Applegate consented to be their commander and is now absent on that expedition, but I think will return inside of three weeks.
    You can rest assured he will accept of the appointment and enter upon the faithful discharge of his duties immediately on his return.
    There is no doubt but Applegate will be able, on his return, to communicate important information to your office in regard to the tribes of Indians bordering us on the east.
    I have learned that he had a talk with the chiefs of those tribes on his way out.
Very respectfully yours &c.
    J. C. Tolman
P.S. We will endeavor to keep matters quiet with the Rogue River Indians during Applegate's absence.
J.C.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 158.



Umpqua, Oregon.
    September 1st 1861.
Sir,
    Your communication of the 1st of July, enclosing statement of the exceptions taken to my accounts for fractional fourth quarter 1859, in the course of the examination in your office, has been received, and I respectfully submit the following explanations of the suspended vouchers.
    Abstract A., Voucher 1, Joseph E. Clark, doors & windows--The remarks submitted in my communication of the 31st of January last in respect to Voucher 3, Abstract "A," 2nd Quarter 1859 will apply to this voucher, though the windows and doors charged for in this purchase do not include door frames or window frames.
    The window sash purchased in second quarter was single sash, and I obtained it with the frames included for four and one-fourth dollars for twelve lights, while double dash of the same number of lights cost four dollars without frames.
    Property Return--Abstract "B," Vouchers 1, 2 & 3--Issues of flour to Indians.
    The explanations of similar vouchers in third quarter 1859, which I submitted in my communication of the 10th of March last, will apply to these vouchers in fourth quarter 1859.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. P. Drew
            Late Sub-Ind. Agent
Wm. P. Dole Esq.
    Com. of Ind. Affs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 724-726.



Ashland Mills
    Jackson Co. Oregon
        Sept. 2nd 1861
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of August 11th, tendering me the appointment of special Indian agent for this section.
    I accept the appointment, hoping that my experience with Indian character, and any knowledge of the country, may be exercised for the public good.
    I returned home last evening after an absence of fifteen days.
    I visited the Modoc and Klamath Lake Indians. I found them in an undecided condition. They had lately been solicited by the Pit River Indians to join them against the whites.
    We had an interview with the chiefs and exerted our influence to prevent such coalition and establish good feeling toward the whites. The Modoc & Klamath Lake tribes are united, so that situated as they are it is in their power to do much damage. By the speedy establishment of an agency in their country a general outbreak of the Indians may be prevented.
    I will start in the morning to ascertain the cause of the return of the Rogue River Indians and report immediately.
I remain very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Lindsay Applegate
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 162.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Sept. 3, 1861
Dear Sir
    On examination of the treaties with the different tribes of Indians located on this reservation I have not been able to find provision made by stipulations now in force for the employment of either a physician, blacksmith, carpenter, farmer or teacher, except for the confederated tribes or bands of Umpquas, Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley and Molallas.
    The provisions of the 3rd art. of the treaty of Jan. 4, 1855 with the confederated bands of Indians in the Willamette Valley expired in five years from the time of their location on this reservation, which was sometime during the past summer.
    Unless there are provisions in said treaties which I have overlooked, or some act of Congress or regulation of the Department which authorizes it, I do not see how any portion of the time with the employees above named can be devoted to the service of other bands or any of the medicine or materials used for their benefit, nor can the mills grind or saw for any other tribes than those above named.
    It will be wholly impracticable to carry on the farming operations of the agency without the assistance of more than one farmer. And other tribes beside the Umpquas, Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley and Molallas need the services of the physician, carpenter & blacksmith. It would be very difficult if not impossible to manage them if deprived of these services.
    Will you favor me with any information in your possession, and your instructions on this subject.
    I have no means of knowing the quantity of land enclosed on this reservation--the quantity under cultivation--in pasture &c. The quantity enclosed is nearly if not quite the same that it was when Capt. Miller made his last annual statement. Can you give me the quantity reported by him.
    When it becomes necessary to employ a messenger, should he take receipts for tavern bills, ferriage &c., or is the receipt of the messenger to the agent specifying the items a sufficient voucher.
    When does the fiscal year commence--does the first quarter commence on the first of July.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. B. Condon Ind. Agent
            By A. A. Skinner
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 159.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Sept. 6th 1861
Sir,
    Complaints having been filed in this office in regard to the conduct of certain Indians which have escaped from the Grand Ronde Agency and returned to their old haunts in Rogue River Valley and demands having been made by the citizens of that valley for their prompt removal, I have appointed you special agent for the purpose of collecting those Indians and removing them to the agency from whence they came.
    In view of the conduct of these Indians towards the settlers of that valley, together with their avowed determination to remain at that place, it will be necessary for you to procure a small military escort to ensure your mission successful.
    You are authorized to call upon Capt. F. J. Dent, commander at Fort Hoskins, who will furnish you with a detachment of troops for this purpose.
    In perfecting your arrangements for the removal of these Indians, you will procure the assistance, means of transportation and such subsistence as in your judgment will be required.
    Should these Indians be in possession of any subsistence of their own you will transport the same for their use while on the way. In the removal of their camp fixtures and equipment you will bring nothing with you unless it has some actual value, or is necessary for their comfort and convenience.
    In order to meet the expenses incident to their removal I transmit herewith the sum of [blank] hundred dollars, which you will disburse (or so much thereof as may be necessary) with a strict view to economy.
    Your own compensation will be paid at this office at the rate of one thousand dollars per annum, to commence from the time of entering upon the discharge of your duties, and to cease when you report yourself as having accomplished the object for which you have been appointed.
    In all your disbursements you will be extremely careful to take the necessary vouchers. In your ferriage accounts you will use your best endeavors to have [them] reduced to the lowest possible rates. The subsistence necessary for the employees (and Indians if necessary) can be obtained at different points on the route, thus avoiding the necessity of transporting it any great distance.
    In issuing subsistence to the employees and Indians, you will be governed strictly by the Army Regulations, allowing one pound of beef or three-fourths of a pound of salt meat, and one pound of flour to each person per day. The issues of subsistence will be kept on separate abstracts, showing the amount issued to Indians and to emigrants.
    In the issuing of forage, you will be governed by the same regulations. The ration of forage is eight pounds of hay and twelve quarts of oats to each horse per day. It would be advisable to apportion the Indians into different bands or families  and to issue rations to each head of family or band for several days at a time. This would prevent the wastage in daily issues and would be less trouble to the person issuing.
    I would recommend you to procure teams in this valley for the transportation of their baggage and supplies, as I am satisfied that they can be had at much less rates than they could be obtained in Rogue River Valley. In connection with the removal of these Indians, I desire you on your return to the Umpqua Valley to ascertain if there [are] any Indians in the vicinity of Lookingglass Prairie who have heretofore been located at the Siletz Agency.
    Should you find any located there you will cause them to be removed and brought with the others to this valley and delivered to Agent Daniel Newcomb at the Siletz Agency, while those brought from Rogue River will be delivered to the agent at Grand Ronde.
    I trust sir that you will use all possible dispatch in discharging the duties assigned you, and as soon as the Indians have been delivered to their respective agents you will report yourself at this office without delay for settlement.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
B. F. Rector Esq.
    Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 29-31.



    APPREHENDED INDIAN DIFFICULTIES.--Fifty or more Rogue River Indians have returned to their old hunting grounds on Sams Creek, about fifteen miles from this place, and assert that it is their country and that they propose to occupy it, and to make their society still more interesting, they tell the settlers there that three or four hundred more will join them in a few days. As an evidence of what they intend to do, they have turned some of their horses into a pasture and told the owner, at his peril, not to take them out. Unless the authorities give immediate attention tot his matter, trouble may be expected.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
Oregon Argus,
Oregon City, September 7, 1861, page 2



Ashland Mills
    Jackson Co. Oregon
        Sept. 7th 1861
Sir:
    In compliance with your instructions, I have visited the Indians on Rogue River.
    I found after one day's search seventeen, consisting of five men, ten women and two children.
    They are living on an island in Rogue River, near Table Rock.
    They professs not to know the whereabouts of any more.
    The reasons they give for leaving the reserve are that they were not protected against the murderous designs of stronger bands, that their chief "Ben" had been murdered on the reserve, for which outrage nothing had been done, and that they had been left on their own resources.
    There are rumors of Indians being seen in other places in the mountains. Perhaps some may make their way to the Klamath Lake tribe, and others along the coast toward the mouth of Rogue River.
    What Indians are found here should be kept from the vicinity of Jacksonville, where they are under bad influences.
    They profess perfect friendship toward the whites; they only want something to eat and be allowed to visit their old hunting grounds &c.
    They are now living on fish and berries. They express great horror at the idea of returning to the Yamhill.
    In my recent trip east [to the Klamath Basin] I became fully convinced of the influences of bad white men at work with the Indians, trading them arms and ammunition.
    I am also fully satisfied of the necessity of an agency outside the settlements, with sufficient force to keep the peace. Without such force I can do but little. I had with me 40 volunteers who turned out to protect the immigrants. This force enabled me to command the respect of the Indians.
    These Indians have but little regard for treaties now without they see a force sufficient to carry them out.
    I will represent the facts as they are, trusting that your good judgment will be exercised for the best.
I remain yours
    very respectfully
        Lindsay Applegate
Hon Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 166.



Grand Ronde Agency
    September 16, 1861
Sir,
    In compliance with the regulation of the Indian Bureau I have the honor of submitting the following report.
    On taking charge of this agency on the 5th of Aug. last in obedience to your instructions of 1st ult. I found no books or papers
in the office which gave me any knowledge of the mode of conducting the business, nor was I successful in my endeavors to retain in the service of the Department the persons employed by my immediate predecessor. With the exception of the physician and miller & sawyer, they all refused to remain, thus leaving me without the necessary assistance to carry on the operations of the agency.
    I supplied their places as soon as practicable, but have found much embarrassment from having all new employees, although they have shown an industry and devotedness worthy of the highest commendation.
    The grain on the farms cultivated by the Indian Department, and that belonging to individual Indians, was ripe and demanded my immediate attention, and consequently I have not been able to bestow that attention upon the general interests of the agency that will enable me to give all the information that under different circumstances would be expected of me.
    There were about seven acres of wheat & about the same number of acres of oats belonging to the agency that were worth harvesting. A large portion of the oats sowed on the agency farms last spring, either from unskilful cultivation or inherent defects of the soil, proved a total failure. I have now secured in the barns all the grain belonging to the Indian Department, but as it is not yet threshed out I cannot give the number of bushels. The wheat will not average more than twelve or fifteen bushels per acre, and the oats will not exceed twenty-five bushels per acre. In securing the crops of the Department, I have labored under very great embarrassment from having no funds in my hands applicable to that object.
    The Indians have secured the greater portion of their grain; the average yield will be very small. They have cultivated about the same quantity of land in wheat this year that they did the last, but from unskilful cultivation their crops are very light, much of their wheat not being worth harvesting, their oats being also almost a total failure. From the facts above stated I am of opinion that they will not have sufficient grain to support them until the next harvest, and as they have but few cattle which they can kill for beef, and there being little game on the reservation, or in its immediate vicinity, unless provided for by the government, there will be much suffering among them before spring.
    From what I have seen of the soil and climate on this reservation since I have been in charge, I am inclined to the belief that with proper encouragement and superintendence, in a very few years these Indians can be induced to raise sufficient grain for their own consumption, and thus relieve the Indian Department of all the burden of their support, except the annuities provided for in treaty stipulations with the various tribes located on this reservation. But in order to accomplish so desirable an object, it will in my opinion be necessary to continue to them the benefit of all the treaty stipulations heretofore in force.
    In relation to the number and kind of buildings, the quantity of land enclosed in cultivation & in pasture, I beg leave to refer you to the Statement of Fixed Property on this reservation, herewith transmitted, marked A.
    On taking charge of the agency, I found the barns, warehouses, blacksmith's, carpenter's and tin shops in tolerable repair, but the dwelling houses for the agent and employees were in a very dilapidated condition, requiring a great amount of repair to render them inhabitable. There being no building suitable for an office for myself or the resident physician, I shall be under the necessity of fitting up an old building for that purpose, at an expense almost equal to that of building a new one, as it is impossible at present to procure lumber with which to build. I am informed that a short time before he left the agency, my predecessor, John F. Miller Esq. had two small houses removed from the vicinity of the agency buildings and given to Indians, either of which would have made a very good office for the agent or physician.
    The greater portion of the land which has been in cultivation by the Department is not in a condition suitable to be put in grain this fall, much of it being so foul as to require summer fallowing to render it fit for any kind of grain. From what I have seen since I have been at this agency, I am satisfied an entirely different course of cultivation must be adopted to secure success in our agricultural operations. Deep tillage, summer fallowing, and a judicious-system of surface drainage must be resorted to, or the soil will soon become exhausted. I deem it of the first importance that the farming by the Department should be such as to furnish an example that may be safely followed by the Indians.
    As near as I can estimate it without actual measurement, I judge the Indians have in cultivation on their own account about thirteen hundred acres. Many of them show a commendable degree of industry and forethought in the management of their farms, and the stock acquired by their own industry or furnished by the government. And from the attention I have been able to give the subject, I am of opinion that it is for the interest of the Indians to have their tribal organizations broken up as soon as possible practicable, to have the greater part of the land apportioned out to the heads of families, and each individual taught to rely upon his own exertions, and be secured in the full enjoyment of the fruits of his own industry.
    There are many old and infirm persons and orphan children who will continue for years to require the paternal care and aid of the government, and it will be necessary for the Indian Department to continue to raise a large amount of grain for their support. In order to carry on the fanning operations of the Department and give the Indians the necessary instruction and supervision, it will in my opinion be advisable to employ two farmers—one for the Clackamas, Molallas & Tumwaters, and one for the Umpquas, Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley and Rogue Rivers, and a superintendent of farming to have charge of the other tribes located on this reservation, and a general supervision over all the farming operations of the agency, being the same number of persons employed for that purpose by my predecessor.
    It would be unreasonable to expect these people to accomplish, in the few years they have been located on this reservation, so great a change in their habits, from their former indolent, vagrant and wandering life, as to be able, without constant supervision and encouragement, to procure a subsistence by the pursuit of agriculture and the arts of civilization.
    For a more particular account .of the farming operations of this agency, I beg leave to refer you to the report of the superintendent of farming and the report of the Umpqua & Rogue River farmer, herewith transmitted.
    From the limited time I have been in charge of this agency, it has not been practicable for me to take the census, nor can I give you any information with reference to the moral or physical improvement of the Indians since their location on this reserve. In relation to their present physical condition, I refer you to the report of the resident physician.
    By reference to the third art. of the treaty of Jany. 22, 1855 with the confederated bands of Indians residing in the Willamette Valley, you will see that the provisions of said treaty in relation to the employment of a physician, a school teacher, a blacksmith and superintendent of fanning expired in five years from and after the removal of said Indians to their permanent reservation. I have not the data from which I can ascertain the precise time when those Indians came onto this reservation, but from the information in my possession, presume it was in the fall of 1855 or spring of 1856. If at either of those periods, the provisions of said treaty above referred to have expired.
    These Indians are not yet sufficiently advanced in civilization to manage their farming operations without the advice and supervision of an intelligent and skillful white farmer, nor will it be practicable to keep them on the reservation, and exert that control over them which their future welfare requires, without the services of the employees above referred to.
    If the view I have taken of the treaty with the confederated bands of the Willamette Valley is correct, it appears to me that some provision should be immediately made by Congress for the continuance to them [of] the benefits of the stipulations of said third article. By treaty with the Umpquas & Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley, provision is made for a physician, blacksmith & carpenter, who would be sufficient for all the Indians on the reservation, if such provisions were made as would entitle them to a portion of the services of those persons. It is only necessary to provide for a farmer and superintendent of farming in addition to the one allowed the Umpquas & Calapooias of the Umpqua Valley, making altogether two farmers and one superintendent of farming on the reservation, being the same number heretofore employed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James B. Condon
            Special Ind. Agent.
William H. Rector Esq.,
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, enclosure to No. 173.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Sept. 18, 1861
Dear Sir
    Enclosed please find my annual report and those of the different employees on this reservation.
    My report has been made under most embarrassing circumstances, and undoubtedly contains some inaccuracies and crude suggestions, which I hope in view of the situation I am placed in you will overlook.
    In my estimates for expenses for the current year I have not put in any amount for stationery, as I have no means of forming an opinion as to the amount needed. You can probably ascertain from the accounts of the last year what amount will be wanted for the current year.--will you please insert the proper amt. Through mistake I put down the footing, which you will please to change.
    I have also included estimates for amounts needed for purchase of wagons, plows & oxen and for repairs of mill and mill dam, which I suppose will be taken from the proper annuity funds. If so perhaps they need not have been included. If it is not necessary that they should accompany my report will you please detach them.
    I have also stated the amount on hand applicable to the different objects for which I have asked for appropriations that you may see how much is actually required for the current year.
In great haste
    Truly your friend
        J. B. Condon
            By A. A. Skinner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 173.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Sept. 23 1861
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the official bond of Linus Brooks, special Indian agent at Alsea. Owing to some informality or insufficiency of the securities, Hon M. P. Deady, U.S. judge, returned the bond to Mr. Brooks for the necessary affidavits of the bondsmen, which accounts for the delay in its transmission.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1103-1104.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Sept. 24th 1861
Sir
    I transmit herewith a copy of a letter received from John F. Miller, late Indian agent at Grand Ronde, in regard to paying for clerical services rendered him in the closing up of his accounts.
    At his request I transmit the subject matter therein contained for your consideration and decision.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington City
            D.C.
   

South Yamhill, Oregon
    September 20th 1861
Sir,
    In order to avoid delay in making up my final papers and closing up the business of my agency, I have found it necessary to retain the services of my late clerk Mr. M. Davenport for one month, during which time he has been actually employed, and then is justly due him the sum of one hundred dollars for the same.
    There being no funds in my hands for the payment of his services, I would respectfully refer the matter to you for settlement.
John F. Miller
    Late Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Agency
To
    Wm. H. Rector Esq.
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Oregon
[invoice for clerical services not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1105-1109.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Sept. 24th 1861
Sir
    Enclosed herewith please find the official bond of Benjamin R. Biddle, Indian agent for the Indians in Oregon, which I have examined and find to be executed in accordance with the regulations of the Department.
    I have assigned Mr. Biddle to the Siletz Agency in accordance with the tenor of his appointment and have ordered him to proceed at once to the Siletz and be prepared to relieve Mr. Newcomb on the 1st day of October.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs, Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1097-1098.



Annual Report
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Sept. 25th 1861
Sir,
    In compliance with the regulations of the Department, I have the honor to submit my first annual report, with accompanying papers.
    Having so recently assumed the duties of this office (scarce two months since), I have not been able to visit any of the agencies, or to make myself acquainted with the condition of the various reservations in this jurisdiction. Two of the agents have resigned, and the vacancies been filled by special appointments from this office, of which you have been heretofore duly advised.
    The retiring agents did not feel disposed to submit any report, while those newly appointed not having sufficient time to acquaint themselves with the wants and condition of the Indians under their charge, have not been able to furnish this office with the information desired. Owing to this, my position is rather awkward and embarrassing, leaving no other resources from which to draw than my own personal knowledge of the country and the general character and the general condition of the Indians.
    I entertain no fears of any outbreak or hostilities being evinced by any of the Indians now located on the reservations and enjoying the benefits of treaty stipulations.
    Some trouble, however, may reasonably be expected owing to the fact that some evil-disposed persons have endeavored to impress upon the Indians' mind that we have no government, that their "Great Father" will not pay them anything more for their lands or give them any more presents. These communications are made to the Indians in a clandestine manner, with a view, no doubt, to incite them to hostilities.
    I can conceive of no other object they could possibly have in view by so doing. Where this influence has manifested itself, every precaution has been taken to counteract it.
    In some instances Indians have left their reservations and returned to their old haunts, where they must necessarily steal or starve, and an Indian is not likely to hesitate which of these to choose.
    The Indians of Rogue River, with whom we have had so much trouble in former times, are the principal ones that have abandoned their reservations, and unless they are speedily returned, will induce many others to go and give the settlers in that locality much annoyance and trouble.
    I have accordingly appointed a special agent, with instructions to call upon Captain F. T. Dent, commander at Fort Hoskins, for a military escort to proceed at once to Rogue River, and if possible to collect and return these fugitives to their respective agencies.
    From the well known and determined character of some of these Indians, I am fearful that the agent will meet with resistance, but should his mission prove successful, and the Indians be induced to return to their agencies, I am confident the peace, order and confidence heretofore prevailing can be fully restored, provided the stipulations of the treaty are faithfully observed.
    On the 14th day of August I received from A. P. Dennison, Indian agent for the Indians in Oregon, a communication informing this office that two white men had been killed and robbed in the Cascade Mountains in the vicinity of Barlow's Gate, together with others in the vicinity of Tygh Valley.
    Agent Dennison proceeded with all possible dispatch to investigate the affair, which resulted in the discovery of three bodies, and satisfactory information that other murders had been committed in the immediate vicinity & the bodies secreted. These facts were reported to Captain Whittlesey at Fort Dalles, who promptly detailed a detachment of dragoons to accompany agents Dennison and Logan in their search for the murderers. They called upon [one] of the chiefs and obtained such information as would implicate several Indians, some of whom had already escaped. One was shot in endeavoring to escape; two others were arrested by soldiers and employees at the reservation. Demand was made upon the chief for the arrest and delivery of those who had escaped. This demand has been complied with, and all the Indians in any way connected with these outrages have been arrested and are now awaiting their trial. In consideration of the services of the chief Huck Up, who acted so promptly in discovering, arresting and delivery these criminals, I have directed Agent Logan, now in charge of that agency, to make him a present of a horse and some clothing. He is very poor, having been robbed by the Snake Indians of all his property. Great credit is due agents Dennison and Logan for their commendable promptness, as well as the energy which they have displayed in ferreting out these murderers and bringing them to justice. The Indians in their confession say that they committed the murders for the purpose of procuring money with which they could buy whiskey. I trust that the example which will be made of them will deter others from committing similar offenses.
    The Indians located on the Warm Springs Reservation, and under the charge of Agent Logan, are at present quiet, and with the exception of the above-mentioned acts nothing has transpired in that agency showing discontent or insubordination. The report of Agent Abbott, in charge of the Umatilla Reservation, shows the Indians in his charge to be in a very prosperous condition.
    He reports the aggregate wealth of the Cayuse, Walla Walla and Umatilla Indians at one hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars, consisting principally in cattle and horses. The Indians confederated and located on this reservation are far superior in point of intelligence to any other tribes in Oregon. The Cayuse and a large portion of the Umatilla evince a natural taste for agricultural pursuits and a great desire to acquire a thorough knowledge of all that appertains thereto.
    Four hundred and seventy acres of land arc reported to be in cultivation, with prospects of good crops. The liberal stipulations made with these tribes cannot fail to place them in a thriving and prosperous condition. Attention is called to Agent Abbott's report, and especially to that portion referring to the failure or neglect of the Department to remit the funds which should have long since been forwarded. This unnecessary delay on the part of the government places the agent in a very embarrassing position indeed. I have called the attention of the Department more particularly to this in another portion of my report.
    In connection with the treaty stipulations made with these tribes, it was agreed that a wagon road should be "located and opened from Powder River or Grand Ronde to the western base of the Blue Mountains south of the southern limits of the reservations."
    This road is now being located and opened, and should nothing occur to retard the work it will be completed early next spring and in good order for the incoming immigration of next year.
    The stipulation authorizing the locating and opening of this road was certainly a wise one, and well calculated to result in great practical good to the Indians as well as the settlers in Umatilla Valley.
    The old road from "Lee's encampment" passes directly through the southwest portion of the reservation, and many serious difficulties would, in all probability, have occurred had. not provision for the road been made. But this road, being located some fifteen miles further south, will prevent any difficulty on account of the intermingling of their stock or any other cause. In regard to the policy which I have adopted in "locating and opening" this road, you have already been advised. There is one difficulty, however, to contend with in the management and care of the Indians located on the Umatilla Reservation as well as that of Warm Springs.
    Recent discoveries have proven conclusively that extensive gold fields exist in the immediate vicinity of these reservations. This will undoubtedly induce hither many adventurers in search therefor, among whom we may reasonably expect to find many bad men and much bad whiskey, neither of which have the least tendency to promote their well-being or advance them in civilization.
    There can be nothing more detrimental to the Indian service than the introduction of these two evils among the Indians on reservations, or even those outside. Were it not for these we might cherish a strong hope of making some advancement towards civilization. But as long as they are tolerated or countenanced, even in the vicinity of reservations, no beneficial results can be expected.
    A great many enterprising individuals with limited capital have established themselves at trading posts in the vicinity of the reservations and contend that, inasmuch as they are not on the reserve, that the agent cannot interfere or molest [them]. Yet the evil consequences which result from their presence are as keenly felt as if the trader was firmly established in the agent's house, acting under authority of law.
    The law provides that in order to make it penal that the whiskey or other liquor shall be disposed of "in the Indian country." It certainly is very defective if a person can be allowed to vend and dispose of his whiskey when but a few yards from the boundary of the reserve, and not come within the purview of the law.
Shoshones or Snakes
    This formidable band occupy the eastern portion of the state. The character and habits of this tribe have been so ably and correctly described by my predecessor in his last annual report that it would be useless for me to attempt any further description concerning them. Of their actual number but little is known. One thing is certain, however, that they are a much-dreaded and powerful foe, and each succeeding year only adds to their wealth and power.
    They are rapidly accumulating arms, ammunition and horses, and as long as they are permitted to commit their depredations on citizens immigrating to this state, or passing through their country, without any other effort being made to check them than is made by the emigrants in their own defense, we may expect a repetition of the murders and robberies of other years.
    Efforts have been made by the military in several instances to punish them for their oft-repeated acts of violence, yet in almost every instance they have signally failed. The Indians have evaded them, and no sooner had they returned to their quarters than the Indians, elated with their success in evading them, sought a favorable opportunity to satiate their desire for robbery and murder. A communication from this office under date of October 4th 1860, communicating the intelligence of a bloody massacre at Salmon Falls, affords ample evidence that such has been the case.
    In order to avoid a similar disaster, and to guarantee protection to the emigrants, Congress at its last session appropriated fifty thousand dollars to provide an escort for such as might desire to avail themselves of it. The benefits resulting from this very liberal appropriation by Congress has not yet been fully realized. Large parties of emigrants have already arrived in Middle and Southern Oregon, but no intelligence whatever up to this date has been received from those coming under the protection of the government escort.
    In regard to the proper course to pursue towards these Indians, I am at a loss to suggest.
    I am satisfied, however, that a much less sum judiciously disbursed in the purchase of presents and other articles for their benefit would be much better calculated to suppress these continued forays upon weak parties of emigrants than all temporary escorts. No attempts have ever been made to obtain their friendship or good will, except by my predecessor, Mr. Geary, last summer, and even then no preparations were made by which any permanent benefits could be expected.
    I am well satisfied that Mr. Geary, in his efforts last year to establish friendly relations with those Indians, made a serious mistake by availing himself of the protection of the military expedition going into their country.
    This precaution was not in my opinion very well calculated to produce favorable results. Every military expedition heretofore entering their country have gone for the express purpose of chastisement, and even in this instance, according to Mr. Geary's own report to the Department, under date of May 14th 1860, one of the principal objects of the expedition was "to impress a salutary fear on these marauding bands." The very presence of a military force was evidence to them that their intentions were hostile. The consequence was that the Indians evaded him--sought every opportunity to annoy and harass the troops--watched every movement--followed close on the heels of the military on their return, and as soon as they were fairly out of sight pounced upon Warm Springs Reservation and stole all their stock.
    I do not speak of this with any design to reflect in any way or manner upon the course pursued by Mr. Geary. I firmly believe he acted in good faith and with an earnest desire to promote the general prosperity of the country by establishing such relations with those Indians and the government as would guarantee safety to the lives and property of our citizens while passing through their country. I only refer to it to show that inasmuch as he failed in his efforts, some other course must be adopted in order to accomplish the desired object.
    The necessity for prompt and immediate action by which friendly relations can be established is more apparent now than at any former time. The resources of the country are fast being developed. All of the available land east of the Cascade Mountains susceptible of cultivation is fast being occupied. The recently discovered gold mines on the Owyhee, Malheur and Burnt rivers will entice hither many hardy pioneers who, in search of further and more extensive deposits, will explore every mountain gorge accessible to man.
    In view of these facts, and to guarantee protection to the lives and property of such of our citizens as may be engaged in these explorations, I would recommend an appropriation of twenty-five thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs or some other person duly authorized by the President to negotiate with these Indians for the right to travel through their country and to mine therein without interruption.
    I have every reason to believe that amicable relations can be entered into with them and that they will faithfully observe them.
    Major John Owen, Indian agent among the Flatheads, informs me that he has conversed with the principal chiefs among these Indians at various times in regard to their acts of violence towards the whites. They justify their conduct towards the Americans by saying that we have never talked with them--have never given them any presents; have not even broke tobacco or smoked with them, while the Blackfeet and other Indian tribes have had presents from our people for the privilege of making roads through their country. I do not propose with this appropriation to enter into a perpetual treaty for their lands, but merely to secure free and uninterrupted travel through and the right to mine therein. Should this subject meet with a favorable consideration by Congress, and the necessary funds be appropriated for its accomplishment, I would recommend that measures be taken early in the spring to collect them together, and have an understanding prior to the time when the miners would resume their operations, or the approach of the emigration.
    For further information in regard to the Indians in southeastern Oregon, I would respectfully call your attention to the report of Agent Lindsay Applegate. Mr. Applegate has lately visited that country, and is well qualified, from his thorough knowledge of Indian character to judge of their immediate wants, while his suggestions and recommendations are worthy of consideration.
    I desire to call your special attention to the condition of the Indians on the Coast Reservations under the charge of agents Newcomb and Brooks. By reference to their reports you will discover that, out of 2572 Indians now located on those reservations, only 259 are treated with. The attention of the Department was called to this matter by my predecessor, Mr. Geary, in his last annual report, but from some unknown cause no provision whatever was made for them. These Indians are all embraced in the treaty of August 11th 1855, and include all the tribes on the coast from the Columbia River on the north to the southern boundary of Oregon.
    They were removed to their present locality by Sub-Agent Joshua B. Sykes, by order of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated September 3rd 1859.
    From the time of removal up to the present time they have been subsisted and otherwise provided for out of such funds as were at the disposal of the Superintendent and applicable to the purpose.
    No special appropriation to my knowledge has ever been made for their benefit in lieu of treaty stipulations. They have acknowledged their dependence on government--have abandoned their homes and removed to the reservations, relying implicitly on the faith of the government to comply with the stipulations of the treaty. These stipulations have never been fulfilled, and no reason assigned to the Indians why government has failed so to do.
    They have been located on the reservations some two years, during which many liabilities have been incurred by Sub-Agent Sykes, which should have been discharged long since.
    Owing to the meager appropriations for the service in this state during the present fiscal year (scarcely adequate to meet current expenses) it is impossible for this office to provide for their immediate necessities or further wants without incurring other liabilities, which I feel reluctant to do without instructions from the Department authorizing the same. Taking into consideration the promises which have been made to these Indians at the time of negotiating these treaties, together with those made by the agents subsequent to their removal, it is certainly due them that some provision be made, which will guarantee and secure to them equal rights, privileges and benefits with those now under treaty.
    Supt. Geary in his last annual report suggested that it was not desirable that these treaties should be ratified. I do not myself think that it would be policy to ratify the treaties at this time. I feel well assured that if the same benefits, advantages and comforts were extended to these Indians as are now enjoyed by those under treaty, confidence would be restored, and that all murmurings, complaints and symptoms of insubordination would cease.
    I hope that this matter will be duly considered by the Department and such recommendations be made to Congress in their behalf as may seem proper and just.
    The Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation have been since the 5th of August under the care and supervision of James B. Condon, special Indian agent, appointed by this office to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of John F. Miller.
    The report of Agent Condon gives a detailed statement of the condition of that agency. Owing to the late day which this report was received, I am unable to give it that consideration which it deserves.
    I desire, however, to call your special attention to the condition of the property lately turned over to the present agent.
    All the mechanical tools are worn out or broken; out of twenty plows only two are reported as fit for use. The wagons are out of repair, while the horses and mules are not worth wintering, and even the agency buildings are in a dilapidated condition.
    I regret very much that such discouraging reports are submitted, especially from agencies that have received as liberal appropriations as that of Grand Ronde.
    I have submitted in my annual estimate the amount which will be required for repairs on the mills and for the necessary fixtures to make them complete, which I trust will meet your approval.
    Other repairs are very much needed, yet I hope by strict economy to be able to accomplish all that will be necessary out of the appropriations already made. I would call your attention to the treaty stipulations with the Umpquas and Calapooias of Umpqua Valley of the 29th November 1854. The second article of this treaty provides that the United States shall pay to said confederated bands the sum of two thousand and three hundred dollars for the term of five years next succeeding the first five. By reference to the laws and appropriations for the past two years you will observe that Congress has failed to comply with the stipulation. I have estimated for this deficiency, and trust that you will embody the same in your estimate for the ensuing fiscal year.
    Close observations of the workings of the reservation system convince me that sufficient encouragement has not been given to those who evince a willingness and desire to acquire a permanent home. All the treaties provide that the President may have discretionary power to cause the whole or any part of the reservations to be surveyed and assigned to such Indians as desire to avail themselves of the benefits resulting therefrom.
    They also provide that such rules and regulations may be prescribed as will secure to the family, in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession and enjoyment of the property thus acquired. This provision is well calculated to benefit the Indians, and had sufficient encouragement been given them at an early day, and a fair proportion of their annuities expended in stock, agricultural implements and articles given them as their own individual property, with instructions how to use the same, and assurances given that all benefits and profits arising or accruing therefrom should inure to their own personal benefit, I am confident that the reservations would exhibit more thrift and general prosperity than they do at present.
    The Indians have but little property, if any, of their own, except such as they have acquired through their own exertions. There may be a few exceptions to this, but as a general thing the entire annuity fund has been expended for articles required for the general use of the Indians on the reservations, and not for individuals or heads of families.
    All the agricultural implements, teams, tools &c., are accounted for by the agents. It is true that the Indians are allowed the use of these articles when not otherwise engaged, but they should know and understand that these beneficial objects were designed for their use and control.
    In some instances Indians have made improvements of a permanent character, and have labored assiduously for the comforts of a home. Every inducement therefore should be held out to them, and every facility offered to enable them to procure their own subsistence, acquire property, and obtain a permanent home. The introduction of fruit trees on the several reservations should have received the attention of those in charge long since.
    It is apparent that disbursements for such beneficial objects as these are well calculated to promote their well-being, and show an intention on the part of government to provide something for their benefit that will yield an income when the stipulations of their treaty are expired. I am confident that there is no other article that could be procured that would yield a quicker and more abundant return, and none that would be more acceptable or more highly appreciated by the Indians.
    This would be one important step towards civilization. It would render their homes attractive. It will be a permanent and profitable investment, and one well designed to break up their wandering habits. There can be no question as to its practical workings or beneficial results. It commends itself to every intelligent mind without further argument.
    I would therefore recommend an appropriation by Congress of twenty-five thousand dollars for the purchase of forty thousand fruit trees, and to provide for the transplanting and culture of the same on the several agencies for the term of two years. These trees to be distributed among the several agents according to the population of the Indians under their charge. Your attention has been heretofore called by my predecessor to the impropriety of disbursing in the Atlantic States the appropriations made by Congress for beneficial objects.
    This course has been pursued ever since the ratification of the treaties and still continues to be faithfully observed, notwithstanding the objections and remonstrances of the Superintendent and agents thereto.
    It was undoubtedly intended, by the wording of the treaty, that the annuity should be expended for "beneficial objects," under the direction of the President, for such articles as in his judgment would promote their well-being, advance them in civilization for their moral improvement and education, buildings and opening farms, purchasing beans &c.
    The articles forwarded have invariably failed to give satisfaction to the Indians. They are of inferior quality--unsuited to their wants or tastes.
    Besides, it consumes the entire annuity fund for "beneficial objects," and a large portion of the incidental fund to transport these articles to the place of distribution. No good can possibly result from such a course, but, on the contrary, great loss. Better articles can be obtained in this market at a less price, and such as are adapted to their wants. This fund should be husbanded and disbursed for objects calculated to benefit the Indians, and not in such transparent trash as has usually been received.
    One half of the amount judiciously invested in the purchase of articles actually required, suited to their tastes and applicable to their wants would render more satisfaction and would have a greater tendency to promote their well-being and advance them in civilization than the whole amount expended in the manner which it is.
    The policy adopted at present only tends to embarrass the operations of the agent and creates in the Indian's mind the impression that there is a deliberate intention on the part of government to defraud them out of their lands. I have no reason to suppose that any facts which I might present for the consideration of the Department would induce this ruinous policy to be abandoned, when all the efforts of my predecessor have failed. Yet I cannot feel conscious of having discharged my duty without presenting the facts as they exist, and pointing out to you the evil consequences which will inevitably result from further attempts to force upon them annuities which they are unwilling to receive.
    Dissatisfaction and discontent already exist among the Indians, on account of such imposition, and should any overt act of hostility be committed by the Indians on account thereof, the responsibility must rest where it properly belongs and not chargeable to this office nor the people of this state.
    I cannot close my report without calling the attention of the Department to the necessity of being prompt in the remittance of such funds as have already, or may hereafter be appropriated for this Superintendency. Only a portion of the funds appropriated in 1860 have as yet been received, and had the remainder been remitted at the proper time there would be no necessity of entering any complaint at this time.
    It cannot be expected that public business can be conducted on as economical [a] scale without funds as with them, especially in a country where money commands 3 per cent per month.
    It is due the employees of the Department that they should be punctually paid at the close of every quarter, and that all articles purchased by the Superintendent or agents should be promptly paid for at the time of purchase.
    Without funds it is impossible to comply with this rule, and in almost every instance where purchases are made on credit we must necessarily pay a large percentage on account of the delay in receiving their pay.
    There are instances here in this jurisdiction where parties have certified vouchers for services, supplies and transportation furnished to the Department years ago, and still remain unpaid.
    This is wrong as well as unjust.
    No debts should be contracted exceeding the appropriation, while the Department should be [omission] that the Superintendent receives that which was designed he should receive in good time in order to meet the expenses of his Superintendency.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon 
Hon. W. P. Dole,
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 45-55.



Ashland Mills Jackson Ogn.
    Sept. 25th 1861
Dear Sir
    I received your note directing me to meet your son at Jacksonville by the 17th which I did and waited in that vicinity two days, and he has not yet arrived as I know of.
    I have been endeavoring to get the run of some of Old John's Indians in the mountains between Rogue River and the Klamath and others down toward the coast. Those are here yet on the old reserve. They say they were informed that their right is still good to the reserve, but I think they can be persuaded back without much trouble.
    I think it will be a hard matter to collect the most of them before winter. That season will confine them to one place. I hope to hear from you soon.
Yours respectfully
    Lindsay Applegate
William H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 176.


    THE REPORTED MASSACRE NEAR GOOSE LAKE BUT A JOKE!--We have at last obtained the key to the story about the reported massacre by the Indians of a train of immigrants in the vicinity of Goose Lake. It appears that a certain gentleman, residing not more than a thousand miles from this city, was expecting the arrival by way of the plains of a young lady towards whom he felt a weakness, and in whose welfare he felt an unusual interest. His neighbors, becoming possessed of his secret, concluded to frighten him and have a little fun all to themselves, and so got up the story of the massacre of the train by the Indians. To make the story as bad as possible, they killed off the whole caravan except one man. Him they permitted to live in order that the fate of his companions might be made public. The train, and with it the young lady, reached the settlements a few days ago, all safe and sound. The "joke" may be all right and very funny to those that were in [on] the secret, but to us, who have published the rumor and lamented the cruel fate of the unfortunate immigrants, it is not so funny.--Yreka Journal.
Weekly Humboldt Times,
Eureka, California, September 28, 1861, page 1



Fort Hoskins Oregon
    30th Sept. 1861
Dear Sir
    But a short time since I furnished an escort to your son (special agent) for the purpose of endeavoring to take and bring back some Indians who had left the reservation and gone back to the Rogue River country. That party has not yet returned. They may be successful; if so it may in a measure put a stop to Indians leaving the reservation and going to their old homes. If they are unsuccessful I fear a large number of those now on the reserve will follow their example and go south. The reason assigned by the Indians for wishing to leave the reserve is that they have not food or clothing, nor can they get either if they remain on the reserve. A new agent has now come in, and I would respectfully urge upon you the absolute necessity of immediately supplying him with food and clothing for the Indians under his charge if it be the wish of the Indian Department to retain the natives who are still on the reservation, otherwise you may I think surely expect an exodus before spring. It is idle to hide the fact that farming for the extent of a sustenance of all the Indians on the reserve is an utter failure, and I may also state that the grain produced is of such inferior quality as to be almost useless. Potatoes they have, but they cannot live on those alone. Beef and flour should go there at once before the wet weather sets in or you will be cut off from the trail route to the reserve by high water.
    I should be highly pleased sir to renew our former acquaintance, and should you come to this part of the country make my house your home.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        F. F. Dent
            Capt. 9th Inf.
                Comdg. Fort Hoskins
Mr. Rector
    Superintendent of Indian
        Affairs for Oregon
            Portland
                O.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 175.  A copy of the letter is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1124-1125.



Siletz Indian Agency
    October 1st A.D. 1861.
Sir;
    In obedience to your general instructions of Sept. ult. I have this day relieved Daniel Newcomb, late Indian agent at this reservation, and have the honor of submitting the following report, as introductory upon entering upon my duties as agent.
    I have upon examination found nearly all the improvements of a permanent character in a very dilapidated condition. The houses of the agency are all in want of repair, and it will be necessary to build new ones in place of some that will have to be torn down and removed, as they are not fit for any purpose whatever. There is not a house on the reservation that is in a condition suitable for a person to winter in, and more particularly is this the case in reference to families. The houses all leak, and many will need new roofs entirely.
    The farming implements are all in very bad order with some few exceptions, and may be regarded as almost useless. Many of the wagons are worn out, and all are more or less damaged--the plows, ox yokes and chains are in the same condition. It will be necessary to replace the entire lot, or nearly so, of agricultural implements before another crop can be sown. An early attention to this matter is urgently solicited.
    The work oxen are generally very old and broken down, and I would recommend that they be turned out on grass to fatten and be slaughtered for beef, and that younger cattle be purchased to supply their place.
    The wheat crop for the last year was almost an entire failure--for what particular reasons I am not now able to say. The yield as estimated will not average more than eight bushels to the acre, and all of which is so badly eaten up with smut as to be almost entirely unfit for use. Upon an examination of the wheat stored in the barns in the sheaf, it is found that under the bands it is now moldy, in consequence of its being stored before it was properly cured. And owing to this failure of the wheat crop, flour must be supplied to these Indians from other sources. If this is not done it will be a difficult matter to keep a portion of them on the reserve. They are even now making complaint and threats in anticipation of suffering from this cause during the coming winter. The oat crop is tolerably good; being mixed with much fern in the sheaf it is impossible to compute with any degree of certainty the quantity in bushels on hand. All the farms except the agency I think will have a supply. It is my intention to have all the straw from threshing preserved, so as to ensure a supply for the cattle during the winter. The potato crop is growing finely, and bids fair to yield abundantly.
    I find that a great portion of the Indians, especially those with whom no treaties have been made, are quite naked; great numbers only partially, and the remainder very indifferently clothed, and those that have clothing obtained it by begging and working in the white settlements. Adequate clothing, at least equal to that supplied to Indians under treaty, must be given to those with whom there is no treaty, or discontent and abandoning of the reservation will soon be the consequence, and deprived of this supply they can not endure the rigors of the coming winter without being fearfully decimated by the diseases and suffering that must necessarily result from such privations. I have received from the late agent a few remnants of goods purchased by him for presents, which I will distribute to those most in need.
    Upon consultation with the late agent and farmers, I am led to believe that barley and rye will grow and yield on this reservation much better than wheat, and will have the virtue of at least being clear of smut, and the flour made from the same is at all times a good substitute for that made of wheat. If this suggestion is approved of by your department, an immediate response is solicited, for the reason that the sowing season is now at hand. About six hundred bushels of barley will be required for such purpose. If it is not determined to make the substitution, at any rate it will become necessary to purchase an equal quantity of clean, sound wheat, free from smut, to sow the next crop, as the wheat now on five of the farms (the other one being on higher and dryer land, raised some wheat, which by the free application of vitriol will do to seed that farm) is almost entirely unfit for any purpose whatsoever..
    The saw and grist mills are both apparently in excellent order, and the former if properly managed will prove to be, as it has already been, of positive benefit to the Indians. Timber of the best quality is both abundant and convenient, and the Indians manifest a willing disposition to build new and substantial dwellings in the place of the miserable hovels which they now occupy. To encourage them in this commendable enterprise, it will be good policy to furnish them the quantity of nails &c. requisite for building purposes. The water is too low at this time to saw lumber. I will employ a few of the Indians in cutting saw logs, while the miller is putting things in a condition to saw as soon as there is water sufficient to run the mill.
    A portion of some of the tribes on this reservation [who] evinced a spirit of insubordination and sullen opposition, as I am informed, to the wishes of the late agent, have made effort and to a limited extent have succeeded in spreading the same spirit through a portion of the different tribes--caused by the long delay attending ratification of the treaties--and the consequence will be, unless they are supplied with ample food and clothing during the coming winter, a general outbreak.
    The buildings of this agency are of very inferior construction, and not generally adapted to the uses required. Those of the employees who have families will of necessity have to construct new houses before they can bring their families here. The agency farm is more deficient than the others.
    I believe the interest of the Indians will be much advanced by encouraging them to raise cattle and hogs, as well as fruit trees. A few cows or heifers and some hogs, purchased and placed in the hands of the agent for their benefit, would in a short time be the means of adding much to their support as well as comfort, and as a consequence curtail the expense of their maintenance.
    The planting of a few thousand fruit trees on each of the farms would have a like result. I find a portion of the Indians much attached to their little homesteads, having a little garden that speaks well for their frugality and industry. These cases are few and far between, yet I believe others could be encouraged by assigning them a small piece of ground, a few fruit trees, a hog or two, and a cow.
    From an examination of the different farms, I am convinced that the different grasses would do well. I would suggest that timothy, orchard and redtop seed be purchased in proportionate quantities for the purpose of seeding down such of the land as is wet and unfit for grains, and thereby affording an abundant supply of feed for the stock during the winters.
    The roads leading from and to the different farms are in a bad condition, apparently having had but little attention shown them. In the absence of any other very pressing work for a few days, I have directed the different employees to have the roads worked, and while the Indians are thus engaged to furnish them some beef I thought would be right and proper. I hope this course may meet your approbation.
    I am in receipt of a communication from Capt. F. F. Dent, commanding Fort Hoskins, proposing to assist me with his force to repair the road leading from this agency into the valley, also to build two or more narrow bridges for pack animals across the streams that are impassable in the winter season. These streams have high banks and deep fords. The bad condition of the road, together with the crossing of the Siletz River between the agency and what is called the upper farm, 8 miles distant, during high water, cuts off entirely our communication with that farm and white settlements. To render communication always certain it will be necessary to build a ferry, which would be of great advantage to this agency. I have encouraged Capt. Dent's very liberal proposition, but must necessarily postpone action until I receive a response from your department. I have the force, and the only question that will enter at all into the account so far as the Indian laborers are concerned will be a small compensation in clothing and the beef that they will consume while thus employed. I consider the results of this undertaking will prove a great benefit to the military stationed here, and of vital interest to this agency. As the road now is, we can have no intercourse with the settlements for six months after the 1st of December. Please give this your early attention.
    The time has come to hand when the wheat and other grain should be threshed out. There is a thresher at the agency of two horsepower, but for the want of horses nothing can be done with it at present. There was turned over to me one old horse, very thin and quite worthless. It will require two mules or horses to do the work here.
    The number of beef cattle turned over by the late agent is inadequate to the demands of the Indians while engaged in plowing the ground preparatory to seeding it down. There will be rails to make the coming winter for the purpose of dividing the farms into separate fields--also boards and shingles to cover new and old buildings. In view of this, as the Indians heretofore have been fed with beef and some flour, I would recommend the purchasing of thirty head of beef cattle in addition to what is on hand--or if it is determined to purchase steers for work cattle to supply the places of the old and broken-down oxen, then the latter could be used for beef.
    From all that I can see and hear pertaining to the farming interest on this reservation, I am convinced that it has been badly attended to. Either the employees were incompetent, or the number of hands was insufficient to perform the duties required. This is particularly so in reference to the agency farm, which has the care of one thousand Indians who have to be closely watched while at work, and without proper directions their habits are such they wander in the woods or to the seashore in quest of food. The consequence has been that they have formed no attachment for the houses provided for them, nor respect for the authority of those placed over them. There are six farms on this reservation, which have heretofore been managed by five farmers. This number in my estimation is too small. My predecessor in his report of Jan. 1st 1860 recommended one farmer for each farm, and an additional one for the agency farm, and he is now convinced that three farmers for the agency farm should be employed. The fields at the agency farm are large and scattered (one being on the opposite side of the river), occupying a circuit of some six miles. To get the Indians out and keep them successfully employed requires more help than is at present employed. In view of these facts I ask authority from you to employ one more farmer. The men that I have introduced here are much pleased with the soil and luxuriant vegetation and are sanguine in the belief that if they have a chance they can raise good crops here.
    I have adopted the following prices as wages to farmers: for farmers seventy-five dollars, and for assistant farmers, sixty-five dollars per month. I think these wages low enough for those who are competent to speak the jargon and understand their business otherwise. There are but few men who make application for employment here that can talk to the Indians in the jargon or their own tongue--such persons are not [sic] suited for overseers.
    I have every reason to believe I stand near a burning crater, ready to overwhelm me unless I am surrounded with faithful hands. I have to control an element that is antagonistical to civilization, and unless the Indians are fed and clothed they become as prowling wolves, seeking whom they may devour.
    In conclusion, let me urge upon you and the powers that be to furnish me aid and comfort materially so that I may say peace to "these troubled waters." Heretofore, I am convinced there has been no wholesome influences exercised upon these poor Indians; on the contrary they have been abused most shamefully, and their domestic and civil rights wantonly violated by those whose duty it was to protect them. These causes and the long neglect of government may cause these Indians to make me a victim for the wrongs of others, unless their wants are speedily supplied.
Very respectfully yours &c.
    B. R. Biddle
        Agt. Siletz Reservation
To
    William H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, no number.




Portland Oregon
    Oct. 3rd 1861
Sir
    The name of Quincy Brooks of Portland, Oregon was submitted to the Indian Bureau by E. R. Geary Esq., late Supt. Ind. Affairs, per his letter of 4th Dec. 1860 as a person capable of rendering efficient aid in the preparations of the new regulations for the Indian service provided for by the seventh section of the act making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian service, approved 28th Feb. 1859.
    I will respectfully recommend that Mr. Brooks receive the appointment of special agent with instructions to prepare and submit to the Department the programme of a complete system of regulations for the Indian service. Mr. Brooks has had some seven years experience in the Indian service, both in the office and in the field, and is in every way well qualified to discharge the duties of the position referred to.
    I will also observe that in case of his appointment Mr. Brooks compensation can be paid without drawing upon the regular appropriation for defraying the expenses of preparing the said regulations. I will explain. There is in the hands of W. H. Rector Esqr., Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon, a surplus of over $3,000 of the funds for "pay of sub-agents" which has been accumulating for several years, and not being required for the object for which it was appropriated, could be applied by direction of the Department to the payment of Mr. Brooks as special agent, without any detriment to the interest of the service here.
    In case of his appointment I will also observe that in addition to his task above mentioned the Dept. could avail itself of his services upon any special duty it might assign to him. And in this connection I would respectfully represent that the present outstanding liabilities of the Indian service of Oregon and Washington Territory should be examined and stated with reference to the unexpended balances of appropriations in the Treasury so as to exhibit the amount, if any, which should be appropriated to meet those liabilities.
    It may scarcely be necessary for me to mention that I would not recommend Mr. Brooks or any other person for a position in the public service whom I did not know to be firmly attached to the Union and in favor of the maintenance of our government and the vindication of its laws at all hazards.
J. W. Nesmith
Hon.
    Wm. P. Dole
        Com. Ind. Affairs
            W.C.
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1030-1032.



Washington D.C.
    October 5th 1861.
To Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir:--I enclose herewith an account of L. A. Davis for surveying Table Rock Indian Reservation in Oregon, to which I desire to call your attention, and I have to request that you inform me if it is a legitimate claim against your department, and if so, whether there is any appropriation out of which it can be paid.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    C. S. Drew
   
United States
    To L. A. Davis                                                Dr.
Services as surveyor in surveying and marking out the boundary of the Rogue River Indian Reservation fifteen days commencing on the 5th and ending on the 18th day of June 1855 at ten dollars per day . . .
    $150.00
For services of two chairmen as assistance for the same service
fifteen days each at $4.00 per day each
  120.00
Two hundred and seventy dollars $270.00
   
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Nov. 26th 1856
Sir
    I have to inform you that I cannot pay your bill for surveying Table Rock Reservation, at present--
    When I receive instructions, and funds for the purpose, I will inform you--
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
L. A. Davis Esq.
    Corvallis O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 727-730.





Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Oct. 9th 1861
Sir,
    In view of the near approach of winter, and the destitute condition of the Indians under your charge, I think it would be proper to make out a requisition for such articles of food and clothing as will be absolutely necessary to maintain them on the reservation until next spring, and we will try to procure them on the credit of the government.
    No funds having arrived yet for the Indian service in Oregon, please inform what the facility is for transportation from the landing at the bay to the agency and what is the probable cost if any.
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
B. R. Biddle Esq.
    Siletz Agency
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 44.



Treasury Department
    Second Comptroller's Office
        Washington, Oct. 21st 1861
Sir,
    I find from a settlement reported to this office by the Second Auditor, on the 17th inst., that, under the "Act for the Relief of Anson Dart," late Supt. Indian Affairs, Oregon, approved 16 June 1860, the Auditor, on new and important evidence, has found due the late Supt. Dart the further sum of $1,984.80/100, being "for mileage of his clerk from Oregon to seat of government and returning 13,232 miles at 10 cents per mile $1323.20/100" and "for mileage of Anson Dart, late Supt. Ind. Affairs, from Oregon to seat of government to settle his a/c 6616 miles at 10 cents per mile $661.60/100."
    If the necessity and usefulness of their journeys are officially recognized and no reason is alleged by your department wherefore the expenses incurred in their performance should not be allowed, I can see no ground on which I should decline to confirm the action of the Second Auditor.
    Allow me respectfully to request your views on this subject.
I am, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. Madison Cutts
            Comptr.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commr. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 710-712.



Grand Ronde--Fort Yamhill
    Oregon Oct. 25th 1861
Secretaries A.H.M. Society
    Dear Brethren
        During the late session of our Association I laid before the Committee on Distribution and Supply the subject of my relations to the church and people of Albany. I had received Bro. Starr's assurance that should it be thought best for me to leave Albany for a time he could for the present take charge of both Albany and Corvallis. I had, too, satisfied myself that the church at Albany would give Bro. Starr a unanimous invitation to labor with them until they could make a more permanent arrangement.
    Furthermore, the beautiful church edifice we had so long hoped to see was nearly completed, enough subscribed to pay for it when finished, and nothing existed to mar the usual peace and good influence of the church. These things together with the reasons for my wishing to leave Albany for a time were stated to the Committee. After due consideration the committee unanimously resolved that under the circumstances I was justified in asking permission to leave Albany until I could relieve myself of my indebtedness.
    And now without going into tedious particulars with you, I would say I have for the last two years been steadily gliding into debt. I could not expect the people of Albany to do more for my support, nor could I think of asking more from you. Yet my affairs must be righted up.
    During the month of September a company of men numbering with their families 32 persons received appointment to an Indian agency some 35 miles west of Salem. Seven of these persons were church members of our connection--all of them accustomed to habitual attendance on our meetings and all extremely desirous to have us accompany them. I accepted the place of teacher with an engagement to preach every Sabbath. Moved my family here and now write from the place of my new labors. I have access to the children of about 600 Indians, am paid by the government for teaching them and am daily doing what I can for their improvement. We are making arrangements for a manual labor school for them, at which Mrs. Condon is expected to assist, and on the whole I am just now in the largest field of usefulness I have ever yet occupied.
    I have not deserted Albany, as Bro. Starr will in due time inform you. I have promised to return there again if the people desire it.
    My appointments in Albany were carefully attended to up to the 1st day of October, when my year closed. Of whatever was due me on the 1st day of October please take 20 dollars and credit the same as contributed to the A.H.M. Society by the Cong. Church of Albany; the balance please retain for me until I write you again.
    You will see from what I have written that I am not in a position to feel that I have left my work.
    I will write you soon again to say what disposition I would be glad to have you make of my salary.
Yours truly
    Thomas Condon
Letter to the American Home Missionary Society. Congregational Home Missionary Society, Letters from Missionaries in Oregon, 1849-1893, Reel 2.  A.H.M.=American Home Missionary



Washington D.C.
    October 30th, 1861.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole,
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
        Sir:--With reference to the account of L. A. Davis for surveying Table Rock Indian Reservation in Oregon, to which your letter to me of the 14th inst. relates, I would say:
    That the claimant alleges that he performed the service by order of Joel Palmer, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
    That the order for the service was handed to him by one of the commissioners to examine and audit the claims of settlers for spoliation committed by the Rogue River tribes of Indians in the year 1853.
    That the service was necessary in order that the commission--which consisted of Messrs. L. F. Grover, A. C. Gibbs and Geo. H. Ambrose--might ascertain what improvements of settlers were within the limits of the reservation which had been set apart, temporarily, by treaty of the 10th September 1853, so that the value of such improvements could be assessed and paid to the parties from whom they were taken.
    That R. B. Metcalfe, sub-Indian agent, had charge of the reservation when it was so surveyed, and that Mr. Metcalfe reported the account to Supt. Palmer in his own name, and that Mr. Palmer objected to the rendition of the account in that form. That it was afterwards reported in favor of the claimant, and certified by Sub-Agent Metcalfe, and forwarded to Indian Supt. A. F. Hedges--Mr. Palmer having been removed from office--who informed the claimant that there was no money in his hands out of which the claim could be paid. That subsequently Mr. J. W. Nesmith was appointed in the place of Mr. Hedges, and that upon application to him for the account as certified by Metcalfe it could not be found.
    It is to the preceding paragraph that I desire especially to call your attention. For it seems to me indispensably necessary that the certificate of Mr. Metcalfe should be on the files of the Superintendent's office in Oregon to serve as a voucher to Mr. Rector in the examination and allowance of the claim. This certificate not being on file there when Mr. Nesmith held the office, it is possible that it may have been reported to the office here by his predecessor and no duplicate or other record retained. I beg your attention to this whole matter again, trusting that you may find in your office sufficient evidence to establish the legitimacy of the claim, and that you will favor the claimant with your action in accordance therewith. Mr. Davis is now in the state of Vermont, and the early settlement of his claim would greatly oblige him. This is one of the principal reasons why he presses this matter so urgently upon the office here.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    C. S. Drew
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 734-738.



Washington, D.C.
    October 30th, 1861.
Friend Rector:
    I enclose herewith [a] letter from [the] Commissioner of Indian Affairs in relation to the account of L. A. Davis for surveying "Table Rock Reservation" in Rogue River Valley. The Commissioner informs me that he has referred the matter to you. I doubt whether there is any duplicate or other record of the account now in your office, however, but if so I can perhaps aid you in finding it. These are the circumstances connected with the matter as I have them from my own knowledge and the statement of the claimant.
    The service was ordered by Gen. Palmer while he was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in order that he might ascertain what improvements of settlers which might be included within the limits of the reservation as set apart by treaty of the 10th September 1853 so that their value might be assessed and paid to the parties who owned them.
    L. F. Grover, A. C. Gibbs and Geo. H. Ambrose, you may remember, were appointed a commission to assess these damages, and to examine and audit claims of settlers for spoliations committed by the Rogue River Indians in 1853, and it was by these gentlemen that the order for the survey of the reservation was given, or sent, and by them handed to Davis when they had arrived in Rogue River Valley to enter upon their duty.
    R. B. Metcalfe was in charge at the reservation when the survey was made and rendered the account to Supt. Palmer in his own name. Mr. Palmer objected to paying it except to the claimant, but recognized it as a valid claim. It was then made out in the name of Mr. Davis and certified in regular form by Sub-Agent Metcalfe, but in the meantime Palmer was removed from the Superintendency and Hedges appointed in his place, to whom the claim was then reported. Mr. Hedges, however, did not think there was any money in his hands out of which it could properly be paid, though in other respects he treated it as a legitimate claim.
    Subsequently Mr. Nesmith was appointed Superintendent. Mr. Davis then attempted a further prosecution of his claim, but it could not be found in the Superintendent's office. This is what leads me to infer that it is not on the files of your office now.
    I know myself that this service was rendered and that it was necessary to the welfare of the settlements in Rogue River Valley, and especially so to the settlers whose improvements were included within the limits of the reservation. Our friend Patton may remember as I do, and he has a knowledge too of the price of labor in Southern Oregon when this service was performed. In my judgment the claim is a reasonable one and ought to be paid without delay. Of course I do not expect you to act in the premises except as your office records will justify. Mr. Davis is in great want of the money. He is now in Vermont.
    Please give this matter your earliest attention and much oblige the claimant and your humble servt.
C. S. Drew
W. H. Rector, Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 5.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Oct. 31st 1861
Dear Sir,
    In accordance with your instructions the absent band of Rogue River Indians to the number of 37 were brought back here last week.
    We are engaged in constructing shelter for them, and the more needy are supplied with rations of flour, but they are restive as well as needy and will doubtless need the more care until they shall be again engaged in industrious efforts for their own sustenance.
    I would therefore ask a supply of beef to the amount of perhaps 20 or 25 head, and also about 500 bushels of wheat. I have said wheat in view of the fact that we can grind it at our own mill for them.
    These supplies are asked for mainly on account of the destitute condition of the above-named band, but there are also aged, infirm, widows and orphans of other tribes who need to look for subsistence through the coming winter to the fostering care of the government.
Yours truly
    Jas. B. Condon
        Ind'n. Agent
Wm. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. Ind'n. Affairs
        for State of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 206.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Oct. 31st 1861
Sir
    Enclosed herewith please find the official bonds of James B. Condon, Indian agent at Grand Ronde Agency, and Joshua M. Kirkpatrick, special agent at Umatilla. Owing to the absence of Hon. M. P. Deady, U.S. District Judge, I was unable to have these bonds approved at an earlier day.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon.
    Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1133-1134.



Ashland Mills
    Jackson Ogn.
        November 1st / 61
Dear Sir:
    Since my return from the Umpqua I find a number of [Klamath] Lake Indians in the settlements. The object is to procure firearms and ammunition by trading their squaws to a certain class of men. They also obtain whiskey. This state of things is liable to lead to trouble. There is an effort on the part of some to encourage the Indians to disregard my authority. It is absolutely necessary that a company of troops should be stationed at or near the head of Bear Creek, which is at the out [sic] edge of the valley, and where the Indians enter the settlements. They should be stationed here immediately to remain during the winter preparatory to further operations in the spring.
    I want Union men, and I do not think the right kind can be raised here by the authority of our government.
    I believe it would be good policy to support the chiefs if they could be induced to remain and drive the rest away.
    To carry out this plan it will cost something. I feel desirous to avoid all unnecessary expenses, but I deem these things absolutely necessary.
    I wish instructions on this subject.
Yours respectfully
    Lindsay Applegate
        Special Agt.
Hon. Wm. H. Rector
    Superintendent
        Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 207.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 7th 1861
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge yours of the 1st instant in which you state that thirty-seven Indians had been returned to your agency from Rogue River by Special Agent Rector, and in view of their return together with the pressing wants of others you ask a supply of beef and wheat, to be ground at the agency. In answer thereto I have to inform you that the necessities of your Indians will be left altogether to your own judgment. It is presumed that you are better qualified to judge what will be required than anyone else. Enclosed I send you a copy of such portion of the funds to be remitted as pertains to the tribes in your charge. This is strictly for treaty purposes, and can only be expended for purposes as set forth. It is reasonable to expect this money in a very short time. In view of this you could go into the market and buy beef & wheat at cash rates. I heartily approve of the policy of buying wheat instead of flour, and think that you can purchase what you may require for use in the immediate vicinity of Grand Ronde at a fair price. If you are in want of your annual supplies it would be advisable to come down and make the purchase in anticipation of the arrival of the money. If you are otherwise engaged and cannot without detriment to your agency, come down, make out a statement of the articles required for each tribe separately, & I will forward them to you via Dayton. I would prefer that you should do make the purchase if you can conveniently do so.
    I am pleased to hear of your prosperity and success in your new position, and trust that your efforts may be crowned with success, and that Grand Ronde Agency may yet be made a self-sustaining institution.
    Should anything arise upon which you may desire information, please consult me freely at all times.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
James B. Condon
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873..  An inaccurate copy can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 70-71.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 8th 1861
Sir,
    Your letter of Sept. 28th, disapproving of my act in appointing Capt. Lindsay Applegate as Special Indian Agent for Southern Oregon, has been received. This appointment was made with a full knowledge of the necessity, and with the understanding that this state was entitled to her full complement of sub-agents to be assigned to duty at such points as might be designated by the Supt. of Indian Affairs. These appointments have not as yet been made, hence the necessity for special service. You call my attention to the act creating the office of Supt. of Indian Affairs for Washington Territory, and state that the spirit of this act is deemed by this (your) office to be against the appointment of any special agents in Oregon Territory. Until the reception of your letter I was not aware that this act would apply to Oregon, there being no direct reference to it whatever. If such however is the settled opinion of your office, that no special agent can be allowed in Oregon, I would review my recommendations made in a communication to your office under date of August 17th in regard to the immediate appointment of such sub-agents, as this Superintendency is entitled to by existing law. Heretofore it has been the custom of my predecessors, when there was a vacancy to supply it, subject to your approval. In January last my predecessor, Mr. Geary, under similar circumstances appointed a special agent at the same place. In this instance the public service demanded the presence of a discreet person invested with authority to regulate the intercourse among these Indians and if possible to preserve peace.
    I have given him positive instructions to create no liabilities whatever, and from the date of his appointment to this time no expenditures have been made, and no liabilities incurred. He is placed there not to disburse money or create liabilities but to act as the agent of the government in endeavoring to suppress the unlawful and unholy traffic carried on to some extent by reckless and degraded whites on the frontier, of bartering and exchanging firearms and ammunition for their Indian women. You suggest that if the service demanded it, that one of the nearest agents already in your (my) Superintendency be detached for any needed service in Southern Oregon.  This is wholly unpracticable. The presence of the agents are at all times absolutely required at their respective agencies; besides the distance is so great that it would be impossible for him to effect any good, or remedy any existing evils, by merely going out and returning. Agent Condon at Grand Ronde is the nearest to that place, which is at least three hundred miles distant. Agent Biddle, far remote on the coast, and so hemmed in by mountains that it is impossible, only at certain seasons of the year, to get in or out. Agent Logan, at Warm Springs, would have to travel to perform that duty some five hundred miles. Thus you see it is utterly impossible for the agents to perform special duty when provision is already made by Congressional enactment for the appointment of agents to whom such duty shall be assigned. Late advices received from Agent Applegate state that the Klamath Lake Indians are now within the settlements of Rogue River and the urgent necessity of some agent being present, to whom the citizens can appeal to, and not take the law in their own hands, until other remedies fail. In view of these facts I have deemed it advisable to retain Mr. Applegate until I can have other and more minute instructions from your office in regard to these special appointments. If Mr. Applegate cannot remain, others are situated similarly in charge of agencies, and must likewise be discharged.
    Should your reply to this still be unfavorable to the appointment of special agents, I desire instructions as to what shall be done with the Indians now under charge of special agents, and to whom the public property now in their hands shall be transferred.
    An early reply to this is earnestly requested.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 71-72.  The original letter is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1139-1143.



Land Office Roseburg Ogn.
    November 9th 1861
Wm. H. Rector
    Sir
        We have numerous applications to allow presumption claims to be located upon the Rogue River Reservation and its immediate neighborhood, and as we have no evidence in this office showing the existence of any such reservation, we have to request that you send us, at your earliest convenience, a description of the boundaries of said reservation that we may note them upon the township plats--also whether the Indian Department still claims control over it and, if so, whether its retention by your department is essential to its welfare.
Very respt.
    Your obt. servt.
        John Kelly
            Register
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 19; Letters Received, 1861, No. 210.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon 9th [November?] 1861
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose herewith my annual estimate for funds required in this Superintendency during the ensuing fiscal year ending June 30th 1863. You will observe that I have estimated for the 1st and 2nd installments due the Umpqua & Calapooia of Umpqua Valley per third article treaty 29th November, amounting in the aggregate to $4,600. By reference to the appropriations made by Congress during 1859-60 and 1861 & 62 you will see that from some unknown cause no appropriation was made for fulfilling this article of the treaty.
    The attention of the Department was called to this omission by my predecessor in a communication under date of May 30th 1860. I trust that all that is due them: 1st, 2nd & 3rd installments will be embodied in your estimate for the ensuing year.
    I would call your special attention to the estimates submitted for the coast tribes confederated under treaty [of] August 11th 1855, and which has not yet been ratified. The amount of $25,000 may seem rather large, yet under the circumstances, considering the condition of these Indians, as well as the stipulations of the treaty made with them, it is very small indeed. I have called the attention of the Department to their situation in my annual report, and I sincerely hope that they will not be overlooked but liberally provided for. I transmit accompanying this communication a copy of a letter received from Capt. F. F. Dent, Capt. 9th Infantry, commanding Fort Hoskins, relating to their condition and absolute wants. I also refer you to a communication from my predecessor of Nov. 27th 1860, as well [as] my letter of Aug. 7th in relation to the same subject.
    I have also estimated $25,000 for the purpose of negotiating treaties with the Shoshones or Snakes, Bannocks, Klamath Lake & Modoc tribes. This subject has been submitted to your consideration at a former time, and I can only renew the recommendations made in favor of immediate and prompt action in the matter. I have discussed the propriety and immediate necessity of the appropriation in my annual report, and I would respectfully call your attention to the suggestions therein made.
    An estimate of $25,000 is submitted for the purchase of forty thousand fruit trees and for the transplanting and superintendence of the same for the period of two years.
    This I regard as one of the most important objects that could possibly be accomplished for their benefit. It should have received consideration and attention at the hands of former agents. I hope it may be favorably considered by you and receive such recommendation at your hands as will secure an appropriation for this purpose.
    The appropriations for the present fiscal year are so meager that it will require the most rigid economy to enable us to meet the liabilities which may be incurred for absolute necessities.
    An apology is due the Department for this seeming delay in transmitting my report and estimate. Owing to the inauguration of new officers, it was almost impossible for me to obtain the necessary material upon which to base either report or estimate, but I hope in the future that there will be no cause for complaint.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            [Wm. H. Rector]
                Supt. Indian Affairs, Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1120-1125.  Capt. Dent's letter referred to is transcribed above, under date of September 30th.



Corvallis Oregon
    Nov. 12 1861
Sir
    By reference to the Military Dept. you will find that 20 U.S. muskets and 20 U.S. Colt's revolvers were furnished to the late Indian agent at the Siletz Agency for defense by the commanding officer at Fort Hoskins.
    I am informed by the present agent that these are now all in the hands of the Indians, who say they bought them of the late agent.
    It is also true that many Indians have left the reserve & say they were told the government was broke up--that they would receive no more aid, as the a/c of the late agent have not been paid.
    As we have 2500 Indians near us & it is not over 15 miles from the principal settlements to this reserve--
    We claim this aid afforded them by secessionists in the way of arms is dangerous and that they should be taken from them.
Respectfully
    George Browne
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 703-705.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 14th [1861]
Sir:
    Yours of the 9th inst. soliciting information concerning the Rogue River Indian Reservation has been received. In reply thereto I have to state that I am of the opinion that the land embraced within the limits of that reserve are open for settlement. This opinion is based on reading the stipulations of the treaty which provides as follows: Article 2nd last clause: "It being understood and considered an Indian reserve until a suitable selection shall be made by the direction of the President of the United States for their permanent residence and provision be made for their removal."  This is all the information I am able to impart. It was accepted undoubtedly only temporarily until a permanent selection was made. These Indians having been permanently provided for, their claim to it ceases, and unless other action has been had in regard thereto unknown to me, the reserve is open for settlement.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. J. Kelly
    Register
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 74.



Lebanon, Linn Co., Oregon
    Nov. 16 1861
Hon. Mr. Condon
    Esteemed sir
There are a few Indians staying about here; some of them are very destitute, but a portion of them labor and maintain themselves and those that do not.
    Indian "Tom," the bearer of this, requests me to write you that they desire to stay here until spring--that they have here houses that will keep them from the storms of winter--after that they would be glad to go to the agency. But I believe his idea is that they ought to have a chief appointed over them for their better government, and if by it they could get any article of clothing or subsistence they would be glad. Ind. Tom is a smart Indian and the head one of the band.
    There ought to be something done for them, whether the government includes them in its distribution of goods or not.
My compliments
    Truly
        L. Elkins
S.S.--Tom wants to come back immediately, saying that he owes a man the making of 1800 a lot of rails. Tom is a trustworthy Indian.
L. E.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Agency, Nov. 20th 1861
Friend Rector,
    I accompany my official letter to you, which is short, with another which is private. I say private because it is explanatory and would swell an official letter beyond proper limits. I have made a requisition for such things as I deem essential to present wants--and still I know that it is insufficient. If our duty impels us to clothe one Indian, they all have a like claim upon us. I have asked in this spirit. I wrote you to procure seed wheat to forward by the return of the Fanny, but from counseling with my farmers, having reviewed the condition of the ground upon which wheat should be sown, the advances of the season, &c., &c., they think it would be a failure on the next year's crop. If winter wheat was put in now, a spring crop is preferable. To put [in] a spring crop of barley & wheat, an increase of peas, turnips, carrots &c. with potatoes, may supply their wants. By this course, a large amount of ground can be summer fallowed, and put in proper condition to receive wheat early the next season, securing as we think an abundant crop the year following. This is the reasoning of [the] farmers. They say it's no wonder that no wheat has been raised when the cultivation has been so imperfect. If you could see the thistle, sorrel & fern on the ground and in the wheat, you would concur with them. Again, as we are low in funds, had we not better get the things most needed. The wheat can be delayed until another quarter; what spring wheat we want, say 200 bushels, can be procured in [the] valley. What do you say to this kind of economy & reasoning. I have made requisition for more ictas
["things"], the cost of which will be less than the wheat & transportation. I need them more at present and leave the wheat for further consideration. I am trying to do for the best. If I fail in judgment, it will be the fault of my head.
    Send me per Fanny as much of this bill as you can. The blankets in my requisition I urge upon your favorable consideration, also shoes.
    I hope you will send me the chairs, mattress, bedstead &c. They will add very much to my comfort. My friend Thomas will feel for me,  I know.
    I have written for a few things on private account at Harker & Bro., and Cohen & Lyon. I wish them forwarded with [the] other things. The physician's office certainly needs a stove, and little of other furniture, but until we have funds abundant, I submit to you the Dr. is not satisfied, says he goes out Christmas. He only engaged for that time. Since your letter to him he takes some pains to render my employees dissatisfied, that they would not get their pay soon, for you had written to him that this quarter's appropriations were exhausted and the credit of the government strained. This I am told. You know it would not do for me to keep any man on the reservation who would incite mutiny or promote dissatisfaction among my hands. The Dr. has not taken much pains to promote social harmony, evinces a desire to control, which has imposed upon me the necessity of putting a check on his aspirations. I confess that he cherishes no fond affection for me. He evinces a very unhappy spirit. You need not be surprised if his patriotism impelled him to abandon the poor Indians to serve his country in a way more commensurate with his ability and congenial to his taste. He has seen some very interesting siwashes, but that should not implicate a man's virtue, should it--enough--more anon.
    I will close this imperfect epistle by staying that I hope for better times and that we all may enjoy the blessings of the free and the peace of a clear conscience.
    My respects to T. Mc. P.--I thank him for the favor he sent me with his instructions. I will try after this quarter and give him much trouble about the papers. I hope to see you about the first week in January if I can get out.
Yours truly
    B. R. Biddle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 7.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Nov. 22 1861
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my estimate for funds required in this Superintendency during the semi-fiscal year ending June 30th 1862.
    I transmit this act at an early day in order that it may reach your office in ample [time] to avoid any unnecessary delay in the remittance of the funds.
    From information received since the transmission of my former requisition, I am well satisfied that my estimate for the portion due this Superintendency "for the removal & subsistence of Indians in Oregon not parties to any treaty," as well as for general and incidental expenses, was much less than this Superintendency is legally entitled to. I have therefore embodied in this estimate for the 2nd half of the fiscal year what I deem to be a fair proportion of these appropriations. It is a fact well known that ample treaties have been made with nearly all of the Indians in Washington Territory, but very few remain outside of treaty stipulations, upon whom this "removal and subsistence fund" could be properly expended.
    While in Oregon, on one reservation alone we have some two thousand Indians collected, entirely dependent upon the government for their support.
    The sum of $50,000 having been appropriated, it is plain to be seen that $17,000 is not a fair proportion with these facts before us. In regard to the estimate for general and incidental expenses, I would state that the entire cost of transportation of all the annuity goods [and] presents must necessarily be paid out of this appropriation. The treaties with the Indians in Washington Territory have provided for transportation. The sum of $42,000 was appropriated, which has not yet been exhausted for this purpose. I would respectfully request you to give this matter your attention, and should you find my estimate based on justice that you will remit to me the amount desired.
    I have also estimated for contingent purposes $5000. This is certainly a very moderate estimate considering the circumstances. I have done this from the fact that we have of late received from your office certain claims against the Department which if paid at all must necessarily be paid out of this fund. Other claims referred to your office for examination are in similar condition. If I could be allowed consistently to draw more extensively upon this appropriation, I would be able to meet all outstanding claims, for which no provision has been made. I trust that upon examination of the enclosed estimate you will approve of the amounts therein mentioned, and take such steps as will place the funds apportioned to this Superintendency at my disposal at the earliest practicable period. The great embarrassments under which we labor for the want of funds, and to which your attention has heretofore been called, render it absolutely necessary that prompt action should be had, and that the delay heretofore attending your requisitions in the Treasury Department should be obviated.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon.
    Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 612 Oregon Superintendency, 1860-1861, frames 1146-1149.



Siletz Indian Agency
    Dec. 4th 1861
Sir:
    I am sorry to inform you that the building used for a blacksmith and carpenter's shop, with contents, was consumed by fire on Tuesday morning inst. The fire was first noticed about one o'clock a.m. Tuesday morning, at which time the building
was nearly consumed. Many carpenter's tools, agricultural implements and other things were consumed or injured to such an extent so as to be worthless. What the full extent or amount of the loss is, I am not now able to determine. I am certain that the building was set on fire either by a white person or an Indian. About 8 o'clock on Sunday morning the building was found on fire but extinguished before it had made any considerable progress. Suspicion rests upon the blacksmith, who I discharged on Saturday last. On that day he made some serious threats, and on Sunday [sic] morning was seen to pass through the shop about half [an] hour before the fire was discovered. Hence the ground for suspicion. I will use every means in my power to bring the guilty party to justice whoever he may be. I will say in connection with this that this same blacksmith and another white person whose name I will not here mention have been for some time tampering with the Indians at this agency. They have been overheard by some of the employees here to talk in such a way to the Indians as to make them dissatisfied with their condition and the government--and in consequence there may be some serious disaffection. Since the departure and previous of these men I have used my best endeavors to counteract these evil influences.
    The waters have been so high, in consequence of the late severe storm, that I have been able as yet only to transport a small portion of Indian goods from the depot. The pack train will start again tomorrow to resume the packing.
    The saw and grist mills have both been more or less injured by the late high waters.
    On account of the loss of the late fire of the blacksmith and carpenter shop, and the urgent necessity of such a building. I will proceed immediately to the reconstruction of the same.
    If the schooner has not yet sailed for this place, please send me one blacksmith's bellows, size 40 inches, and two large grindstones of best quality, to supply the place of those destroyed by the fire.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 8.



Washington, 13 Dec. 1861
Sir,
    Referring to the various conversations which I have had with you upon the subject of Indian affairs in Oregon and Washington, you were kind enough to request me to submit my views in writing.
    In accordance with that request, I respectfully submit the following brief statement, and only regret that the demands upon my time do not permit me to make it more elaborate.
    Great inconvenience has resulted to the service in Oregon and Washington from the neglect of the Department promptly to remit funds for the current expenses of the service. Appropriations for certain fiscal years have been permitted to remain in the Treasury here till near the close of the year, when they should have been placed at the disposal of the Indian offices in Oregon & Washington at the commencement of the year: by such criminal neglect of the Department the superintendents and agents have been forced to make purchases on credit, at prices varying from 20 to 50 percent above what the same purchases could have been made for in cash, nor can it be expected in a country where money commands from 3 to 5 percent per month that business men will exempt the government from the rules which apply among themselves. I do not desire to be understood that all purchases made upon credit have so far exceeded the cash market prices, for the fact is that in many instances supplies have been procured upon the supposition that the funds for payment would be promptly forwarded, as the parties knew that the money had been appropriated and could see no reason for its detention. It is but just however to say that the few who have been victimized by that sort of credulity are not likely to repeat the expensive experiment.
    I know that the objection has been raised that to place the entire appropriation for any year in the hands of the Superintendent at once would be extending him with a larger amount of money than was covered by his bonds. I would suggest the propriety of obviating this objection by increasing the penalty of the bonds.
    The complaint that the officers in Oregon & Washington are in the habit of incurring liabilities in excess of the annual appropriations is in a great measure to be attributed to the causes above mentioned; if the Department here compels its distant officers to sacrifice a large percentage of the appropriations by credit purchases, it is not astonishing that there should be deficiencies. I would therefore suggest the propriety of remitting to those officers in advance the necessary funds for each fiscal year, and hold them to a strict accountability for its proper disbursement.
    The practice of purchasing goods in New York for the use of the Department in Oregon & Washington and also in California should be dispensed with; some person has defrauded the government and the Indians of immense sums of money by such purchases: While I was in charge of the Oregon & Washington Superintendency, one invoice of old & half-worn and worthless goods was purchased in New York amounting to about $9,000.00, and sent to me by express at the rate of twenty-five cents per pound. The express charges amounted to about $10,000.00, while the same goods could have been bought in Oregon for less than the original cost in New York. I recollect distinctly the article of "frying pans" which cost the Department forty-five cents each delivered in Portland by express; the same quality of pans could be purchased in Portland at $3.00 per dozen. The case selected is a fair sample of the lot.
    In illustration of the improper purchases made for the use of the Indians in Oregon & Washington, I desire to refer you to reports now on file in your office from Major John Owen, late agent for the Flatheads, in 1859 & 1860. The cases referred to were cases of downright robbery, where as I believe the money of the Indians was stolen and subsequently divided between the agent employed and the minions of a corrupt administration, intent upon its own perpetuation in power, and for the advancement of whose corrupt purposes I believe a portion of the funds then stolen from the Indians were expended. All description of goods necessary for the use of the Indian Department can be bought upon the spot for less than they can be purchased and sent from this side--particularly the article of blankets: Oregon & California have excellent woolen factories, and the best proof of the fact that coarse woolen goods can be bought there as well as here is that the people there are shipping large quantities of wool to New York. I would therefore respectfully recommend that the practice of purchasing Indian goods in New York be discontinued, and that the superintendents be furnished with the money and authorized to make their own purchases.
    I am informed that instructions have been sent to the new superintendents in Oregon & Washington not to pay any liabilities incurred by their predecessors, or the predecessors of the present agents. I beg leave to suggest that such instructions work great hardship upon honest claimants, who made advances under the violent [sic] presumption that payments therefor would be made within reasonable time. To send the accounts here [to Washington] and get them through the circumlocution offices of the government, as I can attest, occupies an indefinite period. While I was Superintendent, the same instructions were issued to me, and I forwarded claims till the Department became disgusted and directed me to pay all the claims contracted by my predecessor which I deemed to be correct. I apprehend that the Department will be forced to the same decision in the present instance, and I would suggest the propriety of instructing the superintendents to investigate all such claims, and if found correct that they be paid at once. If any cases are presented which they believe to be fraudulent, they should be instructed to report them to the Department for instruction.
    In conclusion, I beg to impress upon you the immediate and pressing necessity of forwarding to Oregon and Washington all the unexpended balances of appropriations due to those districts.
I am respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
Hon. Mr. Dole
    Commissioner etc.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 213-218.



South Yamhill
    Dec. 15th 1861
Mr. Condon
    Dear Sir
        Those two boys, Napoleon and Jake, are at work for me, and the horses & saddles they ride I let them have though they have not completed the payment, yet they wish to get their annuity goods. I would be much obliged if you would let them return without delay.
Yours truly
    John F. Miller
J. B. Condon
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington December 16th 1861
Hon. C. B. Smith
    Secretary of the Interior
        Sir,
            Referring to the conversation which I had with you last Friday, I beg leave to in relation to the appointment of two sub-Indian agents in Oregon, as now authorized by law, I beg leave to recommend to [you] for those positions Amos E. Rogers of Jackson County, Oregon, and Richard Moar of Lane County, Oregon.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            of Oregon
[P.S.] Please send the commissions of Sub-Agent Moar and Rogers to Supt. Rector at Portland,Oregon.
Moar resides at Eugene City, Oregon
Rogers resides at Jacksonville, Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 195-196.



Peoria Linn County Ogn. Dec. 17 1861
Mr. Peter Ruffner
    Dear Brother, your letter of October came to hand in due time and found us all well and glad to hear from you.
    I wrote you a letter a short time before I received yours and give you all the news to that time. I have nothing very good to write; the high waters have almost cleaned this valley out. We had two washings, just a week between them. The newspapers will tell you more than I can about them. The water was up to James Wood's barn sills, and it took all his rails east of his house. The water did Riley but little injury. It washed down considerable of his fencing, but the rails lodged on his own land.
    The water did not touch me; it will have to cover the whole valley before it can do me much harm. The water come to the north end of my garden, and most all the land east of me for a mile was covered with water. Peoria is the only town that I have heard of on a stream that has not been under water. The newspapers will give you the particulars of Abe's flood.
    You wished to know something about the abolition Methodists in these parts. I can give you but very little information in regard to them more than [that] with but very few exceptions they are a set of damned abolition disunion thieves and I believe they are no better than highway robbers; at any rate I would not trust them any further.
    The Democrats talk just as they please here. The cowardly blacks [i.e., Black Republicans] are almost scared to death. They are afraid there will be a draft in Oregon. But the Democrats don't care a damn if there is.
    I have heard a number of the fighting cowards say they wished they had an opportunity to enlist in Abe's army, but now [that] there is an opportunity to do so they have nothing to say about fighting, and when it is named to them (which is done every time they are met by a Democrat) you can hear their teeth chatter as if they had the ague.
    I think Oregon will be minus male inhabitants in two or three months; two thirds of the men and boys are going to Salmon River. I have the Salmon [River gold] fever awful, and I think it will prove fatal if I don't get better soon.
    Jim Wood is talking of going in the spring to Salmon to seek his fortune; the connection [sic] are all well as far as I know. Jeff Davis is almost large enough to shoulder a musket. You did not tell us what you named your girl. Jeff is just one day older than her, and I will wager a bottle of corn that he is as large as two like her.
    Maryann wants me to go to the mines and seek my everlasting fortune. She says she thinks I would do well, that everybody is good for something, and I am fit for nothing else.
    I think wheat will be a good price here this spring, as there was not a great deal in the country and that there has been a power destroyed by high water.
    Tell Mother that we have all been looking for her this fall and would be glad to see her once more. I sold three of her cows last summer and five of my own, and I don't know when I will get the pay for them. Hers were so old that I did not think they would live another winter, and I had more than I could keep. I sold them for ten dollars a head; it was the best I could do. Riley sold some to the same man, but I don't know how many.
    Cows cannot be sold for cash at any price. I could buy for cash the best of cows at 6 dollars. I sold 2 of her steers for 14 dollars cash, and I will pay her interest on it until I can see her or get a chance to send it to her.
    James Wood and Betsy went to Vancouver when Polly Gales went home and had Father taken up and buried in the new graveyard at Vancouver.
    I have wrote all that I can think of and a good deal more, and I think it is time to stop. Please answer on receipt and believe me to be as ever
Martin Koontz
To Peter Ruffner
P.S. If the damned Black Republicans, abolition thieves and mail robbers reads this they will know what I think of the damned cowards, and they can take me up for a traitor if they feel like it.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  See William Tichenor's comments on Koontz' letter in his letter of January 20, 1862.



Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon
    December 31st 1861
Sir:
    I beg leave to submit the following report to accompany the money and property
accounts of this agency for the fourth quarter ending with today.
    The annuity goods &c. per schooner Fanny did not arrive at the depot [at] Yaquina Bay until the 19th of November, and owing to the severe storm of rain and the heavy roads they were not all received at this agency until the 22nd inst. I commenced to issue to the Indians on the 10th and finished on the 17th inst.
    This delay caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians, who were clamorous for their goods, and in some instances a spirit of insubordination was manifested.
    You will observe that the Chetco Indians did not receive anything. This was in accordance with an agreement with that tribe. I found upon examination that the articles for clothing were not sufficient in quantity to be divided among all the Indians, and this fact being made known to the several tribes, the Chetcos volunteered to wait for their annuities & presents until the next quarter, and I feel bound to fulfill the agreement with that tribe--otherwise trouble may be expected.
    It will be observed by examination of the receipt rolls that the goods issued do not near supply the wants of the Indians--not more than one in five receiving an entire suit. Among the Indians here "not parties to any treaty" there is a general dissatisfaction. The whole gist of their complaints may be stated in a few words:
    They say they have acted in good faith--entered into a solemn treaty with the government--given up their lands and homes and submitted to the humiliation of being placed on a reserve--and although this treaty was made several years ago, the "Great Council" at Washington has never ratified it--and the government has never paid them except in small presents and "big" promises.
    They say they have made the same complaints annually--and it seems to them instead of doing them any good has a contrary effect--the "pile" of presents grows smaller and smaller while the promises grow larger and larger, so that by and by there will be no annuities or presents at all, but an immense pile of promises.
    They say they do not like to complain--and that they wish to be at peace with and learn to live like white men--yet their patience is almost exhausted, and they have very "sick hearts" towards their great Father at Washington.
    A very heavy item of expense in transportation from Yaquina Bay to this agency could be very materially curtailed by purchasing the annuity goods during the summer, and ship the same in time to be packed over before the winter rains set in, or what would be better still, have the Siletz River bridged and a good wagon road made to the bay. This can be done at comparative small expense by means of Indian labor. Make this bridge and road--have the goods shipped early in the season--then the government teams can transport the merchandise with but trifling expense. Just so long as the roads remain in the present condition and the goods arrive during the winter, just so long will these heavy items of land transportation continue.
    The building of the bridge will be beneficial in many ways. It will be the means of opening up communication with the grist and saw mills, which without such bridge are of but little use to this agency. Everything has to be packed to and from the mills on the backs of Indians and crossed in canoes. The ferry boat formerly used for crossing is rotten and worn out, together with the rope, and not fit for further use.
    The "beef on foot" mentioned in the abstract of purchases are intended to supply the places of the old oxen that are broken down and not fit for service--but will do for beef. The exchange will be made just as fast as the new oxen are broken in and fit for service. I consider the Department very fortunate in making the purchase at so low a rate, as the price has advanced from one to two cents per pound since the purchase was made.
    You will observe by the abstract of purchases and the statement of expenses that the amounts exceed the last half year's appropriations. This is owing to a great extent to the purchase of the cattle referred to and other articles of subsistence which if properly economized will be nearly sufficient for the next half year. With this explanation you will understand that it is not my intention to have the expenditures at the end of the fiscal year exceed the appropriations.
Trusting that everything is satisfactory,
    I remain
        Your most obt. servt.
            B. R. Biddle
                Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 17.





Last revised January 25, 2017


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