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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1862
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Washington 3rd Jany. 1862
Sir,
    Herewith I enclose three vouchers or claims which accrued against the Indian Department in Oregon in 1857. As you will perceive the vouchers are issued in favor of the following persons--
    Albert Horner-- services-- $  45.00
Jasper Jones " 25.00
Wm. Halbert "     91.25
Amounting in all to $161.25
    These are a portion of the outstanding claims contracted by R. B. Metcalfe at the Siletz Indian Agency while I was Superintendent, but by his neglect they were not reported to me. They are now holden by James Kinney of Oregon, who desires me to present them for action, and having no doubt of their correctness, I would respectfully request that they be forwarded to Superintendent Rector, with instructions to pay the amount due to Col. James Kinney. I will also state that I personally knew of these parties having been employed upon the reservation; a reference to the accounts of Agent Metcalfe will show whether the particular services mentioned have been paid for.
I am sir, respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. W. Nesmith
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner, etc.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 193-194.



Washington, Jany. 18, 1862--
Sir,
    Herewith I enclose three sets of triplicate vouchers, as follows.
    One for $  44.43
" " 250.00
" " 300.00
Amounting in all to $594.43
    As you will perceive, these vouchers were issued to Dr. J. F. Head, for services rendered as physician to the Indians at the Siletz Indian Agency under the charge of Agent Daniel Newcomb, who issued the vouchers for the reason that he had no funds to pay the claim. Dr. Head applied to Superintendent Rector for payment, but was informed by that officer that you had instructed him to make no payments on account of liabilities contracted under his predecessor.
    Dr. Head is now in New York and, having exhausted all efforts to obtain the payment of a just claim in Oregon, now desires to submit to the Department here.
    The vouchers are all receipted by Dr. Head, as you will observe, and I am authorized by him to receive the payment.
    Hoping that I may receive an early reply,
I am respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
[invoices not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 199-210.



Port Orford Jan 20th 1862
    I had no stamp and therefore had to enclose the letter alluded to in another envelope; give it to Bush or [Harvey] Gordon and they can tell it out [i.e., publish it in the Oregon Statesman]. Let them preserve the original. If that man was to hurrah for Jeff Davis in this county I would bet some he would not hurrah again this side of hell, and no teeth chatter either. And as for ague, there is none of that here. You perceive his son is named Jeff Davis. Koontz is Dutch, and of the base king [who] has to have a horn to get up a hurrah.
Yours &c.
    William Tichenor
P.S.: P. Ruffner has named the girl alluded to Virginia, and that is played out.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  These are Tichenor's comments on Martin Koontz' letter of December 17, 1861.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Portland Oregon Jany. 26th 1862
Sir
    Referring to my letters to your office under dates of August 6th 20th and 24th 1861 transmitting sundry claims against the Indian Department, for your consideration I have to state that as yet I have received no advices from you in regard to them, not even an acknowledgment of their reception. The claimants have become very impatient at this seeming unnecessary delay. I am importuned daily in regard to the matter and, not having received any advices, am unable to give them any satisfaction whatever. It is a matter deeply to be regretted that our remoteness from the seat of government prevents more frequent correspondence. This of itself creates a necessary delay, and from this fact matters and things pertaining to this Superintendency referred to your office should receive prompt consideration. The outstanding liabilities of this Superintendency, created under my predecessor, do not in my opinion exceed the amount appropriated for second half of the fiscal year ending June 30th 1861. I have carefully examined the accounts retained in this office of agents Sykes, Newcomb, Dennison and Miller. From the abstracts on file here together with such information I have obtained from claimants in person I have estimated the liabilities due and unpaid prior to July 1st as follows
J. B. Sykes
$3000.00
Danl. Newcomb
$7000.00
The above are estimated.
A. P. Dennison reported at
$7102.71
John F. Miller        do.
  3443.88
$20,546.59
Making the total amount due and unpaid twenty thousand five hundred forty-six dollars and fifty-nine cents. For the payment of this amount, or such portion thereof as upon examination may be found correct, we have course to the following appropriations which have been withheld, viz:
    Applicable to payment of claims contracted by agents Sykes and Newcomb.
Shasta Scotan & Umpquas
$2850.00
Rogue Rivers
1250.00
Removal & subsistence, not parties to treaty
     8500.00
Making a total retained of
$12,600.00
    Applicable to payment of claims contracted by Agent Dennison, we have the appropriation made for the
Confederated tribes of Middle Oregon
$44,725.00
For those of John F. Miller
Calapooias, Molallas & Clackamas Indians
$4000.00
Molels
8500.00
Umpquas (Cow Creek band)
275.00
Umpquas & Calapooias
$2975.00
Total
15800.00
    You will observe that the amounts above stated to be due the Indians in this Superintendency are in the main correct, and I find nothing in this office showing any portion of the above amount to have been remitted for the purpose of which it was appropriated. If the outstanding liabilities do not exceed my estimate, we have a balance of over fifty-two thousand dollars due the different Indian tribes in this Superintendency. It is certainly an act of great injustice both to the Indians as well as to those of our citizens (who relying on the promises of the duly accredited officers of the government have rendered services and furnished merchandise at cash prices) to compel them to wait so long for their just dues, without some satisfactory explanation as to the course. I am unable to assign any reason, not having been advised.
    It is not an enviable position by any means to be thus harassed and importuned upon a subject of which I am ignorant. It is needless for me to reassure you that this deferred remittance is very much needed and would tend greatly to restore the confidence in our promises to pay. I do not even ask the privilege of disbursing any portion, but I do ask and urge upon you the necessity of making some decision upon the claims already transmitted so that I can give some satisfactory assurance to those holding claims that due consideration will be given them. If these outstanding claims were liquidated, and the balance due the Indians remitted for their use, I am well satisfied that no further liabilities would be created. A large proportion of the claims presented for payment are truly meritorious--many of them for personal services, others for goods furnished the different agent at cash rates.
    The citizens of this state are true and loyal to the government, and fully appreciate the embarrassments under which it is laboring, yet it is not to be expected that in view of their loyalty they are better prepared to wait and even make further advances upon promises which have heretofore been violated. Many of them have expressed themselves as being willing to take in liquidation of their claims any currency which the government may see fit to issue.
    I would therefore in conclusion most respectfully urge upon you to give these claims (such as have already been transmitted) your immediate attention and advise me fully as to your decision in regard to the proper course to pursue with those yet remaining in the hands of the claimants. They are unwilling to deposit them in this office for transmission that Washington without some assurance that they will undergo a prompt examination upon their arrival at your department. If this assurance can be given I will immediately call in all outstanding claims and forward them at once.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 243-248.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    January 27th 1862
Sir:
    In reply to your inquiry as to the policy of removing the Indians from the Alsea Sub-Agency to this location, I will give my views as briefly as possible.
    It is the candid opinion of the writer that such removal would not only prove beneficial to the Indians themselves, but will be a great pecuniary saving to the Department. It is a well-known fact that the Alsea is not at all adapted to agricultural purposes, on account of the very limited quantity of level land and its exposure to the cold, bleak winds of the ocean. For this reason the Indians never can subsist themselves at that location and consequently will have to be supported by the government. But as this is in direct opposition to the wishes and designs of government, which is to make the agencies self-sustaining by means of Indian labor, it is folly to attempt to civilize the Indians in a location where they will be compelled to resort to their old pursuits for means of subsistence or else be a dead expense to the government. Both of these results should and can be avoided. At this agency there is bottom land sufficient to support three times the number of Indians that are now located here. This land is very rich and yields beautifully, if properly cultivated, and the location is not exposed as at Alsea. There are several very desirable locations on the Siletz not occupied by any other Indians, the land already cleared and ready for the plow. By means of Indian labor the cabins and fences can soon be made at trifling expense.
    Another good reason might be shown why the change should be made--and that is if this is a more desirable location than the Alsea, a great expense is saved the Indian Department in the employing of sub-agent, interpreter, farmers &c. With these Indians here it would not be necessary to increase the number of employees, with the exception perhaps of one farmer.
    There are many other reasons which I might urge but do not now deem it necessary as they will readily present themselves to anyone investigating the subject.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector Supt.
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 23.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    January 30th 1862
Sir:
    In order to keep the Department informed as to every important event that occurs within the bounds of this agency, I deem it proper to make [a] statement touching the late "disturbance" here.
    On my arrival at the agency last September to take charge of its management I discovered a general spirit of discontent, and at my first interview with the chiefs and other influential Indians they told me of their wrongs and the broken promises of the government, that they had sold their country, the contract and terms of sale was put on paper, and they signed their names to it. The white men told them it "was all right," but that was a long time since; many winters have passed, and a great many of their people had died. They said they had performed their part of the contract and have been patiently waiting for their great Father at Washington to fulfill his--but fear he has forgotten them. Taking this reasonable view they said unless the treaty was soon ratified and something done for them more than mere empty promises, they intended to go back to their old homes.
    It was thus that I found things, and in view of this state of the Indian mind I have ever since been expecting an outbreak, and have kept an eye on certain influential leaders.
    About the 13th of December last I was made acquainted with a plot (from a very reliable source) for the Indians here all to rise simultaneously, kill the agent and employees, seize the plunder, and then make their way down the coast to Rogue River, to their old homes. The chief conspirators in this plot I found to be the same Indians that I had under surveillance. About this time I have reason to believe that some unprincipled white men were enticing the Indians to mutiny and insubordination. Their designs were made manifest in various ways and would use every pretext to make complaints. In order to intimidate myself and the employees they would make threats of violence if certain wishes were not complied with. Among other things, they claimed that all the forage on the reservation belonged to them to feed to their horses; to this I demurred, on the ground that it was necessary for their own subsistence that the forage be saved to feed the oxen while at work. But this did not satisfy or convince them. On the night of the 14th of December they broke open the barn and took out large quantities of oats. It was not until after the committal of this and other overt acts, such as drawing deadly weapons on one of the farmers, that I took steps to arrest Jim and Jack, chiefs of the Tututni band and principal actors in the conspiracy and late acts of violence. They are known as the murderers of Ben Wright, sub-agent at the mouth of Rogue River 1855 [sic]. In order to make the arrest as well as to disarm that tribe, I made a requisition upon the officers commanding the blockhouse for a file of men, which were promptly furnished, but before the soldiers could be got in readiness the two Indians made their escape to the brush. The force being so small at the blockhouse, the officer commanding did not deem it prudent to attempt to disarm the tribe for fear of a general uprising of all the Indians. As things had now arrived at a crisis, prompt measures had to be resorted to in order to quell effectually the mutiny. I immediately sent an express to Fort Hoskins informing Capt. Smith of the critical state of affairs and called upon him for reinforcements. With a promptness that reflects great credit upon that officer, he obeyed the summons and arrived at the agency with twenty-one men the second day after the call was made, having traveled all one night over almost impossible [sic] roads to accomplish this timely arrival. As the two principal conspirators had flown, upon consultation with Capt. Smith we came to the conclusion that it was not good policy to prosecute the matter further at the time, but wait and use a little stratagem in order to capture the two leaders before attempting to disarm the tribe. In order to quell the panic among the Indians, the visit of Capt. Smith was made to appear as a friendly and not a hostile visit. The chiefs were called together, and word was sent to the two absent ones to come in and have a friendly talk with Capt. Smith, but they returned for answer that they could not be caught in that way but would hold a conference on the open prairie if they were allowed to come with their warriors armed, which of course was declined. The chiefs of other tribes gave assurances of friendship and condemned the conduct of the absent two--and so the matter ended. Capt. Smith left six of his men to reinforce the blockhouse and with the remainder returned to Fort Hoskins. It is the intention to make the arrest and disarm all the Indians at some future time when the military force is larger and the Indians are not prepared to resist.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle
        Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 21.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Jany. 30th 1862
Sir
    Presuming that information concerning Indian Affairs in this Superintendency will be at all times acceptable, I have taken the liberty of addressing you upon certain matters connected with the Siletz Agency Coast Reservation now under charge of Agent Benj. R. Biddle. It is unnecessary for me to enter into a description of the country wherein this reservation is located, the same having heretofore been furnished by Supt. Nesmith and the various agents in charge. This reservation was first occupied by Agent R. B. Metcalfe Aug. 20th 1856 and subsequently by Sub-Agent J. B. Sykes and Agent Daniel Newcomb. The Indians collected on this reservation according to the last census number 2025, only 259 of whom are parties to any treaty. The peculiar location of this reservation, situate on the coast, constantly exposed to strong westerly winds, renders it impossible to cultivate any of the cereals with any degree of success. The reports of Agent Metcalfe are very flattering indeed, and show rapid strides towards advancement and civilization. In his annual report of 1857, in speaking of his agricultural efforts [he] says, "The farming will not be extensive this year owing to the fact that it was impossible to get seed in the right season for planting. I have about four hundred acres enclosed, three hundred of which have been broken and about two hundred and eighty acres in cultivation as follows: One hundred and fifty of wheat, thirty of oats, forty of peas, sixty of potatoes and eight of turnips. The wheat will not yield anything owing to the ground having been badly broken and sown too late in the season. The oats, peas, potatoes and turnips will turn off a large crop for the season in which they were planted."
    In his annual report of 1858 in speaking of this subject he says, "I have in cultivation this year as follows: Two hundred and twenty acres of wheat, one hundred and fifty of which will yield at a safe estimate twenty bushels to the acre. The remaining seventy will not average more than ten owing to being sown late, and a heavy growth of fern which seems to bid defiance to all the efforts of the farmers to kill it." In his report of 1859 he continues the subject and says, "We have in cultivation over eight hundred acres of land this year and without some unforeseen cause will raise more than all the Indians can consume." Agent Daniel Newcomb in his report to this office Aug. 18th 1860 says, "I have fenced and planted this season in potatoes four hundred and forty acres which give promise of an excellent yield, grown and harvested eight hundred acres of wheat, which will produce an average yield for the country, three hundred acres of oats which are an excellent crop and one hundred acres of peas."
    The same agent in his report to this office Aug. 18th 1861 says, "We raise this year about two hundred and thirty-five acres of wheat, five hundred and fifty acres of oats, four hundred acres of potatoes and about thirty acres of turnips. There will be a sufficiency of potatoes and breadstuffs raised this year to subsist them until they raise another crop, and it is to be hoped they may not again be driven to that state of necessity and destitution which they were last winter."
    From the foregoing extracts from the very flattering reports of these agents, one would very naturally suppose that these Indians would soon be in affluent circumstances surrounded with all the comforts of life. But notwithstanding these flattering accounts of success, I find upon examination that the bright visions of the agents have never yet been realized, owing perhaps to some "unforeseen cause."
   
On the 2nd of October [1858] immediately succeeding that fine crop which would yield at a safe estimate three thousand and and seven hundred bushels I find on file a contract for the delivery at said agency of one hundred and twenty tons of flour, two hundred and fifty bushels of seed oats, and one hundred and fifty bushels of seed peas.
    During the 2nd & 3rd qtrs. [1859] in addition to the above, Agent Metcalfe purchased 4040 pounds flour. Immediately succeeding the bountiful harvest of 1859 which the agent was sanguine would yield more than all the Indians could consume, Agent Newcomb bought seed oats, also during 3rd quarter 8000 pounds flour (see abstracts of purchase during those quarters). Again notwithstanding the sixteen hundred acres in cultivation in 1860 eight hundred of which was in wheat, and three hundred in oats, and all promising an excellent yield, I find upon examination that flour was purchased amounting in the aggregate to 53,550 pounds all of which prior to the threshing of the crop of 1861. The amount raised in 1861 as estimated in the returns of Daniel Newcomb lately transmitted to your office was two thousand and eight bushels of wheat, and nine thousand one hundred and fifty bushels of oats. The quarterly returns of Agent [Biddle], now undergoing examination, show that the foregoing estimate was entirely too large, producing affidavits that the true amount as measured to be five hundred bushels of wheat and four thousand one hundred and fifty-seven bushels of oats, a little more than a bushel and a half to the acre of wheat. Had the season been more favorable and no "unforeseen cause" presented, they might have raised the amount actually used for seed.
    From the foregoing facts, for facts they are, is it policy--is it sound economy or even judicious to continue in our attempts to force the earth to yield that which it has obstinately refused to for years? It appears to me to be very unwise to say the least that further efforts should be made in this channel, when it has been satisfactorily proven that it cannot be relied on as a permanent means of subsistence. It is not my purpose or design to censure or even find fault with the course which has been pursued, but simply to present evidence before you to show that I am reluctant to follow in the footsteps of my predecessors when their efforts have been proved unavailing. I am well satisfied that the employees have labored faithfully & performed the duties assigned them, but it is not reasonable to expect that because it is an Indian reservation, located on "terra firma," that it must necessarily produce grain whether the climate and soil are adapted to it or not. It is customary among our own people to engage in those pursuits best adapted to the peculiar locality in which they are located. They experiment in various matters until they become satisfied that some one or more objects will prove remunerative, and consequently adopt it as their future means of subsistence and acquiring wealth. So it should be with government towards their "untutored wards." If the character of the country will not warrant the raising of grain to the extent desired, other resources must be developed and brought into requisition. Experiments should be tried in that channel which promises the most abundant returns with the least expenditure of money in making the experiment. Potatoes, beets and carrots succeed well. I am also well satisfied that fruit will yield abundant crops. My policy would be to divert a portion of the funds now paid for farmers and apply it towards the establishment of a fishery on this reservation. It is evident that this would prove to be a very important auxiliary, if not ultimately prove to be the only certain and reliable means for their future support. There are many good reasons which could be assigned favoring this enterprise. 1st The finest fish in the world abound in the Yaquina & Siletz rivers in unlimited quantities. 2nd A fishery can be established accessible to coasting vessels, thus avoiding any inland transportation. 3rd By having something for exportation, the expense incident to the transportation of their supplies would be greatly reduced. 4th Every facility is afforded for its establishment without any additional expense other than is now necessarily incurred. 5th It is one of the natural pursuits of an Indian, congenial to his taste, and one in which they would cheerfully engage, without compulsion. The fishing business on this coast is not an experiment. It has been tried in localities not possessing half the advantages which this agency does, and proven not only a success but remunerative. Favorable as I am to this project, I am unwilling to take any action in the matter without first advising with you, and obtaining your sanction or approval at least. It is a subject worthy of consideration, and I would most respectfully ask you to give the subject matter herein contained your attention.
    Should you be favorable to the suggestions made I would request full instructions so that my operations may strictly conform to your views. Hoping that this may secure your moderate attention
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 89-92.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 255-264.



Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon
    February 1st 1861.
Sir:
    In view of the probable outbreak of the Indians within this agency. to which I have referred in former communications, I deem it of the highest importance that the Department be early informed of the threatened danger, so as to be prepared to meet or ward it off in time. It is through you that I hope to impress upon the military authorities of this district the necessity of immediately reinforcing the post at this agency. I am thoroughly convinced that the Indians intend to make hostile demonstrations early in the spring. This conviction does not arise from any sudden impulse of fear, nor from idle rumors, but from personal observation and unmistakable signs apparent to anyone acquainted with Indian character.
    In connection with and bearing on this subject, I will make a suggestion which in my estimation, if carried out, will not only prove beneficial to this agency but will in the end be a great saving to the government, viz: that the military post of Fort Hoskins be abandoned and a similar one established here. In support of this proposition I will merely state that it is a well-known fact to all military men conversant with the facts that the fort referred to in a military point of view never can afford any protection to this agency in any sudden emergency, nor is it any barrier to the incursions of the Indians into the Willamette Valley. This being true, it follows as a matter of course that the design for which the post was established is a failure.
    These facts will become the more apparent from a knowledge of the topography of the intervening country between the fort and this agency. The distance between the two places is about forty miles, and the communication is by mule trail over high and rugged mountains, crossing numerous bridgeless streams and passing through deep and narrow mountain gorges. During the rainy season communication of any kind is attended with great difficulty, and for any practicable purposes is entirely suspended, and consequently no military force at Hoskins could be made available for any defense here during the winter months. Even during the dry season, owing to the very bad condition of the trail communication is very difficult and the transportation of freight very expensive. Before another rainy season it will become a military necessity to cut out an entire new trail, which will be attended with considerable expense. It is also a well-known fact to the officers commanding Fort Hoskins that the buildings there are sadly in want of repair, and many will have to be removed entirely and new ones erected. This of course will be attended with another great expense, and all to no purpose. Even the land on which the fort is situate does not belong to the government, but is rented at a yearly rent of three hundred dollars. The writer is of the opinion that new quarters can be constructed at this agency quite [omission] if not cheaper than at Hoskins. Here there is a good saw mill with timber of the best quality in abundance and convenient [to] all government property and any amount of cheap Indian labor. Again, it can be shown that easy and certain communication can always be had with San Francisco and Portland by means of the ocean. It is only about seven miles from this place to the depot on the Yaquina Bay, and with little expense a good wagon road can be made. From these facts it becomes apparent that a military post can be maintained cheaper here than at Hoskins for the reason that supplies originally come principally from the two seaports mentioned, and can be shipped direct to within seven miles of this place at less than one-third the expense even from Portland to Hoskins. In making the above suggestions, I have been solely prompted by a sense of duty--and in closing I most earnestly urge that you give these suggestions your earliest attention.
Yours &c.
    B. R. Biddle
        Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 22.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Feby. 6th 1862
Sir,
    Messrs. Failing & Hall called upon me to ascertain the time when the sloop Fanny would sail for Yaquina Bay, as you had ordered your goods to be shipped by way of Corvallis in case it did not sail immediately. The sloop will go at the earliest practicable period. I have requested them to retain your goods until I could hear from you in regard to your desires. It seems to me to be very unwise indeed to transport any goods by way of Corvallis at this season of the year, where it is impossible to get them from Corvallis to Siletz Agency. If a few go by way of Corvallis, and a few remain to go by sea, it will render the transportation about treble the cost of the goods. I would suggest that in as [much] as some must necessarily go by sea that you allow all to remain until the sloop sails.
    Please advise me by return mail.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Benj. R. Biddle
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Corvallis
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 98-99.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Feby. 10th 1862
Sir
    I transmit herewith a copy of a letter received at this office from Benj. R. Biddle, U.S. Indian Agent for the coast tribes of Indians located at Siletz Agency, expressing strong fears that the Indians under his charge are determined upon an outbreak with a view of redressing their imaginary wrongs both past and present. This has been anticipated by this office for some time past, and the attention of the Department has been repeatedly called to it both by my predecessor and myself. The failure on the part of Congress to ratify their treaties, as well as to make appropriations commensurate with the promises made to them from time to time, has undoubtedly produced this dissatisfaction.
    Unscrupulous and reckless whites, well aware of these delinquencies on the part of the government, have used it to convince and satisfy the Indians that we have no government, and that they will not receive any further remuneration for their land which they have ceded.
    There is ample evidence of this if Indian testimony can be relied on, and I have no doubt in my own mind that such is the case.
    In view of these facts and the very strong probability that these Indians will rise and commit serious depredations not only on the agency but all along the coast, I would most respectfully urge upon you the necessity of reinforcing the detachment now at the blockhouse at Siletz. It would render the service far more efficient if the post at Fort Hoskins could be abandoned and the entire garrison moved to Siletz Agency. View the case in any light you will, the present location of Fort Hoskins is not adapted to the purposes for which it was designed.
    Situate as it [is] some forty miles from the agency with high and rugged mountains intervening, it is entirely inefficient so far as rendering prompt service at the agency when required.
    The time which it would necessarily require to transmit a requisition for troops, together with the time required for the troops to march to the agency, would afford ample time and opportunity for the Indians to commit any depredations which they might desire and flee into the mountains before any assistance could be rendered.
    Considered in an economical point of view, the location of the post at Siletz presents many favorable inducements. It is easy of access by sea at all seasons of the year, and all supplies of subsistence could be transported at a much less cost than they are at present. Again the advantages which the agency affords in way of lumber, mills, tools &c. for the erection of quarters are far superior to the present locations. I make these recommendations in regard to the transfer of this post hoping that you will give this matter your earliest attention, and if compatible with the interest of the military service that you will make such orders as will guarantee the agent in charge of these Indians the presence and cooperation of the entire available force of Fort Hoskins. If it is not within your power to make this change, I would recommend that reinforcements be sent to the blockhouse without delay.
    Hoping that this may receive favorable consideration at your hands
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Col. A. Cady
    Commanding Dist. Oregon
        Ft. Vancouver W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 100-101.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Feby. 17th 1862
Sir
    The term of your appointment as Special Indian Agent for the Southern District of Oregon having this [omission] expired by limitation, I herewith enclose you blank vouchers for your salary for a period of six months. Not having received any instructions authorizing your continuance in office, I am obliged to direct your services cease. Should however the Commissioner direct the continuance of an agent in that section I will immediately reappoint you. You will please sign the enclosed vouchers and return them to this office, and your draft will be duly honored on presentation.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
          Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Capt. Lindsay Applegate
    Ashland
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 103.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Feby. 18th 1862
Sir
    In view of the great expense heretofore attending the transportation of annuities and supplies from the depot on Yaquina Bay to your agency, and in order to economize more closely, and if possible obviate any expenditures in this behalf in the future, I desire to present my views in regards to the propriety and expediency of establishing a good wagon road between the above points.
    From the records of this office it appears that Agent Metcalfe attempted to open this road and even expended considerable money in his efforts, and during the official term of your late predecessor Gen. Newcomb it was found necessary to bestow further labor upon it in order to enable him to transport the burrs and other fixtures for the mill. With these facts before us it is evident that to complete the road would not require as much labor and expense as it otherwise would.
    The only cash outlay attending the whole operation would be for the necessary tools such as shovels, picks & axes, and the services of a carpenter to build a bridge across the Siletz River.
    I can see no reasonable excuse for delaying action in this matter, but on the contrary many good and sufficient reasons which will justify the work being performed at once.
    I feel exceedingly anxious to adopt some measures which will have a tendency to diminish our expenses especially in the item of transportation. By opening this road so that the supplies can be hauled with the wagons used on the agency, all the embarrassments under which you now labor would be obviated, and thousands of dollars would eventually be saved and at your disposal for such purposes as would best promote the interest and welfare of the Indians under your charge. I am well convinced that this can all be accomplished in a single season and without the expenditure of a single dollar other than is now necessarily incurred.
    The plan which I would recommend you to adopt in order to accomplish this work would be to select as many good, industrious Indians as could be worked to advantage and place them under the supervision of one or more of your employees. In consideration of their services I would issue to them full rations of beef, flour and potatoes during the time they are actually engaged at the work. I believe that you can secure a sufficient force with this promise alone. But if you should find any difficulty in persuading them to work for their subsistence I would issue to those that were faithful and industrious some articles of clothing such as they actually require. The object is if possible to open this road without incurring any expenses other than that which is now necessarily incurred. If this improvement can be made it will produce very gratifying results in a very short time and pave the way for other improvements.
    I have already submitted to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs my views in regard to matters pertaining to your agency, and have recommended every resource to be fully developed, and if possible place the agency in a self-sustaining position.
    If my views and the plan here submitted meet with your approval and you feel satisfied that you can secure a sufficient number of Indians for the consideration above expressed, you will consider yourself duly authorized to commence the work at any time that suits your convenience. I would say however in regard to the building of a bridge across the Siletz that it would be advisable not to make any permanent arrangements concerning this until we can confer together upon the subject.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
To
    Benj. R. Biddle Esq.
        U.S. Ind. Agent
            Siletz Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 104-105.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 270-274.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon Feby. 19 1862
Sir
    In the absence of any general or special instructions in regard to my duties as Superintendent I have assumed the responsibility in several instances of recommending the several agents in this Superintendency to adopt certain measures, all of which have been calculated to promote the general welfare of the Indians in their respective agencies. As yet these measures have been of minor importance, local in their character, and if adopted would not incur any liabilities hereafter to be considered.
    On the 30th ult. I transmitted for your consideration and approval a communication embracing my views respecting the policy which has hitherto been pursued at Siletz Agency, recommending a different course to be pursued in the future, which in my opinion would produce far more favorable results. In connection with this subject and in order to remedy other existing ends I have submitted to Agent Biddle my views in regard to the expediency of opening and completing the road between the depot on Yaquina Bay and the agency, a distance of eight miles. A copy of my letter is herewith enclosed for your inspection and approval.
    I have therein suggested a plan which if adopted and faithfully carried out will complete the road, and the expense incident thereto in no wise embarrass the agent. I am confident that it can be accomplished with Indian labor for no other consideration than their subsistence during the time which they are actually employed and perhaps a few articles of clothing. These articles would be issued to the Indians to a greater or less extent according to their necessities whether the labor was performed or not, at least such has been done here before by Agent Metcalfe as well as Agent Newcomb. I have directed Agent Biddle in case my views and plan meet with his approval to commence operations on the road at his earliest convenience.
    I regard this measure as very important and as duly necessary for the future welfare and prosperity of this agency. It is unnecessary for me to inform you that immense sums of money have heretofore been expended for transportation alone between these points. The accounts of former agents now on file in your office bear ample evidence of this fact. As long as we adhere to the present system of packing on mules and paying the present and prospective rates, we may expect to be harassed and annoyed with heavy expenditures on this account. The limited appropriation for general and incidental expenses out of which this expense must be paid will not justify more countenancing the continuation of this policy any longer. It is my earnest desire to curtail and if possible to dispense with this expense entirely. I know of no more certain, sure and safe way to accomplish this than to complete the road. It is only about eight miles distant from the agency, and even if it should cost one thousand dollars cash it would be policy and even economy even then to open and complete the road. But there is no necessity for expending a single dollar other than for the purposes mentioned in my letter to Agent Biddle.
    It is impossible to sustain the agency and to transport from the interior the supplies which are annually required. They must necessarily be sent by sea, and under the present system the cost of having them packed from the depot to the agency, a distance of eight miles, is almost equal to the entire cost from Portland to Yaquina Bay.
    The agency is supplied with oxen and wagons and well prepared to perform the duty. The road once made passable, all supplies will be hauled direct from the ship to the agency storehouse without one dollar's expense.
    Could the surplus crop of potatoes now on the agency be brought to this market and disposed of at current prices, the proceeds would be amply sufficient to complete the road, and even make further improvements. But to attempt to bring them from the agency to the depot by the present system of packing would not only be slow and tedious but very expensive.
    The great distance intervening between this place and the capital, and the delay attending the transmission of correspondence from this remote section, renders it impracticable to submit these desired improvements for your approval before action is taken. But you may rest assured that no improvements will be suggested--no recommendations made to the agents which will have a tendency to exceed the appropriation.
    I trust sir that with these explanations in regard to the immediate necessity of this work being completed--the advantages which will result from it you will have no hesitancy in approving of my action in the premises.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 105-107.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 265-270.




West Point, N.Y.
    Feb. 21st, 1862-
Sir,
    A letter dated "Office of Indn. Affairs, Jany. 22nd 1862" & signed by the Acting commissioner, addressed to Hon. J. W. Nesmith, in relation to my accounts for medical services at Siletz Agency in 1861, has been transmitted to me.
    Allow me to state that at the commencement of my engagement, nearly a year since, it was understood that the compensation was to be paid quarterly. The services were faithfully performed, at a not inconsiderable expense to myself, but in consequence of Agt. Newcomb having received no funds for the purpose, I have as yet received nothing.
    I am unfamiliar with the routine of business in the Indian Department, but was informed by Superintendent Rector that on presenting my vouchers at your bureau they would doubtless be paid, and the amount balanced on Agent Newcomb's accounts. Is it necessary that I should wait for even the 1st & 2nd quarters' salary till his final accounts are rendered? I am seriously in need of the amount due.
    Permit me to request that a copy of this letter be placed on file with the vouchers, as they were receipted by me in expectation of their payment--which fact, however, Mr. Nesmith assured me, would lead to no mistake.
    As I have left Oregon, and the late Agent Newcomb has been relieved, I respectfully request that if it be compatible with your method of business the payment when settled may be made directly to me, and not sent by way of Oregon.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Yr. obdt. servt.
            J. Frazier Head
                (Surgn. U.S. Army)
To the
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Deptmt. of the Interior
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 119-121.


Siletz Agency, Feb. 24th 1862
Sir
    The golden fever prevails to an alarming extent among my employees. They all complain of the low wages
. I have received notices from several of them that they will leave at [the] end of the present quarter if their wages are not increased. One leaves at end of this month. I am convinced that a man can't support his family here at present rates of provisions and the cost of transportation added.
    I submit this state of affairs to your early consideration and ask for your views in regard to same.
    Snow is still on the ground--the oats are nearly all fed out--great quantities of potatoes have frozen--the Indians have suffered severely--and are much dissatisfied.
    Hoping to hear from you soon I remain
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 38.



Siletz Agency
    Coast Reservation
        Mar. 15th 1862
Sir,
    I hasten to lay before you a copy of a letter received per express from O. W. Weaver, the gentleman in charge of the "Alsea" Sub-Agency, Mr. Brooks being still absent from the post.
    The information is important as showing the feeling and intentions of not only the Indians at the "Alsea," but, as I believe, the feeling and purpose that animates the confederated bands on the Coast Reservation, with whom the promise to pay them for their country, which they have left, is no longer believed.
    The information which this letter imparts is important in another sense: The "Alsea" Indians are too distant from the power to restrain and hold them to rules of discipline. I mean the military.  It is this power that holds this wild element in check. And here I would urge what I have before mentioned, that the whole force garrisoned at Fort Hoskins ought to be located at this agency--ready to meet any emergency. I hope at an early day this necessity will be met and the military post at Fort Hoskins, thirty-five miles distant, will be removed to this agency.
    As Mr. Weaver has given the facts, and the source of his information together with his views of the necessity of prompt attention to these "Alsea" Indians, I submit the whole subject, hoping it may receive your earliest attention.
    As the restive war horse champs his bit and paws the earth when held in check before the charge, so these Indians must be held in check by the military power until means is supplied to hush their complaining and quit this spirit of war among them, which evidences itself now and then like the pent-up volcano.
    I shall be always ready to use to best advantage the means at my command in quelling disturbances and punishing promptly all offenders, but I am weak in force to meet any concert of hostilities that might arise. It can't be expected that eighteen men without a very wholesome discipline could accomplish much until a reinforcement could be brought to their aid, thirty-five miles over a very rugged country, the trail blocked by falling timbers and crossed by streams more than half the time past fording.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle
        Indian Agent
Wm. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Portland
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 48.



Alsea Ind. Agency
    Mar. 15th 1862
B. R. Biddle Esq.
    Ind. Agent
        Siletz
            Sir
                Since writing you, I have been informed by several Coquille Indians, and confirmed by many of the Siletz Indians, that the Alsea Indians, in bringing a white man down the Alsea River, purposely capsized the canoe with the expectation of his being drowned, for the purpose of securing the articles in possession of this man. It appears that they stole the articles, but fortunately the party saved himself.
    The Indian who first told me says he was up the river, and this white man came to his house so much exhausted that he was hardly able to speak, that he gave him some food and warmed him with blankets, and that when this white man had recovered somewhat, he told him about the affair. Afterwards he (the Indian) talked with the Alseas, and is satisfied that they intended to kill this white man. The Indian has been living with the Alseas all winter, and well knows their intentions. His statements are sustained by a large number of Indians, and further says the whites know but little of the evil intentions of these Alseas.
    They were all here about two days, and when called to an account by Washington--Tag-a-ne-sa--and Port Orford George for the outrage--they laughed at the attempt. They were told by that chief that if they killed one Boston man they would all be hunt for the deed--that was "Boston tum-tum," had I have known of this at the time they were here, I should have immediately called the chiefs, Watson & Albert, to the agency, and overhauled the matter, but was only informed today. It is a case that requires prompt attention; if not, some white man will suffer at their hands, as their insolence increases with lapse of time.
    All the statements are from Indians, but I am satisfied are not far from correct. These Alseas are a trifling, thieving and cowardly set of Indians, and the sooner they are driven from this vicinity the better.
    I give the statements as given me, and should they be corroborated by the white party I hope you will give it your earliest attention.
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        O. W. Weaver
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon March 17th 1862
Sir
    Yours of the 4th inst. containing enclosed triplicate vouchers for your services as special Indian agent has been received. I this day deposit with Tracy & Co. five hundred dollars to be forwarded to your address at Jacksonville which I hope will safely come to hand.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T.  McF. Patton
                Clerk to Supt.
Lindsay Applegate Esq.
    State Special Agent
        Ind. Department
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 113.



    Frank Cooper, of Benton County, Oregon, being duly sworn says:
    I was employed by B. R. Biddle, U.S. agent, as packer for Siletz Agency during the fourth quarter 1861. I was to receive 5¢ per pound or one hundred dollars per ton for all goods packed from Corvallis, and one cent or twenty dollars per ton for all packed from the Depot on Yaquina Bay to the agency.
    I agreed with Mr. Biddle that all supplies used and required by himself or any of the employees on the agency should be packed without any charge being made. Mr. Biddle further agreed that in consideration of my remaining in the employ that he would place in my charge an equal number of animals and as many more as he could get and that I should have half of all that could be made. I used four animals of my own, two belonging to the Indian Department, and two and sometimes three belonging to the employees of the reservation and the Military Department of Fort Hoskins. The following articles were packed from Corvallis with the understanding that they were for the agent's private use and no charge was made, viz: 1 cook stove. 85 pounds of flour. 500 pounds of bacon. 200 lbs. sugar. 1 keg syrup. Twelve or fourteen boxes of apples, weighing about 800 pounds, and some other small articles amounting in the aggregate to about 2600 lbs. I packed these to the agency and made no charge whatever. The articles for which I charged are as follows: 1000 lbs. clothing from Fort Hoskins, 100 lbs. nails, 28 lbs. borax & vitriol, 175 lbs. medicine, 35 lbs. stationery, 45 lbs. axle grease, 20 lbs. candles, 3600 lbs. flour, 25 lbs. rope, 200 lbs. grass seed, and about 100 lbs. miscellaneous items amounting in the aggregate to 5328 pounds. This amounted to $266.40--one half of which amount I was to receive amounting to $133.20. I also packed from the Depot on Yaquina Bay twenty-six & half tons according to ship's measurement which amounted to $540--one half of which according to our agreement I was to receive, amounting to $270. I have been shown the statement made under certificate of honor by B. R. Biddle as agent wherein he states that there is due me for transporting supplies from Corvallis $323.27 and from Yaquina Bay $700.00, making a total sum of $1023.27. This statement is false and fraudulent, as I only claim $403.20, or thereabouts. Mr. Biddle has charged government with the packing of all articles taken there, even his own private property. In the transportation from Yaquina Bay he has charged the Department at the rate of $20 per ton for the entire amount shipped there while only 26½ tons was packed. About six tons of this cargo remained at the Depot on the 17th of February. 3000 lbs. flour and salt was packed by Indians and paid for in flour. 1000 lbs. of flour was sold on the beach to Linton Starr, a miner. Mr. Biddle also issued fourteen or fifteen sacks of flour to Indians assisting to discharge the cargo of Indian supplies shipped per sloop Fanny from Portland. I also know of my personal knowledge that Mr. Biddle sold a large quantity of flour, bacon, sugar, syrup and apples to the employees--the same which I packed from Corvallis and the Depot. Of the amount of bacon purchased by Mr. Biddle and packed by me from Corvallis, I know that the largest portion, if not the entire quantity, was sold to the employees and used by the agent.
    During the latter part of December 1861 I was requested by Mr. Biddle to sign blank vouchers in duplicate for my pay, which I did, believing that it was necessary in order to draw the money from the Superintendent. At a subsequent time, Mr. Spencer, clerk to Mr. Biddle, presented other blank vouchers and represented that those I had signed before had become blotted and could not be used. These I signed also. After Mr. Biddle's return from the Superintendent's office he informed me that the Supt. had cut down the bill for packing and that it had been a losing business and that the entire bill amounted to but some few hundred dollars. I never received from Mr. Biddle but $110.50/100 in cash and the following goods belonging to the agency, viz: 12 yds. flannel, 3 yds. hard times [sic], 1 pr. shoes, 1 pr. boots. For seventy-nine dollars and seventy-nine cents I gave a common business receipt, and no portion was designed as pay on account of packing, but for the services of my wife as cook.
    I have endeavored to have a settlement for this service and he has refused, saying that he has my receipt in full. To a request made in writing for a settlement the enclosed letter marked "A" was received in reply. If he has my receipts he filled out vouchers over my signature without paying me a dime other than above stated. I am well satisfied that he has acted in this matter with a willful and deliberate intention to rob the government. His acts towards me bear ample evidence of this fact.

Frank M. Cooper
   
State of Oregon              )
County of Multnomah   )  ss.
    On this twenty-sixth day of March A.D. 1862 personally came before me Frank Cooper, who first being duly sworn according to law says that the above statement by him subscribed is true to the best of his knowledge, information and belief. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the day and year in this certificate written.
Benj. F. Goodwin
    Notary Public
        Oregon
[Biddle's "letter marked 'A'" does not appear on the microfilm.]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 391-396.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency
    April 1st 1862
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Sir: Believing it necessary to communicate to you the condition of the Indians under my charge, I send  a special messenger to Corvallis post office to forward the following.
    These Indians have suffered severely from cold during the winter & to the present time for want of clothing. Many are more or less frostbitten, yet I have seen none whose lameness will be likely to be permanent. Some have died. Some 19 are absent with & without permits. Universal disappointment and distrust prevail. The arrival of the long-looked-for sloop with clothing is believed to be a humbug. Under this state of things I shall not be able to keep the Indians on the reservation for any great length of time without military force, nevertheless I shall exert all my skill to keep them till the sloop arrives, which I hope will not be long.
    Mr. Biddle informs me that his supplies are in Corvallis, that he shall have nothing to ship excepting a few blacksmith tools. At this time, cannot Mr. Biddle order his tools for shipment & save me the necessity of waiting till he goes to Portland, which I think may be 3 weeks. I hope, sir, the sloop will not delay.
    The winter on the coast has been severely cold and stormy. The Indians' horses are mostly dead. My employee (O. W. Weaver) has succeeded by feeding our hay & potatoes in saving all of the government stock excepting two expended mules.
    I can freight the sloop with 300 to 500 bushels potatoes. The following articles are desired by the Indians.
Tobacco
Sugar
Coffee
Tea
Light gay-colored calico
    Please send by the sloop of the above articles to the value of two hundred bushels. I shall forward to your care, as above, from 300 to 500 bushels [potatoes].
    I kept no transcript copy of my bill forwarded to you & desire to place upon it, if it is not there, candles, matches & saleratus & 2 brooms.
    The weather is still unsettled on the beach.
Respectfully your obedt. servt.
    Linus Brooks
        Special Ind. Agt. Alsea
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind.
        Affairs for Oregon
    I have employed Thomas Weston (brother of David Weston) for farmer. He is competent to do all blacksmithing necessary for us. If you think it advisable, I should like to have you send by the sloop 1 small blacksmith bellows, 1 small size vise, 1 small anvil, 1 hand hammer & ½ doz. files, 50 lbs. horseshoe iron, 20 lbs. cast steel & 20 lbs. spring steel.
    P.S. We are entirely out of all necessaries of life excepting flour & potatoes.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 52.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon April 1st 1862
Sir
    I have to acknowledge yours of the 15th ult. transmitting your official bond and oath of office as sub-Indian agent for Oregon and asking to be assigned to duty. In our present embarrassed condition in regard to funds applicable to the service outside of treaty stipulations, I know of no field of labor where more efficient service can be rendered without funds than in the Klamath Lake country. The mining population of Northern California will no doubt avail themselves of the benefits and advantage of the route through the lake country [to] the mining and gold fields of Oregon and Washington Territory. Hence the necessity for the presence of an agent duly authorized and invested with the authority to adjust and settle all difficulties which may arise between the miners and Indians. In view of these facts you are assigned to duty in the country above referred to and are directed to avail yourself of the first favorable opportunity for visiting the Indians in that country and impressing upon their minds the necessity of abstaining from any acts which will tend to destroy the peace and quiet which now prevails. I regret very much my inability to furnish you with funds upon which to operate, at least to pay your actual necessary traveling expenses while on duty.
    The failure of the Department to remit funds when due places this office in a very embarrassing condition. I am anxiously anticipating a remittance, and when received I will forward you a sufficient sum for your actual expenses, and until Congress makes more liberal appropriation for Indian tribes not parties to any treaty we must practice the most rigid economy to keep within bounds. You are particularly instructed not to contract any liabilities without first advising with this office, showing the necessity therefor and securing permission so to do.
    No expense should be incurred whatever other than actual traveling expenses, and even in these cases care should be taken that they are necessary and reasonable in price. I hope that this state of affairs will not long continue, but until we are in possession of funds to pay us as we go, it is particularly desirable that no indebtedness should be incurred. The credit of the Department is at present so much impaired on account of your failure to meet obligations that it is useless to seek credit any longer, and unless the necessity is of the most urgent character I feel unwilling to countenance the contracting of any liabilities. I must [omission] sir that you will exert your best endeavors to preserve the peace and quit which now prevails. You will exercise your own judgment in the management of affairs among these Indians, and as soon as you consider the danger past you can return to the valley. Care should be taken that the Indians should be protected from the lawless acts of any white person passing through the country. A friendly conference with these Indians will no doubt result in much good.
    I would make them no promises which I was unable to fulfill. I hope that you will keep me fully advised of your acts during your sojourn among them. Other instructions will be issued to you from time to time, and as soon as I am advised what will be the future policy of the Department toward these "Lake" Indians I will communicate with you and furnish you with such instructions as will enable you to carry it out. Your salary will be at the rate of $1000 per annum, which will be paid punctually at the close of every quarter, upon presentation of your vouchers duly receipted. Hoping that the foregoing may be sufficient to enable you to act understandingly, and that the duty assigned you may be performed with credit to yourself and satisfaction to the Department
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 117-119.



Department of the Interior
    April 3rd 1862.
Sir:
    Certificate No. 5136, issued on the 1st inst., accompanied by your request for requisition of this date, awarding $820 to Anson Dart, late Superintendent, for board of "P. C. Dart, clerk," has been received at this Department, and its requisition withheld for the reason that the act approved June 16th 1860 does not provide for the board of a clerk, but that of "interpreters." The certificate, and your request for requisition, are herewith returned, and your attention invited to said act.
I am respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        Caleb B. Smith
            Secretary
Wm. P. Dole, Esqr.
    Commr. of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 168-169.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon April 3rd 1862
Sir
    In the absence of Superintendent Rector I have the honor to transmit herewith the official bond of Amos E. Rogers, sub-Indian agent for Oregon. He has been assigned to duty in the Klamath Lake country & furnished with the necessary instructions to enable him to enter upon the duties of his office.
    His post office address is Jacksonville, Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Aff.
        Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 275-276.



    Alfred Flickinger of Benton County, Oregon, being duly sworn, says
    I have been in the service of the Indian Department at Siletz Agency "from Oct. 1st up to July 24." Upon the arrival of the sloop Fanny with cargo of annuities at Yaquina Bay in December last, I was sent by Mr. Biddle to superintend the discharging thereof. I remained during the time the sloop was there. I know of my own personal knowledge that B. R. Biddle did sell one Linton Starr, a miner, on the beach one thousand pounds of flour, a portion of the cargo. Mr. Biddle stated that one hundred sacks of the flour marked B.R.B.S. was his own private property. All the flour discharged from the sloop was marked the same. I was in the service some five months, remained on the reservation during the entire period. For the first few weeks after my entering the service I messed with Mr. Biddle, Mr. Spencer, his son-in-law and clerk & Mr. Cooper and wife and paid Mr. Biddle $5 per week for my board. Afterwards I made other arrangements and purchased my subsistence from Agent Biddle. During the time I remained I purchased the following articles, viz: 10 lbs. coffee, 25 lbs. sugar, 450 lbs. flour & 50 lbs. bacon. I paid for these articles over and above the ordinary price five cents per pound for packing them to the agency. I also know that Mr. Allen purchased from Mr. Biddle 1000 lbs. flour, with the charge of 5¢ per pound for packing added. Mr. J. L. Barnard purchased 500 lbs. flour under the same rule. All the employees on the reservation purchased nearly all their supplies from Mr. Biddle. Mr. Biddle also sold cloth, calico, boots &c. to the employees, as well as all their groceries such as sugar, coffee, tea, syrup, bacon &c. I was present near the agency and know of Indians receiving flour & beef for their services for working on the agency. I never saw any bacon issued to Indians. During the time I never knew a single pound to have been issued to Indians. I have been shown a voucher signed by Dick Johnson for services as interpreter during the 4th quarter 1861 and witnessed by my signature. In regard to this voucher, I would say that early in February Mr. Biddle called upon me to witness the mark of Dick Johnson. The receipt of the voucher was filled out, but the body of the voucher was blank. I objected to witnessing it, as nothing was specified for what it was. Agent Biddle told me he only wanted me to witness the mark of said Indian, which I did. Mr. Biddle also stated to me that it was for provisions issued to Dick during the time he was in the service. I saw the Indian make his mark, but did not witness Mr. Biddle pay him any money whatever. The Indian was not regularly employed as interpreter, was only at the agency building about four weeks and was employed in doing chores for the agent such as milking the cow, sawing firewood &c. I know that the mules purchased by Agent Biddle of C. P. Blair & J. Lilly were constantly used in packing annuities and supplies, both from the Depot as well as Corvallis. I also know that the entire cargo received by sloop Fanny was not all packed by Mr. Frank Cooper. Mr. Biddle had some flour & salt packed by Indians for which service he paid them in flour between three & four thousand pounds. The boxes of fruit trees shipped by Supt. of Indian Affairs for the reservation still remained at the Depot at the time I left, Feby. 24th.
    I also issued flour to the Indians assisting in discharging the cargo, according to Mr. Biddle's orders, about twelve or fifteen sacks of 50 lbs. each.
Alfred Flickinger
   
State of Oregon         )
Multnomah County   )  ss.
    Before me personally appeared Alfred Flickinger, who being duly sworn says that the matters and things set forth in the foregoing statement are true of his own knowledge.
    Witness my hand and notarial seal affixed this 7th day of April A.D. 1862.
Benj. F. Goodwin
    Notary Public
        Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 387-389.


Grand Ronde April 7th 1862
Evidence of Dr. Wm. Miller, Surgeon & Physician

Q When did you come to the agency
A About 2 & ½ quarters
Q Did you find the Indians in a bad condition
A I did many of them
Q Has the agent furnished you the necessary facilities for treating the Indians
A
   


He has furnished the medicines but has not furnished a proper place nor suitable vessels to keep the medicines, and some of them have [been] damaged for want of [a] stove to keep the office dry or warm. The shelving I made myself; the agent would not have it done
Q
   
Have you the necessary hospital stores on hand and furnished you by the agent to meet the demand in your department
A
   





I have not on hand the necessary hospital supplies, and my department suffers for the want of them. I sent a bill by the agent for the supplies I wanted sometime in the forepart of March. He brought a bill of supplies purchased which I have copied into my report as purchased in the last quarter and a stock on hand but the supplies are not yet here and the agent is now en route to Eugene on an electioneering tour, or at least he said he was going there. The bill shows the purchases to have been made on the 19th of March
Q Has the agent manifested a habitual indifference as to wants of your department
A He does
Q
   
Will you mention some facts which to your mind establish the fact of indifference or carelessness
A
   




When I came here I found the medicines in boxes, many articles for want of glassware damaging by evaporation and moisture such as camphor, citric acid & the alkalis. The room assigned me is but a shell, no stove or furniture of any description with a leaky roof. I notified the agent; he took no action until sometime in February he furnished a stove (though frequently urged). With this exception, this matter has been totally neglected by him
Q Have your sick the food necessary in order to restore health
A No
Q Have you ever told the agent they needed more food
A I have told him they were suffering for healthy nourishment
Q What has been his reply
A
   
He said he had been down among the Rogue Rivers and was surprised to see so much dried meat
Q
   
About that time did you know anything about the Rogue Rivers having a good supply of meat
A
   


There were several of the Rogue Rivers sick about that time, and they complained to me that they had no meat but that of cattle that died of starvation, and it looked to me on examination as if it was such and I am satisfied that for days at a time they had very little else
Q Have you known him to encourage them in the use of sick meat
A
   

I never heard him tell them to do so but the once. I heard him tell the Indians to go on, skin and use an ox that was down with disease, one that was sick and had been for a long time and was nearly dead in the morning and so stiff I could not raise his head
Q
   
Did Mr. Condon tell you he expected Mr. Rector here to examine the affairs of the agency at any particular time
A
   

He told me he expected Mr. Rector, but I did not understand him that he expected him at any particular time. I told him if the employees knew that Mr. Rector was expected they would not leave. There were four of [them] going out on the morning of the 4th
Q Do you think it was his intention to deceive you as to the time of Mr. Rector's visit
A I think it was
Q
   
Have you confidence in his statement and dealing with those connected with the agency
A His course has been such that I neither believe nor disbelieve till I have other evidence
Q Are you an employee under him
A Yes I am
Q Has he increased your salary
A He has
Q Does not such statements endanger your position
A
   
It does, I expect, but I hold myself ready to tell the truth at all times, salary or no salary
Q Do you know anything of Molalla manual labor [school]
A
   
I never knew of the existence of one. I heard that it was the intention of the agent to establish such a school
Q Did not they have a school here that was called by that name
A
   
There was a school for a few days in the clerk's office for a few days while the clerk was sick and [it] is now claimed that it was a manual labor school
Q
   
Do you think it could be construed to be a manual labor school in any sense of the term
A
   

If calling a few children together for a few days in the clerk's office and giving them a little something to eat constitutes a manual labor school I am out. They gave them a lunch at noon and said the object of the lunch was to call the children together
Q Was there any school taught at all after the first of Jan.
A No, and if my recollection serves me, not for a month previous
Q Are you familiar with the manner in which the clerk has conducted this department
A I am
Q Has he had the necessary convenience for doing the business of the office
A He has not. The office through the winter has been unsuitable for any man to occupy
Q Has he been faithful in the attempt to discharge his duty
A He has. He has been faithful all day and done a good deal at night in his own house
Q Has he been interfered with by the other departments of the agency
A He has. He has been called to act as interpreter
Q Is his interpreter incompetent
A I think he is not a good interpreter
Q Does he do the principal part of the interpreting
A No, not to my knowledge
Q What does he do
A
   

He has interpreted a few times. He has acted in the capacity of expressman, spent considerable time in packing wood and doing chores and some of his time in supplying the place of Mr. Magone the miller
Q
   

If the agent had kept a competent man in the place of interpreter and kept him in his place would it not assist the clerk in his duties and enable him to meet the requirements of his office
A
   

I think he would. He might not have been able to have met them under the circumstances, but if the office had been in order and the interpreter done his duty and the agent made no unnecessary work the work would now be up
Q Do you think the clerk a competent man
A I do. I think him not only [a] competent man but a good one
Q Do you think the agent competent
A I don't think he is; he lacks pretty near all the qualities for the place
I certify that I will qualify to the above.
Wm. Miller
Grand Ronde Apr. 7th 1862
Questions & Answers Propounded to Mr. E. D. Thorn by E. H. Griffin

Q   Mr. Thorn, where do you reside
A
   
I reside on the Grand Ronde at present at the mill, about one mile from the agency. I left Salem on the 10th of Feb. and landed here on the 11th
Q For what purpose did you come here
A For the purpose of refitting the mills
Q Have you any animosity or ill will against Condon the agent
A I have not
Q Do you work under his instruction
A No, I do not understand it so
Q Who claims to be your boss
A Major Magone claims to be overseer
Q Do you consider him a competent man to be employed for that purpose
A I do not, sir
Q Should you follow his instruction, do you think the work would be successful
A It might do but would not do the work it ought to do
Q Does Magone claim to act in any other capacity than overseer
A He claims to be miller
Q When called upon to grind does he do it
A
   
Not always. I have seen him refuse grists brought by the Indians but never on Saturday or Mondays when he has been there
Q When he has refused to grind have you any evidence the Indians were in need
A
   
I have heard them say halo muckamuck ["no food"] and put their hands on their stomach and still he would refuse and say they must come Monday or Saturday
Q Do you know of Mr. Magone being absent on Saturday or Monday
A Yes
Q Who ground in his place
A
   
The sawyer. He has ground in his place at other times but Mr. Bridgefarmer has also ground
Q Who is Mr. Bridgefarmer
A I have been told by him he was interpreter
Q Has the interpreter supplied Mr. Magone's place most of the time in his absence
A To the best of my knowledge he has
Q Where is Magone here today
A He left yesterday morning for state convention
Q Has Bridgefarmer been at the mill today
A Not to my knowledge, and 'tis now five o'clock
Q So today [is] the day for grinding
A It is
Q Is there anything in the mill to be ground, and this the day set for grinding
A Yes
Q
   
Do you think Mr. Condon shows himself a good business agent in allowing men to neglect their business as he has done in this particular instance
A I do not
Q Have you seen the employees interfering in with one another's business
A
   




I have not except in one instance, and that was with Mr. Overman by Mr. Magone in jacking up logs. Mr. Overman the sawyer and Mr. Magone disagreed as to the manner and Mr. Magone said if that was to be done again it should be done as he ordered and Mr. Overman said it should be done as he directed while he was sawyer. Mr. Magone said it was not worthwhile to multiply words as he should do as he was a mind while he was there
Q You understood from this that two men were claiming the same position
A I did
Q
   
Did Mr. Condon tell you when you came here you were entirely under the control of Mr. Magone
A He did
Q
   


At another time when there was some difficulty between some of the employees and you became disgusted with the management of affairs here on the reserve and you expressed a wish to leave did Mr. Condon tell you not to do so that you were to work for him
A He did
Q Do you know who is superintendent on this reserve
A I think Major Magone are agents [sic] on this reserve
Q Do you think Major Magone a competent advisor to a man in Mr. Condon's position
A I do not, sir
Q
   
Did Mr. Magone tell you Mr. Rector was expected here on the 4 & 5th of April and request you to keep a profound secret
A He did. He told me not to lisp it to no one
Q
   
Did you understand the reason why the Superintendent's visit should be kept so secret. Is he not worth the respect and esteem of those in employ here
A
   
I suspect he wanted persons who might be called as witnesses to leave and not be in reach in case an investigation was had
Q Did you know that some of the employees were about to leave
A I did
Q Who and when
A
   
I know Mr. Merrill, Dr. Miller, Mr. Wright & Mr. Roberts were to leave on Friday morning for Albany
Q
   
Did Mr. Condon tell you he did not expect Mr. R  What did Mr. Condon say about Mr. Rector's visit
A
   
He said he did not much expect him here till after the convention, as Rector was going to the convention
Q What did Mr. Magone say about Mr. Rector's visit
A He told me he would be here on the 4th & 5th
Q
   
Do you think there [is] any necessity for Mr. Magone to act as special agent to superintend your operation
A
   
I do not, sir. If I had have been boss I would have had all my bolts in my arms, but as it is my bolts are not yet made and no iron to make them
Q
   
Has there been any necessity for special trips to Salem to look after the affairs of  your department
A No, sir
Q How long was Mr. Magone in Salem at one time claiming to act as messenger
A From the 5th of Jan. to the 10th of Feb.
Q Was Mr. Magone at this agency from the 27th of Dec. to 10th of Feb.
A He was not to the best of my knowledge
Q
 
Did you understand Mr. Condon to claim Mr. Magone as special messenger all this time
A Heard him say he had to be paid for all this time as special messenger
Q What do you think of a man that transacts business for government in such a manner
A He ought to be booted out by Mr. Rector or Abe Lincoln the rail splitter
I certify that I have made the above statements to Dr. E. H. Griffin at the Grand Ronde Agency, and if called I will certify the same on oath.
E. D. Thorn
Grand Ronde Apr. 7th 1862
At a meeting of the chiefs on the 7 the following

John Tumwater, chief:
10 in the tribe
Each family has land
    Can't raise enough food could raise enough if had team has no seed has asked many times for seed. The agent promised seed when it comes has nothing to eat and can't raise anything has nothing to do with. My people are well am well satisfied with the medical treatment of my family.
    Thinks the employees have done as well as they could have had nothing to do with
Watchano, Clackamas chief:
    My people all here about 30 adults men &c.
    Some have no land one ox to the tribe no seed get their food outside one wagon
    Tribe healthy thinks the employees have done the best they could except the blacksmith he has sometime postponed their work
Jake--Cow Creek:
    33 persons in my tribe has been two agents here and neither have told him he could have land for a home nor his tribe has asked for land and has not got and don't want to stay has no team and never has had would try to raise grain if had anything to do with yet no team no seed no farming utensils have all been well since this Doct. (Dr. Miller) has been here but there are two that the Dr. thinks will not live long. Provision out two months have been working round for a subsistence one cow to the tribe seven horses would like to adopt the habits of the whites but have nothing to start with
    Am satisfied with the manner in which the employees have performed their duties I do not expect them to do when they have nothing to do with I have as for thing to be done and could not get it there was nothing to do with
Tom and John Chamberlin:
Rogue River chief
    30 men don't know how many women about 40 children have land for the tribe given by Palmer don't want to stay here but if have to stay we want our land divided among us have no team have one wagon borrow oxen of the government farm no grain sowed no seed no ground plowed has not asked for team knew he could not get one wants to go to Rogue River but if had team and seed would put in all the grain I could
    Considerable sickness. As far as he knows the employees have done this duty as well as they could in the circumstances
Quakata, chief of the Molallas:
    14 men 16 women 17 children some have land and some have not most have no land would be glad if all his people had land and would work have three yoke of oxen the 1st & 2 chiefs have some grain sowed have no seed have not plowed any the oxen are not able to plow would plow and sow if had team and seed the tribe is healthy
    Have not seen anything wrong in the employees
Peter, Yamhill chief:
    8 men 9 women 12 children we live on borrowed ground no ground we call our own would like to have a place of my own but don't know how I would get one without the government will give it to me my people would work better if they had homes of their own have 3 yoke of oxen but they can't work no seed no ground plowed could raise all we want to eat if we had team and seed and land are about out of provisions the tribe are healthy 3 old men too old to labor
    The employees have done as well as they could and all they could
Ki-a-kuts, Santiam Twapatus chief:
    30 men more women than men but don't know how many good many children some have lands and some have none would be glad if all had land they all want to work some have no land and some no team have 5 yoke of oxen not able to work no seed have had nothing to eat for some time but the cattle that have died now live on camas
    Fed all their grain to their stock the tribe are well a good many old men but would work if they had anything to work with knew the employees did what they could in their respective places
    Condon told him he wanted him to put in a crop and he wanted half of what he raised told Condon he did not want to do that way he had a large family and would want it all himself and did not think it was right anyhow has ground plowed and has asked for seed and can't get any
    Condon told all the chiefs they must give him one half of all the grain says Condon wants his share to feed the old and poor but he don't want Condon to feed his father and mother he can feed his own father and mother
Jo Hutch, Santiam:
    About 20 men & children and more children than women
    Have lands & no teams and no tools it don't do them any good they have nothing to work with a spoonful of wheat and a spoonful of oats has two yoke of oxen tried to plow yesterday the oxen fell down and he told them to turn them out and did not ask the agent for seed or team
    The agent ought to know he wanted them he says the agent tells him to plow and he has about 2 or three acres and it has been plowed so often it will yield nothing and is now under water and he can't work it
    Is very much bothered by Babcock who drives his cattle out of the range thinks the employees are all good men and have done all they can they could not do much there was one man Wright who worked well all the time and did his duty he worked all the time there is one other man Magone who is away all the time he don't think he ought to be here says their guns are out of order they can't hunt they have nothing to hunt with summer is coming and they will have to hunt for a living all the chiefs want a man who will do as he says for agent says Condon says one thing and does another he never knows whether he will do as he says or not
Grand Ronde
Question put to Mr. Geo. M. Overman
  1 When did you come here
  2 What have you been doing
  3 How much supplies did you have on hand after harvest
  4 Did you sow grain in the fall
  5 Did you leave about this time and take charge of both mills
  6 The sawmill was a good deal out of repair
  7 Was the door out of repair
  8 Was you ordered to put it in repair by Condon
  9  Did he direct you as to manner
10 Did you have any difficulty in fixing it
11 Had there been another person at work for some time before under Condon and failed
12 What plan did he follow in his repair
13 Could he put in as much dirt through [the] day as would wash out at night
14 Did he waste a large amount of labor to no purpose in this manner
15 Was he advised to change his plan
16
 
When he concluded to take the advice of others did it take Condon long to complete the work
17
 
From what you saw of him there do you consider him a man competent to take charge of a miscellaneous business
18 Has your position been changed since then by the agent
19 Was you discharged from your position about this time
20 Was you given another position
21 About what time was this promise made
22
   
When you accepted of this position did he the agent tell you to run the sawmill till the Molalla school should be started
23 Are you still running the sawmill and grist mill
24 Have you heard anything more of the Molalla school
25 Has there been a Molalla school at this agency
26 Do you think he is qualified to fill the position of agent
I certify the above questions were put [to] me by E. H. Griffin.
George M. Overman
Grand Ronde Apr. 8 / 62
Answered by Geo. M. Overman

No. 1
I came the 20th of August last
2
I acted as superintendent of farm from the 20th August to the 1 October
3
About 60 bu. wheat raised on government farm
4
There was no wheat sown up to Oct. 1st
5
Yes, I did
6
Yes, very much out of repair
7
Yes, very much
8
Yes
9
No. He told me to exercise my own judgment
10
No, we had no difficulty in fixing it
11
Yes there was had
12
       



He used large fir brush & sandy loam the brush was hauled by wagons and the other material was carried by Indian women. There was from 3 to 5 men to dig the dirt and 1 man to tip the baskets at the dam. There was from 10 to 30 women working from 2 to 3 weeks
13
     

A trifle more than the water would wash out overnight. And the dirt was dug out of the bank where it was actually needed to remain
14
Yes. He did
15
Yes, by 3 different persons
16
In about 2 weeks the water was running in the run
17
No, not at all
18
Yes
19
Yes
20


Yes. He gave me the position as superintendent of the agricultural department of the Molalla Manual Labor School when it should go into effect
21
The 21st and accepted the 23rd day of December 1861
22
Yes. He did
23
   

Yes. I run the grist and sawmill up to the 1st January. And am still running the sawmill
24
   


Yes, in about 4 or 6 days after I accepted the proposition. He, the agent, said he guessed our Molalla school would fall through with as the appropriations was not so large as he expected
25
   

I never heard of a Molalla school being taught here until I heard that the vouchers were made out
26
   

I do not. I don't think that there is a man within 5 miles of here but would make a better agent except crazy Chamberlin
I certify the above to be answers to questions put by E. H. Griffin.
George M. Overman
Grand Ronde April 8th 1862
Testimony of Mr. Nelson Wright in relation to the affairs at this agency

Q Mr. Wright, when did you come here
A The 8th day of Sept.
Q What department do you fill
A That of carpenter
Q Have you been familiar with the schools in this reserve
A
   
I know there was a school taught in the old schoolhouse at or near the mill for a while. Perhaps 3 or 4 weeks about the 1st of Oct.
Q What was that school called
A It was my understanding that it was the Umpqua School
Q Do you know anything of a school called a manual labor school
A I never saw anything that I would call a manual labor school or anything like it
Q Has there not been a school kept a few days and reported as such
A There was and kept in the clerk's office
Q Did you know at the time that was the manual labor school
A I had no such suspicion. There was nothing about the school to indicate any such thing
Q What time was that school closed
A About the last of Nov.
Q Has your shop been furnished and your bills filed
A The shop has not been furnished nor bills filed
Q Was there money in your department to meet its demands
A The agent told me there was an abundance
Q Did the agent promise to file your bills
A He did
Q Is it a habitual thing in him to neglect his business
A It is
Q Have you any confidence in his performing his promises
A No, I have not
Q
   
Do you think him honest in his endeavors to carry out the wishes and treaty stipulations of the U.S.A. with the Indians on this reserve
A No, sir, I do not
I certify that I will certify to the above.
N. Wright
Grand Ronde April 9th 1862
Questions put to Mr. E. S.
Merrill
  1
How long have you been here
2
What have you been doing
3
Has your department been carried on successfully
4
What circumstances hindered its successful operation
5
Did you request the agent to get the supplies
6
Have you left the employ of the agent
7
What induced you to leave
8
Have you any private difficulty with the agent
9
   

Do you think the agent Did you tell the agent you would and could make all the plows the Indians would want if he would furnish you with the necessary supplies
10
Did he furnish you
11
Do you know how much he paid
12
   

Would you have liked to have furnished as good a plow here on the reserve for less money
13
Do you know anything about his private dealing with the Indians
14
Did he buy the squaw
15
   

Do you know of Indians being allowed to get drunk and create disturbances without being punished or any notice being taken of them
16
   

Has he in any instances given the Indians written orders for work at your shop and then come and told you not to do the work when you could have complied with the orders
17
Did you have some sharp words with the agent about that manner of doing things
I certify that the above questions were put to me by E. H. Griffin.
E. S. Merrill
Grand Ronde Apr. 9th 1862
Answers by E. S. Merrill

No. 1
Eight months
2
I had the position of blacksmith
3
It has, so far as it could be under the circumstances
4
The neglect of the agent to furnish necessary tools and stock
5
   

I did. I made out a bill of necessary tools and stock from time to time, and the agent neglected to furnish
6
I have
7
   


   

I left because I had nothing to work with suitable to meet the demands of the shop, and I have requested the agent from time to time to furnish the necessary materials and he has invariably neglected to do so. He has neglected to protect the charcoal from the weather and it is in an unfit condition to work. And I have no confidence to believe that there will be any change for the better
8
No, I have not
9
I did
10
No. He bought a lot
11
Yes. The bill says $21 at Portland
12
I would
13
   

Yes. In one instance he came to me and borrowed money with which he said he wanted to pay for a squaw
14
   

I suppose he did, as I saw the squaw stopping at his house, and I was told by others that he had bought her
15
Yes, I do
16
Yes, he has
17
I did, and refuse to take that responsibility
I certify the above to be answers to questions put to me by E. H. Griffin and that I would testify to all the facts therein contained.
E. S. Merrill
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Grand Ronde S. Yamhill
    April 9, 1862
Dear Sir
    In view of the relations between yourself and J. B. Condon Esq., Ind. agent at this reservation, I have concluded in compliance with your request to give you a brief account of some of the management of the affairs of this agency since I came here last August.
    The first thing that particularly attracted my attention was his manner of treating the chiefs of the different bands of Indians when they called to see him as agent, on business. It appeared to be impossible for them to get a patient and full hearing of their case whatever it might be, or to obtain a direct and decisive answer. On the contrary, they were usually put off until some other time, much to their annoyance and mortification.
    When Mr. Condon took charge of this agency the Indians were generally predisposed to regard him favorably, but from the manner of his intercourse with them he has entirely failed to secure their confidence and good [will] and to command the respect of the chiefs and principal men, and now it is with great unwillingness that they consult him on any point relating to their business or interests. From the absence of that restraining influence which an agent ought to be able to exert over the Indians under his charge, the frequency with which intoxicating liquor is introduced into the reservation has become a most serious and alarming evil. The Indians openly boast that they have obtained liquor and that they intend to continue the practice. So far as my knowledge extends no effort has been made for the past two months by the agent for the suppression of intemperance among the Indians belonging to this agency.
    It was apparent to every person on this reservation immediately after the last harvest that there would be a great deficiency of grain for seed and subsistence of the Indians belonging to this agency during the winter. Of this fact the agent was frequently reminded. During the early part of the fall the necessary quantity of wheat could have been procured for from 50 to 60 cts. per bushel and oats at from 20 to 30 cts. per bushel delivered at this agency, and on as long credit as was needed. Now these articles can scarcely be procured at any price in sufficient quantities for seed. Many of the Indians are now suffering severely for want of food, especially the old and infirm and women and children.
    I believe I express the opinion of almost every person familiar with the affairs of the agency when I say that from his want of business habits, and the absence of a disposition to take a comprehensive view of and to provide for the future necessities of those entrusted to his care, he is entirely unsuited for the place he now occupies.
    I have no doubt that from your intercourse with the other employees, whose opportunities have been much better than mine for forming correct opinions on the various subjects to which your attention has been directed, you will derive much more accurate information than I can give you.
    From my acquaintance with the other employees of this agency I am fully satisfied they have been actuated by a desire to conscientiously discharge the duties of their respective stations. And I believe you can rely upon any statements they may make in relation to the affairs of the agency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Dr. E. H. Griffin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Grand Ronde April 9th 1862
Questions Put to J. B. Roberts

  1   When did you come here
2
What position was assigned you
3
Did you have control in your department or did the agent
4
Did he show good judgment in this direction of affairs
5
 

Has it been his habit to interfere in your department in such a manner as to prove prejudicial to the interests of the department
6
Do you know anything of a manual labor school carried on at this agency
7
Did you talk with the agent about these vouchers
8
Will you repeat the conversation that passed between you
9
If he acknowledged there was no such school here how did he excuse himself
10
Did you hear the teacher say anything about the school
I certify that the above questions were put to me by E. H. Griffin.
J. B. Roberts
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Grand Ronde Apr. 9th 1862
Answers by J. B. Roberts

No. 1   I came to this agency Nov. 22nd 1861
2
I have been acting as farmer
3
He had control. And did not allow me to exercise my judgment
4
 
 
 
 

No. I do not think he did. In one instance he ordered cattle that were in my care to be driven off to browse. And I told him that they were too poor and weak to get through the deep snow to browse. He said he would have them driven off--and did--and was obliged to have them driven back to save their lives. As what I told him proved true
5
 
 

It has in many instances. In one instance he ordered me to stop feeding the cattle when there was no hope of their living if turned out, as the whole country was covered with snow
6
 
 

I do not know of a Manual Labor School having been taught on this agency. I have seen vouchers purporting to be in receipt of moneys paid for teaching such a school
7
Yes I did
8
 
 
 

I asked Mr. Condon, the agent, why he paid his brother for service not rendered. And said to him that he knew, and we all knew that there had been no such thing in existence here as a Manual Labor School. He then said in answer to me that he knew that there had been no such thing in existence here as a Manual Labor School
9
By saying that his brother was not getting enough pay
10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

He talked to me about a school that he was teaching when I came here which lasted about 3 days to my knowledge. He said that he was giving the children their dinner to encourage them to come to school. The school of which he spoke closed between the 24th and 30th Nov. 1861. There has been no school taught here since that time. By the month of January / 62 I asked the said teacher--Thomas Condon--why they--speaking of the agent and himself--did not fix up the building and put the Manual Labor School into operation. He said that the Superintendent--Rector--at Portland would not allow one dollar to be expended on the buildings. And that they had concluded to let it alone until spring and see what would turn up. He said he as going to move away. But would remain here himself as he wished to hold on to his present position until he could get one somewhere else.
I certify that the above are answers to the questions put to me by E. H. Griffin.
J. B. Roberts
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Questions to S. B. Story
Apr. 9th 1862.    Grand Ronde Agency.

  1   What position do you occupy
2
Have you been in that position all the time
3
Did you sow grain last fall and how much
4
 

Could not this work have been done earlier in the season so as not to interfere with the seeding
5
Has there been a scarcity of grain here this winter
6
Did you speak to the agent about getting a supply
7
Do you know of his contracting for wheat
8
Did the agent enforce the contract
9
Did not the agent consider the contract binding
10
Has not that wheat been very much needed this winter
11
What is wheat worth now delivered here at the agency
12
Are the Indians here now in want for something to eat
13
Does this manner of conducting things meet your approbation
14
 

Are you knowing to the fact that the agent could have bought all the supplies of grain necessary on the faith of the government and on time
15
Did you counsel him to buy oats and what were they worth in the fall and what now
16
Is it a habitual thing in him to neglect things in this way
17
 

In your business relations with Mr. Condon as agent and yourself as farmer has he deported himself in such a manner as to merit your confidence
I certify that the above questions were asked me by E. H. Griffin.
S. B. Story
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Grand Ronde Apr. 9th 1862
Answers by S. B. Story

No. 1   Farmer
2
Yes
3
 
 

Yes. About 15 acres of wheat. Plowed about 20 that is not sown. The main reason why I sowed no more grain last fall was on the account of taking the teams and myself to work on the dam
4
Yes
5
Yes, there has a greater portion of the winter
6
 
 
 
 

Yes. I spoke to him about the propriety of buying wheat and oats and getting it in here before the price of grain should advance and the roads would get so bad that it could not be hauled in. That we would need feed for the horses and seed in the spring. We were out at the time and I was feeding my own oats to the horses that I was using in the government service
7
 
 
 
 

Yes. He said he had contracted with Mr. Babcock for 400 bushels of wheat or thereabouts at 50 cts. per bu. delivered. Babcock delivered 77 bu. after wheat advanced in price. Babcock refused to deliver the rest of the wheat. And I told the agent that he should not rescind the contract for he was doing business for the government
8
No, he did not
9
 

He did. I told him that he ought to enforce the contract or not pay for the wheat delivered. He said that he believed that he could. But he did not want a difficulty
10
For feed for the Indians through the winter and for the oxen this spring
11
Worth at least $1.50 per bu.
12
 

They are. There is no wheat and no flour and no supplies of any kind so far as I know. And a constant call
13
Not it does not
14
Yes I am
15
Yes I did. They were worth 25 cts. per but. delivered and they are not worth $1.25
16
So far as my knowledge it is
17
He has not
I certify the above to be my answers to questions put to me by E. H. Griffin.
S. B. Story
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Albany April 15th 1862
Wm. H. Rector Supt. Indian Affairs
    Sir
        We, the undersigned citizens of Linn Co., union men, would respectfully represent to you that in our opinion the condition of affairs at the Grand Ronde Agency demands a prompt and thorough investigation.
    From the best information which we can obtain (and we have taken some pains to satisfy ourselves upon that point), we are of the opinion the present agent, J. B. Condon, is entirely incompetent to fulfill the duties of the position which he occupies.
    And further, that he has pursued toward the employees, who have gone there at considerable expense and personal sacrifice, a course both tyrannical and unjust and [which] ought not to be tolerated.
    Of his ability to fill that place we have had serious doubt from the beginning, and subsequent events have proved those doubts to have been well entertained.
    We think justice to the public interests of the country--to the Indians--to yourself, and to all concerned, require the matter be investigated, and if the charges as alleged be sustained that he (Condon) be set aside.
    Demus Beach Thos. Monteith

G. H. Baber [sic] J. P. Tate

D. W. Wakefield W. Monteith

S. H. Althouse D. Froman

W. M. Powers J. Barrows
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 56.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon April 23rd 1862
Sir
    This Superintendency heretofore embracing this state and the Territory of Washington having been divided, and a separate Superintendency established for the Territory of Washington, I would recommend that this office be removed to Salem, for the following reasons.
    The present location is at the extreme northern portion of the state, while all the agents are assigned to duty at different points from 60 to 300 miles south of this place. The remote distance at which they are located from [the] Supt.'s office necessarily requires heavy disbursements for traveling expenses, which could be materially reduced by this contemplated removal. Yamhill or Grand Ronde Reservation is only thirty miles distant from Salem, Siletz Agency seventy miles and the Alsea Sub-Agency about ninety miles. The removal of the office therefore would be far more convenient and easy of access to those directly interested. Again the incidental expenses of the office would be greatly reduced. Good office accommodations can be had at Salem in fireproof buildings at about one half the rent paid here.
    By recent postal changes this place is made the terminus of the overland mail, consequently our correspondence with your department has been delayed until the very latest hour. Another important reason, aside from economy and convenience, is that the Indians from all the agencies have been in [the] habit of visiting the Supt.'s office upon some frivolous pretense, and when once away from their reservations the attractions and allurements in this city are so strong that they are loath to return. During their stay they are brought in direct contact with many vices and demoralizing influences, from which it is almost impossible to restrain them. They require constant surveillance in their movements, and at times [are] very annoying to the citizens. The removal of the office to Salem would check this to a great extent, as they could have no pretext for remaining as they now have.
    My predecessors heretofore have changed the locality of the office as circumstances warranted. I have deemed it advisable to communicate to you the facts and the disadvantages under which we labored to remain until your approval or disapproval is received. Under the old organization the location was good, central and convenient for both state and Territory. Should you grant me permission to remove I would respectfully request that you advise me immediately in order that I may avail myself of steamboat facilities prior to the close of navigation for the summer, and should your answer to this fail to reach me prior to the 1st of June I would request that you dispatch me a telegram in order that the necessary arrangements may be perfected and the removal made during the present quarter.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 279-282.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon April 24th 1862
Sir
    Enclosed please find invoices purchased by me in this city for the Indians on Alsea Sub-Agency. I regret very much in not being able to forward these goods at an earlier day, but it was entirely impracticable, as the sloop sailed for Tillamook and was delayed in her voyage much longer than was anticipated. I have carefully inspected your requisitions, and have filled them so far as could be procured. In view of the suffering condition of the Indians as expressed in your letter of the 1st inst. I have shipped you some middlings in lieu of flour. It is utterly useless for this office to purchase flour for Indian consumption at the present advanced prices and great demand for the article. These middlings are a very good substitute and are used to a considerable extent among the poorer classes of our own people.
    I hope that they will be acceptable, and that in your issues thereof that you will use as much care and economy as you have heretofore.
    I have forwarded among your supplies 100 prs. heavy white English blankets. It may not be necessary to issue these at present unless they are destitute, as it is very doubtful about any more being sent to you during the present season, unless the Department at home takes some action in regard to their wants and necessities. The same caution and care in the issues of all supplies forwarded.
    I have also forwarded a blacksmith's bellows, anvil and other tools and material which I desire to have carefully housed and placed in readiness for use. I am particularly anxious that the seeds herewith sent should be thoroughly tested. They are of choice quality & fresh, and I feel confident that with proper care and culture that they will succeed. I would also call your attention to the necessity of cultivating as much ground in potatoes, beets, carrots & parsnips as possible. These articles are very essential for their subsistence during the ensuing season, and I trust that no pains will be spared to raise an abundance. The corn may succeed, especially the King Philip variety. This matures much earlier than any other variety and is well adapted I think to the coast climate. Should it prove a success, I desire that you preserve a sufficiency thereof for next spring's planting. The additional plows sent you will enable you to cultivate much more land. You will carefully compare the packages delivered with the bills of lading herewith sent and if the goods are delivered in accordance therewith you will endorse and return them to this office. I also send you invoices and receipts for stationery. The receipt you will please sign and return. This property you will take upon your property return as received from [the] Supt.; the other articles as purchased from the parties specified in the bills.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Linus Brooks Esq.
    Special Agent
        Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 124-125.



Washington April 24th 1862
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Sir,
            Herewith I enclose a letter from Henry Fuller of Oregon in relation to a spoliation claim and have to request that I be informed of the condition of the claim and the prospect of its payment.
    Please return Mr. Fuller's letter.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 221-222.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    April 26th 1862.
Sir:
    Your favor of January 11th enclosing circulars came to hand only a few days since. I will take great pleasure in furnishing your department the desired information. When I took possession of the office at this agency I found everything in great confusion, and none of the circulars to which you refer were in this office.
    The papers containing the information will be forwarded as soon as they can be made out.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
To
    Wm. P. Dole
        Com. Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 55-56.



Corvallis April 26th 1862
Sir
    Your favor enclosing a copy of certain charges preferred against me has been received, and in reply to the letter will state that I have examined the charges and before I can or will answer to them you must furnish me with the names and the affidavits
of the parties preferring the charges. You say that I stand "charged with malfeasance in office &c." and go on to state what those charges are but do not mention the name of the person or persons making the same.
    This I demand as a right, so that I may be enabled to meet my enemies on equal terms.
    I also demand that you furnish me copies of the charges more in detail, with the affidavits annexed of the persons making the same.
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 65.  An original can be found on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 390-391.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    April 30th 1862
Sir;
    Before the annuity funds are apportioned out among the different agencies within your Superintendency for the coming year, I wish to call your attention to the fact that the portion of the Rogue River tribe at this agency more than double in numbers the other portion at the Grand Ronde Agency, and consequently they are entitled to more than half the fund as heretofore apportioned. The number at this agency according to the last census is one hundred and forty-three, while the number at the Grand Ronde is about sixty-five. It is nothing more than just that the fund be apportioned according to the numbers. I would also suggest the propriety and good policy of removing that portion of the tribe at the Grand Ronde to this agency and have the two united. I will be pleased to hear your views on this subject.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle
        U.S. Indian Agent
To
    Wm. H. Rector Esqr.
        Supt. Indian Affairs &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 70.



General Land Office
    May 5th 1862
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            The Table Rock Indian Reservation on Rogue or Gold River, Oregon, under the provisions of the 2nd article of treaty of the 10th Sept. 1853 with the Rogue River Indians, was to be "considered an Indian reserve until a suitable selection shall be made by the direction of the President of the United States for their permanent residence."
    Agreeable to the request of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs dated November 3rd 1855 the Surveyor General of Oregon was instructed to cause the said reserve to be surveyed into the usual subdivisions of the public surveys & to protect the same from interference by laying the same down on township plats.
    The Surveyor General under date of July 24th 1856 advised this office that the reserve was no longer occupied by the Indians, who had been removed to the reservation on the Pacific coast.
    The object of this is to inquire whether the Table Rock Indian reserve is to be protected still or whether in view of its having been abandoned the lands comprised within the same will be merged into the public domain, as this office is preparing the President's proclamation for bringing the public lands adjacent to the reserve into market.
    I have to request you to inform me of the true condition of those lands, so that we may act accordingly.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. M. Edmunds
                Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 177-179.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon May 6th 1862
Sir
    Napoleon or Louis, the chief of the Umpqua Indians, informs me that he had a farm in the Umpqua country consisting of ten thousand six hundred rails built into a fence with a framed house and some hogs, all of which he abandoned at your request to move with the Indians to the Grand Ronde Agency. You being Supt. Indian Affairs at that time promised said Louis that he should be paid for his property, but up to the present time he has never received any compensation. As nothing of this contract is mentioned in the treaty or any of the records, I should not have paid any attention to the claims if I had not known of his farm and property myself. Will you have the goodness to give me what information you may be in possession of on this subject?
Your obt. servt.
    W. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Dayton Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 129.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon May 7th 1862
General,
    In April 1858 the Indian chief John was taken in charge by the military and conveyed to the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific, then at Benicia, I think, where he has since remained. Three of his daughters have recently called on me and made very earnest appeals for him to be returned in order that he might live with them the few remaining days of his life. His tribe are now nearly all dead, and I am of the opinion that it would not be detrimental to the public good to return him to his family while perhaps the knowledge he has obtained during his exile of the power of the whites he may turn to good account by imparting it to his brethren, who have not had the like opportunity to derive such information. Should you concur in this opinion, I would be glad if you will take measures to have him and his son returned to the Superintendency consigned to me. I have the honor, General, to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Brig. General Wright
    Commanding Dept.
        of the Pacific
            San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 129.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon May 7th 1862
General
    My advices from the southern portion of this state indicate very positively that a military force in that region not far from Jacksonville is imperatively necessary. An unusual number of Indians, mostly Klamaths, are hovering about the settlements, and a not inconsiderable number are in and around Jacksonville, where they persist in remaining, greatly to the annoyance of the citizens there. That they meditate harm is evident from the fact that their boldness and impudence increases as the population becomes weaker by the enlistment and withdrawal of the troops of Lieut. Col. Maury's command from that part of the state and the heavy emigration to the new mines up the Columbia River. I have a sub-Indian agent in that district, but he is powerless without military aid. I think two companies of cavalry are absolutely requisite for the protection of the citizens of that section and that they should be placed on duty there as soon as possible. This communication should be addressed, I presume, to the commander of this military district, but as the steamer for San Francisco leaves this evening and believing that no time should be lost in laying this matter before you, I take the occasion to address you direct. I beg you to excuse this informality and give the subject immediate consideration.
I am General
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
Brig. Gen. Wright
    Com. Dept. Pacific
        San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 130.



Jacksonville Oregon
    May 8th 1862.
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of April 1st. It reached me on the 20th inst. and should have been answered ere this had not the Indians of the Klamath tribe have been preparing to leave the settlements about the time of its arrival, which fact being known to me I deemed it proper to defer matters that could be attended to at a subsequent time and attempt to possess myself of such information as would be of service in our future relations with these Indians previous to their departure. To this end I sought and obtained an interview with "La Lake"--the reputed chief of the Klamaths--on the day I received your letter; have since visited every camp in this country--seven in number--and have had three formal conversations with La Lake since the first. I have now to report the result of these several conferences.
    "La Lake's" conversation was to the effect that his tribe consists of about one hundred and fifty able-bodied men and some seven hundred and fifty including women and children. that so far as he was concerned his heart was right, that he was friendly disposed to the white men, but that "George" (an Indian recognized by some as the war chief of the Klamaths) and an Indian known as "Skookum John"--half brother to "La Lake"--were not disposed to be friendly at all times, nor did they care to cultivate friendly relations with the whites; that they were constantly trying to seduce from his control those of his people over whom they had any influence, and were planning his destruction. This he had no doubt they would have effected long ago, only that a portion of his people who were true to him had thus far succeeded in protecting him from their evil designs. He seems perfectly to understand the nature of treaties, reserves, etc., is anxious to treat with the whites, give up the right of soil and chieftainship to white men, and go on to a reserve quietly with such of his band as he can control. When he learned that the division of the Oregon Regiment, raised in these southern counties, were ordered north, and were not going immediately to Klamath Lake, it seemed to trouble him. He says the "Modocs," who inhabit the country about "Tule Lake"--from twenty to thirty miles south of "Big Klamath"--the "Snakes"--who are north of the Klamath some hundred miles, and the "Pit Rivers" from California--have been in the habit for a number of years  of coming in the vicinity of these lakes, about the time the emigration were to pass through, for purposes of robbery & plunder, and that they are responsible for all the murders and robberies suffered by emigrants and others passing through that country. He denies that any of his Indians here ever had a hand in any of these outrages, says the "Snake" and "Modocs" combined were the parties perpetrating the foul murders and daring robberies suffered by the emigration in 1852 while passing in the vicinity of the lakes. I will here mention that Col. John E. Ross, a worthy citizen of this county, informed me a few days since that he commanded a party of some sixty volunteers who went out to that country to meet the emigration of that year, that the party buried the bodies of eighteen men, women & children in one day who had fallen victims a day or two previous to these murderous savages. He further informed me that they buried the bodies of some thirty white persons in all while out on that expedition. Ross thinks that "La Lake" had no hand in these outrages, but that many of the Klamaths were engaged in it.
    "La Lake" charges the murder of the "Ledford party," so called, to a party of roving "Modocs." This murder was committed in the spring of [1859] just at the outside of the settlements of this valley, and less than forty miles from this town. I am informed by Col. Keeler of this county that a full report of this massacre was mailed to the Supt. of Indians for this state at the time it transpired. Their bodies were found buried, carefully concealed in a thicket, with evident intentions of removing all traces of the foul deed. The opinion prevails here that the Klamaths were responsible for this outrage, and that "Skookum John" and "George," spoken of before, were of the party who committed the murder. The whole party having been killed, however, renders it impossible to fully identify the murderers. "George" wears a gold ring known to have belonged to one of the party, which has led to suspicion of him. "La Lake," however, says they had no hand in it.
    "La Lake" lays the murder of Capt. Jo Bailey & a portion of his party to the door of the "Pit Rivers." This you will no doubt recollect occurred sometime in August of last year. Bailey and I think eleven of his party were murdered near "Goose Lake," about seventy-five miles south of "Big Klamath." Bailey was en route for "Washoe" with a band of stock, was reported to have had about twelve hundred head of cattle and about seventy horses, all of which fell into the hands of the murderers.
    From the friendly converse I had with La Lake, I asked him if it would be safe for me to go into that country and rely on him for protection. The answer was promptly and emphatically No. He said there were many bad Indians in that country, that they did not want, nor would they have, unless compelled to do so, any friendly intercourse with white men, that a party of less that twenty, to use his own phrase, "skookum Bostons" would not be safe to travel through that country, and he explained to me that these must all be men that would fight if necessity required it.
    I find all these with whom I have had communication, about three hundred and fifty inclusive of women and children, to well understand, and speak fluently the "Chinook" or "jargon" dialect. Many of them say they have lived at Portland, Oregon City and the Dalles, and talk very fair English. They profess to have been originally from the north and say that some years ago, they having been in the habit of visiting the Klamath Lakes for purposes of fishing and hunting, a strife ensued between them and the original Klamath Lakes, when they prepared themselves and made war upon the owners of the land, which resulted in the conquest of the country by them.
    My own impressions are that what we know now as the Klamath Lake Indians are in fact--and I incline to the belief that the larger portion of them--comprised of renegades and outlaws
from the several tribes that have been heretofore treated with in this state, those who have been the recipients of government bounty to a certain extent, but ran away from their own country and people to avoid going on to any of the several reserves where their people in the main have consented to go. They have frequent quarrels among themselves; two of their number have been killed the past winter in the vicinity of this town in domestic troils [sic] of their own making. "La Lake" seems to have been understood here as their chief, and yet it seems to me that he has very little authority outside of his own household. As far as I can learn from the several conversations had with them and their history as known to the citizens generally of this valley, they have no acknowledged head, or at least none to whom they are willing to submit. It seems to me that about all they have in common is the desire to rob, plunder and murder the whites. In this they seem to agree admirably whenever they find a party whom they dare attack.
    I incline to the belief that "La Lake" is more sincere in the expressed desire to have an agency and a military post established in the Klamath country. I believe him [to] be naturally a coward. He is very well posted, too, as to the geography of the country, from personal observation. Says that he knows very well the "Bostons" from California will make their country a highway for the purpose of getting to the Salmon River and Nez Perce mines and that the people of this country will desire to pass through the lake country both to the mines in Humboldt & Washoe & the northern mines in Oregon. He very well understands the character of his own people, as well as that of the other tribes in close proximity. He is no doubt well aware that there will be enough white men together in some instances to prevent the massacres from being altogether a one-sided game, as they have been heretofore, hence his desire to force treaty in advance of this state of things. Others of his people, less timid and far-seeing, and more desperate than himself, will no doubt take a different view of these things and attempt to fight it out. They all seem well armed and have plenty of ammunition. Over two hundred of them have been camped in the immediate vicinity of this town the past winter. They have exhibited an inordinate desire to get ammunition for the last six months and secretly [it] is ascertained that by some means they have probably gotten hold of most of the powder in this town, as also throughout the country. Parties of miners and explorers, fitting out to go the mountain route to the Salmon River mines, have recently been obliged to send to Yreka for this article, there being none to be had nearer. I have taken the trouble to make inquiries and compare the result with records of previous years and find that powder is not scarce this spring from the want of a usual supply; on the contrary the aggregate amount sold seems to have been much greater than that of previous years. Added to this I find that powder has been sold in quantities, by innocent vendors no doubt, to persons having no ostensible use for it, either for gunning or legitimate traffic. This leaves the stranger to suspicion that it has been purchased and resold to the Indians. This information is obtained too late to remedy the evil. We could punish the offenders but unfortunately the direct evidence is wanting to convict. I have taken no little trouble to investigate this matter, but as yet direct proof by competent witnesses is wanting.
    You instruct me to "avail myself of the first favorable opportunity to visit the Klamath Lake country" for the purpose of having a friendly conference with the Indians etc. You will see from the foregoing the impracticability of an attempt to effect this visit with no means at command to defray actual expenses or for obtaining an adequate force for protection. I shall be very glad to make this visit and shall lose no time in starting to accomplish it if I can be furnished with the requisite means for such purpose. I should have no fears of being able to pledge the faith of the Department for the necessary outfit and attendant expenses if I were authorized by you to do so. At present I am unable to advance a sum sufficient to defray the necessary expenses consequent upon such a trip. Your remarks with reference to economy are noted and shall be strictly observed in my expenditures. I am of opinion that a military post must first be established in that country before much can be effected with the Indians. Such establishment and authority to make a permanent treaty with all the different tribes in that region will only secure peace and safety to the country. In absence of a military force just now, I can possibly obtain a force of volunteers sufficient for the necessary protection if they could be furnished with subsistence for the expedition.
    I have endeavored to obtain and give you such information as I deemed it my duty to place before you. I shall now await further instructions.
Hoping my efforts thus far will meet your entire approbation
    I have the honor to remain
        Respectfully your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Indian Agent
                    for Oregon
Hon. W. H. Rector
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 92.



Jacksonville Oregon May 11th 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose the statement of Joseph H. Chaffee, handed me this morning for transmission to your office. Mr. Chaffee is very favorably known to many of our citizens. I had an interview with him while here, and have no doubt of the correctness of his statement. It explains itself. His purpose in coming here to the settlements was to hurry the movements of the troops, whom he supposed were destined for the Klamath Lake country in order to prevent if possible a difficulty between the miners gathering there and the Indians, where insolence, coupled with their extortionate demands, renders imminent the danger of a general Indian war in that region. The party who came in with him were obliged to stand with cocked rifles while their horses were being saddled and packed. The Indians, having some suspicion of their destination, undertook to prevent their leaving for the settlements to report the condition of things.
    The Indians as well as the white men were expecting the troops there as soon as the mountains were sufficiently freed from snow, so as not to obstruct travel. This no doubt has influenced them to the present time to confine themselves to threats and demands rather than absolute murder. What the result will now be it is hard to determine. I shall not be surprised to hear of a collision between the whites and Indians in that country at any time. They seem full well to understand that they are parties to no treaty. Indeed Mr. Chaffee represents them to have said that they have neither fear of nor love for the agent. He is of opinion that the agent would be powerless with no means to enforce his rules. Notwithstanding this, I would now return with him and party if I were in possession of means to defray expenses. I think it possible that the presence of an agent may result in much good. I shall certainly consider it my indispensable duty to employ every possible effort in that direction and await whatever results may follow. Once in possession of the requisite means I shall use all possible haste and energy to place myself in position to discharge the duties of agent in that country.
    I wrote you on the 8th inst. submitting to your consideration such information as I had been able to obtain in relation to the Klamath Lakes. I have had no means of forming any estimate of the character of the other tribes mentioned who inhabit that region of country. They appear to be wild Indians whose history is very little known to white men, except they have invariably evinced hostility whenever approached. The Klamaths in the main, I consider, partake more of the nature of robbers and highwaymen who have degenerated from the civilized world than of the nature of the wild Indians of the forest to whom civilization is an unlearned book.
    It may be well to authorize the purchase of a horse for this service. I do not own one suitable for the trip. The price of horse hire per day is three dollars in cash. I can find no opportunity as yet of getting one at a less price for this trip. I can purchase for one hundred & fifty, or at most two hundred dollars, a better horse than those offered to hire at $3 per day.
    I shall anxiously await further instructions. Should you authorize the contracting of liabilities to meet this emergency, it may be well to indicate as near as possible when payment may be expected in order that no misunderstanding may arise in the matter.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Amos E. Rogers
            Sub-Indian Agent for Ogn.
W. H. Rector
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 93.



Headquarters Department of the Pacific
    San Francisco May 12th 1862
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        For State of Oregon
            Portland, O.
                Sir,
                    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your two communications of the 7th inst.
    The Indian chief John & son will be sent to you by the first opportunity.
    I have given orders for one company of Oregon cavalry to remain at Jacksonville.
    I have had several appeals made to me by the citizens of Jacksonville to have a command there, but I decline to do so, as I was anxious to send Col. Cornelius with his entire command to the eastern frontier of the States. I assured the people of Jacksonville that should any danger threaten them, I would promptly send troops there.
    I do not believe there is any real danger from Indians at Jacksonville, yet as there have been so many men withdrawn from that section of country I deem it proper to have a company of cavalry there to give a feeling of security to the women and children, whose natural protectors are serving their country.
With great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        G. Wright
            Brig. Genl. Infantry
                Army
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 97.



Hd. Qtrs. Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco Cal.
        May 13, 1862.
Sir,
    Your letters of the 7th inst. with General commanding the department requesting the Indian chief John and his son be returned to his tribe and family has been received, and the General has ordered John and his son sent up on the steamer Oregon, which leaves this day for Portland. I have given him a letter to the purser of the ship, who will retain him on board subject to your orders.
I am respectfully
    Your most obdt. srvt.
        R. W. Kirkham
            Capt. & Asst. Q.M.
                A.A.A. Genl.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 96.



Jacksonville Oregon
    May 15th 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 7th inst. It reached me last evening.
    I shall endeavor to obey your instructions with reference to the Indians whom you have permitted to leave the reserve. They have probably not yet arrived in this region, or at least no reports of their arrival have as yet reached me. Our whole community is a little nervous just at this time with reference to Indians. Absolute war in the region of the Klamath Lakes seems almost inevitable. Indeed I am of opinion that the presence of troops only in that region will prevent it. Indians coming from the reserve just at this time--their numbers and intent wholly unknown--could not fail to create some excitement in the present nervous condition of society. In view of this, I have thought it proper to furnish the Oregon Sentinel with these facts for publication for the purpose of preparing the public mind in advance of their arrival for their advent among us.
    I wrote you on the 8th & 11th inst., which you will have recd. I trust the information forwarded will be of service in directing future movements with reference to these Indians. I regret exceedingly having been unable to forward this news [at an] earlier date, but I found it impossible to make anything like an intelligible report to you, or even one satisfactory to myself, and for the truth of which I would be willing to vouch, without going into the history of the post and obtaining from every reliable and available source information sufficient to warrant conclusions in the premises. The purport of these inquiries, together with my own conclusions, are before you. Having placed on record in your office the leading characteristics of these Indians, the names of some of their leaders, the evident disposition of hostility manifested by some--and the seeming friendship evinced by others--I trust that I shall now be able, without further delay, to keep you at all times fully advised of passing and current events connected herewith.
    It affords me great pleasure to notice that you have a prospect of securing the aid of troops for this region. I sincerely hope that nothing will intervene to prevent it. My great desire has been to collect and set forth such an array of facts as would secure this result. Should there be any hesitation on the part of Genl. Wright in acceding to your request, it seems to me that the additional testimony now in your possession showing the extreme necessity of such aid cannot fail to bring about the end desired.
    I am very desirous of making the tour of the Klamath Lake country at an early day. I desire to see the country and the Indians personally, by which means I am persuaded we shall be better able to form a proper estimate of all matters connected therewith than from the hearsay testimony of others.
    I incline to the belief that the government, placing the proper estimate of the importance of the Klamath Lake country, should lose no time in concluding a treaty by which the Indian title shall be extinguished thereto. I do not know whether or not the facts with reference to this country are sufficiently before the Department to indicate the exact measure of importance that would seem to attach to it, since the almost unparalleled discoveries of gold in the northeastern portion of our state render it clearly within the range of probability that the whole eastern border of the state is rich in mineral wealth. There is a large extent of country lying north and east of the Klamath Lake country almost wholly unexplored and unknown. The unmistakable hostility of the Indians inhabiting this whole region has hitherto placed it beyond the reach of exploration. I do not know that I shall be able to add materially to information already before us without an escort for the necessary protection, but I have thought that if I could get into that country previous to the departure of the northern emigration I should be able at least to make a statement of facts from personal observation that can only be made now from the testimony of others. In addition to this, the presence of an agent may be of material service in preventing difficulties that seemed imminent there by last accounts. Mr. Chaffee is the last white man from there. There is a rumor in town that two white men have been killed at the lakes recently, said to have come through the Indians. The Indians however tell me that they heard it from white men. I place very little reliance upon it. The Indians have all left the settlements with the exception of one family. These came to me today and said if there was about to be trouble at the lakes they did not want to go and asked permission of me to remain here. I have given them such permission on condition that they keep me well advised of matters occurring at the lakes, such as comes to their knowledge, and that they give no trouble or annoyance to the settlers. They tell me that "Skookum John," whom I mentioned in my letter of the 8th inst., was of the party that murdered Ledford & party in [1859], and further that he is known to kill white men whenever a chance occurs that he can safely do it. He ("John") is known to be the acknowledged leader of the party now making the trouble at the lakes.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Amos E. Rogers
            Sub-Indian Agent
                for Oregon
Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 94.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon May 16th 1862
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of a communication from your office under date of March 12th directed to Joshua B. Sykes, late sub-Indian agent, and enclosing your objections to his accounts for the 4th qr. 1859 & 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th qrs. 1860. Joshua B. Sykes has undoubtedly seceded, and was at last accounts officiating as commissary in a certain regiment in the rebel army
    In view of these facts, I would recommend that his accounts be adjusted at an early day and that the balance found due the U.S. be placed in the hands of the district attorney for collection.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Ind  Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 308-309.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon May 19th 62
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge yours of the 8th inst. informing this office of the condition of Indian affairs in Rogue River Valley. Prior to the receipt of yours I had communicated with Genl. Geo. Wright, commanding this military district, and recommended that two companies of Oregon cavalry be stationed in Southern [Oregon] for the protection of the citizens &c. Of this action I have already informed you in a previous letter. You have estimated in your letter that a volunteer escort could be obtained provided they could be furnished with subsistence for the expedition. There is no appropriation for the Indian Service in this state out of which the service incident to a trip or expedition of this character could be paid. The military must necessarily furnish the protection or the expedition must be abandoned for the present. I am well satisfied that for you to visit these Indians at the present time with a view of rendering efficient service would only be a waste of time unless you were accompanied by a respectable escort. Your services can be made available however within the settlements of Rogue River Valley in holding in restraint as much as possible those Indians now camped with the settlements and by exercising your official authority in suppressing any unlawful traffic between the Indians and whites. In this limited field of operations if you will not require but little if any money, as it would be bad policy to encourage their presence by furnishing subsistence, even making them presents for leaving their own country and coming into ours greatly to the annoyance of our citizens. When presents are made, it should be in consideration that our own people shall have the privilege and right to travel through their country without any interception and their security fully guaranteed. In the exercise of your judgment should you deem it advantageous or best to purchase a [omission] them for your use rather than to hire, you are authorized to make the purchase, and I would say in connection with this matter that it is my earnest desire to furnish all the agents in this Superintendency every facility in my power to enable them to discharge the duties devolving upon them to maintain and preserve the peace and quiet which now exists in our Indian relations. Should you not visit the lake country until a military escort is furnished it would not be advisable to purchase at present. However this is for you to determine as to the actual necessity. Should the purchase be made the money will be sent within a short time. I have not as yet rec'd. my expected remittance. I am looking for it daily, and as soon as received a sufficiency for your traveling expenses &c. will be forwarded. Hoping that you will exercise the strictest vigilance over the Indians in your district and be able to avert any other hostility
I remain
    Very truly
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
Amos E. Rogers Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 137-138.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Portland Oregon May 22nd [1862]
Sir
    Gen. Wright has complied with the Supt.'s request and sent "Old John" and his son Adam up. As his children are under your charge at Grand Ronde Agency, I send them to you for care & protection. I have directed Mr. Brown to go up to Dayton with them. I would request and advise that you take some pains to gratify the old man; give him as good quarters as the circumstances will permit if his children have no house for him.
Yours
    T. McF. Patton
P.S. Mr. Rector is at Siletz.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Agency
    May 24th 1862
Sir
    The Indian by whom this note will be handed to you is named "John Wester"; his business to your agency is to obtain a woman by the name of Milly, a Yuka, who has absented herself from her tribe 8 or 9 months. She has been purchased and paid for by a Mikonotunne chief, and he claims that her tribe must furnish her to him. If you find her among your Indians, please send her to her people--by this Indian & oblige.
Yours respectfully
    B. R. Biddle
        Agent
J. B. Condon Esqr., Agent
    Grand Ronde Reservation
        Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington 24th May, 1862
    The Commissioner of Indian Afrs. will please furnish me with a copy of Comr. Greenwood's letter to the 2nd Comptroller of June 1860 on the subject of the settlement of my accounts, and also a copy of Comr. Dole's letter to the same on the 22nd Oct. 1861, in relation to a subsequent settlement.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Anson Dart
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 101-102.



Tolerable close to Richmond
    May 24--1862
Dear Nez [J. W. Nesmith],
    I received your short note--also my Indian--I am going to swap him off for a nigger (girl) when I get farther south. I do not think he took poor Lizzie Steinberger's $20; still tell her that if I have pretty good luck and do not lose another trunk I will set her up again. Some lewd woman is awriting here about a baby--who is she?
    I think you must have had the letter written!! However, I turned it over to Rankin, with my name torn off, and he now flatters himself that he is a father--says he must now stop drink, play and women and lay up something for educational purposes.
    I have had the weight of a mountain on me since March last. Great God, I have performed labors that hundreds of men have failed to accomplish. It is marvelous how well I have succeeded. The work has been stupendous, as you know, but I believe everything has gone on successfully and satisfactorily. Never before was an army taken up bodily, transported by water and land and so well supplied as this.
    Still, Nez, I am only a lt. colonel, while lots of fellows who have done nothing, who cannot do anything, are at least brig. generals!
    Can you not give me a lift? Will not Senators Fessenden and other do anything for me? I am known to everybody in the army. It is easy to learn what my reputation is. What can be done, my dear friend? I prefer duty in my own dept. of course.
    Do your new bills give an opening?
    Excuse my bad letter, for I am very hurried--very, very much.
    Write me and tell Asher Eddy to do the same thing.
    Will you see Mr. Cutts and his family and say "I still live," and do not propose to discontinue.
    We all send love.
Yrs.
    Rufus Ingalls
It is sure we will have Richmond within a week. I cannot believe they will stand, but most of the army look for a terrible battle--Clunas [sic].
    Mrs. Weeden must always be able to give me a room.
R. I.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Senate Chambers May 27th 1862
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Sir,
            Your letter of yesterday enclosing a copy of Superintendent Rector's letter of the 23rd of April is received. In reply I have to say that I fully concur in what Mr. Rector says in relation to the removal of the office from Portland to Salem. In fact it never should have been removed from the latter place.
    I believe that the public interests will be subserved in the removal and have to request that Superintendent Rector be telegraphed to at once giving him authority to make the change before the navigation of the Willamette is suspended by reasons of low water.
Yours truly
    J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 223-224.



West Point, N.Y., June 3rd 1862.
Dear Sir,
    The check for the money due on my accts., which was to have been sent to Joseph Sampson Esq., N.Y., has not been received. As you thought that it would be forwarded about a week ago, I have thought it best to inform you of its non-arrival.
I am sir
    Very respectfully yrs.
        J. Frazier Head
Mr. Mix
    Bureau of Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 122-123.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon June 7 1862
Sir
    I have just returned from a visit to Siletz Reservation under charge of Agent B. R. Biddle. My object as expressed in my letter to you of the 7th ult. was to inspect the condition of this agency and investigate the official conduct of Agent Biddle. I regret very much to inform you that the management of said agency is far from being satisfactory to this office. I found a large portion of the Indians subsisting on potatoes which had remained in the ground the entire winter and were frozen, rotten and loathsome. There was not less than six thousand bushels of potatoes suffered to go to waste in this manner, whereas if they had been properly harvested and taken care of the Indians would now have [an] abundance of good and wholesome food. This neglect of duty and loss of property occurred on the agency farm under the immediate supervision of Agent Biddle. The lower farm under charge of Mr. Megginson produced a fine crop of potatoes & oats, all of which was harvested and secured in due time. The result of this was that Mr. Megginson has furnished Mr. Biddle for seed on the agency farm some three thousand bushels of potatoes. During the month of October 1861 I dispatched the sloop Fanny to Siletz Agency with thirty-five tons of assorted merchandise, among which was fifteen thousand choice fruit trees designed for the use and benefit of the Indians on that reservation. The entire cargo was delivered in good order and condition to Agent Biddle on the 19th of Nov. 1861 as per receipted bill of lading accompanying voucher 12 abstract "K" of my account 4th qr. 1861. Early in January Agent Biddle personally informed me in this office that the entire cargo had been transported to the agency, and his abstract of liabilities for the 4th qr. shows the sum of $1,023.27 due to B. F. Cooper for transportation. Seven hundred dollars of this amount for transporting the entire cargo (35 tons) @ $20 per ton. I was surprised to find that nearly all the cargo had been packed from the depot to the agency (a distance of six miles) by the Indian women, and that Agent Biddle in consideration of their services paid them one pint of flour per day and reporting the amount as issued to Indians. The fruit trees referred to above were suffered to remain at Yaquina Bay exposed to the severities of the winter in the original packages in which they were shipped without any care or attention whatever, until late in the month of March, and then transported by the Indian women at the same rule of compensation per diem as the other articles. My own discovery that the cargo including the fruit trees were transported in this manner together with the sworn statement of B. F. Cooper herewith accompanying will show how much reliance can be placed in Mr. Biddle's representations. I found the fruit trees entrenched horizontally in packages of twenty-five each about two thirds dead, and the remainder so stunted and crippled in their growth that they will scarcely be worth cultivating. Shortly after Mr. Biddle assumed the duties of his office he requested permission from this office to purchase two mules for the purpose of threshing. Using them on the machine stating that there was nothing on the agency except oxen, and they were not adapted. I gave him permission to make the purchase. Instead of making the purchase for the purpose stated he purchased of Jeremiah Lilly two mules and of C. P. Blair one, paying Mr. Lilly at the time the purchase was made, and giving Mr. Blair his individual note for the amount due him. These mules were not used on the threshing machine, in fact never threshed a grain, but were used by Mr. Biddle in packing his own private property, he charging the cost thereof to government at the rate of $80 to 100 per ton, and after the packing was done turning two of the mules over to government, at 50 percent above cost, reserving the third animal as his own private property acquired in the operation. Nearly if not quite all of the goods packed from Corvallis were his own private property which was sold to employees and to persons mining on the beach for gold. His abstract of disbursements 4th qr. 1861 for current expenses shows $125 paid Dick Johnson for interpreting. My investigations show that no such Indian [was] on the reservation or ever having been there, and further that no actual payment for interpreting has been made to anyone. In view of these facts I have deemed it advisable to submit for your consideration the accompanying affidavits and papers relating to Mr. Biddle's official acts and would recommend his removal from office. Should you concur with me in this opinion that he is not the proper person for the position I hope you will make the facts known to the President and have his successor appointed and commissioned at once. Until I can be advised of your action in the matter I will make all necessary purchases for that agency myself instead of turning the funds over to him. In conclusion I would respectfully solicit prompt action so that his successor may take charge at an early day. I would recommend Maxwell Ramsay of Clackamas County Oregon a suitable person for the place.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 142-144.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 378-382.



Portland June 9th 1862
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Dear Sir
        I take the liberty of addressing you privately on the subject of Mr. Benjamin R. Biddle, agent in charge at Siletz. I do this to enable you to understand more fully the case as represented in my official letter and accompanying papers of the 7th on the same subject. I am not malicious towards Mr. Biddle and have a tender regard for his family. I have sought to avoid as far as possible placing his shortcomings on the permanent records of the gov. The suspension of an agent by the Supt. is always attended with a public uproar, and on such occasions much spleen is generally vented. These things are sure to be observed by the Indians, and has the tendency to destroy their confidence in us and lessen our influence with them. Again there is no good man that will take charge of an agency by special appointment under such circumstances. Therefore I have chosen this method of laying the matter before you, hoping that you may approve my course and take immediate action to relieve Mr. Biddle. I have not been hasty in this affair but have forbore in hopes of working a reformation. Soon after he took charge of the agency I discovered that all his plans and recommendations had a tendency towards his pocket. Sometime in the month of March B. F. Cooper came in to this office and demanded pay for transportation of Indian goods. I thought proper to take Cooper's sworn statement, which gave rise to further investigation, all of which I kept as quiet as possible. But believing it to be my duty to call Mr. Biddle to account, I furnished him with a statement of the charges that had been preferred against him in this office, asking his explanation, also the objections that were taken to his quarterly accounts, retaining his papers in this office until I received his explanation. I then went immediately to the agency and am sorry to say that the present condition of the Indians are truly deplorable. Imagine my feelings when the half-naked and emaciated wretches were gathered around me, confidently believing that I had come to give them some relief. They pressed me to go to their cabins to see the sick ones and then would show me their food. This they done by taking up frozen potatoes that were partly rotten and squeezing the water out of them and show how they baked them on the coals. Some had oats that they managed to eat by parching them in order to crisp the hull and then boil or bake with the rotten potatoes. They complained of the agent and wanted me to send them one that had a good heart. They said that they knew that I had sent the little ship there with flour and other articles for them, but that they had got but little of it. Now this is all Indian talk, and you can take it for what it is worth, connected with the well-authenticated statements of Cooper and others.
    The potatoes were issued to the Indians in the field after it was too late for them to be saved even if they had the means to do it with. I am happy to inform you that the worst is over with these unfortunate people. The fishing season is just at hand, when they can get the salmon in great abundance. I have the utmost confidence in these Indians that with the right kind of treatment and a little help they will soon be able to take care of themselves. I was surprised to find them so intelligent and [with] such a will to work. They ask me for carts to haul their potatoes and wood in. They complain that their women have to pack so much like mules. It is not the Indians' fault that they are not better off now.
    The results of my visit to the agency has confirmed the statements of Cooper and others and furnished abundant evidence to my mind that Mr. Biddle should be removed immediately. Give me honest agents and I will pledge my reputation that there will never be such misery and want again amongst these Indians. There has not been any rupture between Biddle and myself, but I must here remark that I have no confidence in his statements whatever.
    Last winter I was reproving him for neglecting the fruit trees by suffering them to remain in the cases at the depot. He denied the charge and stated that they were all taken to the agency and nicely entrenched preparatory for planting whenever the proper season should come. It is surprising with what coolness he met this misstatement when it was proven to his face that they were not removed from the depot until the month of March. His remark was that they were a trifling lot of trees anyhow, and that he could have got a better lot for less money from Mr. _______. I am well satisfied that he purposely let them go to loss so that he could be a partner of Mr.
_______ in the purchase and packing of another lot at 5 cts. per pound with gov. mules.
    I am fully conscious that I have already intruded on your time and patience but crave your indulgence whilst I speak of another small affair that occurred at the Grand Ronde Agency under charge of J. B. Condon. The employees attempted to make more money than they had contracted for. Mr. Condon would not suffer this nor become a party to it as they wished him to do. They then preferred an array of charges against the agent, asking his removal and the appointment of another man. I held a careful investigation of the affair at the agency which resulted in the removal of all the employees that had taken part in the unholy attempt to have a man removed from office because he was honest. I am happy to inform you that the Grand Ronde Agency is now in a prosperous condition.
    I hope Senator Nesmith will not oppose the appointment of Mr. Ramsby but should he do so I would next propose Mr. John Crawford, brother to Capt. Crawford of the emigrant escort. I am not quite certain that Mr. Crawford would accept; indeed, it is difficult to get a good man well qualified in every respect to be an agent.
    Hoping to hear from you soon I remain your obedient servant
Wm. H. Rector
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Washington
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 408-413.



    J. B. Congle, late of Benton County, Oregon, being duly sworn says
    That he has been shown a voucher signed and receipted by him for saddles sold to Benj. R. Biddle, Indian agent, for the use of the Indian Department at Siletz Agency.
    That the account as stated is not correct. That he did not sell to Mr. Biddle the item of two riding saddles @$15 each amounting to $30, but did sell him one sidesaddle @$30. The item of one pair of holsters was $5 instead of $3. At the time of purchase Mr. Biddle gave his note for the amount due amounting to seventy-five dollars. At a subsequent time he paid me and lifted his note. In January 1862 I signed the vouchers. Harry received pay for all that was due me. I did not examine the items but signed them. Owing to Mr. Biddle giving his note at the time, no record was made on my books of the articles sold, and consequently [I] am unable to state positively in regard to the other items.
J. B. Congle
    Subscribed & sworn to before me this 10th day of June 1862. Witness my hand and notarial seal affixed.
Benj. F. Goodwin
    Notary Public, Oregon.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 397-398.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon
        June 10th 1862
Sir
    Enclosed please find the remarks of some of the Indian chiefs now on the Siletz Reservation. This I do at their request and in compliance with my promise to them. They will expect a reply from you in relation to their treaty. I hope you will write something to them. It would be gratifying and give me much assistance in restoring their shaken confidence in the government.
    Should the appropriation for their benefit be made in accordance with my recommendation I can make it all satisfactory to them that it was done in compliance with the treaty. It has been very difficult to keep them from going back to their old homes.
I am sir very truly
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
   

Report
of the speeches made by the chiefs and headmen of the different Indian tribes before Wm. H. Rector, Supt  Indian Affairs Oregon on the 24 & 26 days of May while on a visit to Siletz Agency.
    Sixes George addressed the Superintendent as follows.
    "We look upon you as our leader and friend. We are glad to see you and talk with you. I do not wish to offend you, but I must talk straight (truth). Palmer was the first "tyee" (Supt. Ind. Affairs) I ever saw. He gave me good advice and I have obeyed it. Our country was on the Sixes River. We were in three tribes, and each tribe had their own chief. Our country bordered on the Coquille River. We made a treaty with Palmer and sold our country to the white people and came here. Since then we are told that the President had to approve the treaty, and that he has not done so yet. I want to know what you have to say about it.
    "If the president does not approve our treaty, then we have not sold our country and wish to go back to it again. Your people have got the gold of our country. Will they pay us for it? We have never been at war with the whites and never killed anybody. The Indians that have killed the whites have had their treaty ratified, and ours is not.
    "I think our people have improved some and would become like white people if they had any help. Palmer told me that I would be a white man in two years. I have been here five years and am not a white man yet. I don't know but I will soon be a horse, as I am eating oats.
    "Do you know of any country where white people eat oats like horses? Our people have had to eat frozen potatoes that are rotten and the carcasses of dead horses. They are dying very fast, and my heart is sick. I think rotten potatoes are not good for any people. I can eat oats, but don't like them.
    "My people complain of hunger and want to go back to the Sixes River again. I would rather have our treaty ratified and have the things we bargained for and stay on the reservation. Do you think you are paying us for our country by giving us one blanket to every four or five Indians and giving us such things as oats and rotten potatoes to eat?
    "If I was allowed a gun I could kill some elk. I never did kill any white man. You should not be afraid of me. When we started to come here our guns were taken from us, and we have not seen them since. They promised to give them back when we got to the reservation. I don't know that I will ever see you again, and I talk plain, as I would if the President was here. I have never [said] this to the agent, because I knew he had nothing to do with the treaty. I have told the truth & am not ashamed."
   

    Old Bill of the Rogue Rivers
    "I have not much to say to you now and will talk after a while. I will say a few things and talk straight (truth). I will say that the Indians here are used like slaves and have been ever since Metcalfe left. We have but little to eat and sometimes nothing at all. Potatoes that are rotten are not good for any people to eat. Many of our people have no clothes. We have suffered much and many have died; if you will let us go back to our country we can do better. Metcalfe gave us beef and flour when we first came here and we want it now, or if you cannot give it to us let us go home and provide for ourselves. We were promised by Major Buchanan that we should return after four years, and we want to go now or have better treatment.
    "This is my mind."
   

    William, chief of the Chetcoes
    "I say what Old Bill has said. He is old and talks straight (truth). We are treated like slaves and not as we were promised. We want to go home or have what was promised. The goods you [brought] to us in the little ship was not given to us. I don't know what became of them. We get one cup full of flour for one day's work. We are slaves. Nine of my people have died last winter from hunger and cold. I do not like the agent to abuse my people. We are willing to stay here and believe we can make our own living if we are furnished with things to work with. We should have one wagon and two yoke of cattle for each tribe. Our women are packed like mules. They haul all the potatoes and pack all the wood. They packed most of the things the ship brought from the Depot to the agency (a distance of six miles) and got one cup of flour for a day's work.
    "We do not want to be slaves. We want to work for ourselves.
    "This is my mind."
   

    Er-ches-sa, chief of the Sixes
    "I want you to write my words and send them to the President. I don't want to offend you, but I want to talk straight to you. It may be the last chance that I will ever have. If the President was here, I would talk to him as I do to you. I am an old man and not ashamed to talk. Mr. Geary promised to write to the President, but that is the last I have heard about it. I don't want to be an Indian any longer. We were told that we would soon be like white men if we come to the reservation. My people have lost all confidence in the white men, but I have not. I want you to give us all the help you can. I fear when I die my people will scatter like birds. I have no confidence in Mr. Biddle. I want another agent that will give us what you send here for us and not sell it and abuse us. I know that you sent the ship here with flour and clothes for the Indians. I know that some of my people have died from hunger and cold. Do you think one blanket is enough for four or five Indians, and that one shirt or pantaloons will last all year. If you want us to live like white men you must help us, as we want all the help we can get. We want carts to haul our potatoes and wood in. Our women pack everything now. Is that the way white people do? I want a gun. If I had a gun I could kill some elk. I want my people to be permitted to go outside to work for clothes. I want something done with the mills. I have never received any good from them. My people want camp kettles and other things to cook in. We want to live like white people, and we look to you for help. I hope that you will let me have a gun.
    "I hope Mr. Megginson (this is the farmer) will not leave us. We could not live without him.
    "This is my mind. I am done."
   

    Joe Lane, chief Tututnis
    "I have not much to say. I agree with all that has been said. I will ask you for some things to cook with. Camp kettles and frying pans. I fear that we will suffer next winter, because there is no grain growing on the farms, none sowed last fall and but little oats this spring. I want permission to go out with some of my people and work for clothes.
    "I am done."
   

    Catfish speaks
    "I don't know how it is that I am not paid for making fence around the agent's house. I think I should be paid for work that I have no use for. I know some of my people have died for want of food. I did believe the doctors killed them (Indian doctors who work by charm). I killed a doctor and [am] sorry for it now and will not kill anymore."
   

    Note.
    Other speeches were made and noted down, but being similar in sentiment and feeling I have not deemed it necessary to transmit them.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 399-407.



Oregon Benton Co.
    Corvallis June 12th 1862
Dear Sir
    Having been reliably informed that William Rector, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in this state, is making efforts to remove Mr. B. R. Biddle, the sub-Indian agent at the Siletz in this county, I have presumed to write you on the subject. I know that Mr. Biddle is an honest man and has all the qualifications requisite to discharge the duties of that office. I am further satisfied that 19 out of 20 of the Union men of this county & vicinity are of the same opinion. I am not disposed to prefer any charges against Mr. Rector, but in his matter he must have been actuated by some sinister motive. All the charges that possibly can be preferred against Mr. Biddle are unfounded and untrue. I speak advisedly upon this subject, for I know all the facts in the matter. Through the influence of Mr. Biddle we have been enabled to redeem this co. from the thralldom of secessionism. It was no easy matter, for it was the worst co. in the state.
    I therefore hope that you will not remove Mr. Biddle for any slight or trivial cause. He is an old friend & acquaintance of yours, having formerly lived in Springfield, Ill. And you had no warmer supporter in this state during the Presidential canvass of 1860.
Respectfully your obt.
    Servt.
        A. J. Thayer
Hon. Abraham Lincoln
    President of the U.S.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 680-683.



Jacksonville June 13th 1862
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of yours of May 19th. The "Klamath Lake Indians" have all left the settlements. I have not heard anything direct from that country since the visit of Mr. Chaffee, whose statement I sent you.
    I sent also a duplicate statement to Gen. Wright, Com. of Pacific Dept., and received in reply that one company of the "Oregon Cavalry" had been ordered to remain here previous to receiving my letter. It appears that this order was not received here until the whole division had started north.
    In view of the fact that we may now safely rely upon the aid of the troops very shortly, I have thought it best to postpone the attempt to visit the lakes until their arrival.
    The Indian "John Chamberlin" reported to me on Monday 9th inst. I gave him assurances that so long as he observed the conditions of his permit, I would see that he was justly treated by the citizens. He says however that if there is to be difficulty at the lakes this summer he will not risk to stay here but will return again to the reserve.
    Your letter of April 1st in speaking of my salary says that it will be paid at the close of every quarter "upon the presentation of vouchers duly receipted." I am not as yet sufficiently acquainted with this part of my duty to know how to proceed without further instructions. May I ask of you the favor to forward me the precise form of these vouchers, as also the manner of receipting, etc.
    My oath of office bears date March 14th. Will the salary commence from that date, or from the date of your letter (April 1st) assigning me to duty? Am I right in supposing that the quarter ends with this present month (June)?
    I have been obliged to expend a little money in visiting the different camps of the Indians previous to their having left the settlements, as also a small sum for stationery, postage etc. May I ask you to indicate the manner in which this account shall be rendered in order that I may be reimbursed for such expenditure.
    Never having been in this service before I am wholly unacquainted with the forms required in doing the business. I have therefore to solicit instructions in every branch of the duty.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Amos E. Rogers
            Sub-Indian Agent
W. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 107.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Portland Oregon June 16th 1862
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of yours of May 7th asking my opinion as to the propriety of the accompanying proposition of Rev. J. B. Brouillet, agent for the Sisters of Charity at the House of Providence. Without entering into all the details of this important subject I will only say that I have no confidence whatever in the Sisters of the proposed scheme for the education of the Indian children in Oregon. In the first place the Indians will never consent to have their children removed from them, and to use forcible means would certainly produce trouble. They now complain that we exercise more jurisdiction over them than we ought, or have any right, and insist on managing their own affairs in accordance with their own laws and time-honored usages. It requires a great deal of care and close observation to ascertain how far we may safely go in their advancement towards civilization without giving offense and thereby destroying our influence with them. The nearest agency to Vancouver is about eighty [miles away] and all the others a much greater distance. Again the price proposed would give the benefit of the school funds to only a small proportion of the children, and leave the great mass wholly unprovided for. The education of the Indians is one of the most difficult things we have to encounter, and the process must necessarily be slow and uniform. It is a great mistake to suppose that a few educated and thoroughly civilized Indians placed among those that are still enjoying their barbaric and superstitious customs [omission] with the hope and expectation that any benefits will result therefrom. I have witnessed the result in this country, and it has always terminated in the predominance of the savage over the civilized Indian, who was sure to relapse into the savage state with all the vices of the white man and none of his virtues. Hence I say that their education must be slow and uniform and they will close in with our customs en masse almost imperceptibly to themselves. If the schools are kept on the reservation the influence will be felt throughout the entire population, instead of being confined to the few that would be selected and made the recipients of the proposed benefit.
    I am unable at this time to propose any better plan for the application of the school fund than that contemplated in the treaty. I have more confidence in the manual labor school than any other system that has yet been proposed, but for the want of suitable buildings the system has never been put in practical operation. Hoping that this may be of some service to you in considering the [proposition] of the Sisters of Charity
I remain
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Ind. Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 150-151.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 369-371.



    INDIANS.--By permission of the Indian agent, about sixteen of the Rogue River Indians are now on Sams Creek, in this county. People in that vicinity report them orderly.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 21, 1862, page 3



Department of the Interior
    Washington, June 24, 1862
Sir,
    In connection with the application of Dr. Anson Dart for an appointment as commissioner to negotiate treaties with certain Indian tribes, transmitted with your communication of the 20th instant, I refer you to the 3rd section of the Indian appropriation act of February 27th 1851 (9" Stat. at Large p. 586) which provides that Indian treaties shall be negotiated only "by such officers and agents of the Indian Department as the President of the United States may designate for that purpose."
    Dr. Dart, not being an officer or agent of the Indian Department, is not, therefore, eligible to such an appointment.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servant
        Caleb B. Smith
            Secretary of the Interior
Wm. P. Dole Esq.
    Commr. of Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 170-171.



Jacksonville June 27th 1862
Sir
    The Indian Chief "John Chamberlin" is now at my office and desires me to communicate with you and say for him: First, that he with his people arrived safely at their place of destination about the 10th inst., and that they got along finely, experiencing no trouble or difficulty on the trip. Second, he represents to me that he had conversation with you about letting some more of his people come on here, providing it should be thought expedient on his communicating with you from here. He now wishes to say that the most of his men with him are employed at wages with settlers, and that those to come, should you permit, can all get employment. They are now encamped near Table Rock. He represents to me that the utmost good feeling prevails between his people and the settlers of that section, and so far as I know it is true. At least nothing to the contrary has been made known to me. On being informed by the Supt. of their expected arrival among us I caused the "Sentinel" of this place to notice the fact, which prepared citizens for the event. No remonstrance has come to my knowledge. I incline to the belief that no trouble will arise so long as they obey the conditions upon which they were allowed to leave your reserve. He seems anxious that the others should come on as soon as possible in order to get here in time for harvest. He desires that you will answer this at your earliest convenience so that he may know whether or not the others talked of will come.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    Amos E. Rogers
        Sub-Indian Agent
J. B. Condon
    Yamhill Agency
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        27th June 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that directions have been received by me from Department Headquarters to confer with you upon the requirements of a military force near Jacksonville for protective purposes.
    The only disposable troops for such service now under my command is the 1st Oregon Cavalry battalion (four companies), Lt. Col. Maury commanding. This battalion is now moving towards Fort Walla Walla, where it had been deemed important to concentrate the entire regiment with a view to early movements into the Salmon River Indian country and along the overland emigrant trail.
    I will retain one company of this regiment at Camp Clackamas near Oregon City for the present, and have respectfully to request that you will at your earliest convenience furnish me with your views and wishes upon the subject indicated.
    Let me suggest to you that as the California volunteers now on duty in their district are being gradually withdrawn to be relieved by the Oregon Cavalry and Washn. Tery. Infantry, and that there is the well-founded belief of urgent demand for troops east of Fort Walla Walla the present season, a well-authenticated necessity only should direct this company from its march.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Justus Steinberger
            Col. 1st W.T. Infy.
                Comdg. Dist.
Wm. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 113.



Office of Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon June 27th 1862
Sir
    At the special request of the claimant, Dr. A. W. Foley, I herewith transmit a certain claim with accompanying papers for your consideration. The claim amounts to $176--for medical services rendered--and $40.41 for provision furnished. The claim is not in form--is not certified by any authorized agent--and I have been unable to find any evidence on file in this office authorizing the services rendered. I have had a personal interview with Capt. Rinearson, then officiating as special agent or conductor in removing the Indians from Umpqua Sub-Agency to their present locality on the Alsea, and he informs me that he has no recollection whatever of authorizing any such services rendered. The account itself bears ample evidence that the Dr. was unusually attentive to his patient, making two professional visits per day for thirty consecutive days, and even continuing his visits at regular intervals until the 19th Oct. 1856 at regular prices.
    Judging from the peculiar character of the diet prescribed by the Dr. and the quantity consumed by the Indian during his illness, I am well satisfied that he was not wounded or diseased in the vicinity of the stomach. I therefore submit the papers for your decision.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
   

State of Oregon   )
Coos County        )  ss.
    W. H. Harris of said county, being duly sworn, says that on or about the 3rd day of July 1 A.D. 1856 I did personally by direction of Capt. Rinearson, a sub-Indian agent or person employed to remove the Coquille Indians to the Siletz Reservation, employ A. N. Foley M.D. to visit & medically attend as physician upon a sick Indian called "Ben" & to provide for the said Indian Ben & his mother food & things requisite & necessary.
    And affiant further says that the said A. N. Foley did to the personal knowledge of affiant visit & medically attend continuously from or about the 3rd day of July to the 19th day of October 1856 or about that day and that he also fed and furnished provisions for the said Indian named Ben & his mother and rendered them "every assistance necessary." And affiant further states that the above-named "Ben," an Indian, and his mother were left at Empire City in the county of Coos, Oregon by Capt. Rinearson on or about the third day of July A.D. 1856 (who was then employed in removing the Coquille Indians to the Siletz Reservation) on account of the sickness of the said "Ben" and their inability to travel to said reservation and that the said Rinearson, agent or person employed in the removal of said Indians as aforesaid, directed me to employ medical aid for said Indian and that said service rendered by said A. N. Foley M.D. was rendered at my request by reason of the direction and request of the said Rinearson continuously from time to time as required by the necessities of the said Indians during the time aforesaid.
W. H. Harris
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 18th day of March A.D. 1862.
B. B. Brockway
    Justice of Peace
        Johnsons Precinct
            Coos County
   
State of Oregon   )
Coos County        )  ss.
    I, J. S. Macnamara, Clerk of said county, do hereby certify that B. B. Brockway, whose genuine signature is attached to the foregoing affidavit, was at the time of signing the same a justice of the peace for said county, and that full faith and credit are due to all his acts as such. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my official seal this 13th day of May A.D. 1862.
J. S. Macnamara
    County Clerk
   
    William H. Harris, resident of the county of Coos and state of Oregon, being duly sworn says that he is and was acquainted with Dr. A. N. Foley before the 1st day of July 1856. Affiant further states that he was acquainted at the same time with Capt. Rinearson. Said Rinearson told this deponent and deponent verily believes that he, the said Rinearson, was sub-Indian agent, and this deponent knows of his own knowledge that said Rinearson acted as such Indian agent.
    Affiant further states that said Rinearson authorized and directed this affiant to employ a physician to attend on an Indian called Ben and his mother on or about the 3rd day of July 1856, and in accordance to said directions this affiant did so employ Dr. A. N. Foley. This affiant further states that said Dr. A. N. Foley did attend upon said Indian Ben and furnish provisions for said Ben and his mother from the period above mentioned until on or about the 19th day of October 1856. Affiant further states that at the time above mentioned said Rinearson was engaged as sub-Indian agent in removing the Coquille Indians to the reservation.
W. H. Harris
Sworn and subscribed
before me this [omission] day of May 1862
Saml. Stillman
    County Judge
   
    I, Wm. H. Packwood, of the county of Coos and state of Oregon, do solemnly swear that Dr. A. N. Foley of the state aforesaid did wait, attend upon and furnish medicines &c. for two Indians of the Coquille tribe of Indians, "Ben and his mother by name" at Empire City in the state and county aforesaid, from early in the month of July continuously from time to time as required by the necessities of said "two" Indians until sometime in the latter part of the month of September, or early in the month of October, to my personal knowledge.
    And I further declare that said two Indians were left at Empire City by Capt. Rinearson (then, July 1856, employed in removing the Coquille Indians to Siletz Reservation) on account of their being unable to travel to said Siletz Reservation.
    In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal on this 20th day of July A.D. 1861.
Wm. H. Packwood
Attest: A. Rowley
             C. W. Allendy [?--smudged]
    Subscribed and sworn to before me, J. A. Harry, a justice of the peace in and for the county of Coos and state of Oregon on this 20th day of July A.D. 1861.
John A. Harry
    Justice of the Peace
   
State of Oregon   )
Coos County        )  ss.
    I, John S. Macnamara, County Clerk of Coos County and Clerk of the County Court thereof, which court is a court of record, having a seal, do hereby certify that John A. Harry, whose genuine signature is attached to the foregoing certificate, was at the time of signing of the same and now is a justice of the peace in and for Coos County, duly authorized to make such certificate, and full faith and credit are due to all his official acts as such.
    Attest my hand and seal of said County Court at Empire City this 23rd day of July A.D. 1861.
J. S. Macnamara
    County Clerk
[attached invoices for provisions and doctor's visits not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 414-428.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon June 28th 1862
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge yours of the 27th inst. concerning military protection to the southern portion of Oregon. In reply I will say that there is evidence on file in this office showing clearly that the citizens of Southern Oregon have just cause for alarm. Enclosed I send you the sworn statement of Joseph H. Chaffee in regard to the conduct of the Indians during his sojourn together with some extracts from Sub-Agent Rogers' correspondence to this office as a part of their evidence on which I base my opinion. You will give them such credit as they are entitled to. One thing is clear to my mind, and that is that the southern country is in a very exposed condition. The Klamath Lake Indians have committed many and serious depredations upon the whites ever since the country was first settled, and it is to be hoped that the bloody massacres of former years will not be reenacted. I am well convinced that a company of troops could not be stationed at any point where their services would be of more benefit to the public generally than at Klamath Lake or in that vicinity. Hoping that the foregoing may enable you to determine the matter at once
I remain
    Very respectfully
        &c. &c.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
Col. Justus Steinberger
    1st W.T. Infy.
        Comdg. Dist. of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 156.



Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        30th June 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that Major J. S. Rinearson 1st Oregon Cavalry with Co. C of that regiment have been this day ordered to proceed to and take post at Camp Baker near Jacksonville, Oregon in compliance with your request for a military force in that sector.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Justus Steinberger
            Col. 1st W.T. Infy.
                Comdg. Dist.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 143.



Jacksonville Oregon July 2nd 1862
Sir
    To enable me to proceed to the field of my duties, viz: "the Klamath Lake country"--It will be necessary to place at least one company of troops either in that country or at some point where the services of such troops may be made available for the necessary protection of the agent and to enforce such a rule as he may deem expedient in the discharge of his duties among the Indians in that locality.
    Believing as I do that it is highly important that no time should be lost in at once proceeding to this duty, I have to request therefore that at least one full company of troops be placed in the position above indicated.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. W. M. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 175.




Jacksonville Oregon July 2nd 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 27th ult. containing instructions as to my duty in sending quarterly accounts, as also advising me of the transfer of funds to this sub-agency, together with forms of receipt covering the same. Please find the receipts duly signed in triplicate herewith enclosed.
    I think it doubtful whether or not a draft for this amount on the "Assistant Treasurer of the U.S. at N.Y." can be negotiated at the present time at par in this place. The trade in gold dust renders it frequently necessary to ship coin to this place for the purposes of such trade.  It is more than likely that if a draft of this amount were sent to me, I should be obliged to send it to San Francisco for sale in order to obtain its value. In view of this I would much prefer the remittance to be made in coin. The expense also of sending the draft to S.F. for sale would probably exceed the charges on the Department of coin by express.
    I shall proceed at once to make out my accounts in accordance with your very full and satisfactory instructions--for the quarter ending June 30th--and forward in due time to your office.
I have the honor to be very
    Respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. Wm. M. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 129.


    A BOLD INDIAN MURDER IN YREKA.--The Yreka Journal
of June 21st says:
    The Shastas and Modocs came to no terms yesterday, and they are at outs. Yesterday afternoon, about 4 o'clock, as Scar Faced Charley of the Modocs was riding his horse just below this office on a gallop across Yreka Creek, he was shot by one of the Shastas, who stood opposite our office, on Miner Street. The ball entered the Indian's back and came out through his body and wrist. The Indian rode some 200 yards after being shot, and then fell from his horse and died in about 15 minutes. "Bull Head" is the name of the Indian who shot, and he escaped in company with an Indian boy, probably making for Canal Gulch. It was certainly a bold affair in broad daylight on the streets of Yreka, and Indian-like he shot his adversary from behind. The body was carted to the rancherie, where we expect a general howl will be raised and indiscriminate tarring of squaws faces in mourning.
Visalia Weekly Delta, July 10, 1862, page 1



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    July 21st 1862--
Sir:
    I find myself very much embarrassed for want of funds to pay off the liabilities incurred by me in behalf of this agency. The Supt. of Indian Affairs acknowledges that he has ample means to pay off all the claims of this agency--but for very unsatisfactory reasons has transferred to me for disbursement only a few hundred dollars--and reserves to himself the right to disbursing himself for all past liabilities incurred by me for this agency, and for all that may be incurred hereafter. This is attended with great inconvenience to all, and especially to my employees--as they will have to travel nearly one hundred miles in order to receive their pay.
    I would be pleased to know if this new policy is in accordance with instructions from your department? If not, I would much prefer to disburse all the funds applicable to this agency--as well as to make the necessary purchases myself.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Indian Affairs
----
Post office address
    Corvallis--Benton Co. Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 59-60.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem July 22nd 1862
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge yours of the 18th enclosing duplicate of yours of July 2nd requesting troops, also a duplicate of July 2nd enclosing receipts for $500. A check for the above amount was transmitted to you on the 18th inst., same as yours. It was the very best that could be done. In regard to troops I would say that a full company of cavalry in command of Major C. S. Drew are on their way to Camp Baker in Southern Oregon. The reports in circulation concerning the hostile acts of the Klamaths are considerably exaggerated. Agent Logan of Warm Springs states that no murders have been committed, and those passing his agency report no difficulty with those Indians. [Patton is geographically confused. Warm Springs was on the northern route of the Oregon Trail; the Klamaths were "annoying" travelers traveling on the southern route, hundreds of miles away.] Supt. Rector prior to his departure did not specially authorize me to issue any instructions in regard to an expedition to the "Lake country." I have no doubt but that Major Drew will at an early day as soon as his command are recruited proceed to that country. Should he do so you will avail yourself of their protection and accompany them. You ask if articles of subsistence can be issued to the Rogue Rivers now temporarily sojourning near your place. In reply I have to say that the subject was fully discussed by both Supt. Rector and "John" prior to his receiving permission to go. It was expressly understood that they were to receive nothing while off the reservation and would return at any time when ordered so to do. With these facts before me I do not feel willing to authorize you to make any issues without the Supt.'s express orders. Arrangements will no doubt be made immediately upon his return concerning these Indians, and should they remain some provision ought to be made for them. You will advise this office whether they have worked any, [and] whether they have made any preparation for winter or not.
I am sir
    Very respectfully &c.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 164-165.



Corvallis July 31, 1862
To the agent of the Grand Ronde Reservation
    Sir, as I have bargained with this Indian to cut me fifty cords of wood for which I was to let him have a pony as soon as the work was done.
    He was to commence the job some time ago, but they did not get through with a job they had on hand till within a few days.
    He desired me to give a written statement of the fact, thinking maybe you would give him a longer time that he might be able to complete the job.
    I reside in this place and have a farm adjoining the town claim.
Charles Knowles
    He wished me to put his name in as Indian Tom of Marysville, or is now Corvallis. I have known him for a long time and always found him to be a very good Indian to work.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon August 1st 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit the official bond of James B. Condon, Indian agent at Grand Ronde Agency, duly executed and approved. As instructions have issued from your department requiring this on the part of Mr. Condon, yet owing to the dictatorial course pursued by his sureties on former bond and being unwilling to yield to their dictations in the discharge of his official duties, he has at the suggestion of Supt. Rector executed new bonds with a view of releasing his former securities from any liabilities from and after June 30th 1862 up to the date his accounts are rendered.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T. McF. Patton
                Clerk to Supt.
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 464-465.



Jacksonville Aug. 1st 1862
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of yours of 18th ult. containing draft for $500.00 Yours of 22nd July is also at hand and contents noted.
    I have delayed the answer until this moment, hoping to have been able to have cashed the draft, which would enable me to pay my bills and transmit to your office my accounts for last quarter. I can only get an offer of cash for this draft at six percent discount, conditional however that if it will sell for more in San Francisco I shall receive the full amount for which it sells. This seems to be the best that can be done with it. Indeed when I received it--and up to yesterday evening--the best offer that I could get for the draft was a discount of (12) twelve percent. Yesterday evening I got the offer above stated.
    Now I desire to know if this discount--in other words, if the difference between this draft and coin--will be a legitimate charge in my accounts, or will I be compelled to receive this draft at its face--losing myself the discount that I am compelled to make to get cash for it. Please answer by return mail. I will hold the draft for advices from you
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 157.



    The bearer of this, "John Chamberlin," is the chief of the Rogue River Indians. He obtained permission about the 1st of June to leave the "Grand Ronde Reservation" with a few of his people to visit their old haunts in this county. They accordingly came on with a pass from the Supt. and resident agent, conditioned that if they should behave properly they would be allowed to remain until October. So far as I know and am able to judge, they have fulfilled the conditions of their permit to the letter. They are stopping in the vicinity of Table Rock, and from the citizens thereabouts I hear none other than a good report of them. The bearer of this now proposes to take a trip again to the reservation, to do which he has my permission, and I would bespeak for him kind treatment from all those with whom he may come in contact.
    Given under my hand at Jacksonville this 2nd day of August A.D. 1862.
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 172.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 5th 1862
Sir
    Yours of the 1st acknowledging receipt of draft for $500 was received this morning. Other agents have received their entire remittance in Supt.'s checks at par. The discount would not be a legitimate charge in your accounts, at least such is the opinion of Supt. Rector. It is a matter very much to be regretted that we are placed in such embarrassing circumstances, but until some remedy can be effected the loss of any in exchanging for corn must be sustained by the disbursing officer. Six percent is decidedly reasonable. 15 percent is the lowest that we have been offered. We have made no payment unless the parties were willing to receive at par. Instructions may be received in regard to the matter, but until they are received you will be obliged to be governed as the other agents. Supt. Rector is still absent; when he returns some arrangement may be effected which will relieve us from the embarrassments with which we are at present surrounded.
I am sir
    Truly yours
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 176.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 5th 1862
Sir
    I have to acknowledge yours of June 20th acknowledging the receipt of unpaid claims against the Indian Department certified to by Sub-Agent Joshua B. Sykes, amounting to $4037.83, wherein you state that it is highly important that your office should be furnished by Sub-Agent Sykes with a statement of employees from the 2nd qr. 1860 to the 2nd qr. 1861 inclusive, also an abstract of outstanding liabilities for the same period, and directing this office to communicate with Sub-Agent Sykes in relation thereto. In answer I would say that in a communication transmitting sundry claims against the Department under date of August 24th 1861 your office was advised that Sub-Agent Sykes had failed to file with his retained set of accounts any abstract of outstanding liabilities of his sub-agency, that he had tendered his resignation to Supt. Geary on the plea of ill health, but virtually for the purpose of joining the the Confederate army. In a subsequent communication under date of May 16th acknowledging the receipt at this office of certain communications from your office directed to Sub-Agent Sykes enclosing your objections to his accounts for the 4th qr. 1859 [and] 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th qrs. 1860, you was advised that Sub-Agent Sykes had absolutely seceded, and was at last accounts officiating a commissary in a certain regiment in the rebel army. I have now to inform you that recent advices from the East communicate the gratifying news that he has surrendered to the federals and is now a prisoner of war at Columbus, Ohio.
    If such is true, it is to be hoped that he will not be allowed to escape until he fully atones in sackcloth and ashes for his many sins both of omission & commission. From the foregoing you will observe that it is entirely impracticable for late Sub-Agent Sykes to furnish your office with the statements or abstracts required, even if this office should correspond with him upon the subject, and I am well satisfied that in his present situation it would be a very difficult matter to induce him to acknowledge that he ever was a sworn officer of the United States. In order to furnish you with such information in regard to these unpaid vouchers as this office affords, I have carefully examined his accounts as filed in this office, and the enclosed abstract of liabilities for the 4th quarter 1860 is all that I can find that appertains to the claims transmitted. It is a matter deeply to be regretted that any omission on the part of Sub-Agent Sykes in the discharge of his official duties should prejudice any claims for services particularly. The holders of these claims have been deprived of their money for months, and in some cases years, and it is certainly high time that they should receive something, and it is to be hoped that your department will make such awards on the certified claims of Sub-Agent Sykes as the circumstances of the case will warrant.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T. McF. Patton
                Clerk to Superintendent
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
["Statement of Liabilities Fourth Quarter 1860" attached, but not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 466-471.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 9th 1862
Sir
    Herewith enclosed please find "Remarks" made on examination of Agent Biddle's quarterly accounts. They should have been transmitted with letter of the 8th inst., but in the hurry of mailing were accidentally omitted.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T. McF. Patton
                Clerk to Supt.
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner
   

Remarks made in the office [of the] Superintendent Indian Affairs Oregon on the examination of the quarterly accounts of Benj. R. Biddle, Indian agent, for the 2nd qr. 1862
Property Return
    Agent Biddle has been instructed time and again to clarify his property and arrange it under proper heads, and all property of the same class & character to enter on his return the entire quantity on hand & purchased & issued in one place instead of spreading it all through the return. For instance, subsistence. Ammunition is entered on his return in two or three different places. It is unnecessary to set apart a certain amount of property for hospital purposes, when the agent has no hospital on the agency.
Abstract A. Purchases
    From this it appears that the agent has purchased an extensive bill of medicines, amounting to $481.88 during the qr. This bill is unusually large and embraces articles which this office thinks could be dispensed with without much detriment to the service. It amounts to more than all the purchases for the other agencies. Agent Biddle should show some necessity for this purchase and should explain why he purchased of himself as J. W. Souther is a partner with Mr. Biddle in the drug business. The price paid at Corvallis is much more extravagant than to have purchased in Portland.
Abstract C. Fabricated
    No article mentioned on this abstract is borne upon property return except 16 pounds turnip seed.
Abstract E. Hospital Stores
    This abstract is certified to by physician H. Carpenter. Dr. Carpenter is the resident physician at Fort Hoskins, thirty-six miles from the agency, and there being no hospital on the agency the Indians when receiving medical attendance receive it in the brush. They are entitled to a resident physician as well as hospital.
Abstract G. Expended &c.
    2 doz. thumb latches, 1 doz. door butts [butt hinges?] & 4 gross screws, 1000 fish hooks & 12 doz. fish seines reported issued to the Indians. No certificate of issue accompanies. Suspended. 2 doz. axe handles, ¼ doz. claw hatchets, 1 doz. taper files, 6 handled axes, 3 augers, 1 set brace & bits, 3 firmer chisels, 3 hammers, 1 drawing knife, 1 hand saw, 2 squares, 5 spades, 10 shovels, 5 ox & log chains, 1 monkey wrench, 15 ox bows, 700# salt, 2 plows, 6 ox yokes, 20 hoes, 3 iron wedges, 5211 bd. ft. lumber & 200# nails.
    The articles, above enumerated, are reported as worn out, lost &c. This office has requested the agents to require of the employees certificates of such articles as have worn out while in their charge. Agent Biddle has been instructed particularly upon this matter. In the absence of any certificates from the carpenter, farmers &c. showing the necessity for so many tools being lost and worn out in one quarter, this office is of the opinion that Agent Biddle should be charged with their full value until the regulations of the Department are observed and the necessary certificates furnished. Suspended.
Abstract H. Provision Return
    This return is incorrect. 127 Indians commencing April 1 and ending April 29 would be 29 days instead of 22. Same errors in the time reported for May & June. This reports 373 Indians working in making rails, plowing &c. Making roads 76 days--no roads have been worked up to July 4th. This return is considered of doubtful character, for good reasons. 12039 pounds at 196# per bbl. is 61 83/196 bbls. instead of 60 39/200.
Abstract J. Subsistence
    This voucher should be witnessed and attested by Robert Hill, farmer to the Rogue River Indians. They are located about 8 miles from [the] agency farm and are under control of Mr. Hill. He issues to them himself, and if this voucher is correct, Mr. Hill should witness it. The practice of making such loose returns would operate very detrimental to the service.
Abstract "M" Subsistence Return
    This abstract purports to be an abstract of issues to Indians during the quarter. You will observe that Agent Biddle reports having issued to 1985 Indians, embracing the entire population when they are all on the reservation. It is a fact which cannot be disputed that many are not on the reservation and have not been during the period the issues were made. Some are out in the valley by permission working, others without leave. Again issues appear to have been made to all tribes during April, and only to a few during May and June. No explanation is offered why this [was] done.
    Neither it is witnessed by either commissary or interpreter. For these reasons this voucher should be Suspended.
Abstract N. Subsistence Return
    This voucher no doubt was originally intended and filed as evidence that proper disposition had been made of 3,302 1/6 bush potatoes. It lacks many essential things. 1st. it does not state facts. 2nd. It is unaccompanied with any certificate from farmer's commissary to support it. You will observe that this voucher reports certain tribes, viz: the Noltanas, Sixes, Euchres & other tribes, having lost by rotting 62,593 pounds of potatoes, while the Mikonotunnes, Tututnis, Joshuas, Chetcoes & others did not lose any. By reference to agent's return you will notice that the tribes reported to have lost so many by neglect and rotting are located on the lower farm under charge of farmer Megginson, while those who escaped this loss are located on the agency farm under the immediate supervision of the agent. Charging this loss to the Indians on the lower farm is a willful perversion of facts, and reported intentionally to shield himself from censure. Referring to Superintendent Rector's letter to your office under date of June 7th advising you fully of the result of this visit to that agency, he says, "I found a large portion of the Indians subsisting on potatoes which had remained in the ground during the entire winter & which were frozen, rotten and loathsome. There was not less than six thousand bushels suffered to go to waste in this manner. * * * This loss and neglect of duty occurred on the agency farm under the immediate supervision of Agent Biddle. The lower farm under charge of Mr. Megginson, farmer, produced a fine crop of potatoes and oats, all of which were harvested and secured in due time. The result of this was that Mr. Megginson has furnished Agent Biddle for seed &c. on the agency farm with some three thousand bushels of potatoes." These facts were elicited by Supt. Rector during his recent visit, and which have been reported to your office.
    It is evident from a close examination of these returns that they were manufactured to suit the circumstances of the case and do not represent the actual issues.
    By referring to Abstract M. of this subsistence return you will observe that during the month of May the "Shasta Scotans" received only 20 days' rations while the Rogue Rivers received but 15 days' rations, the Tututnis, Joshuas &c. receiving none. Agent Biddle should by all means give full explanations in regard to these returns.
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 5th 1862
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 475-482.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 14th 1862
Sir
    Referring to your letter of March 29th returning the claim of James T. Cooper for $375 for three yoke of work oxen furnished late Sub-Agent Joshua B. Sykes with instructions to collect all the information and facts relative to the voucher, in answer I would say that I have corresponded with Mr. Cooper upon the subject, and he has furnished me with the enclosed affidavits, showing the actual sale and delivery of the property specified in those vouchers. I am satisfied that the claim is correct and just and would recommend its payment.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Superintendent Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 489-490.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 16th 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my estimate for funds for fulfilling treaty stipulations and other expenses incident to the Indian Service in this Superintendency during the 3rd & 4th quarters 1862.
    This estimate includes the Umatilla Agency and amounts to $72,350.00. You will observe that I have estimated for the entire amount due the Umpquas & Calapooias for annuity under the 1st and 2nd installments second series.
    They require this amount at once, from the fact that it should have been appropriated and remitted long ago. I have also estimated $1000.00 for repairs of agency buildings. Some funds for this purpose are very much needed and required. I hope that this amount will be included in your remittance.
    I would respectfully request that the remittance made on the enclosed estimate be deposited in equal proportions with Hon. John J. Cisco, Assistant Treas. at New York and D. W. Cheesman, Assistant Treas. at San Francisco, Cal. In view of the present deranged condition of financial affairs on this coast I am satisfied that this arrangement will suit my convenience much better than to have the whole amount deposited with Mr. Cisco. In view of our remoteness and the delays incident to the transmission of funds, or intelligence relating thereto, I desire to impress upon your mind the necessity for prompt action in making this remittance. A period of nearly five months elapsed after your advising me of the last remittance before the funds were available, and over one month in transferring the funds from Washington to New York. These delays embarrass my operations very much. I necessarily postpone purchases until a very late day. I have been, and am still, unable to draw upon any funds in anticipation and must have advice that the deposit has actually been made before I am safe.
    I would ask therefore in view of these facts that you represent to the Treasury Department the necessity of using all possible dispatch in making the necessary transfer, and should it meet with your approval that a telegram be forwarded advising me of the deposit being made.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
[estimate of funds not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 491-493.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon August 22nd 1862
General
    Enclosed herewith please find a communication recd. at this office from J. W. Drew Esq. relative to the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua by U.S. troops.
    Upon the receipt of this letter I did not deem the subject matter of sufficient importance to call your attention to it. By recent advices, however, from the Coast Reservation I learn that the Indians are leaving the reserve and wandering towards their former country down the coast. Sub-Agent Brooks, who has reported to me in person, is of the opinion that it will be impossible to restrain these Indians without the aid of troops.
    In view of these facts I have respectfully to request that a detachment of troops be permanently stationed at Fort Umpqua.
    The Indians are at present prevented from leaving the reservation in greater numbers by the presence of a few troops temporarily stationed at that place.
    I am very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Brig. Genl. Alvord U.S.A.
    Comdg. Dist. Oregon
        Fort Vancouver
            W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 190-191.



Fort Yamhill Ogn.
    Aug. 27, 1862
Mr. Condon,
    Sir. A man came here today from the comdg. officer at Fort Hoskins with an order to arrest John Chamberlin.
    He overtook him at my gate, and I have him in the guardhouse. John Chamberlin has been to the Siletz, and Mr. Biddle sent an express to Hoskins to let him know that Chamberlin was trying to get the Indians to go south.
Yours in haste
    L. S. Scott
        Capt. Comdg.
To
    J. B. Condon
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 179.



Grand Ronde Agency
    August 28th 1862.
Sir,
    Your letter concerning John Chamberlin reached here last evening. I also received at the same moment a communication from the comdg. officer at Fort Yamhill notifying me of John's arrest and confinement at that place by order of the comdg. officer at Fort Hoskins acting under instructions of Agent Biddle.
    I enclose herewith a copy of the captain's letter. On being informed of the fact I went immediately to the fort to investigate the matter. I found the party authorized to make the arrest instructed to take him to Fort Hoskins and placed in confinement subject to requisition from Agent Biddle. To this I objected and instructed the comdg. officer here to hold him in custody at this place until you were notified of the facts of the case, or a proper requisition from Agent Biddle setting forth the charges &c. is made to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James B. Condon
            Indian Agent
Wm. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
P.S. I would say that Mr. Biddle's instructions to the comdg. officer at Fort Hoskins are "to arrest John and hold him in custody, as being a suspicious person."
J.B.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 179.



Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.   
        August 28th 1862
Sir;
    I have to acknowledge the reception of your letter of the 22nd inst. on the subject of the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua, and enclosing a letter of J. W. Drew Esq. on that subject. You will remember that I explained to you when here that Umpqua and Rogue River valleys were not in the District of Oregon, and thus General Wright at San Francisco, commanding the Department of the Pacific, was the proper authority to whom your application should have been addressed.
    When I was at Fort Umpqua on the 14th April last Mr. E. P. Drew, who was formerly Indian agent, said that the detachment of troops there was of no use, that there was no danger of the Indians returning via that route down the coast. Those who had returned had been treated so sternly by Mr. Tichenor at Port Orford that there was little likelihood of a repetition of the movement.
    I quoted his language often afterwards as recommending the evacuation of Fort Umpqua.
    You say, "The Indians are at present prevented from leaving the reservation in greater numbers by the presence of a small detachment of troops temporarily stationed there." This is very satisfactory, for the truth is the post was entirely evacuated two months since.
    The scout of Captain Curry to the Grand Ronde Valley resulted in a very satisfactory manner.
    In self-defense Captain Curry was compelled on the 14th inst. to fire on the Indians, and the "Dreamer" [see below] and three others were killed. The effect will be very salutary on all our Indian affairs in that vicinity.
    I enclose herewith a copy of my instructions of the 20th inst. to Colonel Steinberger, commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla, in reference to his aiding your department in keeping the Indians from settling outside the reservation. Similar instructions went to the officer commanding the detachment at the Umatilla Reservation.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            Benj. Alvord
                Brig. General U.S. Vols.
                    Comdg. District
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
P.S. A gentleman from Fort Umpqua who left when the troops left then said that Mr. E. P. Drew attested that he would make a two-company post of it ere long.
B.A.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 181.



Fight with Indians.
    From J. M. Kirkpatrick, Esq., we have particulars of a fight between a band of Cayuses and a detachment of soldiers, under command of Captain George L. Curry. For a year or two back there has been among the remnant of Cayuses living at the Umatilla Reservation a couple of Indians termed "Dreamers," who represented themselves as having direct communication from the Great Spirit. These dreamers had managed to gather around them a few followers, to whom they were in the habit of detailing from time to time the directives of their Great Father, and among other things they told that it was revealed that the Indians should again repossess the whole of this country. Thus things ran along down to a recent date, when a brother of one of the Dreamers was shot and killed by Indian Agent Barnhart. This greatly incensed the two prophets, who immediately thereafter, in company with some twenty other Indians, withdrew from the reservation and established themselves in the north end of Grand Ronde Valley, over which they claimed exclusive jurisdiction, and even went so far as to order settlers off, threatening death and destruction in the event of a failure to remove. This conduct on the part of the Indians greatly alarmed the whites, and some of them accordingly removed. There was one settler, however, who was too slow in his movements to suit Indian haste, and his house was torn down over his head. These excesses coming to the knowledge of the commander at Walla Walla, Captain Curry, with twenty men at his command, was dispatched to the "seat of war," with instructions to bring in the two "Dreamers." Captain Curry reached the Indian camp, at the north end of Grand Ronde Valley, on Thursday, the 14th inst., and immediately apprised the Indians of the object of his coming. According to Indian custom a long "talk" was had on the matter, in the course of which both of the "Dreamers" expressed themselves as unwilling to accompany the officer. To cut the negotiation short, Captain Curry finally told the Indians that he would "give them two hours to make up their minds, and if they were not ready to go by that time he would take them by force; that he was sent there to take them and he was not going away without them." Here the matter rested. At the expiration of the appointed time, Captain Curry again entered the lodge, and finding the two Indians still unwilling to go, he called a soldier to his assistance, and went towards one of the "Dreamers" for the purpose of tying him with a lariat, when the Indian drew a revolver, and aiming it at the Captain's head, discharged it. Fortunately Captain Curry saw the movement quick enough to knock the savage's arm up, and the ball passed over his head. Quick as thought the officer then drew his pistol and shot his assailant through the head, killing him instantly. At this time it was discovered that all the Indians in the lodge were armed, and forthwith the fight became general. Immediately the report of firearms was heard, Captain Curry's men came to his assistance, and a regular volley was poured into the Indians, leaving four of their number dead, among whom were the two "Dreamers" who had caused all the trouble. The fight over, Captain Curry withdrew his command, leaving the Indians, from whom no trouble is apprehended, now that they have lost their leaders.--Mountaineer.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 30, 1862, page 3




    About 30 Rogue River Indians came into Rogue River Valley about two weeks since and requested the settlers to leave the old reserve on Evans Creek. The settlers talk of making them glad to stay away. The inquiry is why are the Indians not kept on the Grand Ronde reserve but allowed to return and disturb the settlements?
"Indian Hostilities in the South," Oregonian, Portland, August 27, 1862, page 2



    Articles of agreement, made and entered into this 1st day of September A.D. 1862 between William H. Rector, Supt. of Indian Affairs, on behalf of the United States of the one part and Frederick Ketchum of the sloop "Fannie" of the other part, witnesseth
    That the said Wm. H. Rector, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, for and on behalf of the United States of America, and the said Frederick Ketchum, his heirs, executors and administrators, have covenanted and agreed and by these presents do mutually covenant and agree to and with each other as follows, viz:
    First: That the said Frederick Ketchum shall transport or cause to be transported, within thirty days from the date hereof, such articles as may be purchased by said W. H. Rector, Supt. of Indian Affairs, for the Indian tribes on the Coast Reservation.
    Second: It is expressly understood and agreed between the said parties that all articles marked for "Siletz Agency" shall be discharged at the depot on Yaquina Bay, and that all packages or articles marked "Alsea" shall be discharged at the store house on Alsea Bay.
    Third: The said Wm. H. Rector, Supt. &c., agrees in consideration of the performance and fulfillment of the foregoing covenants on the part of the said Frederick Ketchum to pay him upon presentation of bills of lading duly receipted by the agents in charge of the aforesaid agencies at the rate of thirty dollars per ton ship's measurement, or as soon thereafter as funds shall be secured applicable for such purpose, and it is further understood that payment is to be made in such currency as may be furnished by the Treasury Department.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and date above written.
Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
Frederick Ketchum
Executed in presence of
    T. McF. Patton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



[Annual Report]
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 2nd 1862
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report, accompanied with those of the several agents, relative to Indian affairs within this Superintendency, hoping that you may be able to glean therefrom such information as your department may require.
    I have the gratifying intelligence to communicate that no troubles or difficulties of a serious character have occurred since my last annual report, and I have no reasons to found any apprehensions of any serious trouble in the future. The military of this district have acted with commendable promptness, and have rendered very material aid to the agents in keeping the Indians on the reservations in subordination. Without their assistance we could have done but little with them. So great has been their desire to return to their old haunts that I believe two-thirds of them would have abandoned their reservations and prowled the country over, committing petty thefts and making themselves otherwise offensive to the citizens. Too much, therefore, cannot be said commendatory of the officers for the prompt and efficient manner in which they have responded to every requisition made upon them by this department.
    We have now a small but sufficient detachment of troops stationed at each reservation and one full company of cavalry at camp "Baker," in Southern Oregon, for the protection of that portion of our frontier against the Klamaths and other tribes and bands of Indians inhabiting the lake country east of the mountains. With this state of thing, I have but little to fear from Indian outbreaks, unless it should be in the Snake country; and of this I will speak in another place.
    I have but recently returned from a visit to the Warm Springs Agency and Umatilla Reservation, having  spent a considerable portion of the summer in this occupation. I am therefore better prepared to speak of the several reservations, as to their present condition  and future prospects, than I should have been without a personal inspection.
Grand Ronde Agency
    This agency is the oldest in the state, and is under the charge and management of James B. Condon, agent. It possesses many advantages which others do not enjoy, and under the efficient management of James B. Condon is now in a very prosperous condition, notwithstanding the dilapidated condition into which it had been suffered to relapse. During my visit to this agency I found the sawmill so racked and out of repair as to be entirely useless. In view of the great demand for lumber for repairs on agency buildings, and for the completion of such as had been commenced and left unfinished, as well as the increasing demand for other buildings such as barns, schoolhouses and residences for the employees and Indians, I instructed Agent Condon to procure the necessary mechanics and put the mill in good repair as soon as possible. The mill is now in perfect order and successful operation, having been repaired, or rather rebuilt, as there is but little left of the former temporary structure. The flouring mill is good as far as it has been completed, but it is yet in quite an unfinished condition. Agent Condon hopes to be able to make the sawmill a source of revenue, so as to finish the grist mill with little, if any, expense to the Department. The fencing has been repaired and a large amount of land plowed in the proper season for seeding. The present crop will not be sufficient for the subsistence of the Indians until the next harvest, although I think the deficiency will not be as great as it was last year. The circumstances under which the agent has labored have been truly embarrassing. The unprecedented hard winter had so reduced the teams that they were scarcely able to work at all. Again, just at the time of putting in the spring crop, the employees, mistaking their places, made an effort to remove the agent from office. This caused a temporary suspension of labor until other arrangements could be perfected. A new policy was inaugurated by obtaining the services of a good practical farmer with a thorough knowledge of the business and well acquainted with Indian character, and dispensing with the services of all other employees on the farms and employing Indians in their stead. In this manner operations have been conducted since early in the spring with decided success. Since this change has been made, some thirty acres have been plowed and sown to June wheat, and upwards of three hundred acres plowed, harrowed and rolled, ready for fall sowing. The entire work has been performed by Indian labor, aided and assisted by the superintendent of farming; The Indians seem well pleased with the change and manifest an unusual interest in the work. This policy should have been adopted years ago, especially at this agency, where the Indians are farther advanced in civilization and more inclined to work. At the solicitation of the agent I have procured a sufficient amount of twine for a fish seine, which they have manufactured themselves, some seventy-five yards long, and are preparing to take salmon of the fall run, which will aid materially in furnishing them subsistence.
    During/my visit the Indians expressed a very great desire to have the land surveyed and allotted to them in proportion to the size of their families. The treaty provides that such may be done, and such regulation prescribed as will secure to the Indians conforming thereto the possession and enjoyment of permanent homes. In my last annual report I presented this subject for your consideration and recommended that suitable regulations be presented by the Department. I promised the Indians that I would have it done. The agent is a practical surveyor, and with some little assistance the land can be surveyed without much expense to government. This, once accomplished, would be a very important step towards civilization. They manifested a desire to make the allotment themselves to say how it should be divided & to whom certain parcels should be assigned. This would lead to insurmountable difficulty, as they would not be able to agree among themselves, hence the necessity for regulations. I hope to be able to make the division, however, without much dissatisfaction.
    In connection with this agency I would here speak of a responsibility which I have assumed in releasing from captivity the Indian chief named "John," who figured so conspicuously in the Rogue River wars of 1853 & 1855. This chief was a brave and daring leader, and, although of better principle than most of his race, he exerted such a powerful influence over his people that Agent Metcalfe deemed it advisable to cause him and his son "Adam" to be arrested and placed in confinement. In order that they should be securely confined, they were placed in charge of the military authorities, and by them sent to California, where they have remained prisoners for five years.
    During my visit to the agency his daughters made a very strong appeal for their release and return to their families. They desired that the remnant of their days might be spent with them. I made application to Genl. Wright, commanding this military department, for their release, which was granted. They returned in due time and were at once sent to Grand Ronde Agency. I have not seen them but once since their return, but learn from Agent Condon that their conduct is unexceptionable, and that they exert a very salutary influence over other Indians in inducing them to remain at home and live like white people. The old man is now far advanced in years, but his son is in the prime of life, and, although he has lost a leg in battling for life and liberty, he is of great service to the agent. Thus far my act has resulted in good, and I have but little fear that any harm will result from restoring them to liberty. For further information concerning this agency I beg to refer you to Agent Condon's report and accompanying papers.
Siletz Agency
    This agency has suffered severely by the hard winter, although not so much in the loss of cattle and teams as that of Grande Ronde. Yet, owing to the severity of the season and its remoteness from the settlements where supplies could be obtained, the suffering among the Indians has been severe. I have good authority, together with the statements of the Indians, for saying that quite a number of them died from cold and hunger. There was little or no grain raised at this agency last year, and the potato crop, which usually furnishes the principal food for the [Indians,] was neglected to be harvested in proper season. This may be attributable in part to the winter setting in so early, and other circumstances, as well as negligence. However this may be, the potatoes were suffered to remain in the ground where grown all winter and issued to the Indians without digging. The result was that they were frozen early in the winter, and this was the only food that many of them had for months. The Indians generally are dissatisfied. They complain to me very bitterly in regard to their treatment; the bad faith of the government towards them; that their treaty was not ratified &c., &c. In my last annual report I recommended in lieu of the ratifying of their treaty at this late day that some provision be made which will guarantee and secure to them equal rights and privileges with those under treaty; yet I observe that no provision was made other than the usual appropriation for "removal and subsistence of Indians not parties to any treaty." Without this appropriation is increased, or a special appropriation for their benefit, it will be impossible to provide for them to the extent desired, or even to place them on a footing with others. To compel even Indians to remain on a reservation without food and clothes, or even the means of obtaining them, is unjust and inhuman. Owing to the scanty means at command for their relief, we have been compelled to give many of them passes permitting them to go out into the settlements and work for food and clothing. Some of them behave well and make themselves useful, while others are a great nuisance, lounging about the villages, drinking whiskey whenever they can get it. Some have absconded without passes, but nearly all will return with the approach of winter. Many of these Indians evince a disposition to work and accumulate property. They want teams and farming utensils of their own. I am much inclined to encourage this disposition, and will furnish them the necessary implements as fast as circumstances will permit. I have now in course of construction some fourteen carts designed for distribution among the different tribes. These are being fabricated at the agency and will be of great value as well as assistance to the Indians in collecting their potato crop, procuring firewood &c. Heretofore this labor had been by the Indian women; all work, including digging, carrying from the field and housing is imposed upon them. In some instances the fields are two miles distant from the houses, which renders it very laborious indeed. The report of Agent Biddle will give you a more detailed account of the condition of the agency. Although it is quite lengthy, I regret that it is not more full in many important particulars.
Alsea Sub-Agency
    This agency is situated on the south side of the Yaquina Bay and is in charge of Linus Brooks by special appointment from late Superintendent Geary.
    There is but three tribes located on this agency, namely: The Alseas, Siuslaws and a band of the Umpquas. These tribes are like those on the Siletz, without any treaties. They are less clamorous about it and are doing well. They have had plenty of food last winter, and had a surplus of one hundred and fifty bushels of potatoes, which were shipped to Portland on the sloop which carried their spring supplies. The proceeds of this shipment amounted to two hundred & seventeen dollars and fifty cents, which was carried to the credit of the United States, and the amount invested in such articles as the Indians expressed a desire to have in exchange.
    I believe this is the first instance on record in this state where a surplus has been raised and disposed of for the benefit of the Indians.
    The Coast Reservation, on which the Alsea and Siletz agencies are located, has been wisely and judiciously selected, being remote from the settlements and only accessible by a difficult mountain trail or by small coasting sloops at certain seasons, rendering it a desirable place for Indian purposes. On these accounts it never will become a desirable place for the abode of whites. It possesses most of the natural advantages necessary to the prosperity of the Indian. The soil is good and produces most of the substantial articles of food. The fisheries, if improved, would not be surpassed by any on the coast.
    Information in detail concerning the Siletz Agency, accompanied with recommendations tending to develop the resources thereof, was transmitted to your office under date of January 30th 1862, and instructions solicited in regard thereto. But as yet I have received no encouragement to change the policy which has been pursued heretofore. I am well satisfied that by good management and a correct and faithful application of the appropriations to the development of the natural resources of this reservation that the Indians located thereon will eventually be able to support themselves. As to their moral and intellectual improvements I have but little to hope, unless they could be induced to abandon their chieftainship and submit themselves to our laws and customs entirely. But while they adhere to their barbarous laws and customs they come in direct contact with the teachings of civilized life.
    I have offered some recommendations on this subject in another portion of my report.
Warm Springs Agency
    The Indians east of the Cascade Mountains in Middle Oregon are quite a different race of people from those living on the coast. They are generally regarded as being a superior race, but of this I am in doubt. The apparent superiority is only a matter of circumstances. The country inhabited by them affords greater natural advantages for grazing, and by this means they have acquired some wealth, without knowing or realizing how it came. The wealth is confined comparatively to but a few of them, and as wealth is all there is of a man in their estimation it is very natural that they should assume that proud imperious manner which is so often mistaken for genuine superiority.
    My recent visit to Warm Springs impresses me fully with the belief that little or no good can reasonably be expected from the present generation on this agency.
    There was not fifty Indians at the agency at the time of my visit, and the patches of corn, potatoes &c. which they had been induced to put in had been abandoned or wholly neglected. I was informed by the agent that the Indians were visiting the fisheries, from fifty to eighty miles distant. This privilege is guaranteed to them by treaty, and they avail themselves of its provisions to the fullest extent, frequently remaining away during the entire summer.
    During their absence they do not remain at the fisheries and devote themselves to fishing with a view of obtaining a sufficiency for winter use, but seek the opportunity to prowl the country over, visiting such places where they would be most likely to obtain whiskey, and indulging in such practices as tend to degrade and demoralize.
    In view of these facts, I cannot regard this provision of their treaty, guaranteeing exclusive privilege to fish &c. otherwise than being very prejudicial to their true interests. The agent has used every exertion to induce the Indians to remain upon the agency and cultivate their crops, but all to no purpose.
    I am not very favorably impressed with the location of this reservation. There is but little land susceptible of cultivation upon it, and that little is difficult of access, lying in narrow strips between towering mountains--destitute of timber or anything else that could be turned to account for man or beast. What few improvements have been made, prior to the present agent taking charge were of such temporary character that they are now dilapidated and fast going to decay.
    The saw and grist mills are new, having been erected this summer, and the best I have seen upon any of the reservations, but unfortunately located upon an agency where there is no use for them. One very serious drawback to the prosperity of this agency is the locality: its close proximity to the Snake country renders it liable at any moment to be invaded by some roving band of these Indians, and the property either burnt or stolen. These Indians have suffered so severely in times past from the forays made upon them that they are unwilling to remain upon the reservation except in the immediate vicinity of the agency building, where they can be protected.
    There is but little grain being raised--not more than enough for seed next season. Ample provision was made by Agent Logan early last fall for putting in a considerable quantity of grain. The seed was obtained and transported to the agency, but owing to the unprecedented severe winter and the great destitution among the Indians he was compelled to issue it to the Indians to keep them from starving.
    For further information more in detail, I would respectfully refer you to the report of Agent Logan, with accompanying papers.
Umatilla Agency
    This agency, owing to its location, stands preeminent among them all. It is admirably located and contains a very large area of fine arable land. In fact, it is the very best location that could have been made, and will at no distant day be very valuable to the government. The Indians upon this reservation embrace the Cayuse, Umatilla & Walla Walla bands; of these, the Cayuse Indians and a few of the Umatillas exhibit a taste for agricultural pursuits, and during the past few years have acquired considerable personal property.
    During the past winter this agency with the others has suffered severely, although the loss sustained was confined principally to the property of individual Indians. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the season, Agent Barnhart managed to sow a large quantity of wheat, barley, oats and such other seeds as would be of benefit to the Indians. At the time of my visit the grain was nearly ready to harvest. I believe that is the finest field of wheat I have seen anywhere. The oats and barley were fully as good. Aside from what was sown by the agent on the Department farm, the Indians have cultivated considerable on their own account for their own use. Should these crops be harvested and taken proper care of, I am well satisfied that they will have abundance, and to spare.
    The location of this reservation, and the fertility of its soil, warrants me in saying that it can be made not only self-sustaining, but a source of revenue to the Department. These conclusions are not vague surmises and designed to flatter and mislead. To effect this, it will require judicious management and a faithful application of the appropriation made for that purpose. It will also require on the part of the government prompt action in furnishing the funds when appropriated, so that no delay may be occasioned for want of funds to carry out the plan. By reference to the provisions of the treaty made with these confederated tribes, the United States agree to erect one saw & flouring mill at some suitable point on said reservation. This stipulation on the part of the government should have been fulfilled ere this. Ample time has elapsed since the ratification of their treaty to have completed their mills and every other building guaranteed them.
    From the perusal of Agent Abbott's report for the year 1861 I was induced to believe that these mills were far advanced towards completion, but my recent visit dispelled all such belief. I found the mill far from completion, very little done towards it, and what had been done of no permanent benefit whatever. I regard this as a very serious mistake on the part of the late agent. Instead of contracting this work with some reliable and competent mechanic, he purchased a mill some two hundred miles distant and moved all that was movable of it to the agency to be put up there. After spending what funds he had for this purpose, the work was suspended, and all that now remains is not worth one thousand dollars. I regret very much to be compelled to make this statement, but they are the facts nevertheless. I am thoroughly convinced that the original plan, if completed, will never operate successfully, from the fact that it had already proved a perfect failure at the point where it was first erected, and on this account was sold to Agent Abbott.
    I am unable to ascertain from the records of this office what proportion of the appropriation for the year 1860 has been received and disbursed. By referring to the act of March 29 making appropriations for fulfilling treaty stipulations with certain Indian tribes in Oregon, I find that the sum of ten thousand dollars was appropriated for the erection and completion of a saw and flouring mill, hospital building, two schoolhouses, one blacksmith shop, one building for wagon and plow maker, one carpenter & joiner's shop, and one dwelling house for each of the employees. The act of March 2nd 1861 also appropriated the sum of three thousand dollars for the purchase of necessary mill fixtures, mechanical tools, medicines, books, stationery &c. &c.
    From the fact that no other appropriations have been made for the completion of the above-mentioned mills, shops &c., I am forced to the conclusion that the first appropriation of ten thousand dollars was deemed by your Department to be sufficient to accomplish the purpose. I have been informed that there is a large portion of this mill fund for 1860 and all the appropriation for 1861 still remaining in [the] Treasury, never having been remitted. Supt. Hale of Washington Territory informs [me] that he has received no funds belonging to this agency. Your communication to this office, dated September 18th 1861, transmitting tabular statement of funds for the Indian service for the 3rd & 4th quarters 1861, informs me that the sum of $24,400 had been excluded from my estimate for these Indians from [the] fact that this agency had been transferred to the jurisdiction of Superintendent Kendall, of Washington Territory, and consequently, on the 2nd day of August 1861 a remittance had been made to him for their purposes. I have been informed by Agent Barnhart that no money has been transferred to him applicable to the building of these mills. The same information has been communicated to me by Superintendent Hale. If this remittance has been made, it is evident that no portion has been applied to the purposes for which it was sent. If we expect to maintain friendly relations with these Indians, the Department must make some reasonable show towards complying with the stipulations of the treaty. During the council they complained very bitterly concerning this neglect in particular. I gave assurances that these mills should be completed at an early day--a promise which I would gladly have avoided could I have done so.
    Without these mills in successful operation, it will be impossible as well as useless to encourage them in their agricultural pursuits. The nearest mill to [the] agency is forty miles distant, with a. rough and rugged mountain road intervening. With this obstacle in the way, it will be utterly impossible for the Indians to transport their grain to this mill to be ground without incurring expenses equal to half the value of the crop.
    It is essentially necessary, therefore, that this matter should receive prompt attention, and I would earnestly recommend the subject to your consideration.
    I have stated in connection with this agency that it can be made not only self-sustaining but remunerative.
    This belief is founded on the fact that it contains a large quantity of the finest wheat-growing land in that section of country, easy to be improved, and that too in the immediate vicinity of the gold fields recently discovered in Powder River Valley, where flour meets with a ready sale and commands high prices. The labor incident to the raising of the grain would in a great measure have to be performed by white men until the Indians could be induced to engage in the business themselves. The services of these farmers would be paid from the proceeds arising from the sale of wheat, and the profits even then would be large. The Indians parties to this treaty are now mostly residing on the reservation. Two small bands of the Walla Wallas have not as yet come on to it. One principal reason for not moving on is that [they are] divided among themselves about the chieftainship. This feud has continued ever since the death [of] "Peu-peu-mox-mox," and it is not unlike that of the houses of York and Lancaster.
    The band that is on the reservation had no acknowledged chief. At their request I appointed one, conditioned, however, that whenever the others came onto the reservation and submitted the matter to an election, and a chief fairly elected, then my appointment would be null and void. This arrangement was entirely satisfactory to those present. In the course of my talk with the chiefs and headmen of these tribes they alluded to the treaty, and said that they did not sell Grand Ronde Valley, in the Blue Mountains, while the treaty defining the boundary is so clear that there could not have been any misunderstanding. The treaty was produced, read and interpreted to them. I told them that I was not present at the council when it was made and signed, and only knew it as I found it on record. They said the record lied, but their ears did not lie. I learned also that some Indians, parties to this treaty, were then at Grand Ronde, and had been driven off by some whites who had gone there to build houses with the view of becoming permanent settlers. Agent Barnhart made a requisition on the military post at Walla Walla for a detachment of cavalry for the purpose of arresting the offenders and bringing them in. Col. Steinberger acted with commendable promptness in this affair, and ordered a detachment to proceed forthwith, and I have no doubt but that their arrest will settle the question of title to Grand Ronde Valley.
    As this agency has been under my supervision but for a short time, I would refer you to the accompanying report of Agent Barnhart for other and further information.
Shoshones or Snakes
    Early in the month of March last a well-authenticated report reached this office that a party of miners, numbering some twelve or more, had been massacred by the Snake Indians while exploring and mining on the headwaters of John Day's River, under the following circumstances:
    Last fall a party of men ascended John Day's River in search of gold. Their success was such as to induce them to remain during the winter. During the latter part of February they detailed some twelve of their number to return to the Dalles to procure an additional supply of provisions, taking with them all the horses belonging to the company. Some few days after these men had started, one of the party returned to the camp and reported that they had been attacked by Indians, and that the entire party save himself had been murdered. Upon receiving this intelligence, those remaining in camp started immediately for the Dalles, where they arrived in due time without molestation from the Indians, or even seeing any sign of any. On the route they saw what they supposed to be the camp where their comrades had been murdered, and at other places saw evidences which satisfied them that their comrades had met with a sad fate. The prevailing opinion at the time was that the depredation had been committed by some roving band of Snake Indians, who had come this side of the Blue Mountains for the purpose of murder and robbery and to harass the Warm Springs Reservation. As soon as the intelligence reached me I appointed Joshua M. Kirkpatrick, a man of indomitable courage and constitution, to proceed at once to the scene of the disaster, and if possible ferret out the mysterious affair. A copy of my instructions to him may be found accompanying this report, marked "A." Notwithstanding the inclemency of the season, Mr. Kirkpatrick proceeded at once to the discharge of the duty assigned him, and after much fruitless. research came to the conclusion that there were no Snake Indians on this side of the Blue Mountains, and that the lost party had, in all probability, perished from the effects of the severe cold weather which prevailed at that time. Some of the horses belonging to the party have since come. into the settlements, which is another evidence that the affair was not the work of Indians, but remains a mystery yet to be solved.
    For further information in detail concerning this expedition, I would respectfully refer to the report of Mr. Kirkpatrick, herewith accompanying.
Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians
    Much complaint has been made against these Indians by miners and others passing through their country during the past spring and summer. These Indians have been importuning us to buy their country for several years. The citizens of Rogue River Valley are exceedingly anxious to have the Indian title extinguished to this section of country, and have the same thrown open for settlement.
    Owing to the present deranged condition of our country, I am unwilling to recommend the extinguishment of their title at this time. Neither would I recommend placing them on a reservation until the necessity becomes more apparent. I regard the military force now stationed in that immediate vicinity amply sufficient for the protection of that section of the state.
    The present policy of regarding them in the light of nations, and holding treaties with every score of them, and, when they have no acknowledged chief, head or organization whatever, to appoint one for them for the purpose of negotiating a treaty, I cannot regard otherwise than being calculated to retard their advancement in civilization.
    During the negotiation of the treaty their bellies are filled with bread and beef, and, feeling very clever for the unusual liberality, they are induced to sign the treaty without fully understanding its provisions.
    In this condition they remove to the reservation with the full understanding that they are a free and independent nation, with all their barbarous customs dignified with the title of laws, which they claim the undeniable right to adhere to and use for their own government. These laws afford but little protection to life or property and are at direct variance with our own. Hence the little disposition manifested to acquire property, and the sole reliance of each on his own strong arm for self-protection. With these things to contend with, the desired reformation is in the dim distance and only to be seen with the eyes of faith. In order that I may be better understood, I will give you some account of their peculiarities and laws with which we have to contend. One is the time-honored custom of making medicine. This [is] done by assembling in large gatherings, where they perform mysterious rites, sing, dance and beat upon drums until they make night hideous with their unearthly noise. This exercise is continued until they all become exhausted from fatigue and adjourn. The same performance is renewed the next night, and so on for five nights, or until some unfortunate victim is stupefied by a kind of magnetism [i.e., hypnotism]. This, then, is the person on whom the medicine has taken effect. He is then supposed to be in possession of power to divert any calamity for which medicine was made. If it be for the cure of diseases, then he is supposed to have the power of inflicting and killing persons that he may not like. In this case, their law is that when a doctor's heart becomes bad, and he uses his medicine for the purpose of killing, he must die. All the evidence required to prove a doctor guilty is for some friend of the deceased to assert that such a doctor killed his friend, and that his heart has told him so. Then the doctor must be killed. When the doctor and deceased belong to different tribes, the tribe that kills him must pay for him in property. This gives rise to feuds and quarrels, which in some instances require the agent (assisted by the military) to interfere in order to quell.
    Attempts have been made to suppress these barbarous customs, and the murderers have been severely punished by the agents. For this treatment they complain to me, using the following argument: "We are not your slaves that you should punish us for executing our own laws. We did kill a doctor, and our tribe paid for him, and that is the end of it. Why do you meddle with our own business?"
    The foregoing is one of the many instances in which these barbarous laws and superstitious customs come in direct contact with the teachings of civilized life. I would earnestly recommend that no more treaties be made with Indian tribes not now under treaty, by which they are allowed their chiefs or permitted to enforce their barbarous laws, and that the initiatory steps be taken to break it up whenever they exist among those now located on reservations. It will require time and patience to accomplish this, but the sooner it is done the better it will be. It would require no larger military force to govern them by our own laws than it now does to quell the riots and disturbances among themselves occasioned by their adherence to their own. In a word, they should be subjudicated and governed like a colony. The agent should officiate as a sort of governor or magistrate, with authority to adjudicate all cases that may arise among them. Those of them who are now recognized as chiefs could be designated as policemen, clothed with authority to arrest such as were guilty of any misdemeanor, and to bring them before the agent for examination. Under this system the lands could be parceled out to them, and any infringement of their rights thereto could be punished. As it is now, there is but little inducement and no protection guaranteed to the more provident--those who manifest a desire to provide for themselves--as the vagabond element among them would partake as long as their provident neighbors have anything to eat.
    There are many improvements which could be suggested which if carried out would be productive of far better results than the present system. If the appropriations that are now made annually for fulfilling treaty stipulations with the different Indian tribes now on reservations could be made in gross, and allowed to be applied by the Superintendent or agent to such purposes as the service demanded, instead of being applied to fulfill certain treaties provisions made years ago, in anticipation of certain circumstances, I am well satisfied that it would result in more general good and give better satisfaction. A great many have expressed themselves as anxious for the change, and have already urged that certain funds be diverted to other purposes. This as a matter of course cannot be done without authority. The treaties as a general thing provide for the same things, notwithstanding their different location and the different character of the Indians for whose benefit the treaty was made. For instance, those located on the Coast Reservation have good facilities for fisheries. These fisheries should be improved. They should be furnished with such improvements as will enable them to engage in that business not only as a means of subsistence for themselves, but for the purpose of shipping and procuring in exchange other commodities necessary for their welfare and happiness. Other agencies, more favorably located, would perhaps devote themselves exclusively to agricultural pursuits, and would not require certain provisions of their treaty to be fulfilled. Any colony of our own people, similarly situated, would engage in whatever occupation or pursuit that was found to be most profitable and best adapted to that particular place or locality. So it should be with our Indian tribes on the several reservations. But under the present mode of making appropriations and requiring the Superintendent and agents to account for each remittance under the specific head for which it was appropriated, there is but little discretionary power left the Superintendent or agents to carry out the plans and operations best adapted to the times and places or condition of the Indians. The funds must necessarily be disbursed (if disbursed at all) for that particular object; and if not adequate the work must necessarily be suspended or abandoned until further .advices are received.
Schools for the Indians
    I regret very much that the ample appropriations which have been made for the education of the Indian youth have not been productive of more practical good. During the past year only two schools have been in operation in this Superintendency; one at Siletz Agency, under the care and supervision of Mrs. Margaret B. Gaines, and the other at Warm Springs, under charge of Mr. M. M. Chipman. The experience of all teachers who have labored for the instruction and intellectual advancement of the Indians prove clearly that it is not for want of capacity on the part of the children that they do not succeed, but owing to their irregular attendance and pernicious influences with which they are surrounded when out of school. No interest is being manifested by the parents whatever. The children are allowed to engage in whatever they please; no restraint is thrown around them. They attend very punctually for a time until the novelty wears off, and unless some new attraction is offered they absent themselves entirely, or attend at such irregular intervals as to be of but little benefit. The only plan, in my opinion, calculated to benefit the Indian is to establish a boarding school upon the manual labor principles. A school of this character would enable the pupils to attend regularly. It would be the means of furnishing them with a physical education as well as moral & intellectual. These associations would be broken up, and the pernicious influences with which they are surrounded at home destroyed. They would be under the immediate care and supervision of the teacher at all times, and by this means would acquire habits of industry and soon become attached to the school. Ample provision has been made for a school of this character at Grand Ronde Agency, but owing to the agency not being supplied with a suitable building it has not been put in practical operation. Agent Condon is now using every endeavor to repair a building so that the school can be opened at the commencement of next quarter. It is my intention that this school shall be fairly tested upon the principle suggested.
    For further information on this subject I would refer you to the reports of Mrs. Gaines and Mr. Chipman, herewith transmitted.
Finances of the Department
    From the statement of finances herewith transmitted, it may seem strange that so large an amount of liabilities should be contracted and allowed to remain unpaid when I have reported the sum of $54,305.64 at my disposal. In explanation, I would state that advices concerning the remittance of $55,600 were not received until near the close of the fiscal year; consequently but few disbursements were made. In my last annual report I called the attention of the Department to the necessity of being prompt in the remittance of such funds as have or may hereafter be appropriated for this Superintendency. I cannot close my report without calling your attention again to this important matter. The fact that this Superintendency is so remote from the seat of government, the great delay in correspondence, is sufficient to warrant attention to this matter without assigning any other reasons. The Superintendents on this coast should be furnished with funds in advance instead of being from six to twelve months in arrears. It has been my desire to abandon the credit system entirely, and without assistance from your Department it will be impossible to do so. The great want of funds at the proper time has seriously retarded operations in this Superintendency, and at the same time occasioned a great deal of inconvenience and trouble to Superintendent & agents. I would therefore earnestly recommend attention to this matter in the future.
Respectfully submitted
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Ind. Affairs Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 197-212.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    Sept. 11th 1862
Sir:
    Your circular of July 28th, referring to circulars of Jan. 11th 1862, "relative to the necessity of the Department for more full and particular returns of Agents" &c., has just been received, and in reply I have the honor of stating that on the 1st day of July last, at the Corvallis, Oregon, post office, I mailed [a] package addressed to Hon. Wm. P. dole, Com. Ind. Affairs, Washington D.C., which embraced as near as possible full and complete specifications as required by the circulars--
also the pen & ink sketch of reservation, and added such suggestions as I then deemed necessary. This, together with my annual report &c., will I trust give all the required information. The Annual Report was transmitted to Supt. Rector on the 14th day of Aug. last.
    I would respectfully suggest that the Department send letters direct to me at Corvallis P.O., Benton Co., Oregon.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            B. R. Biddle
                Indian Agent
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Com. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 61-62.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 19th 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit for your consideration my annual estimate for funds required in this Superintendency during the fiscal year ending June 30th 1864 [sic]. I have included in this estimate the sum of $10,000 for the purpose of purchasing farming utensils, teams, seed, clothing, iron, steel &c. for those Indians now located on reservations and with whom treaties have been made but not ratified.
    I think I have presented sufficient facts in relation to these Indians in my annual reports as well as official correspondence to justify an appropriation for this amount at least. I will endeavor with this amount to make such investments for these Indians as will secure to them the same rights and privileges as others now under treaty.
    I would also call your attention to the amount asked for repairs of agency buildings. The amount is very insignificant, yet it will aid materially in repairing the buildings so that they could be used.
    There should be $1000 expended at each agency on public buildings in order to make them respectable. Great inconvenience has been experienced by the agents during the past year on account of the dilapidated condition of the buildings. I would therefore earnestly recommend that an estimate be submitted to Congress for this purpose.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.

[estimate of funds not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 506-509.



Table Rock Valley
    Sept. 26th 1862
Mr. A. E. Rogers Dr. Sir
    We the settlers of Table Rock Valley would respectfully state that a small party of Indians are at the present time located in our settlement, and that we understand that measures have been taken to remove said Indians to the Grand Ronde Reservation.
    Said Indians are perfectly peaceable and desirous of remaining in their present location, as they have laid up a good supply of provisions: flour, potatoes &c. Now therefore we the said settlers would request that said Indians be permitted to remain where they are.
        Name     Name

John Sutton Ira Kimball Jr.

John Edsall James Wiles

B. F. Miller S. A. Smith

E. Kimball Jeremiah Hanrahan

D. C. Livingston G. Johnston

Benjamin Phettyplace M. Moran

Garris Leslie

James Burnett
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 218.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 26th 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit for your examination and approval the following claims against the Indian Department of Oregon, viz:
    Contracted by late Agent Daniel Newcomb
    Sept. 30th 1860 John Frazier services $33.80
Dec. 31 1860 do. do. do. 180.00
March 31 1861 do. do. do. 66.00
June 30 1861 do. do. do. 180.00
Sept. 30 1861 do. do. do.   180.00
$639.80
    Contracted by Joshua M. Kirkpatrick, special agent at Umatilla Reservation
    Nov. 30 1861 E. J. Hull services $71.60
" " " D. C. M. Kircher do. 83.33
" " " Chas. Goodenough do. 166.66
" " " Mrs. L. Pickering do.     33.00
$354.60
    Contracted by late agent Ami P. Dennison
    Aug. 19th 1860 P. F. Herbert $21.50
    Contracted by agent W. H. Barnhart
    May 26 1862 T. Doak, service 90.00
Feby. 28 1862 Henry Griffith     80.00
$170.00
    Contracted by late sub-agent Joshua B. Sykes
    June 24th 1861 Thomas Clark, services 168.00
Oct. 1st 1860 Abel P. Fryer, forage &c.     34.00
$202.00
    I have examined the accounts of the several agents above named rendered during the periods in which the foregoing claims were contracted. The accounts of agents Newcomb and Sykes are imperfect, but very few quarters having any statement of employees or abstract of outstanding liabilities filed. It appears that Mr. Frazier has never recd. a dollar for his services, although rendered years ago.
    I would recommend the allowance of his claims.
    The claims certified to by Agent Dennison and Special Agent Kirkpatrick are reported, and I believe them to be meritorious claims. The claim of Henry Griffith for $80 contracted by Agent Barnhart is also reported. No accounts have been filed in this office by Agent Barnhart later than March 31st, consequently I am unable to form any opinion as to the claim of N. [sic] Doak. The claims of Thomas Clark & Abel P. Fryer, if not reported, can be substantiated by abundance of evidence. I forward these claims in compliance with instructions from your office and will make the renewed request that they receive early attention. When I relieved Supt. Geary Augt. 1st 1861 my instructions required me to transmit all outstanding claims to your department for adjustment. I have been collecting them from that time to this and forwarding them for allowance, and although assured by your office that they would receive prompt examination immediately upon their arrival, they still remain at Washington unpaid, and even unacknowledged. Some assurance should be given that they will be paid at some future time, or that they have been rejected. This delay imposes upon this office a very large amount of unnecessary correspondence. The claimants are continually harassing me, and some even censure me for withholding their just dues, believing that the money has been remitted, and that I am using it for my own private purposes. This is very embarrassing indeed, and unless some instructions are forwarded in regard thereto, it will [be] useless to forward any other claims until confidence is restored. I would therefore respectfully request that you advise me immediately what has been done or what will be done--whether the claims have reached you &c. Information of this character would enable me to make a public announcement through the columns of some newspaper, and thus relieve me from any unjust suspicion in regard to retaining the funds. I hope that this matter will receive prompt attention without further delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 521-525.



Siletz Indian Agency Oregon
    October 1st 1862.
Sir:
    I would urge upon your immediate consideration the importance of having Fort Umpqua reoccupied by troops. Since the evacuation of that post, large numbers of Indians from this agency have availed themselves of the opportunity and fled down the coast to their former homes on Smith's & Rogue rivers. Had the fort been garrisoned they could not thus have made their escape for the reason that this fort guards the only road leading from this agency to the country south of the Umpqua River. I am of the opinion that if the fort is not reoccupied, most of the Coast Indians who reside at this and the Alsea agencies will leave before next spring. The expense of removing those that have escaped back to this agency down the coast will far exceed the cost of maintaining a company of soldiers at the fort referred to. It is of much more importance to this agency than Fort Hoskins.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
Wm. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 241.



Jacksonville Oct. 8th 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose herewith the petition of John Sutton et al. of "Table Rock Valley" asking that the small band of Indians now encamped near that place be allowed to remain where they are.
    I received this petition [above] on Saturday evening (4 inst.). Sunday, information came to me that there would probably be a remonstrance to the petition sent to you by some parties not well disposed toward the Indians. "John Chamberlin" came with the person presenting the petition and then exhibited to me the order from Agent Condon to him to return to the reservation without delay. The order is dated Sept. 12th. On inquiring of John I found that he had been with his people at Table Rock some two weeks, but had been sick and up to now had been able to make no move toward returning. He further states that when he got back, he found a number of his people sick and that within the last three weeks four of their women had died, known at the reservation by the names of California Martha, Old Reuben's wife, Cain's wife and Mary Ann, and further that some of his people were now sick and unable to leave camp.
    On reflection, I determined to go myself to Table Rock and ascertain if possible the true position of affairs. I went accordingly on Monday 6th inst. and returned yesterday. The statement of John with reference to sickness I found correct. They seem to have an epidemic among them as near as I could judge, assuming a form of intermittent fever.
    In view of the rains having set in and the illness of a portion of these Indians, it should seem impracticable for them to get to the reservation this fall. If John had been able to have started back immediately on his return, now nearly three weeks since, it could have been accomplished no doubt, but he tells me when he returned he found one wheel of his wagon broken and himself with no means to repair it, so that if his people had been able to go, the means of transportation is wanting.
    John seems to regret exceedingly his inability to get back this fall, as he had promised to do if required. I really think he does sincerely regret it. He fears that there will be a want of confidence in him in future. He now sends one of his well men to the reservation with instructions to put in a crop this fall and says that if allowed to remain here for the winter he will undertake to get back there in the spring as early as he got here last spring. Another objection he urges now is that along the road there is nothing upon which to graze his stock at this season, while in the spring there is plenty and that he has not money to pay for feed.
    This petition is signed by well-known and estimable citizens of Table Rock Valley, and most of them men of families. As far as I have been able to learn, and I have twice visited them this summer, the Indians have very well observed the conditions of their pass. I have on a former occasion reported the result of a visit to them, of their harvest, industry &c., and that from their willingness to labor and receive in pay such produce as farmers had to spare--the most of the settlers seemed not only willing but rather desirous that they should remain among them. What I then said remains yet true, notwithstanding the opposition of two or three individuals. The Indians have been charged with theft. I have been complained to. I instigated inquiry and found that a few "watermelons" and a few "roasting ears" had been stolen, but in no case have I found positive proof to sustain the charge that the Indians were the thieves.
    Strange as it may appear, yet it would seem that politics, or rather union & disunion, is arrayed on either side of the Indian question. I will mention the names of Messrs. Daggett & Goodell, whom I am informed are the movers in the remonstrance that you will receive. These men are noted for their secession proclivities. Indeed the former of these is so extremely disunion that rather than to take the oath of allegiance I am informed he states that he will forfeit the right to preempt his land.
    I desire to be understood that in my belief the remonstrance to this petition, if one goes on, is more the result of a disposition to oppose what certain other persons have done than any real fault to be found with the Indians.
    Inasmuch as I have had no instructions from you with reference to the removal of the Indians, I have deemed it my duty to report the facts, as they appear to me, and await instructions. I have thought it best to send you the original petition just as it came to me, retaining a copy in my office. I will here add that the names upon the petition constitute all but some three or four settlers who live in the immediate vicinity of where the Indians are encamped.
I remain
    Respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 218.



Salem Oct. 10th 1862
James B. Condon Esq.
    Dear Sir
It is with sincere regret that I send you the order to take charge of the Siletz Agency, knowing that by so doing I impose on you an extra amount of duty. Yet I do it with the full confidence that you will cheerfully render the government any and all the service that is in your power.
    Your instructions are intended to be broad enough to allow you to purchase any private property belonging to Mr. Biddle at fair rates and give him a voucher for the same, provided said property is necessary and proper for the government service.
    Your time can be divided between the Siletz and Grand Ronde agencies until some other arrangements are made, which I have reasons to believe will not be long.
Very truly yours
    Wm. H. Rector
P.S.
    Since writing the foregoing I have seen the officer who goes to Grand Ronde tomorrow. I had intended to send Brown and did not write as full as is necessary. I expect some of the officers from Fort Hoskins here tomorrow, but if they should not come I will go to Hoskins on Sunday or so as to be there on Monday forenoon. Biddle said he would be at Hoskins on Monday as soon as he could get there from home.
    I would be glad if you could be at Hoskins on Sunday night or Monday forenoon. I wish you to receive and recpt. for the cargo on the sloop and keep a sharp lookout for what you receipt for that is now in Biddle's hands. Mr. Hill and Megginson will assist you in every way possible. You will do well to see Hill at the first farm as you go in. They will assist you in making the issues which had better be done as soon as it is convenient. The supplies for the private use of the employees will be on the sloop--except one that was sent by Biddle. He did not give it to me or say anything about it until just as we were starting from Portland, and then he did not give it to me but said he had such an order in his pocket.
    The men may be somewhat surprised at the prices of some articles, but you can explain to them the advance [in prices] in Portland. It will be a great improvement on the way they have been paying for their supplies heretofore.
    Biddle says that this man Jefferson can't make the carts if he had let him. Please ascertain what you can about him and if you are of the same opinion let me know as soon as possible and I will send a man that will do the work up quick. F. Harding approves of the plan of you taking charge of the Siletz Agency. Biddle and myself parted this morning apparently friendly. Spencer had much to do with him in bringing about the arrangement to turn over without a suspension.
Wm. H. R.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Ft. Hoskins Orgn.
    Oct. 13th 1862.
Sir
    In reply to the inquiries contained in your communication of today, I have the following answers to make.
    Agent Biddle's manner of managing business at the Siletz Agency is open to severe censure, and in my opinion, and in that of those persons who have been in any way connected with the Indians out here, since Mr. Biddle has been agent, his remaining any longer as agent will lead the Indians in their dislike to him either to abandon the reserve and return in small parties to Rogue River to inaugurate another war, or to rise and commit depredations in this part of the state. By Mr. Biddle's representation, I was induced to sign blank abstracts of stores issued to the sick Indians during the first quarter of this year, and am quite surprised to find that the quantities of most of the articles carried as issued are nearly treble the quantities carried on the memorandum I had given him for guidance, and after he promised to issue the beef to the sick during my absence from the agency, I now find that no cattle has been slaughtered during the first quarter of this year, making the entry of this article on his abstracts entirely false and fraudulent. The farmers having resided on this agency since it has been established, and having immediate control over the Indians, positively refuse to remain if Mr. Biddle is retained as agent. Therefore I think that you are entirely justified, for the good of the government and the Indians, to remove Mr. Biddle by any means in your power from the Siletz Agency before any serious accident happens.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        H. Carpenter
            Medical Officer
W. H. Rector Esqr.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Orgn.
   

    We fully concur with Dr. Carpenter, from our knowledge of the complaints made by the Indians, in thinking that the immediate removal of Mr. Biddle from the Siletz Agency is necessary to the prevention of [omission] the Indian tribes under his charge.
F. Seidenstricker
    Capt. 1st Rgt. W.T. Infantry
Louis Herzer
    2nd Lt. 1st Rgt. W. T. Infantry
        Commanding Siletz B.H.
H. E. Funk
    1st Lt. 1st Reg. W.T. Infy.
        A.A.Q.M. & A.A.C.S., U.S.A.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 541-542.  Enclosure to letter of Oct. 15th, below.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Oct. 15th 1862
Sir,
    In the discharge of what I considered my duty I transmitted for your consideration a communication under date of June 7th of the current year giving you a detailed account of the mismanagement of affairs at Siletz Agency, also of the official acts and conduct of Benj. R. Biddle, agent in charge. In view of the startling disclosures made to me during my visit to that agency, I preferred charges against him at once. A copy of these charges accompanied with sworn testimony substantiating the same, also Agent Biddle's letter declining to answer the charges, were transmitted with the communication of the above date. I presented these facts for your consideration from no malicious or selfish motive whatever. I was prompted solely with a desire to discharge what I conceived to be my duty, and to correct abuses which I was thoroughly satisfied existed. These motives and no other induced me to present the matter for your decision. In the communication above referred to, I state that until instructions could be received from you I would make all necessary purchases for this agency myself instead of transferring the funds to him for that purpose; this developed the fact that a large amount of the outstanding liabilities are in his own hands and owned by himself, having been signed by other parties not now to be found in the country, and I am unable to find that the articles for which the vouchers were given were ever on the reservation, or in any way used for the service. There are three men on the reservation in the capacity of farmers that have been in the service since the Indians were first brought onto the reservation. These men as well as all others have been instructed by me not to sign any abstracts or papers hereafter in blanks. Their refusal to sign blank abstracts of issue has caused Agent Biddle to threaten them with dismissal. Their leaving would only be the means of making the Indians leave at the same time, as they have the confidence and control of the Indians, while the agent is very unpopular and even despised by them. The knowledge of this came to the officers in command of Fort Hoskins, and they communicated the facts to me. Their views are contained in the communication of Dr. Carpenter, medical officer at Fort Hoskins, herewith enclosed [transcribed above, dated Oct. 13th].
    These officers have been in direct communication with Agent Biddle [and] are intimately acquainted with his whole manner of doing business. Capt. Seidenstricker, commander of the post of Fort Hoskins, insists that unless some action is taken, the Indians will all abandon the reservation.
    In view of the bold and daring speculations and frauds which have been practiced by Agent Biddle, together with the general dissatisfaction of the Indians; under his charge; their unwillingness to remain any longer; the corruption and dishonesty which has been exhibited; his refusal to cooperate with [omission] in any matter or measure calculated to promote the public good, or advance the welfare of the Indians, I was induced to tender to Mr. Biddle the alternative of either tendering his resignation or being suspended, and such testimony as was at my command to be transmitted to your Department.
    He has promised me that he would resign. In view of this promise, I defer sending any further testimony at this time. I have instructed Agent James B. Condon of Grand Ronde Agency, on the same reservation, to proceed to Siletz Agency and receive from Agent Biddle such public moneys and other public property which he may have in his hands pertaining to the Indian Department. The affairs at Grand Ronde are so regulated now that Agent Condon can relieve Mr. Biddle without much detriment to the service until instructions can be received or a new appointment made. This action was taken (in regard to placing Agent Condon in charge) with the recommendation of and approval by Hon. B. F. Harding, U.S. Senator-elect, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. E. D. Baker. Should Mr. Biddle however change his mind and refuse to turn over and forward his resignation, and insist upon a full hearing and thorough investigation, I will forward proof which will satisfy anyone that it is not a personal quarrel between Mr. Biddle and myself, but a matter deeply affecting the interests of this Department. Should Mr. Biddle tender his resignation, I would respectfully request that his successor be appointed and commissioned at once, and in any event I desire instructions in the matter.
I am sir very respectfully &c.
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Ind. Affairs Oregon
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs. &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 232-233.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 536-540.  The omission above is in the original as well as the copy.



Corvallis Benton Co.
    Oregon Oct. 16th 1862
Sir
    As it appears that B. R. Biddle is removed from the office of "Indian agent on the Siletz reserve," and as I, A. D. Barnard, am one of the securities to the United States, and as I am not overburdened with this world's goods,
    I respectfully request that I may immediately [be] informed of the cause of his removal and the amount--if any--that I am involved, and further--that as it is now rumored that said agent is to move to the S.W. Islands
    If--his affairs are involved--he may be detained in the country this is only justice to his securities.
I am sir
    Respectfully
        A. D. Barnard
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 63-65.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Oct. 17th 1862
Sir
    I have to inform you that the protection of Siletz and Alsea agencies on the Coast Reservation in this Superintendency demands the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua by a military force.
    Herewith I transmit a copy of a letter recently received at this office from the agent in charge of the Siletz Indian Agency.
    The special agent at Alsea writes that:
    "The Siletz Indians have succeeded in making the Coos Indians discontented.
    "A few of the Coos Indians have already left the agency and others will go.
    "By all means use your influence to have the fort at Umpqua immediately occupied by soldiers, or the Siletz Indians will leave and take mine with them. They are going now almost daily, and when they reach their old homes they will fight rather than return to the reservation."
    The special agent at Alsea, from whose letter the foregoing extract is quoted, resides about fifty miles up the coast, north of Fort Umpqua, and has the Coos and Umpqua Indians under his charge.
    The Siletz Agency is about thirty miles to the north and east of the Alsea, and the Indians who leave the Siletz pass by the Alsea as they go down the coast to their old homes.
    Fort Umpqua is located about six miles below the southern boundary of the Coast Reservation, and I am compelled to urge upon the consideration of the commanding general of this military department the necessity of the immediate reoccupation of that post, and I hope it will not be deemed inconsistent with the interests of the service to order a company to Fort Umpqua at an early day.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        W. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                per T. McF. Patton--Clerk
Brig. Genl. George Wright
    Commanding Dept. of Pacific
        San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 237-238.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Oct. 21st 1862
Sir
    In the absence of Superintendent Rector I have to acknowledge yours of the 22nd ult. transmitting [a] circular from the Treasury Department relative to the requirements of an act entitled "An act to provide for the more prompt settlement of the accounts of disbursing officers" and stating that compliance therewith "does not preclude the necessity of sending to this (your) office as usual your regular quarterly accounts." While it has always been the earnest desire of Superintendent Rector to comply strictly and promptly with all the requirements and instructions emanating from any of the heads of the departments to which he is responsible, I regret to say that the present clerical force of this office, to which the Supt. is limited, is inadequate to perform the duties required within the ten days specified. The office is now crowded with business demanding attention, and to neglect any portion for the dispatch of other [business] would only tend to disarrange and confuse the whole. You may rest assured however that every exertion will be made in the attempt, but should the office fail in its accomplishment I sincerely trust that the failure to comply will not be attributed to any willful neglect.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 544-546.



Corvallis P.O. Oregon.
    October 23rd 1862.
Sir:
    This is to inform you that I have been relieved of my duties as Indian agent at Siletz Agency by James B. Condon, Indian agent, in pursuance of orders from Wm. H. Rector, Supt. Indian Affairs. On the 17th inst. I transferred the property &c. to Agent Condon, and am ordered peremptorily by Supt. to close up my accounts with the Department by the 15th of next month. This is purely an arbitrary act on the part of the Superintendent, and is done more to satiate private revenge than for any good official reason. Mr. Rector has not informed me officially why he has suspended me, and I am left only to conjecture the cause. I understand through Senator Nesmith that Supt. Rector has preferred charges against me to the Department--this he has denied to me often, and said the charges had not, and would not, be forwarded before he would give me due notice.
    I would respectfully request that I be furnished a copy of the charges in detail as early as possible. I think I will be able to satisfy the Department that any charges derogatory to my official integrity are false.
Very respectfully &c.
    B. R. Biddle
        U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 66-67.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Oct. 24th 1862
Sir
    I have this day transmitted to your address a small package, containing a map of Grand Ronde Agency prepared by James B. Condon, agent in chge., also the photographs of "Old John," chief of the Rogue River Indians, and his son "Adam," of whom mention was made in Superintendent Rector's annual report. This was taken immediately after their release from prison in California, in May last, and inasmuch as they are Indians of notoriety in this state and will occupy a prominent page in its history, I forward them to your Department with the compliments of this office.
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T. McF. Patton
                Clerk to Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. Chs. E. Mix
    Acting Commr.
        Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 245.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 547-548.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Oct. 24th 1862
Sir
    Referring to your letter of July 7th transmitting [the] circular from the Hon. Secretary of the Interior with the act [of] June 2nd appended "An act to prevent and punish frauds on the part of officers entrusted with making contracts for the government," I have the honor to transmit herewith certain contracts made and entered into between Superintendent Rector on behalf of the United States and the following merchants of Portland, viz: J. Kohn & Co.; H. W. Corbett; Failings & Hatt; W. B. Mead & Co.; Savier & Co.; Knapp, Burrell & Co.; E. J. Northrup & Co.; Bunnell Brothers; H. W. Eddy & Co. and Henry Law for merchandise for the use of the Rogue Rivers, Shasta Scotans and Umpquas and such other Indian tribes as are not parties to any treaty on the Siletz and Alsea agencies. Every arrangement was made for the purchase of these annuities prior to the reception of your letter, and in view of the instructions therein contained the Supt. deemed it advisable not to advertise in the newspapers, but in lieu thereof a written notice with schedule attached was furnished each merchant in Portland who was willing to receive it (a copy of which is attached to the returns here made), soliciting proposals to furnish the goods required. The notice thus given was equally as effective [as that] published in the papers, inasmuch as their attention was called directly to the wants of the Department by the notice given. These contracts refer to the articles returned on Abstract "A" of Superintendent's accounts for 3rd qr. 1862, the original of which was transmitted on the 23rd inst. The articles purchased from Henry Law were ordered from California prior to the date of yours, and a contract was made and signed the same as others. You will also observe that no contract is transmitted covering the purchase of twenty wagon tongues furnished by Mr. Clark Hay. This contract was made and duly signed and on file in this office, but the copy which was made out ready for transmission was overlooked when he subscribed to the affidavits. For this reason it is not transmitted. I regret very much that these contracts could not have been transmitted immediately after their execution, but it has been impossible to transmit them at an earlier day.
    If the Department enjoins upon the Supt. duties requiring extra labor it should certainly make some provision for assistance to enable him to comply in [a] reasonable time. The insufficiency of clerical assistance is the only apology for not [responding] sooner.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            T. McF. Patton
                Clerk to Supt.
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
[merchants' proposals and contracts not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 553-597.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Oct. 24th 1862
J. B. Condon
    Dear Sir,
        Your favor per Indian Tom has been recd. I can assure [you] that I am glad to hear from you, and especially such favorable reports as to your success.
    Supt. Rector is now absent at Lapwai, Nez Perce country, and may remain some two months longer, don't know. Our money is at [illegible] even the full amount of $4600 [illegible] Umpquas & Calapooias. We are all right [illegible] soon as Rector returns.
    Some considerable dissatisfaction exists in regard to discharging Wells the Dr. I know that you will induce those Indians to gather every potato and house them all. It was Mr. Rector's intention to employ a man (in fact he has spoken to one) to go there as carpenter
[illegible] mill in operation, say one or two months. Two carpenters will not be allowed long if the carts cannot get done before the potatoes are gathered. They will not be required, all at least, until spring or next fall. I send you enclosed invoices and receipts for the dry goods sent. You will notice that the wheat and sacks are not on either. I did not know the exact amount. These articles can be put on the papers afterwards. I send you these so that you can see what was sent.
    Orders have come from Washington for all officers (high & low) to render accounts monthly as well as quarterly. O Lord deliver us.
    Your acct. for 3rd qr. / 61 has passed the Treasury Department, and you are
[illegible] 28¢. Bully for you!
    I hope you will put the agency in
order for some new man.
    Give my best regards to Hill, Megginson, Jefferson, Briggs and tell them that things will all turn out right perhaps.
    I have not heard from Earhart. Should you stay long at Siletz, someone will have to
issue your goods at Grand Ronde.
    Make a full report.
I would keep one for reference & send to Commissioner at the Dalles.
Yours
    T. McF. Patton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  Letter badly stained and mouse-eaten.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Oct. 27th 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit for your consideration the explanations of John F. Miller Esq., late Indian agent at Grand Ronde Agency, to the objections had by your office to his quarterly accounts for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th quarters 1850 & 1st & 3rd qrs. 1861. These explanations are transmitted with the request from Gen. Miller that you give them your earliest attention.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 598-599.



Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco Oct. 28th 1862
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 17th inst, with copy of a letter addressed to you by the agent in charge of the "Siletz Indian Agency."
    I have given the order for the reoccupation of Fort Umpqua, and a company of U.S. troops will reach that station within a few days.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. Wright
            Brig. Genl. U.S. Army
                Commdg.
Hon. W. H. Rector
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        For Oregon
            Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 257.



Camp Baker Oregon
    Oct. 30th 1862
Sir
    On the 3rd of September last I was ordered by Major Drew to proceed with a detachment of forty men of my company to "Little Butte Creek," Jackson County, with instructions to establish my camp there, to send out scouting parties to Rancheria Prairie and around that neighborhood, and to take up and bring into this camp all Indians found in the neighborhood.
    On the 26th inst. Major Drew ordered that La Lake and other Indians be allowed to hunt in and to the eastward of Rancheria Prairie until the 7th proximo. The Major having gone to Yreka for a few days, leaving me in command here, I sent for La Lake to inform him of what my orders were, and to direct him to govern himself accordingly, also to make arrangements with him to hunt up some horses belonging to my company that are lost or stolen. I find that he is very much displeased at being deprived [of] the privilege of coming into the settlements as he has been accustomed to do, says that he has been slandered by fools, and wants to know why his people are suspected and kept out, while the "Modocs," whom the whites know to be thieves, are allowed to come into Jacksonville on the public road. He wants to know whether himself and people are to be kept out of the settlements this winter or not, and says if he is that he will have to go to the Dalles or some other place, and that he would like to know before the bad weather sets in.
    He has said, though I was not aware of it at the time, nor until he left here, "that if the Bostons insisted on his being roguish, or dangerous, and treated him so, that they might find out next summer whether he could be or not," or words to that effect.
    From what I can hear there seems to be now trouble apprehended by the settlers from these Indians, unless they may be provoked to it by shutting them out from the settlements, and curtailing former privilege which they have been accustomed to in coming in to trade &c., or by treating them different to other tribes which they consider more deserving to be looked on with suspicion.
    La Lake was very angry when he left, and I will not be surprised to hear of trouble if he is kept out this winter.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st Cav.
                Oregon Volunteers
To
    Mr. Rogers
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 261.



Office Salem Nov 4th 1862
J. B. Condon
    Dear Sir
        I send you 74 pairs blankets, two full bales (25 prs.) & one loose (used during fair). These I send you from the office, as Mr. Pratt has no blankets for you & won't have for a month or two. There has been bad management by somebody in this, sure. Mr. Pratt says he never recd. any word from you since he filed his proposal. Mr. Rector told him that you would no doubt get your blankets & cloth from him, but you never filed your bill.
    I have done the best I could. I send you what hard times he has on hands. You did not state in yours per Mr. Earhart what you wanted or how many yards. I send what I can get & leave the matter for you to decide on. He has other goods, but at different prices, flannels.
    I expect to go to Portland as soon as Rector returns (or he is to return), and what you are deficient in you had better file your bill at once so that they can be had. In regard to the sash, they have acted in perfect consistency with their well-established character. They assured me that on Monday (yesterday) they would have plenty [of] the kind desired, but they naturally made a big mistake. I have now ordered it on Wednesday week. They have plenty of other kinds; 8x10 is rather [an] ancient style--and out of date.
    I have been very much annoyed at this arrangement, as it is decidedly a fizzle--but it can't be helped.
Rector is still absent, and I am hurried to death--monthly accounts plays a man out effectually--but we have got to come to time or sell out to someone that can.
    I won't sell, by thunder, until I weaken.
    I hope to see you soon.
Yours
    Patton
I have made other arrangements for your windows; you can get them on Thursday next, the 6th inst.
Patton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



General Land Office
    November 5, 1862
Sir,
    I request that this office may be informed whether the "Table Rock Reserve" for the Rogue River Indians under treaty of Sept. 10, 1853, being no longer required for Indian purposes, may now be treated as public lands of the United States.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. M. Edmunds
            Commissioner
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 182-183.




Jacksonville Ogn. Nov. 5th 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of [blank] ult. directing that all of "John Chamberlin's" "able-bodied Indians" should return at once to the reservation &c.
    On the occasion of receiving your letter I was myself suffering from a rather severe attack of rheumatism, which occasions the delay of this answer. I however caused the contents of your letter to be well known to "John" as soon as practicable, and the following result I have to communicate.
    1st. It will be recollected that "John" brought with him but eight men from the reservation last spring. Of these, "Cain," "Beb" and "George" are sick. "Sam Patch," "John" and "Old Reuben" have already gone to the reservation, leaving "Bill" and "Walker" only here with John who are "able bodied" and fit for duty. John asks, and I think with some degree of propriety, that these two be allowed to remain with him to assist in taking care of and furnishing supplies for those not able to go. He fears if these go that he will be unable to go through the winter without assistance, while he thinks if they remain and ordinary luck attends them he can manage for the winter without assistance from government. I really do not think John is seeking a pretext to remain here. I firmly believe that he heartily wishes himself back with all his people on the reservation. He says, "There seems to be sickness and trouble in store for his people wherever they go." They thought to come to their old homes and regain health, but instead some of them have died here, and the whole are less healthy than when on the reservation. I am fully convinced that they will try to get to the reservation as early as possible in the spring with very little desire to try traveling again for health.
    Yours of Oct. 28th in relation to my accounts is received, also circulars and instructions from Dept. of In. Service. I but yesterday received the money on the draft that I receipted to you for in June. You are no doubt aware that government drafts were at that time and are yet at a heavy discount. I could have sold the draft cash in hand at six percent at one time, but I awaited advices from your office in regard to the discount until I lost even that chance. I finally by chance did sell the draft at the face by waiting three months for the pay. This now will enable me to pay my bills and transmit my accounts without further delay.
    I desire now to ask for information whether or not I could or should have sent my accounts at the end of each quarter, unpaid. I could give the account of expenses of this agency, but I had supposed that all accounts to be in proper form must be accompanied by receipted vouchers. Hence I could see no method of complying strictly with the regulations for quarterly accounts without money wherewith to pay and obtain such vouchers.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                U.S. Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 258.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Nov. 6th 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit an abstract of all outstanding claims against the Indian Department of Oregon and Washington Territory filed in this office and transmitted to your department for examination and allowance. I have been induced to prepare and transmit this abstract from the fact that a very large proportion of the claims filed and forwarded have never been heard from since their transmission, and as the claimants are anxious that your attention should be called to their claims, I have adopted this plan and hope by so doing to enable your department to refer to the date here given & see that the claims have been received. I am fully aware of the great labor attending a thorough investigation of these claims and can assure you that the office has suffered severely on account thereof. The claimants do not seem to realize the fact that it requires months sometimes even for direct correspondence & that more time is required to make the necessary examination of these accounts than ordinary business. It will be observed that claims Nos. 12 & 13, Geo. W. Collins $96 and James T. Cooper for $343, have been allowed and paid under instructions from your department dated March 28th 1862.
    Recent advices from your office dated Oct. 1st inform the Supt. that claims numbered 207 & 208 in favor of Oregon Steam Navigation Co. have been allowed and would be paid to John R. Foster & Co. I would respectfully request that you advise the office of your action on each claim, so as to enable this office to note on the records the deposition made by your department of every claim transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 606-608.



    Articles of agreement between Amos E. Rogers, U.S. sub-Indian agent, on the part of the government, and "La Lake," "George" and "Long John" on the part of their Indians, about forty in number, being a part of the Klamath Lake tribe.
    It is hereby mutually understood and agreed, by and between the contracting parties, that the Indians are to be allowed the privilege of establishing their encampments for the coming winter at "Rancheria Prairie" or "Bull's Prairie," distant from the town of Jacksonville about thirty-five miles, and that they be allowed to come to the town of Jacksonville for purposes of trade. It is further understood that due care had shall be exercised that citizens of the valley or town shall be subjected to no annoyance by reason of these privileges, that no more than five come to the town at any one time for purposes of such trade, and that in all cases when the Indians enter the settlements they come unarmed.
    It witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands this the 10th day of Nov. 1862, at Jacksonville, Jackson Co., Oregon.
            his
Indian  X  La Lake
          mark
 
            his
Indian  X  George
          mark
 
            his
Indian  X  Long John
          mark
 
Amos E. Rogers
    U.S. Sub-Indian Agent
 
In presence
    of
        Wm. Burke
        Geo. M. Harris
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 261.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Nov. 11th 1862
Sir
    Referring to your circular letter of June 1st 1861, also to office letters dated Dec. 4th 1860 and 27th Feby. & 17th of June 1861, and being desirous of aiding your department in adopting such measures as are calculated to promote economy and render the service more efficient and practical in its operations, I would most respectfully submit for your consideration the suggestions herein contained. It is a fact well known to your department, as well as the country at large, that the citizens of this state have suffered severely in times past from the effects of Indian wars, and that the federal treasury has thrice been approached successfully for indemnification, as well as the expenses incident thereto. It is a fact, equally as well known, that Congress has repeatedly made liberal appropriations with the view of preventing the repetition of any similar disasters, as well as to enable the Department to carry out successfully the wise and humane policy of the government.
    To assert that these liberal appropriations have been faithfully and honestly applied to the purpose for which they were made would be a mere naked assertion without the truth to substantiate it. It is unnecessary for me at this time to present any arguments or evidence to satisfy your department that frauds, peculations and even direct robbery have been the distinguishing characteristics of Indian agents in Oregon. The records of the accounting officers of the Treasury Department will fully bear me out in making this assertion. To such an alarming extent has this been carried on that the citizens of the state have obtained a character which is by no means enviable. It was generally conceded by all good citizens that a change of administration would produce a reformation, and that new measures would be adopted in the management of Indian affairs at least. That the policy already inaugurated would be honestly and thoroughly tested upon principles of strict justice. I accepted the position tendered me by the government with an honest intention and full determination of purpose to use every exertion on my part to retrieve the reputation of the Indian Department in this state, and in the discharge of my duties adopt such measures as would tend to promote the interest and welfare of the Indians instead of the pecuniary interest of the agents and their subordinates, relying implicitly upon your department to sustain me in every effort made in good faith for the accomplishment of this much-desired object.
    I am well aware that [there] are many serious drawbacks attending this reformation, and a great reluctance is manifested on the part of some to yield to honest convictions of right and wrong, to relinquish their hungering and thirsting after the gains accruing from unfaithful and dishonest acts towards the government which they represent. There is an opinion entertained by some, I am sorry to say, and even pains taken to promulgate it that the Indian Department was created, designed and intended for political purposes alone--that the munificent appropriations which have been made by the government for the well being of the Indians were intended to be disbursed under the direction of some reckless politician who would unscrupulously pander to the pecuniary and political interest of those sustaining him in power, bearing the obligations which government has honestly contracted with the Indian tribes as secondary consideration.
    The unsettled accounts of agents now pending, and have been for years, amounting in the aggregate to many thousands of dollars, would create a reasonable presumption that this principle has been adopted and acted upon in times past. I cannot reconcile myself to any such belief, nor am I willing to yield to any arguments to convince me that such was ever the design and intention of government in the disbursement of the Indian fund. Every precaution has been made by Congressional enactment to guard and protect the Treasury, and the most stringent regulations have been prescribed by the Department, with a view to detect any frauds or peculations on the part of disbursing officers, yet notwithstanding all these precautions there is a disposition manifested by some to place their own construction upon these laws, regulations and official oaths, such construction as will admit of their appropriating a large proportion of the funds passing through their hands, and yet see no material wrong in the act. The experience derived from careful observations during the past sixteen months have satisfied me thoroughly that the policy of the government in appointing agents with authority almost equal to that of superintendents--accountable for their acts alone to the appointing power--requires radical changes in order to make it effective. It is evident from past experience that many seek positions of trust under the government from selfish and mercenary motives and not unfrequently for some real or imaginary services rendered are successful in their efforts.
    They enter upon their duties with commendable zeal but soon lose sight of the true object of their appointment and devote their time, energy and means at their control for their own personal aggrandizement. The agents and sub-agents are under bonds it is true, but in mere nominal sums, not one fourth of what is required from superintendents, and yet they are interested with the actual disbursement of the funds, and the Superintendent has but very little control over them. The fact that heavier bonds are required from Superintendents implies that they are superior officers, yet the powers vested in the Supt. under the act "providing for the organization of the Department of Indian Affairs," approved June 30th 1834 are not ample enough to ensure protection. He is authorized "to exercise a general supervision and control over the official conduct and accounts of all officers and persons employed by the government in the Indian Department," and may suspend such officers &c. for reasons forthwith to be communicated to the War Department.
    The remoteness of this Superintendency from the federal capital, the delays attending the submission of matters of this character, as well as the great detriment to the service during the pendency of the question, would naturally forbid the idea of any practical good resulting from such a course. The agents should be subservient to the Supt. and should be held responsible to him direct. And in case of any neglect of duty, or refusal to discharge his duty faithfully and honestly, the Superintendent should have power to remove him at once and report his action in the case to your office for approval or disapproval.
    Should the matter upon investigation by your office prove to have been prompted through any malicious motives or was not well sustained, discharge the Supt. forthwith and restore the agent to his position. The utmost confidence should exist between the Supt. and your department, and all acts which he performs in the discharge of his official duties which meet your approbation should have a direct approval. As an illustration of the evils resulting from the delays in submitting matters of suspension to your department, allow me to cite you to the case of Dr. Lansdale during the official time of Supt. Geary, also to the case of B. R. Biddle during my own term. Each of these were aggravated cases.
    The case of Mr. Biddle was one of bold fraud and corruption, which came under my own observation, which far exceeded in magnitude anything heretofore practiced--acts which the agent openly acknowledged and even justified himself in, on the ground that he had "precedent for it." All the facts in his case were promptly submitted to your department accompanied with sworn affidavits months ago, and even to this day no decision has been obtained, and the matter is still pending. I have however casually learned from Washington City correspondents that this matter is regarded by your department as a "mere personal quarrel between Mr. Biddle and myself," and that it would no doubt result in the removal of one or both of us from office.
    I am unwilling to believe that you have expressed any such opinion, having my official report accompanied by affidavits and the accounts of the agent before you. Yet it was mortifying to me that any such inference should be drawn by anyone, when the reverse was true. Instead of there being a personal quarrel existing, it was afflicting to me to be compelled in the discharge of my duty to expose the conduct of a man that I never had occasion before even to dislike. I submitted the result of my investigation, accompanied with proof, promptly, supposing that your department would give my official statements, and accompanying papers, sufficient credit at least to warrant an immediate investigation. I considered my duty in this case plain--either to report the facts as I found them or become a particeps criminis by concealing the fraud. I have referred to this case more particularly to show that wrongs may be perpetrated with a full knowledge of the Superintendent, and he is not invested with authority to correct. He has no power to enforce his authority. He may advise and direct, and yet it is optionary with the subordinate officer whether he obeys the instructions, notwithstanding his official oath. In the absence of any special instructions from your office defining my duties, I have acted in all cases in such manner as I thought would meet with your approbation.
    I would therefore, in view of the facts herein set forth--the many wrongs which have been inflicted--the inefficiency of the service under the present construction of the law, respectfully request a full consideration of this communication, and that some plan be devised which will enable the Superintendent to correct any errors or abuses which may come to his knowledge. I would be very much gratified to have official instructions from you in regard to my duties, and your opinion as to the authority of the Superintendent in such cases as have been cited.
    Hoping that this will receive your consideration, and an early reply returned,
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 616-625.



Office Grand Ronde Agency
    Nov. 12th 1862
Sir
    Mr. Moses Eads, a citizen residing in the vicinity of the Fort [Hoskins], has made a complaint to this office that a party of Indians camped near his farm have rendered themselves obnoxious to himself & neighbors by stealing &c. and that upon remonstrating with them this morning was assaulted by one of their number. Mr. Condon being absent, I refer the whole matter to you. I would recommend, however, that the whole party be arrested and detained in custody until Mr. Condon's return, when the matter can be investigated.
Very respectfully
    R. Barnhart
Lt. Jas. Garden
    Comdg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington D.C.
    November 13th 1862.
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir:
                We, the undersigned, for a long period resident upon the Pacific Coast and brought in contact more or less with the affairs pertaining to the Indian Department in Oregon and Washington, desire to call your attention to the fact that the Indian agents there stationed not being promptly provided with funds with which to meet current expenses for services rendered and purchases made for the Department, have been compelled to issue certified vouchers to parties rendering service or furnishing articles. All the vouchers herein referred to have appended the signature of the official agents who certify to their correctness, and the signature of the original parties in whose favor they were issued. From the time the party in whose name they were issued signs them, they become a circulating medium, the property of the bearer. That these vouchers being now called in by the Bureau, we claim that when duly audited and adjudicated that the warrants from the Treasury Department should be drawn in favor of the parties in interest presenting the vouchers, and not to the parties in whose favor they were originally issued, these parties having lost their interest by sale or transfer, their signature being the only endorsement required by law.
    That these vouchers between the time of their being issued and the time of their being presented to the Indian Department for payment have passed through several hands, and if the warrants were drawn to the original party who having disposed of his interest, it would subject the real party in interest to great injustice and in necessitating him to ferret out the original parties named, subject him to great inconvenience in all cases and to actual loss in many. Since the original parties, if not dead, would be difficult to find in so large an extent of country as Oregon and Washington. As you are aware, many of the men serving in the Indian Department as laborers are poor, who, at the end of a quarter, recd. their pay. If the agent has no funds, he is compelled to give them something in lieu thereof, which is a certificate of indebtedness, but this is valueless to them unless they are enabled to dispose of it. This they do to a second party, and it would truly seem to work great injustice to these parties if not allowed to collect and receive in their own name the value of the voucher. Looking, therefore, to the injustice that would be done to the many parties who have taken these vouchers in good faith as negotiable papers, the credit of the government being pledged through the signature of its agent, we would appeal to you to take the matter in earnest consideration in order that no further injustice be done the people of that region, whose services and property, in all times past, have been at the service of the government whenever needed.
    And we would ask that whatsoever new regulations the Department may find it necessary to establish for the future guidance and government of its agents in that quarter, that these should not apply to what has taken place in the past, but only [be] applicable to a new condition of things in the future, after all the vouchers that are now out shall be called in by the Department.
We have the honor to be
    With respect
        Your obt. servts.
            John Mullan
                Capt. U.S. Army
            A. P. Dennison
                Late Indian Agent
Please send reply to
    215 F Street, between
        14th & 15th
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 189-192.



Corvallis P.O. Oregon--
    Nov. 14th 1862.
Sir:
    I herewith transmit answers & explanations to charges preferred against me by Wm. H. Rector Esqr., Supt. of Indian Affairs, for "malfeasance in office."
    I believe these are the charges against me--if there are others, I am not aware of the fact. I trust the answers and explanations will be satisfactory to the Department--and that I may soon again be ordered upon active duty.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your most obt. servt.
            B. R. Biddle
                U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
   

--Copy--
Agent B. R. Biddle stands charged with malfeasance in office as follows.
First   By contracting with one Frank Cooper for the necessary transportation at Siletz Agency at certain stipulated prices therefor with a complete and full understanding that he (the said Biddle) should receive one half of the proceeds arising therefrom
Second With using Indian Department mules in the transportation of Indian goods, and charging the government the customary price of transportation with an intent to defraud the government
Third With using false representations to Frank Cooper in order to attain his signature to blank vouchers for his services or wages as packer, without paying said Cooper any portion of the amount due him
Fourth With making false representations to Alfred Flickinger in order to induce him to sign or witness the mark of Dick Johnson to a voucher for his salary as interpreter during the 4th Qr. 1861
Fifth With selling to one Linton Starr, Alfred Flickinger, Mr. Allan, J. L. Barnard and others at Siletz Agency flour, bacon, sugar, coffee, cloth, boots & calico, the same being the property of the United States
Sixth With contracting with one Frank Cooper for the transportation of all supplies required for his own and employees' use, without charge, and afterward charging the employees with the cost of transportation
Seventh   With making false and fraudulent returns in his quarterly accounts for the 4th Qr. 1861 in this, to wit:
First. Reporting to this office in his Abstract of Liabilities that the sum of $1,023.27 was due Frank Cooper for transportation with a full knowledge that such was true, with a view and intent to defraud the government
Second. Reporting to Supt. office in his Property Return 4th Qr. 1861 certain articles to have been purchased from J. B. Congle for the use of the Indian Department with a full knowledge that such was untrue
Third. With purchasing for his private use certain articles and charging the value thereof to the government under different heads of property
Fourth. Reporting in his abstract of issues to Indians having issued 595 lbs. bacon, the same being false
Eighth [sic]. With gross carelessness in neglecting to secure the potato crop of last season, allowing them to remain in the ground during the entire winter, to the great detriment of the Indians under his charge
Ninth [sic]. With gross carelessness in allowing the fruit trees shipped on sloop Fanny to remain at Yaquina Depot during the entire winter in the original packages in which they were shipped without trenching the same [i.e., temporarily planting them in a trench until they can be permanently planted in an orchard] or using proper care to preserve and save the same
[Wm. H. Rector]
    Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Portland April 19 1862
I hereby certify the foregoing to be a correct and true copy of the charges now on file in this office against Benj. R. Biddle.
Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon
   
Answers & explanations to charges preferred against Benj. R. Biddle, U.S. Indian agent, for malfeasance in office by Wm. H. Rector, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon--viz:
1st charge   "By contracting with one Frank Cooper for the necessary transportation at Siletz Agency at certain stipulated prices therefor with a complete and full understanding that he, Biddle, should receive one half of the proceeds arising therefrom"
Answer "Agent Biddle" in answer to the above charge says that the same is not true in fact--that he never made any contract with "one Frank Cooper" for transportation at any stipulated price whatever, except for monthly wages on private account--and that said Frank Cooper was not to receive any portion whatever of the proceeds arising therefrom, and no other sum except monthly wages referred to. For proof of answer to this charge see 1st part in Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit hereunto annexed.
Explanation   Agent Biddle begs leave to explain as followed the reasons why he purchased a pack train and employed a man to pack on private account--viz: (He quotes in part from his Annual Report.) "When he took charge of the Siletz Agency, the government was without credit, and the absence of ready means to make such purchases of articles required for immediate use was a source of great embarrassment." In consequence of this state of affairs, "Agent Biddle" had to use his own private means, or give his individual obligations, for such purchases as were made at Corvallis and vicinity; and the Department having no pack animals and no other means of transportation from the settlements; and on account of the great demand for pack trains in the northern mines, no contracts for packing to the agency could be made except at exorbitant rates. Necessity and a desire to economize compelled him to purchase mules and horses on his private account, which were used to pack supplies for self and employees, as well as Department goods, both from Corvallis & Yaquina Bay. The rates of charges made by Agent Biddle for what was packed for the Indian Department was not greater than had previously been allowed by Agent Newcomb for similar services. For the reasons above stated the pack train was purchased, and the "man, Frank Cooper," was employed by the month on private account to superintend the packing. "Agent Biddle" was then and is now aware that these proceedings was "irregular," but under the circumstances he could do no better. The services were actually performed with "Agent Biddle's" private property--the charges made therefor were reasonable, and though "irregular," the govt. is not thereby defrauded, and no person is wronged.
2nd charge "With using Indian Department mules in the transportation of Indian goods, and charging the government with the customary price of transportation with an intent to defraud the government"
Answer In answer "Agent Biddle" says the above charge is false in every particular. The Indian Department did not own a single mule at the Siletz Agency at the time referred to--and not until about the 22nd of December 1861, and which time all the packing for the quarter was finished. By reference to the Statement of Liabilities for Current Expenses for 4th Qr. 1861, it will be seen that the packing was completed before the 22nd or by the 22nd of Dec. 1861. Again, by reference to the Abstract of Purchases for 4th Qr. 1861, it will be seen that two mules were purchased for the Department on the 23rd day of Dec. 1861; this was after the packing was completed, and these were and are the only mules ever owned by the Department at Siletz Agency while in charge of Agent Biddle. For further proof, see Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit, 2nd part. The charge is therefore base as well as false--and was made maliciously. "Agent Biddle" further says in answer that instead of the government's being defrauded by him, it has been greatly benefited by him in many respects. Among other things, since the 23rd day of Dec. 1861, he has used his own animals to pack several thousand pounds of merchandise from Corvallis to Siletz Agency for [the] Department, and has made no charge therefor. By reference to Abstract of Purchases for 1st Quarter 1862, it will be observed that annuities were purchased for Chetco Indians & presents for chiefs, and during the 2nd Quarter 1862 a large lot of medicines were purchased, and all were transported to this agency free of charge. Does this look like defrauding the government? If this is fraud, then the term honesty has no meaning, and good intentions and honesty of purpose are a mockery.
3rd charge "With using false representations to Frank Cooper in order to attain his signature to blank vouchers for his services or wages as packer, without paying said Cooper any portion of the amount due him"
Answer "Agent Biddle," in answer to the above charge says it is not true. He never used any false representations to Frank Cooper for any purpose whatever. Frank Cooper was by Agent Biddle's order paid in full for his services for packing, and said Cooper signed the vouchers after they were filled up, knowingly and understandingly, and further, said Cooper signed a separate receipt in full for all his services. In further & confirmatory proof, see Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit 3rd part, also C. P. Blair's affidavit hereunto annexed. Cooper acknowledges to Blair that he has been paid in full for packing by Agent Biddle &c. &c.
Item.     The foregoing charges & perhaps a portion of the following charges were founded upon the affidavit of Frank Cooper and one Doctor Swiggett--so Agent Biddle presumes.
    Touching the veracity of said Cooper, Agent Biddle says that Frank Cooper has the reputation of being a common liar and is not believed under oath when he is an interested party. In proof of this statement see the affidavits of J. L. Lilly, S. N. Lilly and James Miller, hereunto annexed--all worthy and truthful citizens and neighbors of Cooper. Fifty other affidavits could be produced to the same effect--but the foregoing is deemed sufficient to establish the unenviable character of the man upon whose affidavits Supt. Rector presumes to bring charges against Agent Biddle.
    Touching the character and veracity of Doctor Swiggett, Agent Biddle refers the Department to Senators Nesmith & Harding.
    All the affidavits upon which Supt. Rector bases charges against Agent Biddle are from disaffected persons, and the testimony is entirely ex parte.
4th charge "With making false representations to Alfred Flickinger in order to induce him to sign or witness the mark of Dick Johnson to a voucher for his salary as interpreter during the 4th Qr. 1861"
Answer Agent Biddle for answer says the above charge is false, that he never made false representations to Flickinger nor to any other person to get him or them to witness "Dick Johnson's mark," nor any person's mark. Agent Biddle challenges his accuser to the proof of this charge. No such vouchers as the charge refers to are in existence--and the charge therefore is false in every particular.
5th charge "With selling to one Linton Starr, Alfred Flickinger, Mr. Allan, J. L. Barnard and others at Siletz Agency flour, bacon, sugar, coffee, cloth, boots & calico, the same being property of the United States"
Answer "Agent Biddle" for answer to the above charge says it is in the main true. He did sell provisions and other articles to employees, for reasons stated in his Annual Report--viz: "During the winter storms--when the weather was too severe and the waters too high to send for supplies to the Willamette Valley--he sold to the employees such articles of food & clothing as satisfied their actual and immediate wants out of Department goods" at cost laid down, and as soon as practicable he replaced the same. This was an "irregularity" that could not well be avoided, and under the circumstances Agent Biddle thinks he was justified. For proof and further particulars, see Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit, 4th clause. Agent Biddle further says he told every one of the employees that the provisions thus sold was the property of the United States--that he only let them have it because they could not get it elsewhere--and that he was bound to replace the same as soon as the trail was open to Willamette Valley. This was well understood by all the employees at the time. Some of the employees whom he discharged from the service for "irregular" conduct, about the time referred to, took advantage of the foregoing circumstances & gave currency to the report that Agent Biddle was selling government property for his own benefit &c.
6th charge "With contracting with one Frank Cooper for the transportation of all supplies required for his own and employees' use, without charge, and afterwards charging the employees with the cost of transportation"
Answer "Agent Biddle" says the above charge is not true--that he never made any contract with Frank Cooper or any other person free of charge for the transportation of supplies to Siletz Agency or anywhere else. "Agent Biddle" does not profess to have more benevolence than ordinary men--and he is of the opinion that very few persons can be found in the private walks of life, & more especially among those in the public service, who are so disinterested as to furnish a pack train at great expense to transport "free of charge" supplies for any person who is able to pay for same. The charge is preposterous, and not worth of a moment's consideration. For proof, see 5th clause of Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit.
7th charge "With making false and fraudulent returns in his quarterly accounts for the 4th Qr. 1861 in this, to wit:
"First. Reporting to this office in his Abstract of Liabilities that the sum of $1,023.27 was due Frank Cooper for transportation with a full knowledge that such was untrue, with a view and intent to defraud the government
"Second. Reporting to Supt. office in his Property Return 4th Qr. 1861 certain articles to have been purchased from J. B. Congle for the use of the Indian Department with a full knowledge that such was false
"Third. With purchasing for his private use certain articles and charging the value thereof to the government under different heads of property
"Fourth. [Reporting] in his abstract of issues to Indians having issued 595 lbs. bacon, the same being false"
Answer "Agent Biddle" for answer to 1st part of 7th charge says that it is not true as alleged that the "return" on abstract of liabilities of $1023.27 due "Frank Cooper" for transportation was made with a view and intent to defraud the government. Agent Biddle has elsewhere explained the reasons why he purchased a pack train and why he employed Frank Cooper to run the same on private account &c. &c. The purport and meaning of the charge is that not Frank Cooper, but some other person, is the party interested wholly in the said claim of $1023.27, and Agent Biddle is willing to admit that he is that other party, and the only one entitled to the said sum of $1023.27--but it does not follow from this that the government is thereby defrauded. It is not alleged in the charge but what the services were actually performed and at reasonable rates by Frank Cooper or some other person, but the gist of the charge is that a fraud has been committed against the government--but how or in what manner is not stated. If the services were actually performed and at reasonable rates, how can or how has the government been defrauded? So far as dollars and cents are concerned, it matters not to the government who really owned the pack train or who or in whose name the packing was done--provided the rates are reasonable, and the disbursements therefor on vouchers signed and certified to properly so as to bar any future claims for same services, and so it has been done in the case referred to. If any error was committed at all, it was in the fact of Agent Biddle's owning the train or having any interest whatever in contracts. This Agent Biddle is willing to concede--but he begs leave to plead as an excuse for so doing that the necessities of the case compelled him (though very reluctantly) to purchase a pack train and be the interested party in the transportation of merchandise to the Siletz Agency, but that any fraud against the govt. was thereby committed he says is not true.
Precedents     Admitting that the transaction was "irregular," and contrary to the regulations of the Indian Department as a general thing--Agent Biddle must further plead that he had many precedents of a similar character to warrant him in making the contract referred to. Agents Metcalfe and Newcomb both owned or had an interest in the pack trains transporting merchandise to the Siletz Agency; this is a fact known to everyone in the vicinity--and must have been known at Supt's. office.
    Again, by reference to Supt. Rector's Abstract of Disbursements for 4th Qr. 1861, on account of the "Removal of Indians from Rogue River to Grand Ronde Valley," one Martin Newcomb is purported to have been paid the sum of ______ dollars for use of pack train for said purpose at the rate of $2 per day for each mule & expenses besides--which statement of disbursement is not wholly true. It is a well-known fact that said Martin Newcomb did not receive but half of the sum called for in the voucher. Who received the other half may properly be asked? The question is easily answered; Martin Newcomb had a partner--that partner's name is Rector, and that Rector received the money. It is also a well-known fact that the original contract with Martin Newcomb was at the rate of $1.00 per day for each mule, and how the sum happened to grow to $2.00 per day for each mule is a question that Supt. Rector can best answer himself. "Agent Biddle" does not make this statement with a view of bringing it as a charge against Supt. Rector, but merely to show that he had a plain example and precedent for being interested in the transportation of merchandise to Siletz Agency, with this difference, however: Agent Biddle was the real owner of the pack train, actually performed the services, and at reasonable rates, while the contract in which Rector was interested does not possess that one virtue or excuse. He was not the owner of the train and had no property whatever in Martin Newcomb's mules.
    Biddle's interest and claim is honest and just if not regular, while that of Rector's was dishonest & unjust, "irregular," and a grand fraud on the government.
Answer to
2nd part
7th charge
    Agent Biddle says in reference to the 2nd part of 7th charge that all the articles mentioned in Abstract of Purchases for 5th Qr. 1861 has having been purchased of J. B. Congle were only in part purchased of said Congle. A portion of them was purchased of two other persons at the prices named in the vouchers, but were all put into Congle's voucher, for no other reason than to save the trouble of making out three sets of vouchers instead of one. This was done with Congle's consent. There was nothing dishonest in this, and no fraud was committed or intended. By reference to Return of Property 4th Qr. 1861, it will be seen that all the articles purported to have been purchased of Congle were returned as being on hand at the end of said 4th Qr. 1861--and were so continued on the papers from one qr. to another up to the 4th Qr. 1862, and the same articles were by Biddle transferred to James B. Condon, U.S. Indian agent, on the 16th day of Oct. 1862, as will be seen by reference to his receipts, and his Return of Property for Siletz Agency for 4th Qr. 1862.
    From these statements & explanations no unprejudiced mind can doubt the fact but what the property was actually purchased and has been and is in the public service. That the articles were purchased at reasonable rates is not doubted. It matters not to the Department if the several articles were purchased of as many different persons--provided they were actually purchased in good faith--were necessary for the service and at reasonable rates--although the several items were all included in one voucher. See Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit 6th part for proof.
Answer to
3rd part
7th charge
Agent Biddle says the 3rd part of the 7th charge is not true--that he never purchased for his private use certain articles and charging the value thereof to the government under different heads of property--and that he does not possess the ability, much less the will, to carry on such a petty system of peculation against the government. He says he never used any government property for private purposes, that he purchased with his own private means every article of subsistence & clothing used by him while at Siletz Agency and transported the same at his own expenses. See 7th part, Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit.
Answer to
4th part
7th charge
Agent Biddle says the above charge is not true. See Wm. H. Spencer's affidavit, 8th part.
8th charge "With gross carelessness in neglecting to secure the potato crop of last season, allowing them to remain in the ground during the entire winter, to the great detriment of the Indians under his charge"
Answer "Agent Biddle" says the above charge like all its predecessors are false in fact--made maliciously and when properly sifted are founded in the fertile imagination of some zealous "place seeker," or at best on the most flimsy testimony of questionable characters. Agent Biddle says that he did use all due diligence and exertion possible in securing the potato crops referred to. For proof--see Geo. W. Bethers', Wm. H. Spencer's and James Miller's affidavits hereunto annexed.
9th charge "With gross carelessness in allowing the fruit trees shipped on sloop Fanny to remain at Yaquina (Bay) Depot during the entire winter in the original packages in which they were shipped without trenching the same or using proper care to preserve and save the same"
Answer "Agent Biddle" says the above charge does not apply to him as U.S. Indian agent, nor in any other capacity, but as it is brought as a charge, he will answer the same in the capacity of "citizen" Biddle, and not "Agent Biddle." "Citizen Biddle" did not then know nor does he to this day know officially that the "fruit trees" referred to were or are the property of the United States. Biddle says he did not purchase the "fruit trees," neither did he order them purchased, nor did he know who purchased them, or why they were purchased--only from common rumor; that he never has signed any receipt officially or privately for them to anyone, nor has he been requested to do so by any person whatever--that no transfer or tender of transfer of said fruit trees has been made to him by any person whatever, either officially or otherwise, and therefore he did not then, nor does he now, hold himself responsible for the care of said fruit trees. It is true that when the sloop Fanny arrived at Yaquina Bay in Nov. 1861 there was some large cases discharged from the vessel and placed in the Depot with other packages, and upon opening the same it was found that they contained very small apple tree sprouts, which were probably intended by some person to represent young apple trees. The boxes containing said fruit trees had no marks or name on them to indicate to whom they belonged, or to what particular place they were consigned. Neither "Agent Biddle" nor "citizen Biddle" having received any written or verbal instructions in reference to the disposition of the trees, the boxes were nailed up and left in the Depot until about 1st of March 1862. Having in the meantime learned from Supt. Rector verbally that the fruit trees were intended for distribution or to be planted at the Siletz Agency, Biddle had the boxes reopened and the "fruit trees" brought over to the agency--and there being no fields ready for planting them out, the trees were properly "trenched," and in which condition the most of them still remain. Biddle further says that even if he had purchased the "fruit trees," or had receipted for them, or had received statement of transfer and instructions in reference to disposition of said "fruit trees," he could not have done more than was done in the premises, for the reason that at the time the packing of the annuity goods was finished (which was about the 20th or 22nd day of December 1861), the road was in such a bad condition and the weather so very severe--and the waters so high--that no more packing could have been done without great risk of life and loss of animals. Three horses had already been killed in packing the annuity goods, and all were more or less crippled and otherwise injured. Aside from this, about the 24th or 25th of December it commenced to snow and freeze, so that in a few days the ground was covered with snow from 15 to 18 inches deep, and finally froze solid. So under the circumstances the trees could not have been brought over--and could not have been "trenched," even if they had. Biddle is of the opinion that the trees done much better in the thick, heavy boxes than they would have fared in the frozen ground. He is sustained in this position by the opinions of farmers and others who have had experience in such matters. He further says in concluding his answer to this charge that he may have something to say officially in the future in reference to these same "fruit trees"--the kind and quality--the prices that rumor says was allowed &c., which may not be very flattering to the official integrity of some persons in the Indian Department, are not very agreeable to the parties interested in receiving pay for same.
    Agent Biddle having in the foregoing answered all the charges preferred against him that he is aware of, begs leave to state that if the answers & explanations are not sufficient to clear him of the "charge of malfeasance in office," he still holds himself ready and willing to make further answer and explanation and to meet other charges if any are preferred. He concludes this defense by saying that during his official connection with the Department, he is not conscious of having done any wrong to the government, but on the contrary has endeavored to the best of his ability to do his duty faithfully as a good, loyal citizen and an officer of the government. He may have committed errors and indiscretions--never intentionally.
    Hoping that the defense may be satisfactory, and that he may soon again be reinstated in the favor of the Department and ordered on active duty is his ardent wish,
Very respectfully
    Your most obt. servt.
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
   
   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    James H. Miller of said county & state, being duly sworn, says that he was employed by Benj. R. Biddle, Indian agent, as farmer at Siletz Agency, and that he commenced work there on the 7th day of Mach 1862 and continued in the service until the 31st day of Aug. 1862, inclusive. He says that he was employed on the agency farm and occupied one of the agency buildings near the agent's house--that he had knowledge of everything going on at the agency and on the farm--and knew the condition of the Indians generally on the agency--from his personal knowledge the affiant says he believes that Agent Biddle done his duty as agent, was constantly trying to improve the condition of the Indians--that he was constantly pushing forward improvements for the benefit of the Indians--that he was very careful of all government property on the agency--and the affiant verily believes that the Indians were satisfied and contended, and expressed themselves that he was the only agent that they ever had who seemed to care for their welfare;
    The affiant further states that he is acquainted with Wm. H. Rector, Supt. Indian Affairs, that he traveled to Salem and called upon Supt. for his wages--that in conversation with the Supt. he tried to prejudice affiant against Agent Biddle--called him bad names and generally so conducted & expressed himself that the affiant believes that the Supt. had some grudge or quarrel of a private nature with Biddle and was using his official position to have Biddle removed to satisfy private revenge.
    The affiant further says that he is acquainted with one Frank Cooper, who was employed to pack at the Siletz Agency by Agent Biddle during the 4th qr. of 1861--that he has had some business transactions with said Cooper, and from his personal knowledge of the man he verily believes that said Frank Cooper is a very dishonest man--that is is reputed among his neighbors as a common liar--and the affiant says he would not believe the said Frank Cooper under oath under any circumstances whatever.
    The affiant further says that he has been a farmer in Oregon ever since the year 1851 and has raised various crops of grain, potatoes &c., and that he never had any difficulty in digging and housing potatoes until last winter--that the rains commenced falling early in October, and continued without much intermission until about the 20th of Dec.--and then it snowed and froze--and continued very cold until the
1st of March A.D. 1862--that during the above time from commencement of rainy season until the 1st of March referred to, potatoes could not have been dug from the ground and saved from freezing. The affiant further says that all the potatoes in the country so far as he knows were frozen--with all the care that could be bestowed upon them--even those that were dug and housed before commencement of rainy season.
    The affiant further says that during his stay at the agency he examined the potato houses there, and believes that for all ordinary winters in Oregon they are sufficient for preserving the potatoes from freezing.
    The affiant further says that during his residence at the Siletz Agency, he never bought any Indian goods from Agent Biddle, neither did he know of or see him selling any to other persons.
James H. Miller.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 25th day of October A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and official seal affixed.
E. L. Perham, clk. of circuit court
for state of Oregon for Benton County
By John Burnett, dep.
   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    C. P. Blair of said county, being duly sworn, says that he is acquainted with Frank Cooper, late of said county and late in the employ of Benj. R. Biddle at the Siletz Indian Agency, and knows the conditions of contract for packing for said Biddle to the effect that said Cooper told the affiant that he (Cooper) was employed by Biddle in private account to pack from the Willamette Valley and from Yaquina Bay to Siletz Agency--that he [Cooper] commenced about the 10th of October 1861 and continued in said Biddle's service until about the 20th of Dec. 1861, and that he (Cooper) was to receive wages by the month--how much the affiant does not remember--
    The affiant further says that on the 25th day of Dec. 1861 he had a conversation with Frank Cooper, and that Cooper acknowledged that Biddle had paid him in full for his wages for packing referred to--and seemed to be well pleased with his treatment by Biddle.

C. P. Blair
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 6th day of Nov. A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and seal affixed.
E. L. Perham
Clk. circuit court

for Benton County Oregon
   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    George W. Butler of said county & state, being duly sworn, says that he entered the service of the Indian Department as superintendent of farming at Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon on the 1st day of October 1861 and continued in the service continuously until the 7th day of January 1862--that when he entered upon his duties as supt. farming nearly everything about the agency was in confusion, and it required some days to straighten things up preparatory to commencing the work of securing the potato crop--the potato houses were cleaned out--and "aired" before any of the new crop was put in--that on or about the 12th of October he ordered out all the able-bodied Indians of both sexes--both old and young at the agency to "dig" and carry the potatoes to the potato houses--that the Indians turned out accordingly and did "dig" and carry and store the potatoes in the several potato houses--and continued to do so from day to day as the state of the weather permitted--until about the 28th day of October, at which time the heavy rains commenced to fall and continued almost without any intermission until about the 20th of December--during which time it was impossible to work with the potatoes. The affiant says that up to the 28th Oct. by great exertion he with the aid of the Indians succeeded in housing about one half of the entire crop--and that neither Agent Biddle nor any other man could have done any more than was done to secure said potato crop--that there was no "carelessness" whatever on the part of Agent Biddle or any other person in reference to same--that the work was only suspended from causes beyond the control of man.
    The affiant further says that it commenced to snow and freeze about the 25th Dec. and continued very cold until about the 1st of March 1862--the affiant further says that it was the most severe and cold winter that he ever experienced on the Pacific Coast (and he has resided here since 1848) and that no prudence or foresight could have anticipated such an unusually severe winter. He further says that he worked "harder" and used more exertion to secure the potato crop referred to for the Indians than he ever worked for himself or ever would again for anybody, under any circumstances whatever.

George W. Bethers
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 4 day of November A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and official seal hereunto affixed.
Geo. Mercer
Notary public
in and for said county
   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    J. L. Lilly of the said state and county, being duly sworn, says that he is personally acquainted with Frank Cooper, late of said county--and has been acquainted with him for the last five years--and from his personal knowledge, and the general reputation of the man, he would not believe any statements which the said Frank Cooper would make under oath where the said Cooper would be an interested party.
    The affiant further says that he has some knowledge of the contract between Benj. R. Biddle, U.S. Indian agent, and said Frank Cooper in reference to packing merchandise from Willamette Valley and from Yaquina Bay to Siletz Indian Agency--to the effect that said Cooper told the affiant that he was employed by the month by Biddle on private account to pack from said Biddle, that he was to receive for his services together with two horses the sum of fifty dollars per month in all.
    The affiant further says that he is personally acquainted with Benj. R. Biddle, U.S. Indian agent, and from his personal knowledge and from the reputation of the man the affiant believes said Biddle to be an honest and truthful man.

J. L. Lilly
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 3rd day of November A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and official seal affixed.
Geo Mercer
Notary public
in and for said county
   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    S. N. Lilly of the county and state, being duly sworn, says that he is well acquainted with one Frank Cooper of said county, and late in the employ of Benj. R. Biddle at the Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon--and has been acquainted with him since the year 1859--has had business transactions with him, and from what he has seen of the man and knows of his own knowledge--the affiant believes the said Cooper to be a very dishonest man--and has the reputation in his own neighborhood of being a common liar and being generally in bad repute.
    The affiant further says that he would not believe the said Cooper under oath--under any circumstances whatever when the said Cooper was an interested party.

S. N. Lilly
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 6th day of Nov. A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and official seal affixed.
Geo. Mercer
Notary public
in and for said county

   
State of Oregon       )
County of Benton   )   ss.
    Wm. H. Spencer, a resident of said state and county, being duly sworn, says that he has been acting as commissary & clerk for Benj. R. Biddle, U.S. Indian agent, for Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon from the 1st day of October A.D. 1861 to the 16th day of October A.D. 1862--and that he has seen the charges pressed against Agent Biddle for malfeasance in office, signed by Wm. H. Rector, Superintendent Indian Affairs for Oregon--and being requested by Agent Biddle to make sworn statements touching the truthfulness or falseness of said charges--the affiant states as follows, viz:
    First.
    The affiant says the "1st" charge is not true in fact. When Agent Biddle took possession of the agency Oct. 1st [1861] there was neither subsistence on hand for the agent & employees nor for Indians in service of the Department, the government without credit, and no person could be found with train to pack. Agent Biddle found it necessary under the circumstances to purchase a pack train of mules & horses at great expense on his own account to transport supplies for self & employees--as well as for the Indian Department. Frank Cooper was employed by B. F. Biddle on private account to superintend the train at fifty (50) dollars for the 1st month & sixty-five (65) dollars for the 2nd month &c.--with a full understanding that Benj. R. Biddle receive the "entire proceeds arising therefrom," and not the "half" as alleged. The contract with Cooper was entirely on private account--and though the packing was done in his name--his wages was paid out of the private funds of Benj. R. Biddle.
    Second.
    The affiant says the "2nd" charge is false in every particular. The Indian Department did not own any mules at the Siletz Agency until the 22nd day of December A.D. 1861, after which time no packing was done for the Department for which charges were made. The transportation for which the government is charged was all done previous to the 22nd day of December A.D. 1861.
    Third.
    The affiant says the "3rd" charge is false of his own knowledge. The affiant says he made out the vouchers for transportation, and that Frank Cooper signed the same with a full knowledge that he was signing away his interest therein. The affiant further says that by order of B. R. Biddle he paid the said Cooper out of Biddle's private funds in full for his wages for packing for all the time he (said Cooper) was engaged in the service of Benj. R. Biddle, and that said Cooper did on or about the 22nd day of December 1861 (besides signing the vouchers referred to) sign a separate receipt in full of all demands or accounts against B. R. Biddle for all services up to that date.
    Fourth.
    The affiant says that the "5th" [sic] charge is true. Agent Biddle did sell to the employees at the agency Indian Department goods for reasons as follows--viz: The rainy season commenced early in October 1861, and at time the roads was impassable to the Willamette Valley on account of high waters--so that the pack train could not go out or come in--and the employees being destitute of certain articles of provisions & clothing--the affiant was ordered by Agent Biddle to supply the employees with such articles as they might be actually in want of--out of the Department goods--to charge them as near as possible the cost of said goods and to keep an exact account thereof as a guide with the view of replacing the same. The affiant done as ordered--sold the goods in small quantities as required--kept an exact account of every article--and knows of his own knowledge that every article so sold was replaced by Agent Biddle at the earliest practicable period thereafter.
    Fifth.
    The affiant says the "6 charge" [sic] is not true. No contract was ever made with "Cooper for the transportation of all (or any) supplies required for his own & employees' use without charge"--on the contrary no packing was done for anyone--except with a full understanding that the same was to be paid for at the same rates as charged to the government. The affiant further says that employees during last autumn & winter esteemed it a great favor if they could get their supplies packed by paying transportation on same. The important question was how to get their provisions packed in & not how much the transportation cost.
    Sixth.
    The affiant says in response to the "2nd clause" in the "7th charge" [sic] that he has a personal knowledge of the whole transaction. He knows of his own knowledge that Agent Biddle purchased for the Department a portion of the goods referred to of J. B. Congle--and the affiant purchased the balance from other parties, and in order to save the trouble of making out several sets of vouchers, the affiant obtained Congle's consent to put all the items and amount in his vouchers--& to which Congle consented. The articles so purchased were all for the use of the Indian Department, and purchased at the lowest market price.
    Seventh.
    The affiant says the 3rd clause of the 7th charge is not true. The affiant says he has made up the accounts of Agent Biddle every quarter since said Biddle had charge of Siletz Agency--and the affiant knows of his own knowledge that Agent Biddle never did during the period referred to "purchase for his private use certain (or any) articles and charging the value thereof to the government under different heads of property" as alleged.
    Eighth.
    The affiant further says the 4th clause in the 7th charge is not true. Agent Biddle did issue 595 lbs. bacon as stated in the Abstract of issues for 4th Quarter 1861.
    Ninth.
    The affiant further says that the statements made in the 8th charge are not true. Agent Biddle used every exertion possible to secure the potato crop, and he was not guilty of gross carelessness, as alleged in the charge. The affiant says the rainy season commenced early in October, and it rained almost continuously until about the 25th of Dec. 1861--that all the available Indian force in the agency was engaged in "digging & housing" potatoes every day that the weather would permit. The affiant further says that about the 26th of December it commenced to snow & continued so to do until about the 10th of January 1862--& from time to time until the 1st of February--that the snow after it settled was eighteen inches deep--the weather became very cold--the snow froze solid, as did the streams--and the snow did not melt off until about the 1st of March--and that during this time it was impossible to "dig" potatoes, and save them from freezing.

Wm. H. Spencer
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 14 day of November A.D. 1862
Witness my hand and official seal hereunto affixed.
Geo. Mercer
Notary public
in and for said county

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 69-93.  An original copy of the charges against Biddle can be found on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 383-386.  Refer to statements of Flickinger, Cooper and Congle, transcribed above.



Jacksonville Ogn. Nov. 16th 1862
Sir
    I herewith transmit my accounts for the quarter ending June 30th. These being the first that I have made out, I have some fears as to their correctness. I have some doubts whether or not each paper in the filing should be headed "Oregon Superintendency." I have left space for it if it is required, presuming that this deficiency may be supplied without returning the accounts again to me, if this should be found the only error.
    My accounts for the qr. ending Sept. 30th are all ready for transmission except my own voucher for salary. I will send you by tomorrow's mail receipts covering this amount in order that I may receive my salary, which will enable me at once to transmit my accounts for the 3rd qr.
    In my letter of 5 inst. I told you that I have received the money on the draft and would now make out my accounts and transmit them without further delay. Since then I have been compelled to make some arrangements with reference to that portion of the Klamath tribe of Indians who have heretofore been in the habit of coming to this town for winter quarters. I have entered into a written stipulation [above] with them, a copy of which I will transmit to you by tomorrow's mail, together with full explanation of the expediency of the measure. I hope my delay in transmitting my accounts will not occasion inconvenience. Could I have employed assistance, I would gladly have done so, but these being my first accounts, I of course had no complete forms to guide an assistant. I did attempt to put off the Indians for a few days until I had made up my acct., but the town was literally full of them, and in some manner they obtained whiskey. Citizens were loudly complaining. I finally concluded to get them away as soon as possible, believing it to be my duty, even though it delayed for a few days the transmission of my accts.
    On reflection, I will enclose copy of the stipulation, with this letter, as also copy of a letter recd. Nov. 3rd from "Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st Cav. Oregon Volunteers" [above].
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon. Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 261.



Jacksonville Ogn. Nov. 17th 1862
Sir
    Yesterday, I sent you accounts for 2nd qr., and with them I enclosed copy of a stipulation entered into on the 10th inst. with a part of the Klamath tribe of Indians, also copy of a letter recd. from Capt. Kelly concerning these Indians.
    The order of Sept. 3rd, spoken of by Capt. Kelly, was made at my solicitation. Upon that date Michael Hanley Esqr., a worthy citizen of this county, came to me with complaints that a few days previous a man who was herding stock for him (Hanley) on Little Butte Creek had been insulted and his life threatened by Indians. Precisely what Indians they were he was unable to state, but presumed them to be of Klamath Lake tribes. He also stated he had been informed that a Mr. Miller residing on Butte Creek had been frightened while hunting in "Rancheria Prairie" by demonstrations from Indians and that he hastily packed up and left for home, followed some eight miles by the Indians on his return. I immediately went with Mr. Hanley to Major Drew, who on hearing the statement of Mr. H. said if it was thought best he would send a portion of his command to that region of country to remain at least until the rains set in. He accordingly went to Camp Baker and gave the order the same evening. I determined to go out with Capt. Kelly in order to fully acquaint myself with the facts in the case and sent to the country for a horse for the trip. In the meantime, however, I learned from a reliable source that no Indians were then in that region, nor had there been for some days previous. I therefore deferred going until the 10th. The troops went over on the 6th and established camp on Little Butte Creek. When I arrived at their camp on the evening of the 10th Capt. Kelly had but just returned from Big Butte & Rancheria Prairie, where he had been with a detachment of men to satisfy himself whether or not there were any Indians on this side of the mountain. He now went to the summit of the mountains between this valley and the lakes, but found no Indians, nor any traces of their having very recently been there. The summer road to Klamath Lakes is through this region. Some of the Indians had been in town and returned about two weeks previous. There had probably been none there since. Capt. Kelly's orders were to arrest and bring into camp all Indians that came within reach. I asked him if any measures had been taken to let the Indians know of this order. None that he was aware of. I conversed with settlers in the vicinity with reference to the conduct of the Indians as they passed to & from the lakes. The general feeling seemed to be that they were annoying. "Sometimes they left fences down as they passed through fields &c."; yet I could discover no feeling of alarm, nor any fear of the Indians beyond these put by annoyances. Miller I did not see. He was not at home, but I learned from some of his neighbors that he had frequently had little difficulties with the Indians about going through his fields &c., yet there was very little importance attached to it by them (the neighbors).
    I expressed a desire to Capt. Kelly to go to the lakes and see the Indians for the purpose of getting some explanations in regard to these rumors, as also to acquaint them with the determination to arrest any of them that came in, until these hostile demonstrations had been satisfactorily explained. Capt. Kelly was "very willing to take the trip" and "would march at a single day's notice if the Major would give the order and furnish two pack mules for the transportation of supplies." The Major had heretofore divulged that he was "not authorized to expend the money for transportation consequent upon such a trip."
    I came home on the 12th and immediately called on Major Drew, repeated to him the substance of my conversation with Capt. Kelly and desired him to issue the order. The Major would not "trust forty men to go there." He "really believed the Indians were bent on mischief and were only making an opportunity to make demonstrations in earnest. If he sent "any it must be the whole company," but he "really saw no necessity for going there at present, and should refuse the escort." Under these circumstances I could do nothing but await future developments. No Indians, except now and then a straggler that did not seem to hail from any place, came in for more than a month. On or about the 20th Oct., "La Lake," "George" & "Long John" came to Rancheria Prairie with about forty of their tribe. A messenger at once came to Major Drew to know if they were all to be arrested. He gave an order, as he told me, that they had leave to hunt there for ten days. Some Indians came directly to town to see me, and desired to know why they were placed under these restrictions. I explained to them the word that Mr. Hanley brought, and asked him to explain. "If Mr. Hanley's herder had been troubled by Indians" they "know nothing of it." "He stopped some twelve or fifteen miles off the direct road to the lakes." The case of Miller was the result of a mistake of his own. They "were on their way to town," "had encamped on Rancheria Prairie," "saw his smoke and were going towards his camp in a friendly manner," "but he seemed to be alarmed and was making great haste to get away." They spoke to him at a distance; seeing his evident uneasiness. "This only increased his speed." I have been twice to see Miller, but neither time found him at home. I left word that he should call and see me, but have never yet seem him. I can therefore only judge by circumstance whether or not there is any plausibility in this statement of the Indians.
    About this time a roving band of Modocs, about 20 men & 40 to 50 women and children, passed through town and encamped at two or three different points in the mines. These came in on the Yreka road, and were not questioned by the military. They did not come to see me, nor did I happen to see them pass through. These came to winter in this vicinity for purposes of trade, their women being the principal stock.
    The copy of treaty or stipulation, sent you, shows the conclusion finally arrived at with the Klamath Lakes. The foregoing, together with copy of Capt. Kelly's letter, will I trust explain the necessity of making the arrangement. Major Drew will continue his camp on Butte Creek and would rather (he says now) have the Indians at Rancheria Prairie than farther off, unless entirely out of the country. This arrangement will enable him to keep an eye on them. At the final conclusion with the Klamath Lakes I sent for the Modoc chief and gave him choice to go with his people to Rancheria Prairie with the others or go entirely out of the country. He preferred the latter, saying that he was afraid of the Klamath Lakes. I then gave them all until Wednesday the 12th inst. to get away. The Klamath Lakes obeyed without trouble, and I had supposed this to have been the case until today with the Modocs, as they made great show Tuesday & Wednesday 11th & 12 inst. of getting off. Information however came to me, lately, that some of the men with twelve to fifteen women and some children of the Modocs had found their way, somehow, on to Applegate Creek, evidently seeking to evade my order. Major Drew will send a file of soldiers to direct their movements as soon as I ascertain and inform him precisely where they are.
    The Indians desired to have inserted in the stipulation the permission to have their "firearms" repaired to enable them to hunt game. Never having had any instructions upon this point I, of course, declined to make that a part of the arrangement. I will now ask whether or not I can or should permit the repairing of "firearms" for these Indians, in any event, under their present relations to the government? If so under what circumstances should the permission be granted. They have never yet applied for permission to purchase ammunition, yet this may occur at any time. I therefore desire to know my duty upon this point also.
    I failed to place in the stipulation the condition, but I made the Indians fully understand that my action in this matter needed the sanction and approval of the Superintendent to make it conclusive. I hope it will meet your approval.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon. Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 265.



Washington  December 5th 1862
Hon. William P. Dole
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            Referring to the conversation which we had with you this morning in relation to Agent W. H. Barnhart, we desire to state that he is here by reasons of a leave of absence granted by Superintendent Rector of Oregon, under whose jurisdiction he was placed. He now desires an extension of that leave, and we respectfully request that it be granted. Agent Barnhart is well known to us as an efficient, able and honest officer of your Department. His great experience with Indian affairs upon the Pacific Coast will enable him to communicate much valuable and reliable information upon the condition of Indian affairs in that remote region. We take pleasure in commending him to your favorable consideration.
Very respectfully your
    Obt. servants
        J. W. Nesmith
        B. F. Harding
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 227-229.



Washington D.C. Decr. 22nd 1862.
Hon W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                We beg leave to call your attention to the condition of the Klamath and Modoc tribes of Indians inhabiting the country around the Klamath and Goose lakes in Southern Oregon and Northern California.
    These Indians, from 3000 to 4000 in number, have for fifteen years been committing acts of hostilities towards, and depredations upon, the persons and property of migrants passing through their country to Oregon and California, but owing to the interior and remote locality of their country, no efforts have been heretofore been made to treat with and bring them under the influence of the humane policy of the government. Nor was it deemed of the first and essential importance, while the numerous and warlike Rogue River tribes remained in the immediate vicinity of the settlements of that river, as the large, extensive and fertile country of the Klamath Lake Basin was not desired by emigrants for agricultural and pastoral purposes. But since the removal of the Rogue River tribes from their country to reservations, the "Klamaths," being no longer restrained and kept in check by the more powerful "Rogue Rivers," make frequent incursions into the settlements of Rogue River Valley, committing depredations upon the property of settlers. The settlements of Rogue River Valley [sic] have extended to its eastern extreme, and within 25 miles of the largest village, and principal fishery of the "Klamaths," and the wants of the rapidly increasing population of that country demand that this country, which is represented by the most intelligent and truthful explorers, who have traveled through it in the summer of 1861 and 1862, to contain at least 30,000 15,000 to 50,000 20,000 square miles of fertile country--prairie and timber--with a mild and genial climate, be opened to the emigrants. As an additional reason for treating with these Indians, we have to state that the most direct route from California and Southern Oregon to the gold fields in Eastern Oregon and Washington Territory lies through the country now inhabited, or more properly speaking, roamed over by the "Klamaths" and "Modocs" Indians. During the last summer (1862) a great number of miners, with large trains of cattle, horses, mules and sheep, passed through this country on the way to those mines.
    Many acts of theft and a few murders are known to have been committed by these Indians, and probably wrongs were done by the travelers towards them during the past season.
    We could also add that the town of Jacksonville, containing a population of over 1000, and the principal settlements of Jackson County, are not more than 70 or 75 miles from the main village and fishery of the "Klamaths" before spoken of, which, in case of hostilities, could be much exposed to their barbarities. But no general outbreak of hostilities has, at latest account, taken place, yet judging from past experience we do not believe that such an occurrence can be long delayed unless the Indians shall be treated with and brought to an understanding with our government.
    We therefore hope you will be pleased, after a full consideration of the matter, to recommend to Congress that an appropriation be made for a treaty with these Indians, and that an agent be authorized to be appointed for them in addition to the number now authorized for the Indians in Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        B. F. Harding
        Jno. R. McBride
        William H. Barnhart
            U.S. Ind. Agent
        J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 126-129.



Washington, Dec. 24th 1862
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            In the matter of charges made by Supt. Rector and Agent Biddle of Oregon, each against the other, which have been the subject of verbal conference between us, and in regard to the disposition of which you desired some recommendation from us, we have to say that while we believe there exists a great wrong in the business of the Dept. in charge of these officers and that the public service is suffering from the neglect, inefficiency or dereliction of one or both of them, we do not feel that we can properly investigate the matter between them. And we believe that it will be better for the public service to dismiss both of these gentlemen from office than to incur the expense and delay that would attend an investigation of the matter in Oregon by an agent or commissioner appointed for that purpose. We recommend, therefore, that they be immediately dismissed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servts.
        B. F. Harding
        J. W. Nesmith
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Comssr. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 136-138.



Dayton Dec. 26, 1862
Dear Sir
    I saw Mr. Rector last Friday and he paid me the balance due me from the Ind. Depart. But I had waited so long that it has taken it all to pay the debts I have incurred and have nothing to pay the bill at Harker & Brothers which you made for me last winter. I think my share of the bill is about thirty dollars.
    If the government wants my wagon at the Grand Ronde you can have it for sixty ($60) dollars. If you purchase it you can have the vouchers filled out and forward them to me at Eugene City, to which place I expect to remove on Monday next. I will sign them and return them by mail. You can retain enough to pay the Harker bill and send me the balance by mail.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
J. B. Condon Esq.
    Ind. Agent &c.
        Grand Ronde
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
    Dec. 31st 1862
Sir
    In compliance with the regulations of the Indian Department I have the honor to submit the following, my quarterly report.
    In pursuing the duties of resident physician I find the diseases most prevalent amongst the Indians are syphilis, scrofula, pulmonary consumption & rheumatism, diseases of the eye--mostly ophthalmia, and cutaneous diseases of the skin. I find that the Indians have to a great extent acquired the habits and customs of the whites; the blanket is laid aside for the costume of the whites, yet there remains much to be accomplished in order to cultivate their untutored natures. More particularly in regard to treating the sick it has been more difficult for me to effect a cure of some of the most simple diseases on account of their not following my directions, and many of the acute cases diseases in consequence of that have become chronic and never can be cured unless some other means are provided that will enable the physician to see that his prescriptions are fully attended to, and in accordance with this belief in my annual report of Aug. 20th 1862 I recommended the fitting up of the hospital, which now remains unfinished on this agency. I feel that I cannot too strongly urge this point. With the hospital completed, those Indians that are much diseased could be much better cared for than to be permitted to roam about, or remain in their cabins without stove or fire, sleeping on the ground and in many instances denied by their own people the common necessaries of life. The fitting up of the hospital, the cost would be small in comparison with the great benefit the Indians would derive from it. With the exceptions of the diseases above enumerated the health of the Indians on the agency is generally good. Hoping that the improvement above suggested will receive a favorable consideration without which the entire eradication of disease is hopeless, since only temporary cures can be effected at most,
I remain very respectfully your obt. servt.
    Wm. Warren
        Resident Physician
To Jas. B. Condon Indian Agent
    Grand Ronde Agency Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Census of the Indians Located Upon Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
Under Charge of James B. Condon, U.S. Indian Agent
--Taken Dec. 1862--

Name of Tribe Chief or Headman Date of Treaty Men Women Boys Girls Total
Rogue Rivers Tom 10th Sept. 1853 34 38 19 22 113
Umpqua--Cow Creek Jake 19th Sept. 1853   9 17   4   6   36
Umpquas & Calapooias Louis Nepipe 29th Nov. 1854 54 77 28 40 199
Confederated Bands Willamette Valley Kiakuts 22 January 1855 158   217   144   167   686
Nestuccas Ki-wan-di no treaty 12 16 13   6   47
Salmon Rivers John no treaty 16 12   9   7   44
Molels Sampson 21st Dec. 1855   12     11       5     12       49  



304   388 222 260 1174
    I certify that the foregoing census of the Indians belonging this agency is correct and true.
James B. Condon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Last revised November 18, 2016