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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1863
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


    Articles of Agreement made and entered into on this [blank] day of [blank] one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, by and between the United States by J. W. P. Huntington, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on behalf of the Indians of Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon of the first part, and "The Sisters of Jesus and Mary" of the second part. This indenture witnesseth that the party of the second part do hereby covenant and bind themselves as follows, to wit: That they will take charge of the manual labor school of the said Grand Ronde Reservation and will receive, maintain, board and educate therein at least (58) fifty-eight scholars, in as nearly equal proportions of both sexes as may be expedient and convenient, or any less number than fifty-eight if so many cannot be induced to attend, furnishing them with suitable lodgings, good clothing, boarding, books, stationery, medicine and medical attendance and all other attendance and things requisite and necessary to make them comfortable.
    The education to be given to the scholars shall comprise instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and such other branches of knowledge as the capacities of the scholars will admit, and as the superintendent of the school shall think proper; the males shall also be instructed in agriculture and in the practical use of agricultural implements; the girls shall also be instructed in the various branches of housewifery. The scholars shall remain at the school during such period as the Secretary of the Interior shall think proper, and the superintendent of the school shall make a report quarterly to the Office of Indian Affairs of the number of scholars at the school during the quarter and annually of the number during the year, when they entered, their progress in the different branches of instruction, and the condition and affairs of the school, and she shall carry out all instructions from the Department of the Interior as far as the same shall not be inconsistent with this agreement.
    In consideration of the foregoing the party of the [first part] hereby agrees and stipulates to pay over to the party of the 2nd part for each scholar so received and taught, per annum, commencing on the date this indenture takes effect, the sum of ($75.00) seventy-five dollars in semi-annual payments, or at that rate for such portion of the year as the scholars may be in attendance at the school, and for such number as may attend not exceeding the number of fifty-eight scholars, which payment shall be in full of all expenses of every nature, kind and description whatever for in account of the scholars in course of educating at said school.
    And it is distinctly understood and agreed that the Department of the Interior will provide the necessary buildings for the said school, provided that the same shall not be at a cost to the Department of more than $2000.00--the same to be built under the direction and approval of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon. If such buildings are not sufficient, the Sisters will provide for the balance at their own expense, and whatever money they will expend on the buildings will be refunded to them on the expiration of the contract to an amount not to exceed two thousand dollars.
    It is also understood and agreed that the power is reserved to the Department of the Interior to annul this contract at any time and to sever said relation when in its opinion the interests of the Indians require it, and the party of the 2nd part is entitled to no damage alleged as resulting therefrom. It is also agreed that the party of the 2nd part may at any time be released from a continuation of the services in the aforesaid premises after giving written notice to the Department of the Interior three months beforehand. It is furthermore agreed that this contract is not to take effect and be in force until approved by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    In testimony whereof they have hereunto and to [blank] duplicates hereof set their hands and seals.
    In presence
[unsigned]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Ogn. Jan. 23rd 1863.
Sir
    Having noticed with pleasure the recommendation of the President in his annual message in regard to a change or remodeling [of] our present Indian system, and firmly believing that a change is much needed for the protection of the Indians as well as the government, I would most respectfully submit for your consideration the suggestions herein contained.
    The policy of the government towards the Indians as at present pursued was no doubt prompted and inaugurated by honest and beneficent motives, and with a sincere desire to ameliorate the condition of this peculiar and truly unfortunate race. No one, however prejudiced he may be against the workings of the present policy, will deny but that the intentions of the government are honorable and that every precaution has been made by Congressional enactments for their benefit. Yet notwithstanding all these beneficent acts done and performed by government for their advancement and prosperity, it is evident that but little good compared with the expenditure has as yet been realized. The government has made but little progress in endeavoring to civilize and Christianize them. The Indians with a few honorable exceptions are Indians still, almost as degraded and destitute as they were when government assumed a fostering care. The question naturally arises, "Is the present system defective? Is so, wherein?" The experience derived from close observations during the past eighteen months of my official term and frequent visitations of the several reservations under my jurisdiction compel me to say that the policy is defective in several important things, viz:
    First--I regard the system of appointing agents and recognizing them as disbursing officers with authority to contract and create liabilities as very prejudicial to the interests of the Indians, and decidedly detrimental to the government. It is a fact well known that in the distribution of federal patronage many, very many, are induced to seek the position with no ulterior object in view other than to enrich themselves.
    Proper care is not taken to select such persons as are peculiarly fitted for the position. Applicants are generally recommended and endorsed for the position for some real or imaginary service rendered, or to be hereafter rendered to some political friend or party, and not for their fitness. Obtaining their office in this manner, they reciprocate the favor, extol their friends and party, devote their time and expend government funds in catering to the desires and wishes of those who sustain and defend them; as long as due homage and tribute is paid, the duties of his appointment are wholly neglected. The temptations with which [he] is surrounded are great--under bonds in more nominal sums, and knowing full well the leniency of government towards its officers, they are prone to go astray, and for the sake of pecuniary gain are induced to render fraudulent accounts. This office affords evidence to prove this clearly without the possibility of a doubt. In view of this state of facts--the evils resulting therefrom--I cannot regard the system of appointing agents otherwise than bad.
    I would propose to remedy the matter by abolishing the office of agents entirely, or conferring the power on the Superintendent to nominate and appoint the agents himself. In this way persons could be selected for their fitness. They could be removed from office when cause existed without submitting the case to a tribunal where the facts are not known and cannot be obtained without difficulty. No Superintendent, however honest he may be, or zealous in the discharge of his official duties, can succeed unless he has agents who cooperate with him in his policy. In California they have no agents. The Supt. appoints a farmer or supervisor, who is responsible to him, and under his control. They have no funds to disburse and consequently can devote their undivided time to the performance of their legitimate duties.
    Second--More uniform and stringent regulations should be prescribed  by the Department for the accountability of property under the care and custody of agents on reservations.
    Forms should be adopted and every agent or Supt. be required to conform to them. Property issued to Indians should be required to be witnessed by at least two commissioned military officers. The practice which has hitherto prevailed, and [is] still pursued, of witnessing certificates of issue, amounting to thousands of dollars, by some interested party, or some Indian officiating as interpreter, who is ignorant of the facts, is certainly in bad taste to say the least. Our present regulations have not been revised for years and contain forms which are obsolete & inapplicable, and the matter is left entirely to the agent to invent such forms as are best adapted to the peculiar circumstances of their own cases.
    Third--the Superintendent should be the sole disbursing officer of his district. There can be no question of doubt as to the propriety of this proposed change; in fact, the absolute necessity therefor is apparent to every candid mind. Among the many advantages which would result from the adoption of this policy, I would mention First that it would be a great saving to government in making purchases alone.
    One man can certainly purchase a quantity of goods at a time, in much better terms, than four or five can, in such quantities, and at such times and places as suits their own convenience. Second, it will place it beyond the power of the agent to make any improper use of government funds or to contract any liabilities on the credit of government. This one power delegated to the agent has been a very serious annoyance to our citizens, detrimental to the service, and its frequent abuse has done more to discredit the Department and bring it in bad repute than any one prerogative vested in an agent. To such an extent had this privilege been abused that it became necessary for your dept. in 1858 to appoint the Hon. C. H. Mott commissioner to "audit and state" the amount of liabilities incurred by these agents and due the citizens of this state. His report, rendered Jan. 26th 1859 and submitted to the Hon. Secretary of the Interior on the 23rd of July 1859, shows the enormous sum of $265,092.26½ to have been contracted in direct violation of positive instructions from your office.
    Since the rendition of this report, other large sums have been contracted and liquidated.
    In pursuance of instructions from your department I have collected and forwarded for your consideration unpaid liabilities contracted by the agents under my predecessor amounting to $63450.10, and this is far from being the sum total. Such recklessness and utter disregard of instructions is highly censurable and demands immediate attention for the protection of the government.
    Third--It will greatly facilitate the auditing and settlement of accounts [if] the accounting officer of the Treasury will have but one set of accounts to examine and adjust instead of six.
    Fourth--It will obviate the necessity of the agents employing clerks to render their accounts. The recent act of Congress of July 17th 1862 requiring monthly accounts will so consume their time and attention as to forbid the idea of their devoting any portion of their time to their legitimate duties.
    Fifth--The office of agent, thus deprived of one of its most fascinating features, would cease to be an object of desire on the part of mere politicians actuated by no honorable motives, and would enable the Dept. to secure the services of competent practical men and be content with their salary alone. No objection can reasonably be raised or maintained against this proposed change. The Superintendent is now entrusted with all the funds, and no additional risk will be incurred by his disbursing to individuals instead of transferring to agents; besides the regulations now require accounts to be rendered monthly, and with this safeguard thrown around it, it is hardly possible for a Supt. to go astray. Should there be any doubt, however, it would be an easy matter to increase a Supt.'s bond at from $100,000 to $200,000, even more. No one will object. There is no difficulty in an honest man giving bonds for any amount, and if he has character and integrity qualifying him for the position and has the confidence of his fellow citizens, they will cheerfully lend their aid to enable him to enter upon his official duties. My own experience satisfies me that this change would be productive of very beneficial results, and would soon place the service on a sound, healthy and economical footing, and not liable to be a subject of reproach, as it has been heretofore. The report of Commissioner Mott is replete with interesting matter concerning these liabilities, and shows clearly that the agents have not exercised judicious economy in the administration of Indian affairs submitted to their care. The case of Agent Metcalfe retiring from the service after three years incumbency with the insignificant sum of $41,000 on a salary of $1500 is evidence of a lack of economy towards the government at least. Joshua B. Sykes, a late sub-agt. of Oregon, and now bearing arms against the govt., is another case which could be cited showing conclusively that "judicious economy" and "official integrity" never characterized any of his official acts. During a brief but brilliant career of nearly two years as sub-agent on a salary of $1000 per annum, he honestly! acquired the modest sum of $17,000 and retired leaving liabilities incurred and unpaid amounting to thousands more. These cases are not the only ones which could be cited by any means, yet they should be sufficient to satisfy any unprejudiced mind that the policy is bad and should be abandoned at once. I have meditated and reflected considerably on the propriety of also abolishing the office of Supt. and detailing an officer of the army of suitable rank and qualifications to superintend and disburse the funds. I am not prepared to urge this change with any assurance that affairs would be administered to any better advantage to government, or the money any more faithfully disbursed than it now is by civilians. There may and can be urged cogent objections to this, on account of our extensive reservation system, and the onerous duties incumbent on the officers aside from the disbursement of funds. Yet as at present impressed, I am satisfied that if proper officers could be selected, it would be an important move. I am led to this belief for the following reasons. Officers of the Military Dept. (regular services) are appointed and commissioned for life unless removed from office for some violation of the rules and articles of war, and are not as liable to be removed from office as a person appointed [from] civil life. They are not responsible to any political party or political friend for their official existence and are under no obligations whatever to cater to their wishes in order to retain their position. Hence they are free to act in accordance with their own judgment and are not subservient to the dictation of any man or set of men. In civil appointments the case is different.
    The populace claim the right to control the officers' actions. They take upon themselves the responsibility unsolicited and unasked of dictating to him the mode and manner of discharging his official duties, the manner which will be acceptable to them, and he must either succumb to the exactions of these self-constituted dictators or immediate steps will be taken to supplant him, and a successor appointed who will conform to their requirements. It makes no difference whether the demands are legal or illegal--whether they are beneficial or prejudicial to the interests of the Indians or government, whether they are honest or dishonest, the officer must yield to these undue influences or render himself liable to lose his official position and character for no other reason than that he insists on discharging his official duties according to his own judgment. For the truth of this I refer you to the removal of Gen. Joel Palmer, who declined to disregard his instructions and accede to the wishes of the populace in regard to the removal of the Indians to the Coast Reservation. The populace demanded that he should desist from his purpose, notwithstanding government had ordered the removal, and he was acting under instructions which he was sworn to obey. Yet he was removed for no other reason than for discharging his duty. As another instance I would cite you to the removal of Hon. J. W. Nesmith, now U.S. Senator. No objection was made to his official acts. He was active and zealous in the discharge of the duties assigned him, yet he was removed and no cause assigned further than that he declined to degrade his official position by defending and supporting a weak and corrupt politician. The Department is regarded by many as a political machine and has been heretofore, and is liable to be used again by designing men for base and selfish purposes. Under its present organization and the precedents already established on this coast it is difficult to consider it otherwise. In order that the government may free itself from this debasing influence I am induced to recommend the detailing of a military officer to discharge the duties now incumbent on Superintendents. Some plan must be resorted to, and I know of none any more favorable than this.
    Time will not warrant my continuing this subject further. I have cherished a vague hope that circumstances would permit my meeting you face to face and an opportunity afforded to point out in detail the evils attending our present Indian policy.
    I have, however, mentioned some of the most prominent changes needed and have considered the necessity therefor in a frank & candid manner, with a firm belief that your department will fully appreciate any suggestions tending to render the service efficient.
    I would therefore most respectfully solicit at your hands a due consideration of the recommendations herein made.
With sentiments of respect
    I remain very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affs.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1269-1283.



From the Daily Oregonian of January 16th.
MR. RECTOR'S EXPLANATION.
    Below we publish a letter from Mr. Rector, explanatory of the manner in which a certain government draft for $73,000, about which so much has been said, was disposed of:
Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Ogn., Jan. 13th 1863.
    Ed. Oregonian--Dear Sir: In a late issue of the Mountaineer, I notice several articles, written and published, containing grave charges against me in my official capacity. This is the second instance since I assumed the duties of this office that this paper has given publicity to falsehood and slander with a malicious design to injure me if possible. On a former occasion I was charged with fraud and corruption because I did not let a certain contract for the transportation of annuity goods from Rockland to Fort Simcoe, in Washington Territory. Proposals for this transportation had been invited by Superintendent Geary, then acting for both state and Territory, prior to my taking charge, but as my appointment was for Oregon I declined to let the contract and notified the Superintendent and agent in charge of the fact. I paid no attention to the article, believing that when he was fully advised that he would correct it. But he lacked the honor to make any correction whatever, and suffered the falsehood and slander to pass as truth. He now charges that I received $70,000 in gold coin, and subsequently turned the gold into "greenbacks" with the intention to pay them at par. This charge I pronounce maliciously false. I received the remittance due the Superintendency for the third and fourth quarters in a draft upon the Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco and exchanged the same with Ladd & Tilton, receiving $69,100 in legal tender Treasury notes and $2,900 in coin. This last account was obtained as a matter of accommodation for making change. I made this exchange at a time when it was well known to every business man that they had been and were paying at the sub-Treasury in legal tender notes. I received par value for the draft without loss either to the government or myself. I have disbursed this money in paying the liabilities against this Department, and have given general satisfaction to all with whom I had contracts and dealings.
    I do not make this statement because I think it any part of my duty to do so, as I have reported to my superior, and should not have noticed it at all, only that you and other journalists have given the Mountaineer some notoriety by republishing his slanderous article in your papers, and there may be some in the country who might mistake the Mountaineer for a responsible paper and the editor for a gentleman.
    Hoping that this may be satisfactory as regards this extensive fraud, I shall take no further notice of his libels in this manner.
Very respy., your obt. servt.
    W. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs, Ogn.
   
    Contrary to our rule about "unnecessarily personal" articles, we print Mr. Rector's letter just as it was written, although we believe he would have thanked us hereafter if we had modified some of the stronger expressions it contains. In justice to ourselves we deny that we have ever republished anything from the Mountaineer on this subject, because we believed that paper was acting on misinformation, but we did copy the very temperate and eminently fair statement of the Statesman and added thereto some other information, tending to give the public a fair understanding of the actual transaction.
    From the temper of Mr. Rector's letter, it would appear that he is of opinion that the people have no right to demand any account of the official conduct of the federal office-holders in our midst, but that, if his superiors are satisfied, it is none of the people's business. A more fatal error than this never formed the rule of action of any political party whatever. By the contrary course the Democrats kept the reins of power during nearly two generations. We assert that their regard for the wishes of the people among whom federal officers were appointed had more to do with the success of their party than all their platforms. If an official was acceptable to the people who surrounded him they seldom removed him, and whenever they did, the result was always disastrous to the interests of the party. We do not know a more striking instance of this rule than in the case of Nesmith's removal, from jealousy--without cause--at the instigation of General Lane. [All indications are that Nesmith's removal as Superintendent of Indian Affairs was due to political reasons, rather than petty jealousy.] The people showed their feelings in the case by sending Nesmith to succeed this same Lane in the Senate. Upon the other hand, the Democrats would not retain a man in office, no matter how correct his dealings, if his general bearing towards the people was offensive. They thus established a double accountability--to the government in matters of detail, and the people, in whose midst the officials lived, in all things relating to the general aspect of his official conduct.
    We are very glad that Mr. Rector has taken upon himself to come forward and explain the transaction relative to this draft, and will take pleasure in recording such evidences of popular opinion of its being satisfactory as may come under our notice.
   

From the Daily Oregonian of January 18th.
Something New About the Rector Affair.
    In spite of the belief of a certain school of politicians that the people have no business to inquire about the doings of the federal officials in our midst, we take the liberty of bringing the Rector affair before the public in a new light. In doing so we appeal to the entire record of this paper in relation to its dealings with this matter, to attest that what we have said and may say is solely on account of the public interest. If the whole story could be told, or is ever told, additional proofs of this fact will be shown. To commence we put in a communication which is entirely impersonal, that has been handed to us, on this subject:
    Ed. Oregonian: Seeing that Mr. Rector, according to his "explanation," exchanged his draft for $73,000 on the Assistant Treasurer with Ladd & Tilton for legal tender to be paid him in Portland, where, may I ask, was the necessity of his going down to San Francisco to personally superintend the drawing of these funds? Did he go in his official capacity, or merely as an agent of his agents, the bankers? If the former, what corresponding advantage or profit did the government reap for his outlay of two or three thousand dollars for traveling expenses to and from California? Mr. R. says: "I made this exchange at a time when it was well known to every business man (!) that they had been and were paying at this sub-Treasury in legal tender."
    If this is literally true, then Messrs. Ladd & Tilton deserve great credit for their liberality for accommodating the Superintendent with greenbacks, deliverable at Portland without charge or commission, for, if they expected to be paid in like currency in San Francisco, they were certainly subjecting themselves to a very considerable loss, as legal tenders have always been worth from five to seven cents on the dollar less there than in Portland.
    Trusting Mr. Rector will not consider that the foregoing queries are prompted by a captious spirit, but rather by a desire to elicit facts in the premises, I remain,
Very respectfully yours
    An Honest Man.
Portland, Jan. 16, 1863.
   

    We have here a singular contradiction of the generally received opinion that financiers are actuated by a desire of gain and a proof that, in a quarter entirely unexpected, there was a patriotic banking house which willingly sacrificed from five to seven percent on a vast sum of money to accommodate an ungrateful public--a public that is proverbially ungrateful--a public that repays a kindness of this nature by accusations of a very serious character. The Romans and Greeks gave to mankind many illustrious examples of patriotic devotion, but none which surpassed this; the heroes of the Revolution had a patriotic financier, one Robert Morris, but he was the small part of an infinitesimal "shakings" whittled down to a point, when compared to our city banking firm. Of course Mr. Rector could do no less than to go to San Francisco and receive the money, or a part of it, there, after Messrs. Ladd & Tilton had lost so much by the exchange. Some people will be curious to know what business he had to do so, at the expense of the government, but they are informed that that is none of their business. Of course Mr. Rector agreed to receive the money in San Francisco to accommodate the accommodating bankers, and if they happened to get gold from the sub-Treasurer, that was their luck, was "perfectly legitimate," and as Mr. Rector did not seek to know what currency the agent of Messrs. Ladd & Tilton drew the $37,000 in, he is perfectly innocent of making a dollar out of the matter. The government is also safe, as the contracts with the Indian Department were made with the understanding that greenbacks would be paid by the Superintendency. As a reward of merit to all parties interested in this association, we recommend the erection of statues to perpetuate the memory of each, and claim as an original idea that those statues should be cast in brass. But enough of walking in the dark, when we have light on the subject, proof that should damn the last one of the persons connected with the nefarious swindle to the last moment of recorded time in the eyes of every honest man.
    We distinctly charge, and will put in proof if required, the following facts:
    1st. That as far back as the 20th of November it was published in newspapers of this state that the U.S. sub-Treasurer at San Francisco was paying government drafts in gold coin, as the greenbacks were exhausted. Consequently, if any "business man" in this city did not know it, it was his own fault, and if Mr. Rector did not know it, he did not want to know it.
    2nd. That William S. Ladd, resident partner in the house of Ladd & Tilton, did say, previous to the arrival of Mr. Rector from Salem, on his road to San Francisco, that he had written to Mr. Rector, notifying him that the sub-Treasury was paying gold on government drafts, and advised Mr. Rector to send his draft for $73,000, more or less, by a certain gentleman of this city to San Francisco for collection.
    Mr. Rector came down from Salem and went to San Francisco, for no particular purpose, if he tells the truth, and his draft for $73,000 was paid to somebody in coin. Mr. Rector has paid out greenbacks in the settlement of his accounts with the people of this community. From the antecedent charges, and these circumstances, we charge:
    3rd. That somebody has made the difference between $73,000 in greenbacks and that sum in gold, and that the same has been dishonestly withdrawn from the resources of the nation, and that it has gone into the hands of parties having no right to possess it, to the detriment of the currency of the country and the loss of the nation and the community.
    We characterize this proceeding as public robbery and demand that such punishment as the law can inflict on all concerned shall be meted out to them. For the entire justness of our intentions in making these statements and charges we appeal to the intelligent decision of the people.
----
Salem, Jan. 20, 1863.
    Ed. Statesman: I have read the strictures of the Oregonian of yesterday concerning the agency of Mr. Rector in the greenback transaction. There is one fact known to myself in addition to those published in that article. On the 11th of November W. S. Ladd, of Portland, wrote two letters to Mr. Rector, one of which he sent by express and the other by mail, informing him that they were paying coin in San Francisco, and that if he could get that draft to Portland before the steamer sailed the morning of the following day, that coin would probably be paid on it. Mr. Ladd said if he had the draft for that steamer he would draw the coin and bring it to Portland for one percent, as he had an opportunity to send the draft down by a merchant of Portland going down on the steamer. Those letters were received on the 12th when the stage arrived at Salem. Messenger Brown was dispatched to Portland that night with the draft, and got to Portland with it before the steamer left, and it was sent down on it.
Informed.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 26, 1863, page 1, from NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1228-1229.



    The following communication is from a legal gentleman now resident in the northern part of the state.
THE GREENBACK SWINDLE.
    The public have seen, in several of the Oregon papers, charges and specifications against Mr. Rector, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in reference to a certain transaction in greenbacks, [I] was anxious hear "the other side." At length the explanation appears in the daily Oregonian, of the 16th inst. The subject was doubtless distasteful, and he evidently approaches it with reluctance, for, after taking the task in hand, he devotes half his communication to a different topic, and what he does "speak to the point" is much befogged, muddy. His statement is sufficiently clear, however, to prove one thing, viz: that he had "put his foot into it."
    The following facts may be set down as admitted. They are either from his own statement, or are such as have been publicly stated and are not denied by him:
    1. That he received from the U.S. Treasury a remittance of $72,000 [sic], which amount was deposited to his credit with the Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco.
    2. That Mr. Rector's draft upon the Assistant Treasurer for the sum of $72,000 was paid in coin; that the draft was presented by, and the coin drawn through, the San Francisco agent of Ladd & Tilton, bankers.
    3. That Mr. Rector, acknowledging to have received only $2,900 in coin, and the balance, $69,000, in greenbacks (which, at that time, were selling for 84 and 85 cents), proves that a handsome speculation of either $10,265, or $11,056, was realized in the transaction, which amount was pocketed by somebody.
    4. That Mr. Rector has already disbursed the said sum of $69,000 to the creditors of the Indian Department, in greenbacks.
    It is charged that the proceeds of the speculation in question were pocketed, in whole or in part, by Mr. Rector. It is unimportant whether the money was drawn by him in person, or by his agent, the responsibility in either case being the same. His complicity in the affair seems apparent from his own statement.
    He says: "I exchanged the same (the draft) with Ladd & Tilton, receiving $69,000 in legal tender Treasury notes, and $2,900 in coin." Are we to understand by this that he sold his $72,000 draft to Ladd & Tilton, bankers, or that they acted as his agents, and drew the money for him at San Francisco? If he sold them the draft for greenbacks, he is guilty of constructive embezzlement, under the law. By the 16th and 20th sections of what is generally termed the "Sub-Treasury Act," approved 6th August, 1846 (see U.S. Statutes at Large, vol. 9, pages 63, '4 and '5), he could only exchange his draft with them for gold and silver, and any other exchange is pronounced by that act as embezzlement and punishable as a felony.
    But Mr. Rector says he received $2,900 of the whole amount in coin!! There is evidently a "nigger in the fence" somewhere. If the $72,000 draft was only worth its face in greenbacks (they only being worth, at the time 84 and 85 cents), why did Messrs. Ladd & Tilton, without consideration, pay $2,900 of it in gold and silver? Why did Mr. R. receive a portion of his draft in coin? Thereby hangeth a tale.
    Again, if Mr. Rector deposited the $72,000, being public funds, with Ladd & Tilton, to be checked out by him, that was equally a violation of law, these gentlemen being private bankers, and the public depositaries mentioned in the "Sub-Treasury Act."
    It appears that Superintendent Rector went down to San Francisco about the time this affair occurred, and was there when the money was drawn at the sub-Treasury on his draft. Of course his traveling expenses incurred on that trip are duly charged to the government, and, he being there in person, why the necessity of placing the draft in the hands of Ladd & Tilton, "or any other man"? Or, if it was necessary and proper to place the draft in their hands, why saddle the government with the expense of his trip to and from San Francisco? "Murder will out," and, notwithstanding Mr. Rector's repugnance to being held responsible at the bar of public opinion for his official transactions the light will yet shine through this proceeding, so that every man in the state can see who the guilty parties are.
    The conclusion seems unavoidable that, in the transaction in question, Messrs. Ladd & Tilton acted as either the agents or partners of Mr. Rector, and if so, the entire responsibility rests upon him, but public odium will attach to all the parties concerned. Indeed it is difficult to see, under the most favorable view of [the] affair, how he can clear himself of being guilty under the law of constructive embezzlement.
    One thing is very certain, that the entire remittance of $72,000 was paid by the Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco, on Mr. Rector's draft, in gold coin, and it is equally certain that the creditors of the Indian Department, payable from that remittance, were entitled to receive gold and silver in payment of their demands, and they should not have accepted anything less.
    Another thing is also certain, in view of the law and the undisputed facts in the case, that Mr. Rector is liable to removal from office, and further, if he has disbursed the said sum of $69,000 in greenbacks (as he says he has), he is accountable to the United States for the difference between greenbacks and coin, which will amount to a sum not less than $10,000, and that it is to the interest of the sureties on his official bond to see that he does it.
    Mr. Rector's official bond is in the penal sum of one hundred thousand dollars, and the sureties on it are E. N. Cooke, David McCully, Daniel Waldo and Thomas Cross.
   

DOMESTIC ITEMS.
    . . . FOUND.--A hard case, whose name was stricken off the Statesman list years ago for being $25 behind, and the amount charged to "profit and loss," last week surprised us by sending the amount in greenbacks. It was like "finding" it, and we reckon the fellow never would have paid except for the depreciated currency.
    . . . A correspondent writing from Portland says: "The Superintendent is not the only one whom the public regard as being concerned in improper transactions in greenbacks. I was told by Mr. Kendall on the Monday before he was killed that all the public funds received by his successor, Hale, were in U.S. coin. Since then I have learned that Supt. Hale visited this place with the sole apparent object of buying up greenbacks. He bought $2,000 worth of Harker Bros. I am unable to state what was the total amount of greenbacks he purchased in this city, though it was undoubtedly large."
    . . . Since the airing of the greenback business commenced, the Mountaineer and Oregonian have been in demand here. Our postmaster says if there are to be any more expositions of the kind he would like to be informed of it in advance, so he could supply himself with those papers.
    . . . LEGAL TENDER ROW.--One of our grocery dealers purchased on Saturday evening from an unsophisticated countryman a large quantity of eggs, and attempted to pay the youth in greenbacks, when the "web" let himself out heavily on the grocery dealer. A large crowd was attracted to the spot, when by mediation a compromise was effected, and no serious damage resulted.--Commercial.
    . . . Josephine County tendered some $1100 in greenbacks, and two dollars and fifty cents in coin, on her state tax. The State Treasurer refused to receive the greenbacks, but offered to receipt for the $2.50 coin. Some of this paper was offered on the Chinese tax. We suppose the county officers collected the shinplasters of the Chinamen! [Chinese gold miners would be expected to pay in gold.] Josephine has paid very little of the state tax assessed against her, and owes over $2,000 on her Territorial tax.
    . . . Jackson County paid her state tax in coin. The only county so far which has offered greenbacks is Josephine.
    . . . A correspondent promises "an expose of a huge apple tree speculation which has been some two years working its sinuous way through the Oregon Indian Department."
    . . . A store house belonging to Messrs. Hodes and Schuch, at Fort Hoskins, was burned on the 12st. by some soldiers. Eight of them came into the store and wanted beer, which was refused. They then seized Mr. Schuch, forced him down cellar, and then fired the building. Mr. S. was rescued by a person who happened to be near, but the building was consumed, with its contents, valued at about $1200.
    . . . The Oregonian and Times of Saturday, [the] 24th, quote legal tenders at 65 cents. That was their quotation in San Francisco at last dates. Their rapid decline is owing more to the report of the committee of ways and means, which appropriates $1,500,000,000 in the next fiscal year, $350,000,000 of which is to be legal tenders. It was the same case which sent gold up to 148½ in New York.
----
    As we elsewhere publish Mr. Rector's letter concerning the editor of the Mountaineer, we here give the rejoinder of that gentleman:
    THE GREENBACK SWINDLE.--As part of the history of the times, we give in full the defense of Mr. Rector against the charge of having converted $70,000 in coin into an equal amount of "greenbacks." To the temper and tone of the defense we take no exception. If the Superintendent of Indian Affairs thinks it not beneath his dignity to descend to scurrility it is his affair, not ours. The defense, however, is deficient in one or two particulars, and these we supply in order that the public can come to correct conclusions. In the first place, Mr. Rector does not deny that the draft on the Assistant Treasurer was paid in coin. That is a point he carefully avoids. The Superintendent readily discloses the names of those from whom he received the "legal tenders," but never a word about the $70,000 in coin paid to the government being exchanged for the depreciated currency. This is the gist of the whole allegation. The government paid in coin, and legal tenders have been substituted in place of the gold. It matters not whether Mr. Rector done this himself, or accomplished it through an agent. In either case he is equally culpable, and no amount of special pleading will exempt him from the responsibility.
    The modus operandi by which the substitution of legal tenders for coin was effected has never been distinctly stated. The allegation was as to the fact, and the fact remains undisputed by the card of Mr. Rector. The position of the whole question is this: The creditors of the Indian Department have been swindled out of the difference in value between $70,000 in coin and the same amount in legal tenders. Now we claim that as a question of morals it is no different whether the Superintendent manipulated the money himself, or procured a tool to do the "dirty work." Another remark, and we shall take leave of this branch of the explanation. It is generally known that the Superintendent was in San Francisco at the time the money was drawn from the Assistant Treasurer, and we have authority for saying that he knew the coin was paid. Here the question arises, why the presence of the Superintendent in San Francisco, and being there, why not receive the money himself and disburse the funds as received? This is a question the Superintendent will have to satisfactorily answer before he wipes out from his skirts the stain of the "greenback swindle." This is the "damned spot that will not out," and to this Mr. Rector had infinitely better turn his attention rather than occupy his time in flinging filth at those who are infinitely his superior both in character and morals.
    The hero of the "greenback" swindle announces that those who have dealings with him approve his conduct. For his information we state that the parties living hereabouts, who have claims against the Indian Department, decidedly object to the swindle, and characterize it as little better than highway robbery.
    MORE FRAUDS.--The Mountaineer charges that Superintendent Rector was guilty of fraud in the expenditure of the sum of $10,000 to construct a wagon road from the Umatilla to the Grand Ronde Valley, across the Blue Mountains. In the summer of 1861, Mr. Rector, it is alleged, made an arrangement with a gentleman to superintend the building of the road, by day labor. Mr. Geary, the predecessor of Mr. Rector, advertised for proposals to build this road during his term of office, but the project of building it by contract was abandoned and the other plan adopted. It is asserted that the person who was employed to superintend the work was required to employ Mr. Rector's son at a large salary. The sum of $4,700 was expended during the year 1861, and in 1862 Mr. Rector's son was given the contract for the completion of the work, and no competition was invited. The $5,300 was exhausted by the employment of ten men for twenty days, and the road was declared completed! This little affair involved a loss of over $4,000 to the government, and produced a great inconvenience to the people for whose benefit the road was designed. It is further asserted, in the matter of the Fort Simcoe Indian transportation contracts, that Mr. Gates had advertised for bids, which were made, and Messrs. Humason and Gates, of the Dalles, agreed to transport the goods for $45 a ton. Mr. Rector, succeeding to office, annulled this contract and gave the work to another person (Stephen Coffin, of Portland) for $60 a ton, thus producing a loss of $15 on every ton of freight carried, which the United States had to pay. These are serious charges, which appear to be made on good authority or what is deemed such, and demand investigation. The road matter particularly has proven a great loss to the community, as the road is the one which would be most used to get to the Baker County mines, if it were completed--Oregonian [of January 23, 1863, page 2].
    Of the last matter here stated by the Oregonian and Mountaineer, we know nothing. The facts concerning the road business are as follows:
    The contract was let to Mr. Rector's son not by himself, but by Agent Barnhart. Mr. Rector is not known in the letting of the contract and avers that he knew nothing about it and is in no way responsible for it. The other as reported by the Oregonian and Mountaineer in regard to the disparity between the work done and the pay promised we suspect are in the main correct. However, nothing has been paid upon the contract, as we understand--appropriation not having been applied to the purpose. Where it is, or what has been done with it, we do not know.
    This statement is but just to Mr. Rector. And justice likewise requires us to add Agent Barnhart's statement, which was that the Superintendent was disposed to control the patronage of his agency, that he let the contract to his son, believing that he desired it so to be let and as a means of propitiating him, that probably $3500 or $4000 of the appropriation work to be made by the contractor.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 26, 1863, page 2, from NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1230-1231.



    It had always been said and generally believed that the money appropriated for the Indians had been used for other purposes to gain popularity with and get to higher positions. I soon learned that there was some truth in what had been said, but having no aspirations in that way I was determined to do all the good in my power with the money and hoped to have the approval of all good men and be sustained in this course, but in this I was mistaken. Whilst such a course would be approved in ordinary business, it would not do in politics. In order to get better understood, I will relate a case. The employees on the Grand Ronde Agency mistook their place, and each and all of them conceived themselves to be government officers, and all they had to do was sign a voucher and draw the money. They conspired to remove the agent and get one of themselves appointed. This trouble called me to the agency, and after an investigation I found the best thing that could be done was to discharge all the farm employees, which I did, and then employed an elderly man that I knew to be a good farmer with instructions to employ Indians as laborers, knowing there was many of them good farm hands. This proved to be a success. It cost less money and got more work done, the result of which was a large surplus produced instead of a deficiency, which had always been the case. Now this was all wrong and well calculated to gain the displeasure of at least one county that had always found the agency to be a profitable market for their surplus produce. James Nesmith (one of my predecessors) in order to justify so large an expenditure of money annually for subsistence reported the lands of the reservation barren, sterile, and [that they] had defied the skill of the best of farmers. Now this was the way to gain popularity. It disbursed government money and harbored a lot of idle men at the agency with nothing to do but sign vouchers and draw pay. Now it so happened that Nesmith was a U.S. Senator in Washington when I reported the abundant crops with a large surplus, demonstrating the great fertility of the soil. Of course, this was all wrong in a political sense, the result of which was my removal. But I have always been thankful that Mr. Nesmith did not attack my character, only to say that I was not the proper man for the place, which was true in a political sense. This may be called one of my mistakes, but I have never regretted it or felt that I was disgraced. But this was not the only trouble that I had to contend with. Some of the agents managed to get a large portion of the money that I turned over to them to carry out the treaties with the Indians, but they always had vouchers to balance their accounts. When this came to my knowledge beyond a doubt I interfered to stop this practice, which was my sworn duty to do. Of course, this was all wrong in accordance with all precedents and not to be tolerated. It made me enemies instead of friends. I soon learned that no man could hold that office and deal honesty with the government and all parties without having to take much abuse. In fact, I began to learn that there was no more honesty in the Indian Department at Washington than there was in Oregon. Consequently, I made no effort to sustain myself, preferring to be relieved than live so boisterous a life and take the abuse consequent for a righteous course of conduct.
    I believe that our government has always pursued a wrong policy with the natives. They have always regarded them as a sovereign power and held treaties with them as such, when in reality they never had any nationality above a patriarchal or tribal relation with barbarous laws and customs that afforded no protection to life or property. In this condition they are assembled on reservations with an agent of the government resident to carry out all the provisions of their treaty--without any legal right to interfere with their own laws. There was a case occurred under my supervision that shows how hopeless it is to ever expect to civilize Indians acting under their own laws, if they may be dignified as such. The case is this. There was several tribes or chiefdoms assembled on the Siletz Reservation. A chief killed an Indian belonging to another tribe. The Indians settled the case by paying for the Indian killed; the agent in charge arrested the chief and imposed on him a fine, which was that the chief should cut eighty cords of wood, to which the chief demurred. When I visited the agency the Indian brought his case before me and argued it substantially as follows--
    "I am chief. I sold my country, but did not sell myself or my people. I am not a slave or a dog. I killed a doctor for the reason that he killed one of my men. It is our law when a doctor's heart gets bad and he uses his medicine (jugglery) to kill people, that doctor must be killed. This was our father's law and the law that we live by. I paid six horses for the doctor. His tribe is satisfied, and what right has Mr. ------ to make me cut eighty cords of wood. I wait for your answer."
    I felt in a close place; to disapprove of the agent's action in [the] presence of the Indians would have been highly improper, and to meet the chief's plain, logical statement with any show of reason justifying the agent was hard to do. I only questioned the power of the doctor to kill anybody by his medicine [and] said to him that we used to believe in all such things, but now we knew better and was ashamed to talk about it. But I would have a talk with the agent about it. I did talk with the agent and questioned his right to punish any Indian with laws of his own make, cut cordwood for murder. But he had an eye to business. There was a garrison of soldiers there, and he had a contract to furnish it with a certain number of cords of wood, which he made the Indians do by imposing fines on them for all manner of offenses that was not his business. I could say many things against the policy of the government in dealing with the Indians. Even if it was honestly carried out it would seem that it has been tried long enough to convince anyone that they must be dealt with in a very different way. If the great object is ever attained of civilizing them, they must be subjugated and brought under our government before there is any hope of civilization. We treat with them as a sovereign power, allowing them to live under their own barbarous laws, which they have the right to do. Any attempt to correct or punish them for crimes committed amongst themselves is the signal for trouble, but if the present policy is only for the purpose of disbursing government money to sustain the political party in power I don't know that it can be improved. But as I am not writing a history, there is enough said already on the subject of Indian affairs, although my personal knowledge of the Indian character and my experience in the service of the Indian Department would enable me to say much more on the subject.
William H. Rector, quoted in Fred Lockley, History of the Columbia River Valley from The Dalles to the Sea, volume I, Chicago, 1928, pages 1084-1086.


Corvallis P.O. Oregon
    Jan. 28th 1863.
Sir:
    Enclosed please find copy [of the] Oregon Statesman, containing remarks of exposition of embezzlement by Wm. H. Rector, Supt. Indian Affairs. I believe the charges are just.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        B. R. Biddle
            U.S. Indian Agent
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Com. Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 783-784.  I could find no mention of Rector in the Statesmans of December 1862 and January 1863--though the January 26 issue is lost.  See Oregon Argus articles of February 7, below.



Hqrs. Dist. of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        31 January 1863
Sir
    Will you please inform me where a military fort should be located in the Klamath Lake country? How far from Jacksonville? I ask for the information of General Wright.
    Would not infantry answer for that fort, say two companies? The settlements were not disturbed last season.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        Benj. Alvord
            Brig. Genl.
                U.S. Vols.
                    Com. Dist.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
P.S. If you have not complete information now in your office, please ask your agent in that country to make report. It will be here in time.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 22.



Corvallis Benton Co. Oregon
    Feb. 1 A.D. 1863
To the
    Hon. Secretary of the Interior
        or
            Commissioner of Indian Affairs
                Sir
                    I desire from and after the date Feb. 1st 1863 to be released from the bond of B. R. Biddle, Indian agent, Siletz Agency, Oregon. Other of the sureties on the same bond will in a few days forward the same request, having authorized me to [omission] for them--now. But I desire to obtain their written request in a few days.
Very respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
   
W. H. Rector Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon
        Sir--will you please to forward this to the proper place at your earliest opportunity.
Very truly
    A. D. Barnard
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1301-1303.



Portland Oregon Feb. 3, 1863
Sir:
    From the half sheet of the Statesman containing extracts from various papers in this state, you will perceive the nature of certain charges made against W. H. Rector, late Supt. Ind. Aff. in this district, and also his own statement concerning them.
    Unless the act of Congress providing for the issue of legal tender notes is construed as a modification of the act of Aug. 6, 1846 relating to the Treasury Department, Mr. Rector upon his own showing is liable to the criminal prosecution under [section] 16 of the last mentioned act. If the charges be true as made Mr. Rector is not only liable to a criminal prosecution, but he and his sureties are accountable to the U.S. for some $10000, the difference between the value of the gold recd. by him and the value of the legal tender paid out by him.
    I think it my duty to bring this matter to the notice of the Department and shall await instructions before taking any steps in it.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        E. W. McGraw
            U.S. Dist Atty. for Ogn.
Hon. J. P. Usher
    Secy. of the Interior
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1226-1227.  The articles referred to are transcribed above, under date of January 26th.


Explanation.
Portland, Feb. 3rd, 1863.
Messrs. Ladd & Tilton:
    Gentlemen: By a misapprehension in the minds of some as to the true state of facts in relation to certain drafts negotiated by me with your house, I am being misrepresented and placed in very embarrassing circumstances which tend to injure my reputation. I, therefore, in justice to myself and the public, respectfully ask you to make a full statement of the facts in the case, and also state whether I have received any premium or bonus arising out of the transaction. Hoping this just request will be granted,
I remain, very respectfully
    Wm. H. Rector
        Supt. Indian Affairs
----
Portland, Feb. 3rd, 1863.
Wm. H. Rector, Esq.:
    Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dear Sir:--Yours of even date herewith, relative to the purchase of certain drafts from you on the United States Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco, is at hand. Your transactions relative thereto with us were as follows:
    On the 8th of November last, Mr. Rector informed us that he had to his credit at San Francisco, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, about $70,000, and wished us to cash the same. We informed him that we would purchase his drafts, but could not give him the full amount just at that time, but would give him all that he required for immediate use, and the balance so soon as we should receive it, as we had in transitu from New York a large amount of funds in legal tender notes. Mr. Rector replied that the creditors of the Department were clamorous for their pay, and he could not wait. We then told him we would send the drafts to San Francisco and charge him freight and insurance on the amount not furnished him here. Mr. Rector replied he could do no better, but thought the government would not allow the charges, viz, freight and insurance, but would probably allow his traveling expenses, provided he went to San Francisco to receive the balance of it. Whereupon Mr. Rector made sale to us of the drafts, on the terms proposed, and we advanced him $10,000 in legal tender notes, he promising to forward the drafts to us immediately upon his arrival at Salem. On the 10th of November we wrote to him requesting that if the drafts had not already been sent forward to send them at once, as there was a possibility of receiving some coin in payment for them. In compliance, Mr. Rector sent us a Treasury warrant for $66,300 and his check for $5,700 on the Assistant Treasurer at San Francisco, amounting to $72,000, for which we paid him $38,000 in legal tender notes and $2,000 in coin at our office in this city, and $31,400 in legal tender notes at San Francisco. This is the whole transaction between Mr. Rector and ourselves, and so far as we know, no advantage has accrued to Mr. Rector, either directly or indirectly, by reason thereof.
Very respectfully &c.
    Ladd & Tilton
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 7, 1863, page 3



    SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.--The Bulletin's telegram from Washington says the Senate confirmed the nomination of Harrington of Oregon as Superintendent of Indian Affairs. It should be J. W. P. Huntington of Umpqua, as he is the gentleman who is probably appointed to succeed Mr. Rector, who has been removed--for what cause we know not.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 7, 1863, page 2



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon Feby. 11th 1863
Sir
    I herewith transmit the voucher of W. H. Spencer for $200.54 issued and certified to by Benj. R. Biddle as Indian agent.
    Mr. Biddle was relieved from duty Oct. 16th 1862 by James B. Condon, consequently the services of Mr. Spencer from Oct. 16 to 30th Nov. inclusive were rendered Mr. Biddle after he turned over to Mr. Condon.
    I submit the matter for your consideration.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
[voucher not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1310-1312.


Grand Ronde Agency
    Feb. 11, 1863
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit [my] first report. The manual labor school at this place was organized on the first of October with six children.
    The number soon increased to twenty and has averaged that up to this date.
    They are about equally divided as to sex and range in ages from seven to eleven.
    We found it quite a difficult task to persuade the Indians to consign to us the custody of their children, but by a course of kind and gentle treatment we have succeeded in taming the little ones and winning the entire confidence of their parents. They all had no knowledge of the English language, or of the alphabet, when I commenced with them. However they manifest a determination to learn, and already they have progressed so far as to be able to spell in words of two syllables and read easy lessons very well.
    As a part of the exercises English words are translated into Chinook, a jargon spoken by all tribes here.
    They practice singing simple though interesting and instructive little songs; also they are drilled in calisthenics.
    Thus by making their exercises interesting and attractive, at the sound of the bell they all hasten to the schoolroom and seem never to tire of their books.
    Mrs. Sawtelle has the general management of the housekeeping and instructs the little girls in all the useful domestic employments.
    Kitty Johns, an intelligent Indian woman, is employed as assistant teacher. Habits of industry, regularity and cleanliness are cultivated, demonstrating the advantages of a civilized life over those of a savage one.
    The school buildings are located on a beautiful stream of water. The land is apparently rich, and preparations are being made to cultivate sufficiently to supply the institution with grain and vegetables.
C. M. Sawtelle
    Superintendent
J. B. Condon
    U.S. Ind. Agt.
        Grand Ronde Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Feb. 18th / 63
Mr. Condon
    Dear Sir I have hired Indian Perry for 6 months, and he wishes me to say to you that if you will exempt him from the spring sowing on the reservation that he will supply his place with one of the boys, Dick or Lish. If you desire him at the reservation he wishes the boy Dick to work in his place here until he gets through up there. Please let me know whether the above will be satisfactory or not. It is desirable on my part to have one of them to go to plowing as soon as the weather will admit. Send me a note by returning Indian.
Yours respectfully
    H. N. V. Holmes
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



The Necessity for a Military Post at Klamath Lake.
Camp Baker, Oregon.
    February 20, 1863.
    GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your request of the 27th ultimo for a sketch of the Klamath Lake country, and for my views as to the necessity for a military post there, and, in compliance, very respectfully submit the following.
* * *
    If I have treated the subject under discussion more fully than its merits have heretofore seemed to require, or should it appear that I have exceeded the proper limits of your inquiry, I beg that you will not attribute to me any want of respect to my superiors, or any intentional officiousness in laying before you some facts that are not of record at department headquarters and are not now specifically called for. My chief desire in the premises is to render all the service in my power during the short period in which I am likely to have the opportunity to render any at all, and as I have been personally cognizant of all that has transpired of a hostile character in this region of country since its earliest settlement, I may seem unduly zealous in representing its necessities. But I trust not. Rather that, however, than that I should hereafter be considered as having neglected to perform a well-known duty.
* * *
    I have been more thorough in my observations concerning the old route (the Southern Oregon emigration road) via "Applegate Pass," and have noted distances beyond the points of your inquiry, in order that it might the more readily appear how important it is that this road should be kept open to the overland emigration, as well as to show its value as a public thoroughfare to and from the Humboldt and Washoe mines for nearly all of Oregon and a large portion of California.
    Military protection is not a necessity of recent or present origin, as I will endeavor to demonstrate before I close this report by citing the actual murders of which it has been the scene, but a necessity of at least sixteen years standing, for travel upon it since its first exploration, in 1846, by Jesse Applegate, Esq., has never been secure from depredations by the Indians, except for large parties who were more or less acquainted with their character, and kept continually guarded against them.
    What is true, in this respect, of this route, is also true of all others which traverse the country in any direction whatever between the Upper Willamette, Umpqua, Rogue River and Shasta valleys, and the Humboldt region and its entire vicinity.
    The new wagon route from Yreka northward, via the Klamath lakes to its intersection with the Dalles trail, thence the old trail to Deschutes River, and thence the trail of Ross towards the John Day River, stand next in importance to the Southern Oregon emigrant road as public thoroughfares, as these are the most direct overland routes from Northern California and Southern and Middle Oregon to all the region of country known as the Salmon mines.

* * *
    With regard to the necessity for, and the location of, a military post in the Klamath Lake region, I have to report that I deem it indispensable to the public safety in this vicinity that a post should be established there at the earliest date practicable, whether the treaty with the Indians (the authority for which is now pending in Congress) is effected or not.
* * *
    Having represented the Indians in the Klamath Lake region as justly denominated hostile, and that a military post there is absolutely necessary, I will now cite such murders as they are known to have committed within the few years past to illustrate, as fully as possible, the actual condition of affairs under consideration, and that the service suggested is of the greatest public importance.
    The Klamath Lake, Modoc and Piute Indians, so far as relates to their general character, are virtually one tribe, and none of them are in the least reliable for any good whatever. On the contrary, it is susceptible of the clearest demonstration that they are a horde of piratical thieves, highwaymen and murderers--cowardly sycophants before the white man's face, and perfidious assassins behind his back. Their history, so far as is generally known, begins with the summer of 1846--the date of the first overland emigration via what is now known as the Southern Oregon emigrant road. Their operations that year were mainly of a thieving character, the emigration having been a surprise to them, and allowing no time to mature a concert of action for more bloody purposes, such as they adopted in subsequent years. They made a beginning, however, by murdering one, if not more of that year's emigration, and committing many thefts and robberies. Their point for attack was at a place on Rhett or Tule Lake, now known as "Bloody Point," and situated ten miles southeast of the "Natural Bridge" on Lost River.
    The following year, 1847, Levi Scott, of Oregon, and of the previous year's emigration, returned with a small party along this route to make further explorations, but on arriving near Goose Lake was attacked by Indians, wounded, and had one of his party, named Garrison, killed. At the same time an entire train--twenty-three persons or upwards--were massacred at Bloody Point.
    In 1849 another train, of eighteen or more persons, were also massacred at the same place.
    September 26, same year, Captain Warner, of the U.S. Engineer Corps, and several of his party, were murdered near Goose Lake.
    In 1851 Charles Smith, Reason Haines and ------ Terwilliger were murdered near the head of Deschutes River.
    In August, 1852, John Ormsby, James Long, Felix Martin, Mr. Coats, Mr. Wood and thirty-four of the overland emigration were murdered at Bloody Point. Ormsby, Long and Coats were citizens of Yreka, and, in company with several others, had gone out to protect some friends whom they expected overland against the identical Indians by whom they themselves were murdered. Martin and Wood were of the emigration, as were the thirty-four not accounted by name. It is very evident, however, that the murders here reported fall far short of the actual numbers committed. Such was the opinion at that time of those who visited the scene and buried such of the bodies as they happened to find.
    Two volunteer companies from Yreka, under Charles McDermit, now major, 2nd Cav. C.V., and Ben. Wright, subsequently Indian agent, and murdered by Rogue River Indians, February, 1856, and one company from Jacksonville, under Col. John E. Ross, proceeded to the scene of slaughter with all possible dispatch. These were soon followed by Major Fitzgerald, U.S.A., with a detachment of dragoons. The companies from Yreka arrived just in time to save the complete destruction of a train of sixteen wagons and about sixty persons. These companies found and buried thirty-nine bodies. The body of one female only was found, and none of children, though evidences were numerous that numbers of each had been murdered. The hair from a woman's head was found in one of the Indian camps then deserted, and various articles pertaining to the nursery were also found in the same and similar places. Subsequently, too, the Indians of Umpqua Valley exhibited an unusual number of dresses and other articles of female apparel, which they alleged they had obtained from the Indians at Klamath Lake.
    It was the belief of the relieving parties, and of many of the emigration who had an opportunity to know much about it, that as many or more persons than are here reported were murdered whose bodies were not found, and it is probable that this estimate is not more than correct. If so, the total is at least seventy-eight.
    In 1853 the Indians were anticipated in their designs by a volunteer force being sent to meet the emigration before its arrival at the usual points of attack. The result was [that] it passed unharmed.
* * *
    In January, 1854, Hiram Hulen, J. Clark, J. Oldfield and Wesley Mayden, of Shasta Valley, were murdered near Lower Klamath Lake while in pursuit of horses which the Indians had stolen and were driving away.
    June 15th the pack train of Gage & Claymer was attacked and captured on the post road over the Siskiyou Mountains, between Yreka and Jacksonville, and Mr. Gage was killed. The main object of the attack was to obtain ammunition, of which the Indians secured an ample quantity. The designs of the Indians to again waylay the emigrant road were frustrated by another volunteer force being sent there by the Governor of Oregon, and the emigration came through safely.
    September 2nd, however, on the Middle Oregon route, ------ Stewart was murdered while going out to meet some friends whom he desired to have come in by that road.
    In 1855, September 2nd, Granville M. Keene was murdered near the mouth of Applegate Pass, while, with others, he was in pursuit of horses the Indians had stolen.
    September 24th they waylaid the post road over the Siskiyou Mountains again, and murdered Calvin M. Field and John Cunningham, and next day Samuel Warner, near the same spot.
    No military force being provided for the emigrant route this year, it was effectually blockaded, and no emigration allowed to pass over it.
    In 1856 a volunteer force was sent by the Governor of California into the Klamath Lake country, and the route fully protected.
    In 1857 no force of any kind was sent there, and the road was again effectually blockaded.
    In September, 1858, Felix Scott and seven other persons were murdered near Goose Lake, and several thousand dollars' worth of blooded horses captured. Other parties were also robbed of much valuable stock at the same time.
    In 1859 the Piutes turned their attention towards the settlement of Honey Lake Valley and "Gravelly Ford," on the Humboldt. Of the depredations they committed there I have no accurate memoranda. That they were considerable, however, both upon life and property, cannot be questioned.
    In 1860, August ----, Eli Ledford, Samuel Probst, James Crow, S. F. Conger and James Brown were murdered in Rancheria Prairie, thirty-five miles east of Jacksonville, and close upon the eastern border of the settlements of Rogue River Valley.
* * *
    In 1861 Lieut. Alex. Piper, 3rd U.S. Artillery, with sixty-two men, was stationed for a few months in the Klamath Lake country.
* * *
    But the result was less beneficial beyond the point where Lieutenant Piper was stationed, for near Goose Lake Joseph Bailey, Samuel Evans and Edward Simms were murdered, John Sheppard and others badly wounded, and nine hundred and ten head of fine cattle taken.
* * *
    The aggregate of all these murders is one hundred and twelve, exclusive of the estimate for the year 1852--thirty-nine--and the number of Warner's party, who shared his fate. Assuming this estimate to be correct, and it is very evident that it is not any too large, and independent of the number of Warner's party, of which I have no data for an estimate, and the aggregate is increased to one hundred and fifty-one.
    How many were wounded during the commission of these murders, some mortally, and others maimed for life perhaps, and escaped, it is of course impossible to say. Two for every one killed is probably a fair estimate. This would give three hundred at least, and a total of killed and wounded of four hundred and fifty-one--equal to twenty-eight per annum for the last sixteen years.
    The value of property destroyed during this period cannot fall short of three hundred thousand dollars. The loss to citizens of this vicinity alone, to which there are witnesses yet living, exceeds seventy thousand dollars, probably.
    All these murders and depredations have been committed without the least provocation, and in no instance have the Indians been punished. Success has rendered them more and more insolent and defiant, and consequently the more formidable and dangerous enemies.
* * *
    The Indians with whom I have recommended treaties being made at the earliest date possible are La Lake's and Old George's bands of Klamaths, the Modocs, and Oualuck's band, located in Eureka Valley, further northward, nearer the latitude of the Dalles. From the best information obtainable, there are of these several bands something over nine hundred warriors in times of comparative peace. This number, however, would be greatly augmented in a time of declared war by acquisitions from the Pit River, Piutes and roaming bands of Snakes.
    In a military point of view, these Indians occupy a strip of country in the direct line of the settlements of the Upper Willamette, Umpqua and Rogue River valleys in Oregon, and Shasta Valley in California--the line of division being only the range of mountains which skirt these valleys along their eastern boundaries, and through which there are numerous passes leading direct from the Indian country into all of them. Of these passes, which are in general use by the Indians, there are three leading into the Willamette Valley, one into the Umpqua, three into Rogue River, and three into Shasta and Cottonwood valleys, and all are of a character to afford the most ample cover to the approach of an enemy to the very borders of each of the settlements. There is not a neighborhood in any of the valleys named that could not be penetrated by the Indians from these passes to its very center in a single night, and ample time left to make a safe retreat back to them before morning.
    By good leadership, and a concert of action on the part of the four bands of Indians named, all the settlements of these valleys might be seriously damaged, if not nearly destroyed, before any organization for defense could possibly be made, or assistance rendered from any military post. This is the only military station upon this exposed line of frontier extending from the northward of where the Middle Oregon emigrant road enters the Willamette Valley, southward to the head of Shasta Valley, in California--a distance of over four hundred miles. In case of an emergency, such as may at any time occur, Fort Vancouver, three hundred miles to the northward, and Fort Crook, one hundred and seventy miles southward, are the only posts from which this could be reinforced, and in the event of reinforcements being necessary, it is hardly probable that they could be obtained from either, as at Fort Vancouver very few troops are ever stationed at a time of year when their services would be required here, and at Fort Crook a sufficient number only are kept to hold in check the Pit River and other Indians of that immediate neighborhood.
    All of which is respectfully submitted.
    I have the honor to be, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. S. DREW,
    Major 1st Cav. O.V.
Brigadier General GEORGE WRIGHT,
    Commanding Department of the Pacific.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 18, 1863, page 1  Superintendent Huntington sent a clipping of this article to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with his letter of September 28, transcribed below; it was published with the Commissioner's report for 1863, pages 56-60.



Portland Feby. 17th, 1863
The Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir
        You will please find a copy of the license from W. H. Rector to me to keep and maintain a ferry on the Willamette River, and land upon and use the reservation. Please approve and send back as soon as convenient.
Very respectfully
    Joseph Knott
   
State of Oregon        )
Multnomah County  )  ss.
    R. J. Ladd, being duly sworn, says that the within is a true copy of an original license issued by Wm. H. Rector, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Oregon, issued under his hand and seal. [I] have carefully compared the same with the original and know it to be a true copy.
R. J. Ladd
    Subscribed and sworn to before me this 26th day of February A.D. 1863. Witness my hand and the seal of the circuit court of the state of Oregon for the county of Multnomah hereto affixed the day and year above written.
J. M. Breck, Clerk Circuit Court
    by W. S. Caldwell
        Deputy
   
    Know all men by these presents that Joseph Knott and his assigns and associates are hereby licensed, authorized and empowered to establish, keep and maintain a ferry at the Indian reservation on the Willamette River in Multnomah County known and designated on the plats and maps of the United States as lot number (5) five of section (35) thirty-five, township No. (1) one south range No. (1) one east, containing 3.87 acres, and for that purpose to establish such roads over said reservation to and from said ferry landing as may be necessary, and to take hold and keep so much of said land as may be necessary for the purposes herein set forth, subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
In witness where I have
hereunto set my hand officially
this 23rd day of February 1863.
Wm. H. Rector
    Superintendent of Indian
        Affairs Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1216-1219.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon February 24th 1863
Sir
    I have this day granted permission to Joseph Knott of the city of Portland to establish a ferry landing on the reservation belonging to the Indian Department near Milwaukie. This reservation was selected and purchased by Anson Dart, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in the year 1851, and is designated on the plats as Lot 5 Section 35 Township 1 South Range 1 East and originally contained 3.87 acres.
    All the improvements which Superintendent Dart had made thereon were washed away during the flood of 1861. It has become necessary for public convenience to establish a ferry across the Willamette at this point, and I have granted Mr. Knott the privilege of entering upon and enjoying the privileges of a ferry landing subject to your approval. The property in its present condition is of but little value, and I would recommend that measures be taken at an early day to dispose of the same. I hope that my action in granting Mr. Knott the privilege may have your approval.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. H. Rector
                Superintendent Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1320-1322.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 4th 1863
Sir
    Yours of the 28th ult. relative to the abandonment of Fort Hoskins and the removal of the detachment from Fort Yamhill to Siletz Agency has been received and duly considered. In reply I would say that the abandonment of Fort Hoskins would not be prejudicial to the Indian service in that locality. I have always regarded the location of this post as very unfortunate and not calculated to render the protection desired. Under date of Feb. 10th I transmitted a letter to Col. Cady embracing my visit on this subject; a copy of the letter is herewith enclosed for your inspection. I am of the opinion that one company of soldiers would be amply sufficient for the protection of both agencies provided those designed for Siletz were stationed near the agency. The Indian tribes located on Yamhill reservation are further advanced in civilization than any other tribes, and there is less actual necessity for troops at that station. Yet in order to maintain its present prosperous condition I would recommend that a small detachment remain at that post for the present at least. Under our present agency system the agents have but little authority or power without military force to compel obedience to their orders. The punishment of Indians for all offenses is entrusted to the military, and without some force in remaining it might embarrass the agent. The road which you have in contemplation from Fort Yamhill to Siletz I regard as a very important thing, yet I have my doubts as to whether it is practicable to make a wagon road between those points. Were I to remain in office it would afford me pleasure to cooperate with you in this improvement and to render such assistance as would be in my power. Trusting that these views may be satisfactory,
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs O.
Gen. Benj. Alvord
    Commandg. Dept. Oregon
        Fort Vancouver W.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 316-317.



Camp Baker, Oregon
    March 8th, 1863.
Dear Sir:
    I take the liberty to send you a few extracts from my report to General Wright--20th ultimo--relative to the necessity for a military post in the Klamath Lake country, the disposition of the Indians, &c., &c.
    "With regard to the necessity for, and the location of, a military post in the Klamath Lake region, I have to report that I deem it indispensable to the public safety in this vicinity that a post should be established there at the earliest date practicable, whether a treaty with the Indians--the authority for which is now pending in Congress--is effected or not. . . .
    "The section of country I propose for the Indian reservation borders on and lies due west of Upper or Big Klamath Lake and extending westward to the summit of the Cascade Mountains. This would give the Indians (Klamaths & Modocs) all the hunting ground they now use, and their usual advantages for fishing. . . .
    "The Klamath Lakes, Modocs and Piute Indians, so far as relates to their general character, are virtually one tribe, and none of them are in the least reliable for any good whatever. On the contrary it is susceptible of the clearest demonstration that they are a horde of practical thieves, highwaymen and murderers--cowardly sycophants before the white man's face, and perfidious assassins behind his back.
    "Their history, so far as generally known, begins with the summer of 1846--the date of the first overland emigration via what is now known as the Southern Oregon Emigrant Road. Their operations that year were mainly of a thieving character--the emigration having been a surprise to them, and allowing no time to mature a concert of action for more bloody purposes, such as they adopted in subsequent years. They made a beginning, however, by murdering one--if not more--of that year's emigration, and committing many thefts and robberies.
    "The following year--1847--Levi Scott, of Oregon, and of the emigration of the previous year, returned with a small party along this route to make further explorations, but on arriving at Goose Lake was attacked by the Indians, wounded, and had one of his party--Garrison--killed. About the same time a train of twenty-three persons was massacred at Bloody Point.
    "In 1849, another train--about eighteen persons--were massacred at the same place, and
    "September 26, same year, Captain Warner, U.S. Engineer Corps, and several of his party were murdered east of Goose Lake.
    "In 1851, Charles Smith, Reason Haines and ------ Terwilliger were murdered near the head of Deschutes River.
    "In August 1852, John Ormsby, James Long, Felix Martin, Mr. Coats, Mr. Wood and thirty-four of the overland emigration were murdered at Bloody Point.
    "Ormsby, Long and Coats were citizens of Yreka, and in company with several others had gone out to protect some friends whom they expected overland against the identical Indians by whom they themselves were murdered. Martin and Wood were of the emigration, as were the thirty-four not accounted by name. It is very evident, however, that the murders here reported fall far short of the actual number committed. Such was the opinion at that time of those who visited the scene and buried such of the bodies as they happened to find.
    "These companies (from Yreka & Jacksonville) found and buried thirty-nine bodies. The body of one female only was found, and none of children, though evidences that numbers of each had been murdered were numerous.
    "It was the belief of the relieving parties, and of many of the emigration who had any opportunity to know much about it, that as many or more persons than are here reported were murdered whose bodies were not found, and it is more than probable that this estimate is not more than correct. If so the total is at least seventy-eight.
    "In 1853, the Indians were anticipated in their designs by a volunteer force being sent to meet the emigration before its arrival at the usual points for attack. The result was [that] it passed in unharmed. . . .
    "In 1854, January, Hiram Hulen, J. Clark, J. Oldfield and Wesley Mayden, of Shasta Valley, were murdered near Lower Klamath Lake while in pursuit of horses, which the Indians had stolen and were driving away.
    "June 15--The pack train of Gage & Claymer was attacked
and captured on the post road over the Siskiyou Mountains, between Jacksonville and Yreka, and Mr. Gage was killed. The main object of the attack was to obtain ammunition, of which the Indians secured an ample quantity. The designs of these Indians to again waylay the emigration was frustrated by another volunteer force being sent there by the governor of Oregon, and it came safely through.
    "September 2, however, on the Middle Oregon route, Stewart, of Corvallis, was murdered while going out to meet some friends whom he desired to have come in by that road.
    "In 1855, September 2, Granville M. Keene was murdered near the mouth of Applegate Pass, while, with others, he was in pursuit of horses the Indians had stolen.
    "[September] 24th the Indians again waylaid the post road over the Siskiyou Mountains, and murdered Calvin M. Fields and John Cunningham, and next day--25th--Samuel Warner, near the same place. No military force being provided for the Southern Oregon Emigrant Road this year, it was effectually blockaded, and no emigration allowed to pass over it.
    "In 1856 a volunteer force was sent into the Klamath Lake country by the governor of California, and the emigrant route fully protected.
    "In 1857, no force of any kind being sent there, the road was again effectually blockaded.
    "In 1858--about September15--Felix Scott and seven other persons were murdered near Goose Lake, and several thousand dollars' worth of blooded horses captured. Other parties were also robbed of much valuable stock at the same time.
    "In 1859 the Piutes turned their attention towards the settlement of Honey Lake Valley, and 'Gravelly Ford,' on the Humboldt. Of the depredations they committed there I have no accurate memoranda. That they were considerable, however, both upon life and property, cannot be questioned.
    "In 1860--August--Eli Ledford, Samuel Probst, James Crow, S. F. Conger, and James Brown were murdered in Rancheria Prairie, thirty-five miles east of Jacksonville, and close upon the eastern border of the settlements of Rogue River Valley. This is wholly chargeable to the Klamath Lake Indians. . . .
    "In 1861 Lieut. Alexander Piper, third United States artillery, with 62 men, was stationed for a few months in the Klamath Lake country, and they relieved the people of Rogue River Valley and Siskiyou County, California from apprehension of Indian forays for that season. But the result was less beneficial beyond the point where Lieut. Piper was stationed, for near Goose Lake Joseph Bailey, Samuel Evans and Edward Simms were murdered, John Sheppard and others wounded and nine hundred and ten head of fine cattle taken. . . .
    "The aggregate of these murders is one hundred and twelve, exclusive of the estimate for the year 1852--thirty-nine--and the number of Captain Warner's party, who shared his fate. Assuming this estimate to be correct, and it is very evident that it is not any too large, and independent of Warner's party, for which I have no data for an estimate, and the aggregate is increased to one hundred and fifty-one.
    "How many were wounded during the commission of these murders and escaped, some mortally, and others maimed for life, it is impossible to say. Two for every one killed is probably a fair estimate. This would give three hundred at least, and a total of killed and wounded [of] four hundred and fifty-one--equal to twenty-eight per annum for the last sixteen years.
    "The value of property destroyed during this period cannot fall short of three hundred thousand dollars, probably.
    "All of these murders and depredations have been committed without the least provocation, and in no instance have the Indians been punished. Success has rendered them more and more insolent and defiant, and consequently the more dangerous and formidable enemies."
    I have been as thorough in making up my report as the occasion would justify, exceeding to a very considerable extent the limit of the department commander's inquiry. I deemed such a course necessary because it has always suited the purpose of bad men to so misrepresent Indian matters here as to create abroad an incurable prejudice against the state and the belief at Washington and at department headquarters, and even in Oregon outside of this particular locality, that the service I have recommended is wholly unnecessary. Of these matters, however, you are conversant.
I am, very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant,
        C. S. Drew
            Major 1st. Cav. O.V.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 63.  The full letter is online.



Washington March 11th 1863
    Sir        Enclosed please find a certificate of indebtedness issued by Wm. J. Martin, late sub-Indian agent, for fifty-five dollars in favor of Jesse N. Barker for services rendered the Indian Department in 1854.
    The evidence of this claim is certainly very informal, but an actual acquaintance with the parties satisfies me that this claim is just. I respectfully ask a consideration of its merits and if allowed direct the payment to be made to James T. Hembree of Lafayette, Oregon [in] care of myself.
Very respectfully yours
    John R. McBride
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1224-1225.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 12th 1863
Sir
    At the request of John H. Kendall of Corvallis, Oregon, I transmit the enclosed communication for your consideration.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Wm. H. Rector
            Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner
        Washington D.C.
   

Corvallis Oregon
    Mch. 7 1861
Sir
    I desire to be released from the position of security of or for B. R. Biddle, as an agent for Indians on the Siletz or any other reserve, and request you to forward this to the Superintendent in Chief of Indian Affairs for the United States.
Very respectfully
    John H. Kendall
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1329-1331.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. March 17th 1863
Sir
    Having filed your official bonds as Indian agent for the Indians in Oregon, and the same being duly executed and approved, it becomes necessary for me under instructions from the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs to assign you to duty and to furnish you with the necessary instructions. You will at your earliest convenience repair to Siletz Agency on the Coast Reservation and receive from James B. Condon (the agent temporarily in charge) all public moneys and property in his hands pertaining to that agency, giving him the necessary receipts therefor. The management of the Indian tribes located upon this agency will be under your own control, and it is expected that in the discharge of your duties you will adopt such measures as will best promote the interests of the Indian. In view of my vacating this office at an early day, I do not feel at liberty to suggest any course which might conflict with views and opinions of my successor. Yet I will state that I have repeatedly recommended to Mr. Biddle, the former agent, the immediate necessity of opening a good wagon road from the depot on Yaquina Bay to the agency, also the establishment of a salmon fishery at or near the mouth of the bay. The last improvement I have recommended from that fact that [a] large portion of the Indians under your charge will engage in this pursuit cheerfully, and should it prove successful (as I have no doubt it will) it will be a source of great profit to the Department. I would call your particular attention to the oyster beds within your jurisdiction.
    These discoveries have lately been made, and the duty devolves on you as agent for the government to see that they are not interrupted without permission being given. I would be pleased to have you give these several matters your early attention and submit to this office a full report as to their practicability as well as necessity. During the past year this Department has been greatly inconvenienced on account of the depreciation of government currency. The employees of the Department have suffered on this account--and no allowance has as yet been made for the depreciation. It may become necessary for you in order to obtain good competent men in the service to allow additional compensation per annum this matter is left entirely to your own judgment and discretion. Should you however make any allowance you will report your action fully to this office and state in your return of employees the necessity therefor. Trusting that the foregoing may be sufficient to enable you to enter upon the duties assigned you,
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            Wm. H. Rector
                Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Hon. Benj. Simpson
    Grand Ronde
        Polk Co.
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 318-319.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1165-1167.



Department of the Interior
    March 24th 1863.
Sir,
    I return, herewith, the papers which accompanied your letter of the 21st instant, in relation to certified vouchers constituting a portion of the "outstanding liabilities for the Indian service," and requesting me to decide whether said vouchers shall be adjusted, without reference to the alleged fraud of late Supt. Rector, Oregon Superintendency, or await the result of an investigation of said fraud.
    I do not perceive that the services, rendered prior to the appointment of late Supt. Rector, and for which the vouchers were given, have any relation to the transactions of Rector in which fraud is charged; the vouchers may therefore be settled without regard to any contemplated investigation of his conduct.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
Wm. P. Dole Esq.
    Comr. of Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1199-1201.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, March 31, 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that I have received yours of 28th January last, notifying me of my appointment as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon and enclosing my commission and blank bond. I have executed the bond as directed, taken the oath of office before the Hon. M. P. Deady, judge of U.S. District Court, who also certifies to the sufficiency of the sureties, and have this day assumed the duties of the Superintendency.
    Mr. Rector has turned over to me as belonging to the Indian service
    Cash (legal tender notes) $  1442.42
ditto (sight check on Asst. Treasurer New York) $14173.59
Total sixteen thousand six hundred and sixteen 1/100 dollars $16616.01
and various items of property of which a schedule will be forwarded to you.
    I have also further to inform you that I have received your letter of 21st February last (covering copy of letter of same date to Hon. M. P. Deady, U.S. District Judge, and tabular statement of funds remitted) and notifying me that a draft for $62,500 had been forwarded to his care, to be turned over to me when he approved my official bond.
    Judge Deady yesterday handed me the draft for which I gave him duplicate receipts.
    I have appointed Mr. C. S. Woodworth my chief clerk, at a salary of $1800 per annum. He is a gentleman of good abilities and unexceptional [sic] character, and I rely upon him for valuable assistance.
    I shall continue Mr. James Brown in the service as messenger. He has been in the employ of supts. Nesmith, Geary and Rector in that capacity and has acquired a reputation for honesty and efficiency.
    It is but justice to Mr. Rector and his chief clerk, Mr. Thos. McF. Patton, to say that they have been very courteous and obliging in the transfer of the office to me and that the records and accounts of the Superintendency appear to have been well kept and are in excellent condition.
I remain sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt of Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
[abstracts of liabilities not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 874-876.



Jacksonville, Oregon
    April 5th 1863.
Friend Huntington
    Yours of 29th ult. is received, and I am very glad of this pledge of old friendship. Am also glad that you are satisfied about the military appointment.
    I have no information with regard to the passage of the bill for a treaty with the Klamath Lake Indians. The last I heard of it was from Nesmith just after it had passed the Senate. He said then that Wallace would fight its passage by the House. He wrote doubtingly about its final passage, and I incline to the belief that it failed. If so it is unfortunate. I shall [be] glad however if you can do some act with these Indians that will give them some confidence in the stability and justness of the government, even in the absence of authority to treat with them. They are very anxious to have a talk with me, but as it is not in my line, and as I have nothing of any pecuniary value to give or promise them, I have given them no audience whatever.
    Rogers has no influence over them, nor can he have any in the absence of funds for their benefit. I have taken the responsibility to direct the issue of 500 lbs. flour to him for them, they not knowing that it was from the military and not the Indian Department that they received it. I deemed this the better course to cause them to rely wholly upon your department for all negotiation or favors.
    I write briefly today as I leave tomorrow for San Francisco with estimate for new post. Shall be gone about four weeks.
    I hope to be retained in command here for the present. Aid me in this if you can, and I shall be under great obligation to you.
    Shall be very glad if we can cooperate in matters here.
Yours truly
    C. S. Drew
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Salem Ogn. April 6th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my final accounts as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state and trust that they may receive an early examination. In closing my official correspondence with your office, I take the liberty of addressing a few remarks to you in relation to Indian affairs in this jurisdiction. While I am most happy to be relieved from the duties incumbent upon me, I regret very much that I have come so far short of being understood by your office, or if understood so wholly discredited. In the discharge of my duties I have studiously endeavored to carry out the instructions emanating from your office faithfully and honestly, and in doing so it became necessary to cross the path of ambitious politicians and heartless speculators whose only thought or care is to advance their ends and accumulate the spoils. In order to rid the Department of such evils in the future, I have recommended to your office what would in my judgment to some extent obviate the wrongs heretofore perpetrated. In support of those recommendations I gave some reasons which necessarily reflected on the past abuses of the Indian service, and it may be that in so doing I have trod on some gentleman's toes. If so, I have only to say that it was not intentional on my part, but only designed to prevent a similar repetition of wrongs in the future. My unwavering confidence in the integrity of your office--in the honest intentions to carry out to the fullest extent the various treaties with the Indian tribes--gives me courage to invite and earnestly recommend an immediate investigation of Indian affairs in Oregon and Washington Territory. For this purpose I would recommend that a commission be appointed at an early day, and that the commission be chosen from some of the Atlantic states to consist of men of integrity and honor and free from any and all political interests connected with the Indian Department. I make this recommendation as a citizen who has an interest in common with others in the peace and prosperity of the country. We have all suffered in times past from the effects of Indian wars, except such as rely and depend on troubles of this kind to swell their coffers. The appointment of a commission I firmly believe will result in great practical good to the government and at the same time be a simple act of justice to myself.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Wm. H. Rector
            Late Supt. Indian Affairs
                Oregon
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1335-1338.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem April 6th 1863
Sir
    After examining the claim of Levi Kent (assigned to you by Geo. W. Snyder) for spoliation committed by Rogue River Indians I regret to say that in my opinion it is of no value for the following reasons, to wit:
    1st. It does not appear from the papers that the persons upon whom the depredations was committed had license or authority to travel in the Indian country.
    2nd. The act of June 30th 1834 upon which the claim is based expressly provides that no claim for spoliation shall be allowed unless the same is prosecuted with proof to the Department within three years from the date of depredation.
    There are also deficiencies in the proof and assignment which I will not now enumerate, as the above reasons appear to me sufficient to invalidate it. If you desire it I will send the claim to the Department at Washington for their decision, but I recommend you to first perfect the proofs.
    As you intend to be in Salem in a short time I will retain the papers until you call and confer with me more fully about them.
    Yours very respectfully
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Suprt. Indian Affairs
James Heatherly Esq.
    Eugene City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 325-326.



Corvallis 7th April 63
Dear Supt.
    I am glad that you are so conveniently situated as that I may occasionally still enjoy your society. With "Old Garden" at the fort & yourself at the agency, I can be at no loss to select a trip for recreation when an interval in business occurs. And whenever you can spare a short time from any other friend, or from duty, be assured you shall find hospitality with me, and that I shall feel more than repaid by the pleasure of your society here.
    Tututni Jerry, the bearer of this, has worked a little for me very faithfully, and expressed himself desirous to work for me during the summer. I can employ him profitably, and should you think best to give him a pass to work for me, say three months, I shall feel obliged. 'Twere all the better to give him some instruction, as to behavior &c., although I think him more reliable than most Indians. If he can come, pray send him out to me forthwith.
    You may command any favor which I can confer upon you here, with the assurance that I shall take pleasure in complying with your wishes.
Yours truly
    J. S. Coombs
Hon. B. Simpson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Grand Ronde Agency
    April 15th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to submit my second quarterly report.
    The school under my charge has been in constant operation from its commencement. All of the original number are still with us, excepting three girls and one boy who left on account of sickness, promising to return as soon as they shall have recovered.
    The Indians seem pleased with the wonderful change in their children, and whites visiting the school express surprise at the progress they are making in their studies.
    Reading, writing and spelling are the principal exercises, at present, in the schoolroom.
    The little girls are found quite apt at sewing and knitting and render some assistance in the culinary department.
    The garden bids fair to furnish an abundance of vegetables, and with fresh butter and milk the children will not lack a healthy, nutritious diet.
    Order is observed in all our transactions and the little fellows come to their respective employments with pleasure.
    They are obedient at all times and attentive to their studies.
    The cloth and calico for summer is mostly made up, and the children seem highly pleased with their clean "Boston" costumes, and appear to appreciate your determination to elevate them.
C. M. Sawtelle
    Superintendent
        Ind. M. L. School
J. B. Condon
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



New York, April 18th 1863.
Mr. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Dr. Sir--
            At the instance of Mr. Anson Dart we ask of you the favor to ascertain for us if there is a balance standing on the books of the Treasury Department in his favor of $820 found April 3rd 1862, which has been paid and which ought to have been paid.
    We are sorry to seek to trouble you and we only do so for the benefit of Mr. Dart, for whom we believe you feel some kindness.
We are
    Yours respectfully
        Morgan & Smith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1232-1233.  The signer may be "Magan & Smith," but I could find no such firm in New York city directories.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, April 21, 1863.
Sir
    I desire to call your attention to the large number of claims against the Indian Department contracts by the different agents, which have been transmitted to your office by my predecessor, Mr. Rector.
    I am unable to ascertain from the files and records of this office what disposition has been made of most of those claims. A few appear to have been paid, but I can find no data in regard to most of them showing whether they have been paid or rejected, or indeed whether they have ever been received at your office at all.
    The claimants are clamorous for money and constantly annoy this office with letters and personal calls, to which I can give no satisfactory answer. I have not considered it my duty to investigate these claims and can express no opinion as to their merits, but in justice to the claimants they should be examined and the result communicated to them without any further delay.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 903-904.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon April 24, 1863.
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 21st March last, covering notices to A. D. Barnard, John H. Kendall, Eldridge Hartless and Rowland Chambers, informing them of the removal of Agent B. R. Biddle, and directing me to forward the said notices to the parties.
    I have this day mailed them to the post office address of the gentleman named.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 890-891.



    To the U.S. Indian Agent in charge of Grand Ronde Reservation, Yamhill County, Oregon.
    The undersigned respectfully represent that there are a number of Indians about Oregon City who properly belong upon your reservation and have become a great nuisance to the citizens here, particularly by reason of their keeping a number of worthless dogs, which have killed a large number of sheep belonging to farmers in the vicinity, and we respectfully demand the immediate removal of said Indians to the reservation.
    Oregon City April 28th 1863.
    Z. S. Dotson Edward A. Barnes
Pat K. Bingham Thomas V. Smith
G. G. Smith J. M. Frazier
A. L. Lovejoy Charles Cool
Thos. Charman E. D. Kelly
D. W. Craig J. R. Ralston
John Fleming T. J. McCarver
J. W. Ross Jos. D. Lacy
M. F. Mulkey Josiah Howell
Wm. P. Burns Jas. W. Gamble
Wm. Taylor
D. P. Thompson
J. E. Hurford
John Myers
Wm. Eliott
Mercein Barry
P. Hurley
A. Hart
Leonard Wheeler
Orlan Bidwell
William Smith
W. Rust
B. A. Hughes
Wm. Chinn
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Jacksonville Oregon May 1st 1863
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of a letter from your predecessor, enclosing back to me for correction my accounts for 2nd, 3rd & 4th quarters of last year. This letter was received by me on the 8th of March and should have been answered ere this only that at the time I was suffering from a rheumatic attack in my right shoulder and arm, and am now barely able to write.
    The instructions contained in this letter with reference to corrections and additions vary so much from former instructions as also they seem to me to be incomplete and altogether so unsatisfactory that I have determined with your permission to visit your office in person for the purpose of becoming more thoroughly acquainted with the regulations and requirements of the Indian Service in the line of my duty and for the further purpose of conferring with you in person touching some line of policy to be adopted toward the Klamath Lake Indians. It seems to me very manifest that the Indian Department should, if possible, immediately do something in this quarter.
    A military post is about to be established in the Klamath Lake country, which of course will afford protection in some measure to persons settling or desiring to pass through the country, but the trouble is then not removed. There are a number of roving bands of "Klamaths" and "Modocs" (the latter inhabit the Clear Lake country) who, immediately on the removal of the Rogue Rivers in 1856, commenced encroaching upon the settlements until now "Indians" are nearly as numerous and quite as troublesome in Jackson County as previous to the war of 1855-6. These bands collectively number some 350 to 400, including women and children. I submit that the inhabitants of these southern counties should not in justice be subjected to the annoyance consequent upon their being allowed to remain among them.
    They say if the government will treat with them and purchase their lands, they will readily go onto a reservation, but until this is done they can live easier, as they claim, by having access to the settlements.
    By this intercourse they obtain ammunition and arms, not only for themselves, but I am informed and believe that they carry on quite a brisk trade in this line with the tribes east of the mountains, who rarely venture into the settlements, but who, they boast, will at any time unite with them to make war upon the settlements. They have a commodity for trade that answers even a better purpose than money for procuring ammunition and arms. This nothing more or less than prostitution of their women. We have a large class of dissolute and irresponsible persons among us. I refer to a certain class of our mining population, including Kanakas and Negroes; many of these do not hesitate to intermarry and cohabit with and raise children by squaws. Through these, and still another class, who frequent the Indian ranches, or encampments, for purposes of temporary dissipation, the Indians are frequently supplied with whiskey, and always with ammunition whenever their terms of contract require it. When squaws are sold or traded for wives for white men, Kanakas or Negroes, firearms are not infrequently made a part of the consideration. This, however, is so adroitly managed that it cannot be traced; yet its truth is apparent. The Indian making the contract will so shift the property that by the time it may be discovered it will have passed through a half-dozen hands.
    I conceive comment to be unnecessary. You will readily comprehend the pernicious effect of this sort of intercourse.
    It is a fact well established that these Klamath & Modoc Indians [are] forcing parties to pay tribute who pass through their country. One individual (a Mr. Amerman) with whom I am acquainted, and whom I know to be reliable, informed me that last summer to get a band of two hundred (200) cattle through that country, it cost him upwards of three hundred dollars, paid to Indians.
    Now I would recommend that in absence of a full treaty or the probability of one at present, a stipulation be entered into with these Indians, that they allow themselves to be removed to their own country, there to remain the whole year round, that this extortion from persons passing through their country be stopped, and that they remain our allies, and friendly, in case of a difficulty--which is not improbable--with the "Snakes" and other tribes east of the mountains--the consideration for which to be a partial subsistence to be furnished them by the Indian Department. I think this may be amicably done, and when completed should the Indians fail strictly to adhere to the terms of the contract the military may be called upon to enforce compliance. When this shall be done, the government will have been set right in the matter, and if a difficulty should ensue, it will most clearly be the fault of the Indians. They now consider themselves to have been neglected and are disposed to look with a jealous eye upon those attempting to settle in or pass through their country. Their country is really desirable for settlement. Their jealousy and the known hostility of the Snakes and other tribes adjacent has hitherto prevented the attempt. The immense immigration to this coast this year from the East is another reason why something should be done to open this country.
    If nothing intervenes I shall leave here on the 9th inst. for your place.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Amos E. Rogers
            Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 84.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 924-928.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        May 5, 1863.
Sir,
    I have to inform you that Rev. J. B. A. Brouillet, Vicar General of Diocese of Nisqually, W.T., having proposed in behalf of "the Sisters of Jesus and Mary" to build a school house and teach a manual labor school therein for the Indians of Grand Ronde Reservation, I enclose the form of said proposed contract [below] for your consideration and action in the premises.
    You will consider and decide upon the propriety of entering into the measure proposed with said "Sisters," the Vicar General having already arranged for two similar schools to be taught by the oblates in Washington Territory, and with this fact before you, you will decide upon the desirableness, or otherwise, or consummating the contract now proposed for Grand Ronde Indians in your Superintendency.
    The Umpquas and Calapooias, with the Molels, are the only tribes on the reservation having at present any funds for educational purposes--to wit:
Umpquas and Calapooias
    "to pay for teacher, furniture and school books $1075.00 
    "building smith shop, hospital and school house 4277.65"
Molels
    "for establishing of manual labor school 1750.00"
These are balances unexpended 30th June last of an annual appropriation for the objects named, viz $1450.
    This will impose on you the necessity, if you enter into the contract, of convening the above-named tribes and seeing how much each tribe will consent to give for the school buildings--which should not cost in all on our part over $2000--and how much each will give for teaching the school therein, and you will also need to have an express understanding with the Umpquas, Calapooias and Molels as to whether they will consent to have the children of those having no educational funds, but who are "confederated tribes," enjoy the privilege of the school, and if so how many scholars each tribe may send--also how many each of those having funds may send. The contract if entered into will be executed by you as Supt. Indian Affairs, also by the authorized person of the second part, and sent to this office for approval.
Very respy.
    Your obt. servt.
        W. P. Dole
            Commissioner
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 91.



    Articles of agreement made and entered into on this [blank] day of [blank] one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three by and between the United States by J. W. P. Huntington, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on behalf of the Indians of Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon of the first part, and "the Sisters of Jesus and Mary" of the second part.
    This indenture witnesseth that the party of the second part hereby covenant and bind themselves as follows, to wit: That they will take charge of the Manual Labor School of the said Grand Ronde Reservation and will receive, board and maintain and educate therein at least (58) fifty-eight scholars, in as nearly equal proportions of both sexes as may be expedient and convenient, or any less number than fifty-eight, if so many cannot be induced to attend, furnishing them with suitable lodgings, good clothing, boarding, books, stationery, medicines and medical attention and all other attendance and things requisite and necessary to make them comfortable.
    The education to be given to the scholars shall comprise instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and such other branches of knowledge as the capacities of the scholars will admit and as the superintendent of the school shall think proper; the males shall also be instructed in agriculture and in the practical use of agricultural implements; the girls shall also be instructed in the various branches of housewifery; the scholars shall remain at the school during such period as the Secretary of the Interior shall think proper; and the superintendent of the school shall make a report quarterly to the Office of Indian Affairs of the number of scholars at the school during the quarter, and annually of the number during the year, when they entered, their progress in the different branches of instruction and the condition and affairs of the school, and she shall carry out all instructions from the Department of the Interior as far as the same shall not be inconsistent with this agreement.
    In consideration of the foregoing the party of the first part hereby agrees and stipulates to pay over to the party of the second part for each scholar so received and taught, per annum, commencing on the date this indenture takes effect, the sum of ($75) seventy-five dollars in semi-annual payments, or at that rate for such portion of the year as the scholars may be in attendance at the school, and for such number as may attend, not exceeding the number of fifty-eight scholars, which payment shall be in full of all expenses of every nature, kind and description whatever for or on account of the scholars in course of educating at said school.
    And it is distinctly understood and agreed that the Department of the Interior will provide the necessary buildings for the said school, provided that the same shall not be at a cost to the Department of more than $2000--the same to be built under the direction and approval of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon. If such buildings are not sufficient, the Sisters will provide for the balance at their own expense, and whatever money they will expend on the buildings will be refunded to them at the expiring of this contract to an amount not to exceed 2000 dollars.
    It is also understood and agreed that the power is reserved to the Department of the Interior to annul this contract at any time and to sever said relation when in its opinion the interests of the Indians require it and the party of the second part is entitled to no damage alleged as resulting therefrom.
    It is also agreed that the party of the second part may at any time be released from a continuation of the services in the aforesaid premises after giving written notice thereof to the Department of the Interior three months beforehand.
    It is furthermore agreed that this contract is not to take effect and be in force until approved by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    In testimony whereof they have hereunto, and to duplicates hereof, set their hands and seals.
    In presence of [space for signatures and seals]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 91.



Corvallis, May 8th / 63
Sir
    The "steward" informs me that three pair of my boots were sold to the soldiers at [the] blockhouse; he don't know how they got them. This makes the number I left with Mr. Condon (8 pair)--three pr. on hand, 1 sold Hill, ditto Leisure, 3 pr. soldiers--I don't write to you to hold you responsible, but to show that the boots, as I state, was left in the care of Mr. Condon, who I presume will render a satisfactory account of both flour & boots.
    I have nothing to do with the present agt. about what I left with Mr. Condon. If you will interest yourself so as to enable me to settle up these little balances, I will reciprocate your kindness when opportunity occurs.
Yours respectfully
    B. W. Biddle
R. P. Earhart, Esq.
    Siletz
        Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



To
    The Honble.
        Superintendent of Indian Affairs
            Oregon
We,
    The undersigned residents of Oregon City, Clackamas County, state of Oregon, understanding that a petition has been addressed to you for the removal of the Indians from this city and county, do respectfully represent that we believe said petition was originated from either frivolous or malicious causes, and as the Indians are generally well behaved and willing to work, request that they be not removed from this place, only as individuals where individual complaints are made.
    Hoping that you will not act on the above-mentioned petition without full investigation and you will oblige the subscribers.
Oregon City
    May 11th 1863
    Arthur Warner, mayor of Oregon City Alden H. Steele, ex-mayor
Forbes Barclay, M.D., city council Wm. P. Burns, sheriff Clackamas
I. L. Barlow, city council Daniel Haney
Wm. Whitlock, city council J. G. Campbell [illegible]
W. W. Buck, city council
John D. Dement, city council
      Thos. Charman, after signing the opposite and finding myself deceived
To
    Huntington Esqr.
        Supt. I. A.
            Portland
                Oregon
    Being informed that the cause of complaint in the petition for the removal of the Indians from this place is without foundation, that the sheep alleged to have been destroyed by the dogs as set forth in first petition were driven to where the dogs are by the owner of said sheep, and further that said sheep ought to be kept by the owner on his own premises and not be suffered to run at large, we therefore withdraw our names from the petition and sign this, the remonstrance.
J. E. Hurford, city recorder of Oregon City
Wm. P. Burns, sheriff of Clackamas County
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



To
    J. B. Condon Esqr.
        Indian Agent State of Oregon
    The undersigned, residents of Oregon City, Clackamas County, state of Oregon, in regard to the removal of the Indians from this city, respectfully submit to your consideration that it is our especial request that certain Indians hereinafter mentioned by name be not included in the number about to be removed, viz:
    Charley and family
    Monday and family
    Joseph and family, including his father, who is very quiet but old and could hardly earn his livelihood alone.
    Mary J., a widow washerwoman
    We would inform you that a petition against the removal of the Indians from this place was forwarded early in the week to the Superintendent of I.A. at Salem, signed by the mayor of this city, the ex-mayor, the sheriff and common council--we would also inform you that in reply to a message telegraphed to the Supt. at Salem yesterday afternoon today in regard to this matter, we received a reply that he was not in town.
    Hoping that you will take the responsibility, in which we assure you our earnest and hearty support, of granting our request, we remain
Respectfully yours
    Forbes Barclay,  M.D.
    Alden H. Steele, M.D.
    J. G. Campbell
    [illegible signature]
Oregon City May 16th 1863
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington D.C. May 20, 1863.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. of Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            Enclosed is a power of attorney from Mr. Frank Cooper of Oregon to Messrs. Murphy & Griswold of New York City for the collection of the amount due upon certain Ind. Dept. vouchers issued by Agent B. R. Biddle to said Cooper in the sum of $1023.14 for packing at the Siletz Indian Reservation in Oregon.
    It is alleged by Cooper that Agent Biddle procured his signature to the blank receipts upon the vouchers, under the representation that his signature must be thus given before Biddle could obtain the money to pay him, and that afterwards, upon demanding the money or the vouchers, Biddle claimed to have paid the same.
    This power of attorney is filed for the purpose of asking a suspension of any allowance or payment to Biddle upon the vouchers of Cooper, and of obtaining payment on the part of Cooper.
    Some affidavits in the matter have been taken, and it is understood the same are filed in your office.
Very respectfully yours
    E. M. Barnum for
        Murphy & Griswold, No. 19 Murray St.
            New York
   
    Know all men by these presents that I, Frank Cooper, of the county of Benton, state of Oregon, have made, constituted and appointed and by these presents do make, constitute and appoint Murphy & Griswold of New York City to be my true and lawful attorneys for me and in my name, place and stead to ask for, demand and collect from the government of the United States a certain demand for packing performed by me for B. R. Biddle, Indian agent at the Siletz Indian Reservation in the state of Oregon, amounting to $1028.14 as appears by receipts and official vouchers and affidavits on file in the office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington City, D.C., and for me and in my name, place and stead to execute the proper receipts and acquittances therefor, and to do and perform all and singular every act and deed necessary and proper to be done in the premises as fully and completely as I could myself do were I personally present. Hereby ratifying and confirming all that my said attorneys shall do in the premises, in testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this the 6th day of April A.D. 1863.
Frank Cooper
Witnesses
    T. J. Baxter
    N. T. Caton
   

State of Oregon      )
County of Marion   )  ss.
    Before me, a notary public of said county, this day personally appeared the above-named Frank Cooper, who is known to me to be the identical person described in and who executed the foregoing power of attorney and acknowledged that he executed the same for the purposes therein named. Witness my hand and notarial seal this the 6th day of April A.D. 1863.
N. T. Caton
    Notary Public
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 796-799.  Murphy & Griswold were New York hatters.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, June 1st 1863
Sir--
    I transmit herewith my estimate of funds required for this Superintendency for the 3rd and 4th quarters 1863, amounting to $69,450.00.
    Upon examination you will observe that I have estimated for "arrears of temporary clerk hire to Supt." $400.00. This amount is needed for 2nd quarter 1863, as in the remittance made to me on the 21st February last (for 1st and 2nd quarters 1863). No funds for that purpose were included, and late Superintendent Rector in transferring the balances in his hands turned over to me only the sum of five dollars ($5.00) applicable to that object.
    I have also estimated for "presents to Indians" $500 and "provisions for Indians" $1000. It is designed to employ these amounts for the benefit of Indians at "Alsea Agency" and those in Rogue River Valley near Jacksonville, with neither of whom have any treaties been ratified.
    The Alsea Agency is located on the coast below the Siletz. A treaty was made with the several tribes from Siletz to the California line by Supt. Palmer in 1855, and the Indians collected at that agency under it, but the Senate declining to ratify the treaty, they have up to this time been supported by the funds for "presents," "provisions" and "removal and subsistence of Indians not parties to treaty." Special Agent Amos Harvey, now in charge of that agency, reports them quite destitute of clothing and provisions and much disposed to return to their old haunts where they can obtain subsistence by hunting and fishing. I think it essential that some provision be made for their support by the government, and I know of no other appropriations applicable.
    The letter of Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers, of which I enclose a copy, will inform you as to the condition and wants of the Indians infesting the white settlements near Jacksonville. It seems essential that funds be placed in his hands for their benefit.
    I have also estimated for the sum of $2000 for repairs of agency buildings. This fund is very much needed, as the buildings at several of the agencies--especially "Warm Springs," "Siletz" and "Alsea"--are in a most uncomfortable condition, and I trust it will be included in the next remittance.
    No estimate for "pay of sub-agents" is included, as there is a balance in my hands (received from Mr. Rector) sufficient for present wants.
    I have directed all the agents and sub-agents in this Superintendency to abstain from incurring any liabilities in advance of remittances, and I trust that you will promptly furnish me with funds so that the service may not suffer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in
                Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 920-923. The letter of Amos Rogers referred to is transcribed above, under date of May 1.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon June 1st 1863
Sir
    Soon after entering upon the duties of this office I directed my attention to the Snake or Shoshone tribes of Indians, and having collated such facts in relation to them as are obtainable, I submit the following for your consideration: The word Snake appears to be a general term applied to several bands or tribes of Indians quite distinct in language and characteristics and inhabiting different tracts of country, but so connected by relationship (having intermarried with each other for long periods) and by long continued friendly intercourse, that they are usually regarded both by whites and neighboring Indian tribes as one people. These bands are the "Winnas," "Bannocks," "Shoshones," "Modocs," "Klamaths" and probably several others. They own and inhabit the country lying south and southeast of the lands purchased by the confederated tribes and bands of Middle Oregon--"the Walla Wallas, Cayuse & Umatillas" and the "Nez Perces," by the treaties of June 25th 1855, June 9th 1855 & June 11th 1855, including the southern portion of Idaho, the southeastern part of Oregon, and perhaps small portions of California and Nevada. On the map herewith enclosed I have delineated the tracts purchased by the treaties named and the lands owned by the different bands known as Snakes. These boundaries, and indeed that part of the map itself, are not from actual surveys, and therefore make no pretensions to mathematical accuracy, but for general purposes they will be found sufficiently correct. No exact statement of the number of these Indians can be made, but the best information I have obtained leads me to estimate them at from 5000 to 6000 souls, of which probably 1500 are in Idaho Territory--the remainder in Oregon.
    They have had but little intercourse with whites, and that little has been of a hostile character. The recent discoveries of gold in various parts of their country on the Snake, Boise, Powder, Burnt and Malheur rivers have attracted crowds of miners who are pursuing their avocations with constant interruptions from the depredations of the Indians. Many murders and thefts have been committed by the latter, which have of course been retaliated by the whites. In fact an actual state of war has existed there for twelve months past. The number of miners in the country has been much increased since last year and is still rapidly increasing by emigration from the settled portions of Oreg. and from California. The number there now probably exceeds 10,000 men. In addition to this a very large emigration is now en route from the states east of the Rocky Mountains, which will reach the Snake country in the autumn of the present year. I need not dwell on the importance of protecting this large population from the hostilities of the treacherous and warlike Snakes. Unless prompt measures are taken by the government to prevent, the loss of life and property will be immense.
    At the request of Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord, commanding district of Oregon, I visited Fort Vancouver about the middle of April for the purpose of conferring with him in regard to Indian affairs east of the Cascade Range, and particularly in the Snake country, and as to the best method of restoring and maintaining peace. The general concurred with me in regarding a war with the Indians inevitable and regretted his inability to send troops to that region sooner than midsummer, he deeming it advisable to employ the whole available force in the Nez Perce region until the treaty now negotiating with those Indians was concluded. Much good might be accomplished in my opinion by the Ind. Dept. by holding a council or councils with those tribes, making them a few presents and negotiating the purchase of their lands.
    An appropriation of $20,000 was made by act of Congress, approved July 5th 1862, for "defraying expenses of negotiating treaty with Shoshone or Snake Indians," and in my opinion the public interests urgently demand that an effort be made to accomplish this object. I regard this appropriation as amply sufficient to enable the commissioners to treat for the purchase of all the lands in Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains not already alienated by the Indians, and I trust after giving this matter your attention you will concur with me as to the necessity, and direct such steps to be taken as the circumstances call for.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        J. W. P. Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 347-348.



Circular.
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon June 1st 1863
Sir
    The attention of this office has been called by numerous complaints of citizens to the large number of Indians belonging on the different reservations in the state now roaming at large among the white settlements. The evil effect of unrestricted intercourse of Indians with the whites in corrupting and demoralizing the former are so manifest that it is not considered necessary to set them forth in this circular. Agents are directed to endeavor to procure the return of all straggling Indians as soon as practicable and to prevent them from again escaping. Extreme caution should be used in permitting them to travel beyond the limits of the reservation. Passes should be granted only when dearly necessary, and strict care should be taken to see that the Indians return when the pass expires. Agents are directed to report to this office the number of Indians now absent from the several reservations without passes.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn.
A copy sent to each agent
    and Sub-Agent.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 353-354.  An original copy can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Agency
    June 10th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your circular of the 1st instant directing agents to report to your office the number of Indians absent from their respective reservations without leave and to endeavor to procure their immediate return. In reply I must say that I have no means within my power to determine the number absent from this reservation. I am of the opinion, however, from the best information that I can get that the number will not exceed fifty that are absent without permission, and those were absent when I took charge. I have sent out in different directions directing them to come in immediately. I think the most of them will comply without expense to the government.
Your obt. servt.
    B. Simpson
        U.S. Ind. Agent
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 105.



Ashland Ogn.
    June 13th 1863
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Salem Ogn.
Dear Sir,
    Having no personal acquaintance with you, it is with some diffidence I address you, even upon a subject in which I, as every other permanent citizen of this county, must have a deep interest.
    I saw a petition in circulation in the town of Jacksonville for the removal of Rogers, sub-Indian agent in this district, and the appointment of R. Haines of that place.
    I have nothing to say against the removal of Rogers, but feel a great interest as to who shall be his successor. With the limited means that an agent has to go on in this district, everything depends upon his personal influence with the Indians, and I do not think Mr. Haines is that man. We have plenty of citizens who are well qualified to receive the salary, and but few who are well qualified to discharge the duties of the office so far as their intercourse with the Indians [is concerned]. The man who can best control the Indians is the man who will meet the approbation of the people in the end.
    Many citizens sincerely hope you will take no hasty step in the matter, but act when you are fully advised as to who would best carry out the object of the agency.
    Lindsay Applegate now has an extensive recommendation for that position filed in the Department at Washington some two years ago, to which I am a signer, and my acquaintance with him since that time more fully convinces me that he merits all that is said of him in the petitions referred to. Within the last few months I have traveled through the Klamath Lake country with Mr. Applegate, and from my own personal observations I am well convinced that he has more influence with these Indians than any other man in Jackson County.
    Mr. Applegate's claims to that position will be placed before you in due time by citizens who have a real interest in the welfare and prosperity of this frontier.
I am your obt. &c.
    J. C. Tolman
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Ashland Mills Jackson Co. Ogn.
    June 14th 1863
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Dear Friend:
            I write to make a plain statement of some facts which came to my knowledge yesterday. They are to this effect: The people having become thoroughly worn out and disgruntled with A. E. Rogers, Indian agt. for this county, a squad of Copperhead politicians in Jacksonville, who tailed onto the Union organization last spring, have taken advantage of this and are now as I understand circulating a petition for Rogers' removal and the appointment of Bob Haines, who is as perfectly unfit for the position as any man of doubtful loyalty and perfect ignorance of Indians could be. I ask but one thing of you, as a friend to the whole country, that is that you will delay your action on this matter long enough to give the people time to meet this trickstering by sending you their true sentiment in the case.
    I am anxious to hear from you. On the receipt of this letter let me know how they are working. They are not making a very public thing of their petition.
    The family are as well as common.
    Hoping to hear from you soon, I close this hasty epistle.
Yours very truly,
    Ivan D. Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, no number.



Jacksonville Ogn. June 16th 1863
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of [your] "circular" relative to "the return of all straggling Indians" to their respective reservations, immediately upon the receipt of which I went to the camps of the "Rogue River Table Rock band" near "Table Rock," and through an interpreter made them fully acquainted with the contents of your "circular." The chief, "John Chamberlin," seemed very willing to go, but some of his people were quite strongly opposed to it. The opposition I think came through the agency of some white men in the vicinity. However, on the 12th inst. the chief came to me and said that they had all finally consented to return. I then issued to him a pass for the protection of himself and his people on the trip. I also at his earnest solicitation gave him ten dollars, which he asked of me as a loan, and said that he would arrange to return me the money through you.
    They started yesterday for the reservation.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
                    Oregon
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 108.



Jacksonville Ogn. June 20th 1863
Sir
    In assigning me to duty in the Klamath Lake country. I was instructed by your predecessor, Wm. H. Rector, "to avail myself of the first favorable opportunity to visit the Indians in that country." Col. Drew, Lieut. Col. Comd. at Camp Baker, starts on Monday the 22nd inst. with a detachment of thirty men to permanently locate the site of the military post to be established there. I have determined to avail myself of the opportunity presented, and shall therefore accompany Col. Drew's command. I have secured the services of Lindsay Applegate Esqr. as my interpreter for the occasion.
I have the honor to remain
    Respectfully your obt. servt.
        Amos E. Rogers
            U.S. Sub-Ind. Agent
                Oregon
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 109.



June the 23rd 1863
To the Indian agent of Grand Ronde
    This is to certify that Indian Black Hawk is here at my house and is sick and not able to travel. Indian Tom is here after all of the Indians. Tom wants you to give Solomon a pass so that he can stay with Black Hawk and bury him if he dies, and he says that Solomon will go to the reserve as soon as Black Hawk gets well or dies.
I. G. Nye
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Orn. June 24th 1863
Sir,
    Indians Waski, Joe & Bill are here with pass from you and letter from Mr. J. G. Campbell of Oregon City. They desire me to give them a pass to remain at Oregon City during the fishing season. Indian agts,. having direct personal intercourse with Indians, are supposed to be better acquainted with their characters & dispositions and better informed as to the necessity of permitting them to leave the different reservations. The granting of passes is therefore left wholly to their discretion. The manifest impropriety, however, of allowing Indians to frequent white settlements, and the deplorable consequences which it is well known result therefrom, renders it desirable that good reasons should appear before a pass is given. These views were set forth in a circular from this office of June 1st last, of which it is presumed you have received a copy. Some two months ago a petition was received at this office signed by a large number of the citizens of Oregon City complaining of the presence of Indians, and asking their removal. You were accordingly directed to remove them. Mr. Campbell is the only white person who  has expressed a counter opinion, and unless his opinion is of more value than all the rest of the town, the weight of testimony is decidedly against again giving them passes.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs
J. B. Condon Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agt.
        Grand Ronde
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington D.C. June 29th, 1863.
Sir:
    Your recommendation of this date, in behalf of Amos Harvey, of Oregon, for appointment as sub-agent for Indians in Oregon, in place of Richard Moore, is approved, and I hereby authorize you to make out a commission for Mr. Harvey, and transmit the same to me for signature.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
Wm. P. Dole, Esq.
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1202-1203.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon June 30th 1863
Sir
    Referring to your letter of 8th May last calling for the names of all agents and Sub-Agents within this Superintendency, the agencies to which they are assigned, and the names of the tribes or bands of Indians under the control of each, I have the honor to submit the following as the information desired.
Name of Agt. Agency Tribes & Bands of Indians What Treaty Remarks
W. H. Barnhart Umatilla Cayuse, Walla Walla & Umatilla Mch. 8, 1859
Wm. Logan Warm Springs 1. Taih or Upper Deschutes Apr. 18th 1859 [Note 1]
2. Wyam or Lower    "   "       "      "
3. Tenino   "       "      "
4. Dockspus   "       "      "
5. Dalles - Wascoes   "       "      "
6. Kigalt Walla    "   "       "      "
7. Dog River      "   "       "      "
Jas. B. Condon Grand Ronde 1. Molel April 27th 1859 [Note 2]
2. Umpqua and Calapooias of Umpqua Valley March 3rd 1855
3. Umpquas (Cow Creek Band) Sept. 19th 1853
4. Molalla, Clackamas and Calapooias of Willamette Valley Jan. 22nd 1855
5. Rogue Rivers (part of this tribe is at Siletz) Mch. 3, 1855
   1. Salmon Rivers [Note 3]
   2. Nestuccas
   3. Tillamooks
Ben Simpson Siletz 1. Shasta Scotan Nov. 18th 1854
2. Rogue Rivers/part at Grand Ronde Mch. 3rd 1855
1. Coquille [Note 4]
2. Mikonotunne
3. Noltana
4. Tututni
5. Sixes
6. Joshua
7. Flores Creek
8. Chasta Costa
9. Port Orford
10. Euchre
11. Chetco
Sub
Amos Harvey Alsea 1. Umpquas [Note 5]
2. Coos
3. Alsea
4. Siuslaw
Amos E. Rogers
Mr. Rogers resides at Jacksonville. There is no agency there, and no property of any kind belonging to the Department. He does not appear to have been furnished with any money by any predecessor except in one instance, $250 (June 25th 1862) for general and incidental expenses. The country around Jacksonville was purchased from the Rogue Rivers many years ago, and they were all removed to the Siletz and Grand Ronde reservations. Since that time the Klamath, Modoc and other bands of Snakes have been in the habit of frequently visiting Jacksonville, remaining longer and becoming bolder each time, until they have become a source of terror and annoyance to the white inhabitants. I have directed Mr. Rogers to endeavor to induce them to remove to their own country, and intend to visit them personally during the present summer and will report their condition more fully.
[Note 1] [seven tribes] Confederated tribes and bands in Middle Oregon
[Note 2] [Dog River tribe] But a very few of the Dog River Wascoes have ever been on the reservation
[Note 3] [three tribes] These tribes not parties to any treaty, their no. may be estimated at 2 or 300
[Note 4] [eleven tribes] These tribes are not parties to any treaty; their number in 1861 was 1766 souls
[Note 5] [four tribes] These tribes are not parties to any treaty; their numbers in 1860 was 460
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
Note: Mr. Harvey was appointed by Mr. Rector special agent in place of Richard M. Moore who failed to file his bond and oath. He appears to be honest and official, and I have therefore continued him in the service.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 359-361.



Siletz Agency, Coast Indian Reservation
    Oregon
        June 30th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith to your office the customary reports and abstracts for the end of the year 1862-63. The health of the Indians during the past quarter has been remarkably good and is even now improving, as I find by comparison with the reports of my predecessors. The two great classes of sickness amongst them at present are venereal diseases and diseases of the chest. The weather being now warm and dry, most of the Indians suffering from the first class, and they are many, are doing well, but I am afraid that when the rainy season sets in the mortality amongst them will be enormous. The principal cause of this mortality will be the want of a suitable hospital where those Indians who have been suffering from this fell disease any length of time can be put and kept under a regular course of medicine, and where those who have just contracted the infection can be confined and prevented from spreading the curse of this race amongst the few remaining that are free from the taint. It is not by administering a few doses of medicine here and there, and leaving these miserable beings exposed to the filth of their dwellings and to the extremes of cold and hunger which they so often suffer, that cures can be effected or even any relief given. Therefore I cannot too strongly urge you to call the attention of the Department to this want, and in the fact that to be of any use the building must be erected soon so as to be completed and ready for use before the coming winter. The other classes of diseases, especially catarrhs and diarrhea, were all of a mild form, and the deaths that have taken place, very few in number, were caused either by chronic diseases of long standing or amongst infants debilitated from having inherited from either one or both their parents scrofula and syphilis.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. B. Lee
            Physician Siletz Agency
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz Agency
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 960-962.



Siletz Agency
    July 4th 1863
Mr. Condon
    Dear Sir Rogue River Charley that we brought from Portland left here four or five days since, pretending to be going in the mountains to hunt. He borrowed a horse of Buchanan, or rather a mare; she is spotted. I think he is gone either to your place or Portland, most likely the latter. I would be glad to get him. Could you send to Portland. If you can you will oblige me much, and I will pay expenses. If you cannot send, will you ask Capt. Scott to send for him.
    He left here on a spotted mare with a red blanket under his saddle.
    I am now commencing work at the mill. Our crops look tolerable well, I think. My regards to all.
Yours truly
    B. Simpson
J. B. Condon
    Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon July 7 1863
Sir
    Referring to your letter of 14th May last, stating that late Supt. Rector had granted ferry license to Joseph Knott, authorizing him to use for ferry purposes Lot No. 5, Sec. 35, Twp. 1.S.R.1.E. in Oregon, and inquiring as to the necessity of longer retaining the land for Indian purposes, I have the honor to inform you that I have delayed replying until this time in order to obtain information.
    The tract of land to which your letter refers was selected in 1851, by Superintendent Anson Dart, as a location for the Superintendent's office, and buildings for that purpose were erected thereon. A part of these were washed away by the freshets of 1861, but the principal one remains.
    The land has not been used for Indian Department purposes for some years, and is not likely to be again required, but the building now remaining is of some value and ought to be disposed of before possession of the land is given to any individual.
    Under the laws of Oregon, the county commissioners of Multnomah County (in which the land is situated) have the right to grant ferry licenses on all public highways, and if the Department license a ferry there, it may lead to a conflict with the county authorities.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 940-942.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon July 7th 1862.
Sir
    Your letter of 2nd ult., acknowledging receipt of late Special Agent Davenport's "Statement of Persons Employed" at Umatilla Agency, 1st quarter 1863, and stating sundry objections thereto, has been received at this office.
    I will ascertain the facts as soon as practicable and make the required corrections.
    Your letter also directs that the accounts of Special Agt. Davenport be rendered for settlement, his salary being that of other special agents, at the rate of $1000 per annum, to be paid from the appropriation for "Incidental Expenses in Oregon."
    You have already been advised in my letter of 29th ult. that Mr. Davenport was discharged on the 25th and his final accounts forwarded to your office on the 27th.
    If it was desired that I should pay Mr. Davenport's salary from the funds appropriated for "Incidental Expenses," I regret that I was not sooner advised of the fact, as not having intimation of your wishes, I had, previous to the receipt of your letter (to wit June 25th), pursued the regular course and paid Mr. Davenport his salary out of the funds on hand for "Salary of Sub-Agents." I trust my action in this case may be approved. I take this opportunity to call your attention to the care of Special Agt. Amos Harvey, appointed by my predecessor Mr. Rector and now in charge of [the] Alsea Sub-Agency.
    Richard M. Moore was appointed sub-agent in the early part of 1861, but he failing to appear and file his bond, Mr. Rector appointed Linus Brooks special agent in his stead. Mr. Brooks resigning, Amos Harvey was appointed and was in charge of the agency when I relieved Mr. Rector. He appearing to be honest and efficient, and his official character having been recognized by the Department, I continued him in the service. It does not appear practicable to dispense with the services of Mr. Harvey, and I therefore recommend that he be appointed sub-agent in the place of Richard M. Moore.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Superintendent Indian Affairs
                in Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 943-945.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon July 7th [1863]
Sir
    I send herewith the amount of your salary ($247) for 2nd quarter 1863, the federal tax ($3.00) having been first deducted. This amount would have been sent promptly as you requested at the close of the quarter had I not been absent from this place. Your letters of June 16th and June 20th last have been received at this office. The Indian John Chamberlain with his party have arrived at Grand Ronde Agency. Your action in proceeding with Lieut. Col. Drews' command to the Klamath Lake region is approved, and as soon as the present crowd of business at this office is removed further instructions will be furnished you. You are directed to communicate frequently and fully with this office, furnishing such information in regard to the condition and disposition of those Indians as you are able.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
A. E. Rogers Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 366.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon July 10 1863.
Sir
    The substitution of legal tender notes for coin in government disbursements on this coast has been the cause of no small embarrassment to the Indian Department, and has made an apparent difference in prices paid for merchandise, and for services where the compensation is not fixed by law, which appears to require explanation.
    As you are probably aware, the paper money of the government has never been accepted as currency by the people of this coast, but has always been treated as a commodity in the market, bought and sold by brokers, merchants and others at constantly fluctuating rates--of course in furnishing supplies for the Indian Department, contractors and others have made their prices to correspond with the market value of the currency in which they have been paid, and the accounts from this Superintendency for the last quarter (2nd of 1862) will show a large apparent increase in expenditures. That this increase is apparent only will be evident to you upon inspection of the enclosed quotations, which are clipped from the newspapers of the last quarter.
    The Oregon papers do not regularly publish these quotations, and therefore I am compelled to be content mainly with clippings from the newspapers of San Francisco. I may remark however that rates of legal tenders in this state have generally been from four to six percent lower than in California.
    During nearly the whole of the last quarter their price in Oregon has been 60­¢ @ 62½¢, and most of the purchases of myself and agents have been based upon these rates.
    Trusting that these facts may be considered in examining accounts from this Superintendency, I have the honor to be
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
[twelve clippings of prices of the San Francisco
Stock and Exchange Board not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 947-949.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    July 11th 1863
Sir
    Your letter of [the] 20th ult. in relation to evidences of the murder of Dick Johnson & Mummy (Indians) in Umpqua County in 1857 was received at this office during my absence at Walla Walla.
    Your note of July 4th calling my attention to the same subject was received on the 7th inst.
    If your statement of the whereabouts of the Indians who were witnesses of the murder is correct, to wit, that they are at Simcoe Agency, they are out of this Superintendency, and my application for them should be made to Supt. Hale of Washington Territory or Agent Bancroft of Simcoe. I have heard some time ago that Jim's wife and Mummy's wife were both dead, but I am unable to say with certainty whether the report was correct.
    I met Dick's wife in Portland in October 1862. She then told me that she lived in that town. I have during the last three months made diligent inquiry for her and twice supposed I had found her but was both times mistaken. I can give no information as to where she is now, but I think the inquiries I have made warrant me in saying that she is not in or about Portland. Should I learn where she is to be found I will promptly communicate the intelligence to the prosecuting attorney for the county in which the crime was committed, and whatever aid this office can give the civil authorities in procuring testimony or otherwise securing the conviction of the murderers will be cheerfully rendered.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Jesse Applegate Esq.
    Yoncalla
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 368-369.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon July 25th 1863
Sir
    There are a considerable number of Indians who have escaped from the Siletz and Alsea agencies now scattered along the coast from the mouth of the Umpqua to near Crescent City. I cannot accurately state their numbers, but suppose from the imperfect information in my possession that there are not far from two hundred of them. Agent Harvey from Alsea has recently returned from Coos, having gone there for the purpose of securing their return. He reports that a part came voluntarily with him to the reservation, but the remainder having refused and he having no assistance to compel them, he was obliged to leave them. It seems quite impossible to bring them back without the assistance of a small military force, and the present force at Fort Hoskins and Siletz Blockhouse, being infantry and without means of transportation, is not available for the purpose. I trust after considering the matter you will concur with me as to the necessity and direct a small force of mounted men, say, a sergeant with ten men, to proceed with agents Simpson and Harvey down the coast as far as may be necessary to assist in bringing the Indians back to the reservation set apart for them. In order to return before the autumnal rains make traveling unpleasant, it will be necessary to start from Siletz by the 25th of August or at latest by 1st September. The infantry force at Fort Hoskins and Siletz Blockhouse have rendered valuable assistance in restraining straggling Indians and enforcing regulations at the agency, but for pursuing and bringing back fugitive Indians they are almost useless for want of animals. If horses and equipments could be furnished to mount and furnish transportation for a part--say ten--of the men, it would add very much to their efficiency, and not increase greatly the expenses of the service. Hoping that this subject may receive an early and favorable consideration from you,
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Brig. Gen. Benj. Alvord
    Commdr. Dist. Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 373.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    Oregon, Aug. 1st 1863.
Sir,
    I have the honor herewith to submit my first annual report.
    
The time embraced in my report will be from the first of April last (at which time I assumed the duties of physician for the Indians), up to the present date.
    For particulars I would refer to my quarterly reports, embracing in this my annual report only such general statements and observations as may seem to be of interest.
    I find the following to be some of the principal drawbacks and obstacles in the way of a successful treatment of the Indians.
    First, their habits and mode of living. These, although a great improvement upon their natural habits, are still so imperfect as to operate unfavorably to successful treatment. Second, ill-attention to the sick and poor nursing. These exist in various degrees and to quite an extent, so that the physician's efforts are often baffled, and in many cases rendered futile. Third, their want of persistence in carrying out the treatment to its final results. Fourth, the remnants of their Indian superstitions and modes of doctoring, which interfere in various ways with a regular treatment.
    With regard to diseases I would remark that the extensive prevalence of chronic diseases or conditions of disease, the basis of which is syphilitic or scrofulous, renders the Indians liable, upon exciting causes, to acute attacks or forms of disease, and upon sudden changes of weather these attacks become more or less epidemic and of the inflammatory type, affecting the lungs, throat, stomach or bowels. Of these cases, however, a large majority yield readily to treatment, and of the remainder but a small proportion prove fatal.
    As it regards the effects of treatment I would simply say (and I think the quarterly reports will warrant the statement) that the success obtained has been encouraging and in a good degree satisfactory.
Yours truly
    Nathanael Hudson
        Resident Physician
To J. B. Condon Esq.
    U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, no number.



Jacksonville Ogn. Aug. 1st 1863.
Sir
    In your communication of 7th ult. approving of my action in proceeding with Lieut. Col. Drew's command to the Klamath Lake region, you say: "You are directed to communicate frequently and fully with this office, furnishing such information in regard to the condition and disposition of those Indians as you are able."
    In accordance with the above direction I have to report that about the 15th June ultimo, two Klamath Indians, "Klamath Joe," the other, name unknown, came to this town. On the second morning after these Indians had come here, one of our citizens, Mr. John S. Love, came, considerably excited, to me and desired me to go and catch an Indian for him. I inquired what the trouble was. Mr. Love said the Indians had, the night previous, almost completely cleared his clothesline, as also that of Mr. James T. Glenn--who had by this time joined us. They had also taken from Mr. Glenn a portion of a fine velvet carpet, which happened to hang outside his house. This was so mutilated as to be almost worthless. Messrs. Love and Glenn had been to the Indian ranches already. They had both started immediately [when] they discovered the robbery, and met at the encampments of the Indians on the hill back of town. The goods were found concealed in a thicket of bushes, in charge of one of the Indians--indeed the other one, viz., "Klamath Joe," appeared nowhere in sight. After identifying their property, Mr. Love gave the Indian a sound thrashing. They then counseled together and concluded to take him to town and have him regularly flogged. Unfortunately for the effect of this conclusion, however, he had been allowed his liberty after the first drubbing. They proposed that he go to town with them. He demurred to the proposition. They had, singularly enough, gone there with neither gun or pistol; consequently being out of their reach, he was most effectually out of their power. They tried his speed, but in this were overmatched also. Failing to get possession of him, Mr. Love went to where their horses were tied and selected the best one of three ponies, and took him to Messrs. Clugage & Drum's stable. They also brought away the stolen goods. All this had occurred previous to their coming to me. I counseled them to have the Indian arrested and lodged in jail, and proffered to assist in his arrest. To this, however, they objected, avowing their determination to have satisfaction out of his hide. They went a second time to the Indian camps, only however to find that the thief had taken the two remaining horses and left. "Klamath Joe" they found at camp this time, but were inclined to believe he had had nothing to do with the robbery. In the course of the day Joe came to me and claimed that the horse Mr. Love had taken was his. I went with the Indian to Mr. Love. He, on being told of Joe's claim, replied that he did not care for his claim. No person would get the horse until the thief was brought in and delivered up to him. Here the matter rested until we left for the lakes. Joe was still about town. At our first camp on "Emigrant Creek" a Mr. Shepherd--who lived in the neighborhood--came to us and said he had lost a mare & colt a few days previous, and believed the Indians to have stolen them. On comparing dates, it was found probable that the same Indian who had stolen the goods in town was the horse thief also. Mr. Shepherd sent a man with us who knew his mare, and he determined if possible to recover her if the Indians had her.
    We saw no Indians until we arrived at the foot of the "Big Lake." They evidently had no knowledge of our approach until we were upon them--indeed, I had heard Col. Drew remark that he had purposely kept the public ignorant of the time of starting upon this expedition in order that the Indians should get no knowledge of it. He also for some reason expressed a desire when there that the object of his coming should not be divulged to them.
    We arrived on the afternoon of the fourth day from here. We found seven Indians only at this place; somewhat of an excitement was noticeable by reason of our sudden advent among them. They were well posted on the stealing of the horse and the goods in town, and their excited murmur indicated that they believed our mission was to make them answer for these thefts. Their first inquiries were concerning "Klamath Joe." They had received from the thief that Love had his horse and his not having returned rendered it quite probable to them that he had been put in the "stone house." (Some of these Indians were put in jail--ironed and locked in separate cells in 1860--at the time of the murder of the "Ledford party"--since which time the "stone house" seems associated with everything horrible in their minds.) One of them told me that Joe's squaws had been crying (howling) four days & nights on account of his supposed trouble. They told us if we had the other fellow, who had stolen the horse & goods in place of Joe, they would all be very glad--but Joe was their friend and a good Indian, and they did not want him to suffer for the other's crime. Inasmuch as they had conjectured Joe to be in prison, I thought it best not to disabuse their minds concerning him until we had secured the horse and the real thief if possible.
    Col. Drew's reticence, whatever may have been his motives, was likely to prove beneficial in furthering the ends of justice. The horse and thief were about twenty miles away. The Indians were profuse in anathemas against the thief, and on the other hand seemed unable to find language sufficiently expressive to extol their own virtues. I told them to go and bring the horse and thief into camp, and if he had any other stolen property to bring it also. If they would do this, he should not be whipped, and Joe should have his horse and be at liberty to go where he pleased as soon as we returned to Jacksonville. Mr. Glenn, who was one of our party, on hearing my proposition, said I had better tell them that Joe could get his horse if he was not sold, or $35.00 in greenbacks if he had been sold. He knew that this price had been offered for him and had heard Mr. Love say that he had a mind to sell him, as he was eating himself up at the stable. Here was a dilemma. Greenbacks they knew nothing about and would consider worthless. The conditions of delivering into my hands the stolen horse and the thief were the liberty of the Indian they supposed in prison, and the restoration to him of the horse held
by Mr. Love. I believed Mr. Love to have done wrong in first taking the horse. Then, when he was claimed by a third party, a further and greater wrong is apparent in withholding him. If I should say to the Indians that probably Mr. Love might have sold this horse, and require them in that event to take $35.00 in greenbacks--only equal to $21.00 in cash--I should appear to them to justify Mr. Love in the above transaction. They valued him at $50.00 in cash. Rather than appear to the Indians like desiring to justify Mr. Love in this matter at their expense, I determined to say nothing then about the chances of the horse being out of my power to restore to them, but should he have been sold before we returned, I would either buy him back and place him in their hands or make his price up to a fair valuation from my own pocket, providing they performed their part of the contract.
    They, Indian-like, desired to make some further terms. They first asked for six men to assist in arresting the thief. This I refused. They then wanted pay if they went by themselves. I told them I would give them nothing. The Indian belonged to their tribe, and it was their duty to restore to us the property he had stolen and to produce him also without pay.
    At this time Col. Drew joined us. I asked him if he would take the Indian into Jacksonville, providing I could get the other Indians to bring him into camp. He turned to Lieut. White and inquired if they had any irons along. The Lieut. said they had not. He then asked what I proposed to do with him after getting him there. I told him I desired to place him in the hands of the civil authorities to be tried for larceny. He said that would be putting the county to a needless expense, that the idea of going into the trial of an Indian was perfectly preposterous. I told him I could not so understand it, that if an Indian had violated the law he should suffer the penalty, that these Indians were known to have a perfect horror of a prison, or "stone house" as they called it, and I believed it would have a very good effect upon the whole of them to go into a court of justice with one of them, and convict and send him to the penitentiary for a term of years. We then said it was doubtful if any person would appear against him in court, that Mr. Love only desired to whip him, and he should not take an Indian in there to be whipped. I replied that I had promised the Indians that he should not be whipped, that I would take the chances of there being sufficient testimony to convict--and further, that if he took this Indian to town and delivered him to the sheriff upon my requisition, no responsibility could rest upon him after he left his hands. He finally said that he could not take him; he desired to go very fast and he would not be "bothered" with him on the homeward trip for five hundred dollars. I had no further conversation with the Indians that evening concerning the matter. Col. Drew, however, remarked during the evening that he should tell the Indians in the morning to go and bring in that horse--but that they need not bring the Indian unless they wanted to take him to town themselves--he had no use for him.
    The next morning the Indians came to our camp while we were at breakfast, two of their number mounted and armed. They came to me and said they were ready to go for the stolen horse and would bring the thief if possible. I told them that Col. Drew had something to say to them. Whatever instructions he gave his interpreter was in so low a tone that I failed to understand it. The two Indians that were mounted however at once started off after talking a moment with him.
    About 3 o'clock p.m., on of the Indians came to our camp and said to me that the Indians sent out in the morning had returned, bringing both the horse and the Indian who had stolen her. The horse they had left just outside of our camp, and the Indian they had at their own camp under a strong guard. They were ready therefore to deliver him into my hands whenever I said the word. I at once went to Col. Drew's tent and told him that the thief was in custody of the Indians and ready to be delivered over to me, and that I now would make a requisition upon him for sufficient force to take this Indian to Jacksonville and place him in charge of the civil authorities of Jackson County. He repeated most of his former objections and added with emphasis that no d----d Indian was worth all that trouble, that the county would be put to a thousand dollars expense on account of this Indian, all to no purpose, and besides it would cost the sheriff $150.00 more than the pay he gets to take him to Portland if convicted. (Judge Tolman thinks the $150.00 is made--or about that on each prisoner sent from here.) "If the people of this coast desire their officers to do their duty they must pay them for it." For his part he would have nothing to do with taking this Indian to Jackson.
    I then told the Indian that in consequence of a misunderstanding between myself and Col. Drew I would have nothing more to do with this matter for the present. I told Col. Drew also that I should for the present decline having anything more to say or do in this affair. He replied, "Very well! I shall direct that the horse be brought in sight, and the Indian be turned loose." The Indian wanted to know what was to become of "Klamath Joe" and his horse in Jacksonville. Drew would have nothing to do with this branch of the subject.
    Col. Drew's interpreter inquired of him if he desired to see the thief in order to know him in future--said the Indians would compel him to come to the camp if he so desired. "No!" he exclaimed, "Familiarity breeds contempt! I want nothing to say or do with any of them. Tell him if he ever steals again, though, I will hang him, but I do not want him nor any of them to come in my sight." They brought in the horse. They then came to me to know what Joe's fate was to be. I took occasion to explain to them that they had been in error in supposing Joe to have been arrested in town. He had chosen to stay there for some reason but had been free to go whenever it suited him. Col. Drew had refused to take in the Indian, and I could not promise the horse to them. I would see about this at some future time. We left the lakes next morning, homeward bound.
    I am aware that I have been thus far rather prolix in this report. My apology, however, must be a strong desire to place you in full and complete possession--not only of the condition and disposition of the Indians in this region--but also of the disposition and temper manifested by the military toward these Indians, as also toward their management and control by the Indian Department.
    The importance, indeed it may be said the almost absolute necessity, of cooperation and harmony between the Indian and Military departments of our government--most especially in an Indian country and in presence of Indians--with reference to their management and control, I conceive to be too apparent to admit of argument.
    Col. Drew makes no secret of his hostility and unqualified opposition to the established and approved policy of the Indian Department, nor does he often seem to omit an occasion of expressing his sentiments. His language is not unfrequently of the most bitter, harsh and contemptuous character concerning the present head of the Indian Bureau at Washington, then along down through the several divisions of this Department. I was at first disposed to ascribe his serial expressions of bitterness and hostility to some personal enmity that might be possibly entertained toward myself. In this, however, I am now persuaded that I have misjudged. You shall hear and judge for yourself.
    On the evening of our arrival at the big lake--immediately after the remark that he the next morning would tell the Indians to bring in the stolen horse &c., Col. Drew said! "When I get established here, I shall muster the Indians every day for roll call and make every one answer to his name! No Indian shall leave here either, without a pass from me. I shall plow up a piece of ground next spring, and by G-d they have got to put it in too--if it has to be done at the point of the bayonet! I will show Uncle Sam that there is a way to get along with Indians without having a set of whining Indian-sympathizing agents about to make promises to Indians never to be fulfilled." Here was a pause for a moment. I asked if he expected the Indians to wholly subsist upon what they would raise. He replied that he did not, but, said he, "I will find a way of obtaining such funds as will be necessary to purchase what will be needed for their subsistence beside what they raise." But, said I, when you ask for this fund, will you not cause indirect contact with the Indian Department? Will the question not be asked what the Ind. Dept. is doing in allowing the military to attend to a branch of business that properly belongs to it? Drew said--"This is precisely what I want! I want to come in contact with the Ind. Dept.! I want to get a chance to show it up! If I cannot show the damnedest state of things in this Dept. that ever existed in any Dept. of any country, then I will ask no pay for my trouble! The Ind. Dept. is decidedly the damnedest humbug--from the highest to the lowest--from the head to the very tail--that ever existed, or ever could be conscious of--Commissioner Dole, at the head of the Indian Bureau at Washington--is a d----d old Indian sympathizer--whining about after the style of 'Old Beeson' of 'Oregon Indian war' notoriety--and from him on down they have about as much knowledge of the Indian character as my horse has! Old Dole is a fair specimen of all the old fogeys about Washington, Lincoln included. I would just like to get a whack at them. I can show to them, and the whole world, that the Ind. Dept. is directly and indirectly responsible for the murder of every white man by Indians on this coast. The Ind. Dept. is 'played out' so far as I am concerned, and so far as this country is concerned. If it had wanted anything to do with this country, it should have been here a year ago--it is too late now. The difference between me and the Indian Dept. is--it, or most of the persons belonging to it, will believe everything an Indian tells them, whereas I won't talk to them at all, nor listen to them--familiarity breeds contempt--and I would not place any sort of reliance upon what an [Indian] would say anyhow. On the other hand, I scarcely ever saw an agent that was not disposed to take an Indian's word as soon or sooner than he would a white man's." In support of his last portion, he instanced Dr. Ambrose--agent here in 1855 & 6.
    What I have reported above as his words I take from my notes of the trip, written when everything was fresh in memory. You have his words as they were uttered upon this occasion, save and except some repetitions and gross expressions of profanity which I have chosen to omit.
    This is by no means an isolated instance. I have heard him express much the same sentiments upon former occasions. When I learned he was about to take this trip, some three days before his starting, I at once took occasion to see him and propose to accompany the expedition. He opposed my going, remarking that I could go of course if I insisted, but at the same time thought it better that I should not go. He could see no good that would result from it, and thought he could see where it would result in harm. I desired him to explain himself--well, said he, "You have got me money to operate with, hence you can have no influence with the Indians--you may promise them something and never fulfill, and all this will embarrass me. It is of no manner of use to try to have any influence over these Indians with no money or means to prove your sincerity. If I were you I would rest perfectly easy, until they gave me some means to work with." I told Col. Drew I was unsure that hitherto there had been a want of money--but I now had a small fund to be used for purposes of securing and maintaining the influence he feared would be wanting--and further that I had been assured by the Supt. of Ind. Affairs, if these Indians could be quietly and peacefully removed to their own country and induced to stay there--relieving the settlements of further annoyance on their account--such funds as would [be] necessary to accomplish this--if within reason--could be obtained. My object now in going out with him was to see the Indians and appoint a time to meet them in council for the purpose of seeing what could be done toward the end desired. I was fully aware of the importance of cooperation and harmony between us and was therefore very willing to consult with him as the commander of the military post--as to the best means of accomplishing the end sought. I was fully of the belief that the present Supt. of Ind. Affairs was very desirous of ridding the settlements of further annoyance by reason of these Indians. The location of this post gave him an opportunity to take a step in that direction--I was certain this opportunity would be improved without delay--and the movement would receive al the aid in his power to bestow. Drew replied that his mind was still the same as to the propriety of my going--the Ind. Dept. was a humbug of the largest dimensions. From my own statement I was liable to do what he most wished to avoid--which was to make promises on the faith of the Ind. Dept. He would not trust its word for a red cent--it had done more to create disturbance with Indians than all other causes combined. He would plan no sort of reliance upon any branch of this Dept. This vehemence had caused quite a crowd to gather around us, which crowd he amused by the expression of his opinion of Commissioner Dole & others much after the manner I have before related. He professed to have been aware that the Supt. had control of a fund, a portion of which could properly be expended for the benefit of these Indians, if necessary, yet although a few minutes before he had taunted me with a lack of money and a corresponding lack of the means of maintaining an influence over the Indians. He now said that if he had his way the d----d sons of b-----s should get nothing. (Their being pampered and petted by this Dept. had caused all the Indian troubles.) He then made precisely the same statement that he subsequently made at the lakes concerning his design of compelling them to put in crops &c.
    I then asked him if I was to understand him as refusing my request to accompany the expedition. He said no, not by any means. If I still persisted in desiring to go I could of course have the privilege, but he failed to see any benefits that would arise from it.
    It seemed to me a self-evident conclusion that Col. Drew not only desired but designed to absolutely ignore and destroy all power authority and influence of the Indian Department--wherever and by whatever means he could manage to come in contact with it. If this Dept. was represented in the person of a sub-Indian agent who had previously gained the confidence of these Indians, and to whom they would necessarily look for counsel and direction--it would be likely to thwart his purpose to some extent. This, notwithstanding the numerous subterfuges resorted to by him, I believe to be the real cause of his objection to my making one of his party. Taking this view of the subject I determined to go, considering it beyond a question my duty to do so. My action in this you have already approved.
    The post [Fort Klamath] was understood to have been located when we left the lakes. Its site as selected by Col. Drew was immediately on the shore of the lake about one & a half mile from its outlet. This location has since been changed however to a point which by the nearest route that can be traveled by land is some sixty to seventy miles north from the first point selected, and twelve to fifteen miles from the lake at the extreme northwest corner.
    I am of opinion, and I speak advisedly upon this point, that if government expend the means necessary to establish a military post in this region, such post should be located at least one hundred miles by any route that can be traveled to the east and south of the present site selected by Col. Drew. This report is already too lengthy, and I shall refrain from entering into details upon this point.
    I make the statement, however, without fear of successful contradiction. I am in possession of such a state of facts as will I think establish the correctness of the position I assume.
    I have had no regular council as yet with the Indians. The disposition manifested by Col. Drew rendered it extremely hazardous to make an appointment unless I was disposed to risk the consequences of breaking it.
    These Indians are at present without a chief whom they will all recognize as such. It is therefore necessary to get them all together in order to make an arrangement that will make all responsible. I left word at the lakes that I should desire at no distant day to meet them all in council for the purpose of a regular talk. I have since seen and talked with "George," "Long John" and "Jack"--chiefs of the bands of Klamaths who have heretofore been in the habit of coming to the settlements. (La Lake is no longer a chief.) These all express a disposition of friendship and amity--but at the same time evince no little chagrin at the disposition manifested by Col. Drew to treat them with utter contempt. They complain that Col. Drew has gone into their country, located a military post upon their soil--and never has yet sought them to say a single word upon the subject, but on the other hand has refused to see and talk with them when they have sought him--and avoided them on all occasions. On one occasion they asked me what Col. Drew took them for--"very great cowards" or "very great fools"?--at the same time remarking that he must evidently think them little else than women.
    All these Indians with whom I have had conversation are very desirous of selling their land to government. This I take to be very good evidence of an amicable feeling on their part, and I think proper and just treatment will continue this state of feeling. I have fully explained to them however that no treaty for their land can be entered into at present, and I have carefully avoided placing any limit upon the time when such treaty is likely to be made. I have told them that I presumed the object government had in locating this post in their country was to prepare the way for such treaty at some future time--as also to prevent depredations of hostile Indians upon the travel passing through that country.
    I have also taken occasion to explain to them that the intention of the Supt. was--as soon as this post was established and built--to require them all to go to their own country and cease their practice of coming to the settlements in future, as many complaints on account of this practice had reached him.
    Upon this occasion, one of the chiefs made me a short speech, the substance of which was as follows: The government has never as yet done anything for us, while most other Indians in the country are receiving an entire support. The government has now located a military reservation and is about to build a fort in our country, and put into it two hundred soldiers--and has never as yet given us anything for this privilege--nor has it deigned to say to us one word, nor to give us us one sign--by which we can see that our rights are recognized to the country that we were born and raised in, the country which was ours before the white man ever saw it, and the country which contains the graves of our fathers. For a number of years, some of us have been accustomed to come to the white man's country in winter because by this we could live easier and better. This has so long been our habit that we shall suffer from both hunger and cold if denied this privilege and left to ourselves. We want to know now what the government will do for us.
    The length & minuteness of this report I fear will render it somewhat tedious, but in view of this being the first descent both of the Indian & Military departments into the Indian country--and their first attempt at a joint occupancy--also in view of the manifest importance of cooperation by the military--to the end that the efforts of the Ind. Dept. in their management of the Indians may be rendered effective--I have deemed it a matter of the last importance to fully acquaint you with relations then existing between these departments, as well as the relations sustained by the Ind. Dept. toward the Indians themselves. Indeed, the Military Dept. considered as independent of, and in opposition to, the Ind. Dept. (this is the position manifestly assumed by Col. Drew) must render negatory and of no avail all efforts of the latter, in attempting to maintain the dignity and influence that seems properly to belong to it.
    Mr. Love still holds the horse spoken of. On my return, I went on behalf of the Indian to the stable and made inquiries concerning him--I was told by Mr. Drum that the horse could not leave the stable until a bill of thirty dollars was paid on him. Mr. Love has said--as they informed me--that the Indians could take their horse, if they would pay his stable bill. This of course was declined. I afterwards learned Mr. Love [had] taken the horse from the stable--since which time I know nothing of him. The owner applied to me to see that he is not wrangled out of his horse. Is it my duty to do anything officially in this affair? If so please instruct me how to proceed.
    I also will here ask whether or not my official duty required me to try and effect the arrest of the Indian thief--and whether or not Col. Drew is justified in refusing to take him in charge &c. upon my requisition--after I had procured his arrest by the Indians, he having ample force at command for the purpose. His command consisted of thirty men, well mounted and equipped, and the commissioned officers, beside himself.
    Out of the fund in my hands for "Provisions for Indians" I have furnished the Indians one thousand pounds of flour at their earnest solicitation. This, under the circumstances, I considered to be politic and just. I hope it will meet your approval. If I have not been sufficiently explicit with reference to any point or points upon which information is desired, please indicate the same, and it will afford me pleasure to respond.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent for Oregon
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received 1863-1865, no number.



Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        Augt. 11th 1863.
Sir,
    On the 28th of June 1862, by your request of that date, I transmitted to your department the following settlements of the a/cs of Anson Dart, late Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon, via. June 20, 1860, Oct. 22nd 1861 & April 3rd 1862. May I ask of you the favor to cause those settlements to be returned; they are needed in an examination of Mr. Dart's a/cs about to be made in this office.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. B. French
            Second Auditor
Hon.
    J. P. Usher Esqr.
        Secy. Notarial
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 754-755.



Department of the Interior,
    August 12th 1863.
Sir,
    I acknowledge the receipt of your report, of the 10th instant, in relation to a tract of land, heretofore selected & purchased for Indian purposes, in Oregon, described as Lot 5, Section 35, Township 1 South, Range 1 East.
    Concurring with you as to the disposition which should be made of this land, you are hereby authorized to give the necessary instructions to the Supt. of Indian Affairs, in Oregon, with a view to its sale, agreeably to your recommendation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
Chas. E. Mix Esq.
    Actg. Comr. Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1204-1206.



Fort Yamhill Oregon
    Aug. 15th 1863
Sir
    Last night I received a communication from you by Clackamas Joe, requesting me to confine him in the guardhouse. Upon his promise to return this evening I have permitted him to visit you today for the purpose of learning what the charges are against him, as he is under the impression that there has been some mistake in his case.
Very respectfully
    L. S. Scott
        Capt. 4th Cal. Inf.
            Comdg.
To
    J. B. Condon
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Department of the Interior,
    August 21, 1863.
Sir,
    In reply to your communication of the 20th inst., respecting the claim of Anson Dart for the interest which he alleges he paid for the money advanced and expended by him for and in the service of the United States, I think it proper to express my views upon the construction which should be given to the act of June 16th, 1860, passed for his relief, in order that his claim, if the same shall be found to be just and equitable within the true intent and meaning of that act, may be paid, if not finally rejected, and the subject ended.
    The act declares "that the proper accounting offices of the Treasury Department be and they are hereby authorized" &c. Upon the passage of this act this Department was applied to by Mr. Dart to take the proper steps for the adjusting [of] his account. This request was refused, because it was believed that, by the terms of the act, the subject was exclusively within the control of the Treasury Department, but, upon the intimation of that Department that the account properly belonged to the Department of the Interior to settle, inasmuch as the service and expenditure had been for this Department, the account has been, thus far, adjusted under its direction. The act does not create any particular office or person an auditor to adjust the accounts of Mr. Dart; it does not even name the particular accounting officers who shall act in the premises, but, because the duties of the 2nd Auditor and 2nd Comptroller pertained, in part, to the settlement of accounts of the nature of Mr. Dart's, its settlement was referred to them as the proper accounting officers to make the settlement, under the control of this Department, to which the supervision of such accounts belong.
    The act not deputing the authority to adjust the account to any particular officer, but to the proper accounting officer, it is evident that the adjustment of the account required the concurrence of some one of the heads of department, for if it did not there can be no occasion for referring it here for any purpose, and when adjusted to the satisfaction of the Auditor and Comptroller there would be no approval from their action, if oppressive upon the claimant, nor check in favor of the government, if the allowance was excessive.
    It is, then, my opinion that since the duty of settling the accounts of Mr. Dart have been devolved upon this Department, the Secretary has the right to supervise the same.
    Mr. Dart now makes a claim under the act for $4,389, by him alleged to have been paid for interest upon the moneys by him borrowed for and used in the business of the United States. The acting Second Auditor, in his opinion, which you have transmitted to me, declares that, in his judgment, interest cannot, by the act in question, be allowed the claimant.
    The act declares that the settlement with him shall be made "upon principles of equity and justice, so as to indemnify him for all moneys paid and expenses incurred for the use and benefit of the government," &c.
    Now, if he paid out the moneys, which he alleges, for principal and interest, it is plain that he will not be indemnified, according to the principle of equity and justice, if he only receives from the government the sum he paid for the principal. Everyone must agree that, in justice and equity, he is well entitled to the one sum as to the other. This case does not, in my judgment, come within that class of cases in which the government withholds interest from its creditors. It is not for interest accruing on an adjusted account, or one for which there was a law for adjusting, but it is for money actually paid out.
    Entertaining no doubt that he is entitled to be paid this money from the Treasury, under and [by] virtue of the act, provided the case exists, as is herein supposed, the papers are, herewith, returned for your action in the premises.
    If I entertained any doubt upon the subject, the option of the Attorney General would be solicited, as suggested by you, but his opinion, if sought, you are aware would be for my guidance solely, and could not be a direction to you.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
John M. Brodhead Esq.
    2nd Comptroller of the Treasury
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1207-1211.  Attached is a printed copy of the bill referred to, H.R. 220 of February 24, 1860.



Dallas
    August 23rd 1863
Mr. Condon
    Sir, there is some excitement here about two Indians being attacked by a white man. There were 3 or 4 white men [who] in company met a young Indian by the name of Silbey, as I understand his name to be. He was alone about 3 miles from Dallas on the road to Grand Ronde with a sack of flour. 3 men came in to town; one of them told of one of his company had but the boy drawed a pistol said he would kill him but was prevailed on to let the boy alone.
Jas. B. Rigg
N.B. You will please let Doct. Hudson know that he can send some medicine to my boy by an Indian.
J.B.R.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.


    WANTED THIS WAY.--J. Ross Browne, the noted traveler, is said to be authorized by the government to examine into the management of Indian matters on this coast, and for this purpose will visit the various reservations and scenes of disturbance in this state and Oregon and in the Territories of Washington and Idaho. It will be recollected that this gentleman was for a time special agent of the government on this coast under Buchanan's administration, and for boldly exposing some official rascality was removed. Since then he has been traveling in Iceland, northern Europe, etc., and but recently arrived in San Francisco. We hope he will visit this Indian-accursed section, and also Smith River Reservation, and see if he will be able to impress upon the general government the necessity of removing these Indians to some distant point.
Weekly Humboldt Times, Eureka, California, August 29, 1863, page 2



[Annual Report]
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sep. 12 1863
Sir,
     In reporting upon the condition of the Indian tribes in this Superintendency for the past year, I shall confine myself to general statements as to their condition and progress, suggesting such changes as appear necessary and judicious, and refer you to the reports of agents and subordinates, which are herewith transmitted, for details.
    The relations of peace and amity which existed at the date of the last annual report with those tribes with whom treaties have been made, have been maintained uninterrupted during the last year.
    This is due in part to the efficient assistance rendered by the military, but more, I think, to the advance made by the Indians themselves in civilization, and the growing tendency which they exhibit to abandon their savage habits and depend upon agriculture for their subsistence.
    Since taking charge of the affairs of this Superintendency on the 1st of April last, I have visited all of the reservations, conferred with the agents, and endeavored to thoroughly inform myself as to the condition and wants of the various tribes. In order to do this, I have been compelled to travel more than 2000 miles--a large part of which has been done on horseback.
    My first efforts were directed towards securing the return of the large number of Indians who had escaped from the reservations and were infesting the white settlements.
    From the citizens of Willamette Valley in particular, complaints numerous and loud were received of these stragglers, and I therefore directed the several agents to promptly arrest all Indians absent without special permission, to return them to the reservations and endeavor to prevent their escape in the future. This has imposed upon the agents and upon myself much additional labor, and the assistance of the military has in some instances been required, but the effort has been so far successful that over five hundred Indians have been recovered from Willamette Valley alone, and indeed I am not aware that any are now left in that part of the country.
    A large number, probably two hundred or three hundred, are scattered along the coast, from the mouth of the Umpqua River to the California line, but I hope to be able to report them all upon the reservation before next winter.
    Complaints were also made by citizens of Umpqua Valley of a band of Indians with whom no treaty had been made inhabiting the mountains on the head of the north Umpqua River, and frequently annoying the white settlers in the eastern part of the Umpqua Valley.
    Taking an interpreter with me, I left this place on the first of August last and proceeded to that part of the country for the purpose of inducing them to go to one of the reservations. A part of the Indians fled to the mountains upon hearing of my approach, but about thirty-five of them remained until I came up. These complained that the government had made no treaty with them, had given them no presents, and they utterly refused to leave their old haunts.
    Obtaining some assistance, I attempted to compel them to go, but they escaped on the night of the 13th of Aug. to the mountains, and I was unable to hold any further communication with them. It will be impossible to do anything further with them until the snows of winter drive them out of the mountains, and then not without military assistance. There are about sixty of them altogether, and these are the only ones between the Cascade Mtns. and the coast who are not under the control of the Department.
    East of the Cascade Mountains, the various bands of Snakes, comprising the Klamaths, Modocs, Shoshones, Bannocks, Winnas and probably other tribes, whose numbers may be estimated from four thousand to five thousand, occupy the vast region, only partially explored, lying south of the lands purchased of the Nez Perces, Cayuses, Walla Wallas, Umatillas and confederated tribes and bands of Middle Oregon.
    All of these, except a portion of the Klamaths and Modocs, are and have been for a long period in a state of actual hostility towards the whites.
    Gold has recently been discovered in various parts of this country, and the miners who have gone there in quest of it are constantly subjected to their depredations.
    For further and more detailed information in regard to them, I refer you to the report of late Superintendent E. R. Geary for 1860; the reports of my immediate predecessor, Wm. H. Rector, for 1861 & 1862, and the report of Agent Kirkpatrick for 1862.
    I regard it of utmost importance that treaties be made with these bands, and I recommend that the sum of twenty thousand dollars be placed at the disposal of commissioners to be appointed for that purpose.
    There are no Indians other than those above enumerated within the. limits of this Superintendency who are not under the control of the Indian Department and located at the various agencies.
Umatilla Agency
    This agency is located on the reservation set apart for the Walla Walla, Cayuse and Umatilla tribes, numbering nine hundred and sixteen souls, which embraces a large tract of fertile lands, well watered, tolerably well supplied with timber, and situated in a mild and genial climate.
    It has also the advantage of proximity to the new gold fields of Oregon and Idaho, and consequently will enjoy for many years to come a remunerative market for all the surplus produce which can be raised. With proper energy and good management, there is no reason why this agency may not in a few years become self-supporting.
    The Indians located here are both intellectually and physically superior to the tribes west of the Cascade Mountains, and if they are in some respects less advanced in civilization, it is because they have had, until recently, but little intercourse with whites. They nearly all adhere to their old habits of living in lodges constructed of poles and skins, which they frequently move from place to place, but in agriculture they are behind no Indians in the state.
    At the time of my visit in June last, their numerous fields gave promise of abundant yield of both cereals and vegetables.
    The chief wants of this agency now are the saw & flouring mills provided for in the 4th article of the treaty of March 1859.
    Much dissatisfaction exists among the Indians, because the government has thus far failed to comply with the stipulations of this article. An appropriation of ten thousand dollars was made for this purpose in 1860, and a part or the whole of it was placed in the hands of Agent Abbott to be expended. I regret to be compelled to say that the money was wholly wasted. A frame was erected and machinery bought, all of which was utterly valueless. I refer you to the report of late Supt. Rector for 1862 for explicit information on this point.
    Good faith to the Indians requires that the mills be erected and put in operation without delay, and I recommend that another appropriation of ten thousand dollars be made for that purpose.
    The report of Agent Wm. H. Barnhart, which is herewith transmitted, will furnish you with valuable information in regard to the affairs and condition of this agency.
Warm Springs Agency
    The reservation on which this agency is located extends from the Deschutes River on the east to the summit of the Cascade Mountain on the west, and from the Mutton Mtns. on the north to the Metolius River on the south.
    It contains about 1,024,000 acres, of which I estimate not more than 4000 acres are suitable for cultivation. Two-thirds of the remainder (say 680,000 acres) is prairie, unfit for tillage, but producing an abundance of nutritious grass. The other third (say 340,000 acres) is either rocky barrens or timbered mountains. I do not concur in the opinion which has been expressed of the unfitness of this tract for the purposes of an Indian colony.
    On the contrary, there is an ample amount of good land to raise food for all the Indians located upon it, a sufficient supply of timber and water, and its location, far away from any of the great routes of travel and the new gold fields, will permit the Indians, if confined to the reservation, to be kept away from the contaminating influences of white associations.
    But, unfortunately, the treaty of Apr. 18th 1859 with the confederated tribes and bands of Middle Oregon provides in Art. 1 that the Indians shall have the right to fish in common with the citizens of the United States at the fisheries on the Lower Deschutes and the Columbia rivers, and to pasture their animals, hunt, gather berries and roots on unclaimed lands outside of the reservation.
    The effect of this unfortunate provision of the treaty is, to permit the Indians to leave the reservation whenever they choose, and they really reside at the reservation but a small portion of the year. Under pretense of "fishing and herding" their stock, they infest the towns along the Columbia River and defy all the efforts of the agent to prevent their procuring whiskey.
    The sales of fish and ponies, and the prostitution of their women, afford them plenty of money and render them less desirous than they otherwise would be to engage in agriculture.
    From information received of Agent Logan, and from conversations with the Indians during my visit in June last, I am confident that for a moderate sum invested in clothing, agricultural implements, teams &c. they would be willing to give up that right and consent to be confined to the reservation. This, if accomplished, would relieve the white settlements of a very great nuisance, and very much better the condition of the Indians.
    I recommend an appropriation of three thousand dollars, to be paid in two annual installments, for that purpose.
    The treaty above alluded to also provides (Art. 4) that the United States shall erect suitable "hospital buildings," "one school house" and a "dwelling house" and "requisite outbuildings" for each employee. Appropriations made for these purposes appear to have been withheld for some reason of which I am uninformed.
    I have recently made a requisition for them, and trust they may be forwarded without further delay.
    The hospital buildings are especially needed, as medical treatment of Indians living in their own camps, covered with filth and vermin, exposed to cold and damp, fed upon improper diet, and, worst of all, liable in the absence of the physician to follow the prescriptions of the Indian "doctors," is utterly useless.
    The building intended for this purpose is totally unsuitable, being small, badly lighted, and so open as to render it impossible to preserve that equable temperature necessary for the care of the sick.
    These Indians have made more progress in agriculture during the past year than in the five previous years, and if they can be confined to the reservation, under efficient management, be made to raise sufficient food for their own support. A few have also built houses during the last year, but most of them yet live in lodges covered with skins and mats.
    The report of Agent Logan, herewith transmitted, will give you further information.
Grand Ronde Agency
    This agency is situated at the eastern extremity of the Coast Reservation, on the headwaters of the Yamhill River, a small tributary of the Willamette. Its soil, although a heavy clay, difficult to work, is well adapted to the growth of the cereals, but vegetables are raised with difficulty; and from its elevation, being near the summit of the Coast Range, the climate is some degrees colder than in the Willamette Valley.
    Most of the Indians here were originally from those parts of the state first settled by whites, and have been longer under the control of the Department than any others. They have, consequently, advanced in agriculture more than those at other agencies.
    Most of them live in comfortable houses, have farms upon which they can and do raise sufficient food, and many of them are well supplied with teams and farming utensils. Their progress in these respects has, indeed, been most gratifying. Owing to the proximity of this agency to the white settlements, they have very frequently succeeded in evading the efforts of the agent to prevent the introduction of whiskey, and the deplorable consequences attendant upon its use are apparent upon a portion of the tribes located here. The stringent efforts of Agent Condon, aided by the efficient help of the troops at Fort Yamhill, and the recent change of the laws in this state in relation to Indian testimony have during the last year very much reduced the traffic and may, it is hoped, break it up altogether.
    The reports of Agent Condon, and the various employees at this agency, are so full that further remarks from me are unnecessary.
Siletz Agency
    Situated near the center of the Coast Reservation, in a valley of remarkable fertility, abundantly supplied with good timber and water, its numerous streams abounding with a great variety of fish, its hills and mountains affording an abundance of game and nutritious wild fruits, the Siletz Agency has every natural advantage for becoming a prosperous Indian colony. Its isolation, too--being separated from the white settlements by a chain of mountains forty-five miles in extent, always difficult to cross, and in winter impassable--exempts the Indians from those vices which they are sure to acquire from intercourse with whites.
    The soil, while it produces the cereals in moderate abundance, yields vegetables in enormous quantities. Sufficient supplies for the large number of Indians (by the last census 2025) belonging to this agency can be easily and cheaply raised, and the tribes may soon be made to support themselves by agriculture.
    Commendable progress has been made during the last year. A considerable number of Indians have erected good houses, with no assistance, except that nails were furnished by the government.
    Large fields for the agencies, as well as numerous small ones for the Indians, have been fenced and put in cultivation, and a general willingness is exhibited to adopt civilized habits. Although the number of Indians located here is greater than at any other agency, the appropriations for its benefit are very meager. The Shasta Scotans and about half of the Rogue Rivers are the only tribes here with whom treaties have been made and ratified. These number only 259 souls, while the tribes not parties to any treaty, to wit, the Coquilles, Mikonotunnes, Noltananas, Tututnis, Sixes, Joshuas, Flores Creeks, Shasta Costas, Port Orfords, Euchres and Chetcoes, number 1766 souls. (See census of 1861.) No appropriations have ever been made designed for the benefit of these tribes until the last year, when the sum of ten thousand dollars was appropriated, but no part of the amount has yet been remitted. I trust that in accordance with my requisition it may be placed at my disposal for their benefit at an early day.
    A treaty was made on the 11th of August 1855 by Joel Palmer, then Supt. of Indian affairs, which included not only most of these tribes, but the Siuslaws, Cooses and Alseas, numbering by the census of 1863 521 souls, now located at Alsea Agency, and the Yaquonah and Siletz tribes, now located at Siletz, but not included in the census of 1861. The Salmon River and Nestucca tribes, numbering about 300 souls, now under the control of the agent at Grand Ronde, do not appear to have been included in the treaty above named, or in any other.
    (Sept. 28, 1863--Note: The tribes west of the Coast Range, not parties to any treaty cannot be less than 3000 souls, of which 2846 are under the control of agents.--J. W. Perit Huntington)
    By this treaty all the territory between the summit of the Coast Range of mountains and the Pacific Ocean, extending from the Columbia River on the north to the California line on the south, including the towns of Astoria and other settlements near the mouth of the Columbia River, the settlements at Tillamook, the towns of Umpqua, Scottsburg, Gardiner, Empire City, Port Orford, Ellensburg and indeed all the white settlements along the coast, and the whole of the present Coast Reservation, was ceded to the United States.
    But as the Senate failed to ratify the treaty, the title to the whole of the territory above specified is still vested in the Indians, and the white settlers thereon are but trespassers upon Indian lands.
    Justice to these settlers (among whom are many of the pioneers of the state) requires that the Indian title be extinguished without further delay.
    Two methods occur to me by which this may be done--1st, by ratifying the treaty made by Supt. Palmer in 1855, and 2nd, by making a new treaty.
    The treaty of 1855 was very liberal in its promises to the Indians and provided for large and, it appears to me, extravagant expenditures. A new purchase can be made, in my opinion, for a far less sum, which will be equally beneficial to the whites and satisfactory to the Indians.
    But whatever course may be adopted, I cannot too strongly urge the necessity of some action in the premises, not only to secure the title of whites to their lands and valuable improvements, but to keep faith with and satisfy the Indians. They complain, and not unjustly, that the government through its agents bought and took possession of their lands, and removed them to a reservation, and yet has utterly refused to carry out its part of the contract. They are consequently discontented, unwilling to remain on the reservation, and reluctant to submit to the control of the agent. I recommend, therefore, either that the treaty of 1855 be ratified, or that an appropriation of five thousand dollars be made to enable the Superintendent, in conjunction with the agents at Alsea and Siletz, to make a new treaty.
Alsea Agency
    The Alsea agency is also located upon the Coast Reservation, eight miles below the mouth of Alsea Bay, and distant about forty miles from the Siletz Agency. Its remote position, and the difficulty of reaching it by land, are advantageous in cutting off the Indians from association with whites, but at the same time they make it difficult to secure efficient employees, and have deterred previous Superintendents from visiting it.
    But a small amount of money has ever been expended here, and the buildings are consequently few, small and rudely constructed. They are situated near the center of the Yawhuch [Yachats] Prairie, a beautiful tract of very fertile land containing 600 or 800 acres, washed on the west by the ocean and bordered on the east by densely timbered hills.
    It has been supposed that cereals could not be produced here in consequence of the cold, damp winds from the ocean, but Special Agent Harvey has this season succeeded in raising fair crops of wheat and oats, while potatoes and other esculent roots, plants of the Brassica tribe and, indeed, everything requiring a cool, moist climate and rich soil yield enormous returns for the labor bestowed.
    The ocean and small streams nearby yield fish of fine quality in greatest abundance, and although not a proper location for a very large number of Indians, the number now located there, 521 souls, can easily and cheaply be made to subsist themselves.
    As I have remarked in another part of this report, these Indians are very much dissatisfied because the treaty made with them has not been ratified, and many of them manifest great unwillingness to remain at the agency.
    They ought not, indeed, to be too severely censured for this, for the absence of appropriations for their benefit has prevented their being supplied with clothing, blankets &c., and they are, in consequence, mostly destitute.
    A few have erected comfortable houses without assistance, except in furnishing nails, but no school has ever been kept among them, and they are less advanced in agriculture than any other tribes in this Superintendency.
    I refer you to the report of Special Agent Harvey, and the farmer employed by him, for further detailed information in regard to this agency.
Jacksonville
    Although there is no agency at this place, and the Department has no property of any kind there, Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers has been stationed there since his appointment in 1862.
    The country in and around Jacksonville was purchased from the Rogue River Indians several years ago, and they were all removed to the Coast Reservation.
    Within the last two years part of the Klamaths and Modoc bands of Snakes have left their own country, and taking up their abode in the valley of Rogue River, have made their living by trade with whites, theft and the prostitution of their women. Their presence is a constant annoyance and terror to the whites and frequently leads to difficulties, which the agent cannot easily adjust. They express not only a willingness but a strong desire to sell their lands, and it is to be very much regretted that funds and authority have not long ago been given to the Superintendent to conclude a treaty with them.
    The military department has recently taken the preliminary steps to establish a military post in their country; and when troops are stationed there, the agent can with safety reside among them, and will be directed to do so.
    Unless funds are appropriated for his use, however, he can accomplish but little good.
    The other demands upon my time have not permitted me to visit these Indians, but I hope to be able to do so before winter, and will then more fully report as to their condition and wants.
    The annual report of Sub-Agent Rogers has not yet been received. It will be promptly forwarded on its arrival.
Education
    The experience of the Department in its efforts thus far to educate the tribes under its control in this Superintendency, plainly indicates that "manual labor" schools are the only ones from which any substantial benefit can be expected. To place Indian children for a few hours each day in a school where letters only are taught, leaving them at night, and in vacation, to return to their parents and their savage modes of life, has not, and cannot, produce any good results. The attendance of children is irregular and uncertain. They retain the filthy habits and the loose morals of their parents, and acquire only a limited knowledge of the simpler branches, which they forget much more easily than they learn.
    In schools on the "manual labor" plan the children are under the entire control of the teacher; they are comfortably clothed, fed on wholesome diet, the boys taught to labor in the gardens and workshops, the girls instructed in needlework and housework--in fact, they are raised and educated like white children, and on leaving the school are found to have acquired a knowledge of and taste for civilized habits. The very labor which they perform is indeed made to contribute to their support, and schools of this character, once established, can be made very nearly self-supporting if the teachers are paid and books provided by the government.
    The "manual labor" school at Grand Ronde Agency, under the management of Mr. and Mrs. Sawtelle, has been a decided success. Agent Simpson has recently caused a similar one to be established at Siletz, under the guidance of Mr. and Mrs. Clarke, which promises good results, if want of funds does not embarrass it. I regret to say that schools at the other agencies, kept as they are upon the "day school" plan, have not resulted in the advancement of the scholars which the sums expended would warrant us in expecting.
    I recommend such legislation by Congress as will enable all schools to be conducted upon the "manual labor" principle.
    For more detailed information on this subject I refer you to the reports of the several agents.
Finances
    Financial difficulties have caused great embarrassment in this Superintendency during the past year. The paper money issued by the government has never been accepted as currency by the people of this coast.
    Transactions of all kinds between individuals, whether merchants, mechanics, farmers or miners, are made in gold, while legal tender notes--bought and sold as a commodity in the market--bear a depreciated and constantly fluctuating value. This has caused an apparent advance in the prices paid for articles purchased, corresponding with the depreciation of the notes, and has practically reduced the appropriations from thirty to forty percent. But it is in the salaries of employees that these fluctuations of the currency have been most detrimental to the service. Efficient men cannot be long retained, when their salaries--not very liberal when paid in full--are paid in paper which they cannot convert into gold at more favorable rates than sixty or seventy cents on the dollar. Some of the most experienced and valuable employees have left the service, and difficulty has been experienced in filling their places.
    Most would have resigned had not the recent federal victories caused an advance in the value of the notes.
    In one or two instances, where the necessity was imperative, I have authorized an increase of pay, but in general this has been avoided, in the hope that such success would attend the efforts of the government in putting down the rebellion as to restore the currency to something near its par value.
    Another difficulty arises from the fact that the funds are deposited with the assistant treasurers at New York and San Francisco, subject to the order of the Superintendent.
    Funds have been transferred to the agents in checks upon these officers, and difficulty and delay has often been experienced from inability to convert these checks into money.
    Unless circumstances are more favorable in this particular, I shall be compelled to visit San Francisco in person to bring up the money.
    The amount of funds received by me from April 1st 1863 (when I assumed the duties of this office) to September 1st 1863 is as follows:
From Late Supt. Rector $15,616.01
    "     Commissioner 62,500.00
    "     other sources     9,750.00
Total     $87,866.01
Amount disbursed during same period   56,664.08
Balance unexpended Sept. 1863 $31,201.93
General Remarks
    In expending the funds appropriated for the benefit of the various tribes, the chief objects to be attained, in my opinion, are the advancement of the Indians in agriculture and the simpler mechanic arts, and their education not only in letters, but also in general habits of morality and industry, thus gradually lessening the cost to the government of their support, and eventually enabling them to maintain themselves.
    Where the acts of Congress or the instructions of the Department allow discretion to the Superintendent or agents, I have uniformly caused the disbursements to be made with reference to these objects, in preference to giving presents of clothing, provisions or gewgaws, which gratify tor a short time the vanity or appetites of the Indians, but are soon worn out and consumed.
    A considerable part of the annuity should be expended in supplying them with teams, domestic animals and agricultural implements, instead of clothing, tinware, fancy articles &c. &c, which have heretofore generally been purchased. This policy will, I trust, meet your approval, and will be continued unless I am otherwise instructed.
    Economy and efficiency alike require that the funds be promptly remitted.
    The credit of the Indian Department has been so often and so severely taxed in this Superintendency that merchants and others are very reluctant to furnish supplies except for cash in hand. Delay invariably causes enhancement of prices and dissatisfaction among employees, and I hope will be avoided in the future.
    None of the Indians within this Superintendency have ever visited the states east of the Rocky Mountains, and consequently have but an insignificant idea of the numbers, power and high civilization of the American people.
    In visiting them this summer I uniformly found among the chiefs of the various tribes a desire to visit and "talk" with the "Great Father" at Washington, and much good would no doubt result if this wish could be gratified.
    I respectfully suggest that steps be taken to enable ten of the chiefs and principal men to make the journey.
    In concluding this report, it gives me pleasure to be able to say that the several agents within this Superintendency appear to be zealous and efficient in the discharge of their arduous duties, and that they seem to have acquired the respect and confidence of the tribes under their charge.
I remain sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                    Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 389-400.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, September 9, 1863
Sir
    The act of Congress of March 3, 1863, having appropriated ten thousand dollars ($10,000) "for the expenses of colonizing, supporting, &c. &c. &c. those Indians with whom treaties have been made, but not ratified, in Oregon," I have to request that the same be remitted to this office at an early day, to be expended for the objects for which it was appropriated. My Annual Report will give, in detail, the condition of these Indians and the reasons for the expenditure, and it is therefore unnecessary to enumerate them here.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 996-997.



Jacksonville Ogn. Sept. 17th 1863.
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your request for a sketch of the Klamath Lake country showing the "position of the lakes and other important natural objects" and the proposed location of the military post, and in compliance submit the enclosed.
    The valley at the level of Upper Klamath, where the new post, viz Fort Klamath, is located and about to be built, is as may be seen by enclosed sketch and maps [apparently lost] referenced to, a considerable distance from any portion of the emigrant road, and a still greater distance from [the] field of Indian depredations upon said road. The altitude of mountains surrounding this valley is such that almost perpetual snow is the result. Mr. B. F. Myer in Feb. 1860 (an exceeding mild winter it will be recollected) visited this country for purposes of information as to winter stock range. He and party went to foot, or south end, of Upper Klamath, having an Indian guide. Mr. M. desired to go up the west shore of the lake if possible to its head. His guide remonstrated and utterly refused to go with the party in this direction. Mr. M., however, made the attempt, but after a few miles' travel he encountered so much snow that he was forced to turn back. He then crossed "Link River" and went up on the east side. The ice on the upper end of the lake he found sufficiently strong to admit his traveling upon it, and the valley where the fort is now located was found covered in considerable depth of snow. I know of my knowledge that the mountains surrounding the Upper K. Lake on the west and north were white with snow, even upon the south side--in July of this year. Frosts are of frequent occurrence during the summer months in the valley where the post is now located. Indians represent that snow lays in this valley the entire winter, and not unfrequently "waist deep." The altitude of Klamath Lake is said to be upwards of two thousand feet greater than that of this (Rogue River) valley. I mention these facts to show the impracticability of attempting to open this country for settlement. What object Col. Drew can have had in view in locating a military post at the point selected I am at a loss to determine. The published statement of Col., then Maj., Drew--to Genl. Wright--herein appended--would seem to indicate that at the very least such post should be located eighty to one hundred miles south and east of his present location. I would recommend that this statement be carefully perused. I here venture the assertion, without fear of successful contradiction, that the extreme northwest point which should have been selected for this post is somewhere within a circle of ten miles from "Lost River Gap." Drew did not cross "Link River" to examine the country in this direction, nor has he ever, to my knowledge, been upon the east side of the river or lakes in this region. When remonstrated with by citizens for going so far to one side to locate the post (Judge J. C. Tolman is my authority), he replied that the estimate for building the post was made in view of its being located where timber was convenient and abundant. The "Lost River" country, he had been told, was sparsely timbered. I believe the estimate is upwards of thirty thousand dollars. He however located it where timber may be floated very
near to it.
    In vicinity of "Lost River Gap" there is situated a fine grove of several hundred acres of timber. A beautiful stream of water runs close by this grove. This, as also many other points between it and "Goose Lake," has ample timber for building and supplying fuel for a post. Grazing and hay in this region is abundant. In this direction lays almost the one-fourth of our state, as yet comparatively unexplored by reason of hostile Indians. Enough however is known of its climate and soil in many places to render settlement both practicable and desirable. Here the low pass of the Sierra Nevadas must determine it the thoroughfare for all future time. This is manifestly the region of country designed to have been opened for settlement, and protected by the establishment of this post. Somewhere in this direction must be located the future Indian reservation if anywhere in the country, or if located in the vicinity of present site of Fort Klamath, government must go to the expense of erecting for the Indians warm habitations, and clothe them sufficiently warm to stand the rigors of a New England winter. In addition to this, entire subsistence must be furnished them, as temperature of climate precludes all possibility of extracting such subsistence from the soil.
    It is almost the universal opinion of citizens of this valley, who are somewhat acquainted with the country indicated by enclosed sketch, many of whom came to the country by this emigrant road and had trouble with Indians in the hostile country, that the present location of Ft. Klamath can be of very little if any practical benefit, and hence the money expended for this purpose can be little less than an actual loss to the government and country. Among others I will mention the names of J. C. Tolman, Enoch Walker, John Walker, Lindsay Applegate, B. F. Myer and [William] Cortez Myer, Ashland P.O.; Isaac Constant, A. Tenbrook, Robt. Tenbrook, Rev. John A. Gray and O. Jacobs, Jacksonville P.O., and Saml. Colver, Phoenix P.O., all prominent citizens of this co. and men whose interests are identical herewith.
    Fort Crook in Cal., it will be noticed, is quite as near the hostile Indian country as Ft. Klamath at its present location. In consideration of all the facts herewith submitted, and in view of the manifest intention of government to establish the latter fort (see "joint resolution," Ogn. Legislature of 1862) at a point that would assist in opening the country for settlement and protect travel upon [the] emigrant road, I have no hesitation in saying that the vicinity of "Lost River Gap," or some proper point between it and "Goose Lake," should be substituted for the present location of Ft. Klamath. I hope measures may be speedily taken to discontinue the work at the present site, to the end that a full investigation may be had and the fort placed where the country may receive some permanent benefit therefrom.
    I may seem unduly zealous in representing the facts connected with this matter. I do not know that I can better explain my intentions, however, than by adopting the following patriotic language of my illustrious confrere, Col., then Maj., Drew, in his communication to Genl. Wright, herewith submitted, upon the subject of establishing this same post.
    "If I have treated the subject under discussion more fully than its merits have heretofore seemed to require or should it appear that I have exceeded the proper limits of your inquiry, I beg that you will not attribute to me any want of respect to my superiors, or any intentional officiousness in laying before you some facts that are not of record at department headquarters, and are now now specifically called for. My chief desire in the premises is to render all the service in my power during the short period in which I am likely to have the opportunity to render any at all, and as I have been personally cognizant of all that has transpired of a hostile character in this section of country since its earliest settlement, I may seem unduly zealous in representing its necessities. But I trust not. Rather that, however, than that I should hereafter be considered as having neglected to perform a well-known duty."
    All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honor to be respectfully your obt. servt.
    Amos E. Rogers
        U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent for Ogn.
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, no number.  Drew's letter, referred to, is online.





Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Sep. 24th 1863
Sir
    I herewith enclose my estimate of articles required for annuities for the various Indian tribes in Oregon for the year ending June 30th 1864. Your letter of 2nd May last required this statement to be sent in time for arrival at Washington by 1st October, but presence of business in this office and delay of agents in furnishing estimates has prevented their earlier transmission.
    Hoping that this explanation will prove satisfactory,
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affrs.
        Washington D.C.
Estimate of Articles
required for annuities for the various tribes of Indians in the Oregon Superintendency for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1864, made by J. W. Perit Huntington, Supt. of Indian Affrs. in Oregon.
viz.
Walla Walla, Cayuse and Umatilla Indians
Treated with March 8th 1859
For the purchase of common harness suitable for Ind. ponies 1000.00
   "     "         "          "   small strong 2 horse steel plows furnished complete 500.00
   "     "         "          "   grain sickles 200.00
   "     "         "          "   assorted tinware 200.00
   "     "         "          "   blankets 2500.00
   "     "         "          "   heavy cotton sheeting 1000.00
   "     "         "          "   woolen linsey 800.00
   "     "         "          "   Merrimac prints 800.00
   "     "         "          "   scarlet cloth 200.00
   "     "         "          "   blue         " 200.00
   "     "         "          "   small woolen shawls 500.00
   "     "         "          "   thread, buttons, needles &c.      100.00
Eight thousand dollars
$8000.00
Confederated Tribes & Bands of Middle Oregon
Under treaty of April 19th 1859
For Salem blankets   2000.00
   "   Mmc. prints 800.00
   "   brown sheeting 1000.00
   "   blue denim 500.00
   "   thread, cotton & linen assorted 100.00
   "   asst. needles 50.00
   "       "     buttons 50.00
   "   knitting needles asst. 25.00
   "   shawls 200.00
   "   tobacco 300.00
   "   matches 60.00
   "   teams (oxen) 1600.00
   "   chains 100.00
   "   nails 6d, 8d & 10d 200.00
   "   spades, Ames medium sized 50.00
   "   plows, small, strong 2 horse steel 400.00
   "   harness strong, plain & cheap, suitable for small ponies 400.00
   "   axes 50.00
   "   grain cradles 65.00
   "   hoes, strong        50.00
Eight thousand dollars
$8000.00
Umpquas & Calapooias of Umpqua Valley
Under treaty 29th November 1859
For blankets 500.00
   "   woolen cloth, heavy, for pants and coats 300.00
   "   linsey 150.00
   "   flannel, coarse, grey 100.00
   "   calico, Mmc. 100.00
   "   brown sheeting 100.00
   "   shoes for men and women--coarse 50.00
   "   hats      "      "       "        "             " 50.00
   "   stocking yarn, woolen, coarse, linen thread, black & brown, needles asst., & knitting do. asst. 80.00
   "   harness, small and cheap, suitable for small ponies 150.00
   "   cut nails 6d, 8d & 10d 50.00
   "   axes 25.00
   "   matches 20.00
   "   hoes 25.00
   "   ox teams     600.00
Twenty-three hundred dollars 
$2300.00
Calapooia, Molalla & Clackamas Indians
Under treaty of Jan. 22nd 1855
For blankets 2500.00
   "   woolen cloth, heavy, for coats & pants 600.00
   "   flannel, grey, coarse, heavy 300.00
   "   linsey 200.00
   "   shawls, small, woolen 200.00
   "   calico, Mmc. 300.00
   "   unbleached sheeting 300.00
   "   yarn 50.00
   "   linen thread, buttons, needles & knitting needles, asst. 700.00
   "   shoes for men and women, coarse 200.00
   "   hats      "      "       "        "           do., wool 100.00
   "   harness, small, cheap and suitable for ponies 500.00
   "   grain cradles 100.00
   "   cut nails, 6d, 8d & 10d 100.00
   "   mowing scythes and snaths 50.00
   "   hoes, strong 50.00
   "   spades, Ames, cast steel 50.00
   "   hay forks 25.00
   "   camp kettles, irons, tin pans 4 & 6 qts. & tin cups 100.00
   "   grain sickles 50.00
   "   axes 75.00
   "   plows, small, strong, steel, 2 horse 250.00
   "   cows & heifers 375.00
   "   ox teams 1200.00
   "   chains 75.00
   "   tobacco 75.00
   "   butcher knives 50.00
   "   matches     25.00
Eight thousand dollars
$8000.00
Umpquas, Cow Creek Band
Under treaty Sept. 19th 1853
For blankets 250.00
   "   brown sheeting 100.00
   "   calico, Mmc. 100.00
   "   shoes for men and women, heavy 50.00
   "   nails, 6d, 8d & 10d     50.00
Five hundred fifty dollars
$550.00
Rogue River Indians
Under treaty of Sept. 10th 1853
For blankets 500.00
   "   woolen cloth, heavy, for coats & pants 200.00
   "   flannel, grey & heavy 200.00
   "   calico, Mmc. 200.00
   "   sheeting, unbleached, heavy 200.00
   "   woolen yarn, coarse 50.00
   "   linen thread, buttons, needles &c. &c. 50.00
   "   shoes, men's & women's, heavy 75.00
   "   nails, 6d, 8d & 10d 75.00
   "   axes 50.00
   "   ox teams 500.00
   "   chains 50.00
   "   butcher knives 25.00
   "   matches 25.00
   "   tobacco 25.00
   "   hoes, strong 25.00
   "   cows & heifers     250.00
Twenty-five hundred dollars
$2500.00
Shasta Scotan & Umpqua Indians
Under treaty of Nov. 18th 1854
For blankets 500.00
   "   heavy grey flannel for shirts 200.00
   "   woolen yarn 50.00
   "   calico, Mmc. 200.0
   "   unbleached sheeting, heavy 150.00
   "   linen thread, buttons, needles & knitting needles 50.00
   "   shoes, men's & women's, heavy 75.00
   "   nails, 6d & 8d & 10d 75.00
   "   axes 50.00
   "   ox teams 500.00
   "   chains 50.00
   "   butcher knives 25.00
   "   matches 25.00
   "   tobacco 25.00
   "   hoes, strong        25.00
Two thousand dollars
$2000.00
Recapitulation of Annual Estimate
For Walla Walla, Cayuse & Umatilla Indians 8000.00
   "   Confederated Tribes & Bands of Middle Oregon 8000.00
   "   Umpqua & Calapooia of Umpqua Valley 2300.00
   "   Calapooia, Molalla & Clackamas Indians 8000.00
   "   Umpquas, Cow Creek Band 550.00
   "   Rogue River Indians 2500.00
   "   Shasta Scotan & Umpqua Ind.      2000.00
Thirty-one thousand three hundred fifty dollars
$31350.00
Office Supt. Indn. Affrs.
Salem Ogn. Sept. 24th 1863
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. ind. Affrs.
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 408-412.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Sept. 28th 1863
Sir,
    I forward to you by the bearer Jas. Brown $907.00 to be accounted for as follows, to wit: $247.00 salary for 2nd quarter 1863--$250 general incidental expenses--$500 removal and subsistence of Indians not parties to any treaty. Mr. Brown will also hand you vouchers which you will please sign and forward to this office by Mr. Brown. If you have already signed vouchers for your salary they will be returned to you upon their arrival here.
    No part of this money is to be expended in supporting Indians in Jacksonville or any of the white settlements, but if they get the benefit of any part of it, it must be in the Klamath Lake country.
    Is it feasible for you to remove to the Klamath Lake and remain there?
    State facts fully about it.
    Your accts. for the 2nd quarter have not as yet reached here; it is necessary that they should be forwarded to this office without any further delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Ind. Agt. Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 413.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Sep. 28th 1863
Sir,
    The enclosed extracts from the official report of Major (now Lieut. Colonel) Charles S. Drew, commanding at Camp Baker, Jackson County, Oregon, to Brig. General Wright, commanding Department of the Pacific, furnishes much information in regard to Southeastern Oregon valuable to the Indian Department, as well as to the military.
    I request if it does not arrive too late that it be published with my Annual Report for this year.
    The necessity for treaty with the Indians of that region, and bringing them under the control of the Department, has been fully set forth in my letter to your office of June 1st last, as well as my Annual Report, and is too apparent to require further remark from me.
    I trust the subject will receive from you at an early day the consideration which its importance merits.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
[The clipping from the March 18, 1863 Oregon Sentinel is transcribed above]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1007-1010.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Sept. 28th 1863
Sir
    I have received from Sub-Indian Agent Amos E. Rogers sundry complaints of Lieut. Col. Chas. S. Drew in command at Camp Baker in Southern Oregon which appears proper to bring to your notice. Sub-Agt. Rogers alleges first that Col. Drew not only fails to cooperate and assist him in the management of the Indians, but that he assumes a position of hostility to the Indian Dept. and its policy and frequently expresses that hostility both to whites and to Indians. Second, that the location of Fort Klamath is such as to render it of no value either in protecting white settlements or the great routes of travel, or in assisting the Indian Department in controlling the tribes of that region.
    The extracts which I herewith furnish from letters addressed by Sub-Agt. Rogers to this office on Aug. 1st 1863 and Sept. 17th 1863 (marked respectively A & B) will show the views of that officer upon these subjects and although they embrace but a small portion of his very voluminous letters, they contain the material facts. The importance of cooperation and harmony between the Indian and military departments is too apparent to require any remark from me, and this is especially true of a region situated like Jackson County, where large bodies of untamed Indians are in close proximity to white settlements. That this harmony does not exist here is apparent, but how much the want of it is to be attributed to the unfriendly personal relations which so plainly exist between Sub-Agt. Rogers and Lieut. Col. Drew I do not know.
    I do not wish to be understood as an accuser of Col. Drew or that I have any charges to make against him, based upon my own knowledge. None of his declarations of hostility and opposition to the Indian Department have come to my knowledge except at second hand. The location of the post 100 miles further south and east would certainly be more advantageous, but there may be sound military reasons why that cannot be done. But I write this letter with the purpose of asking that instructions be sent from your office to Lieut. Col. Drew to afford in all cases aid and assistance to the officers of the Indian Department where the regulations & exigencies of the military service do not forbid and that if the agent desires to reside at or near the fort facilities be given him for doing so.
I have the honor sir to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                    Oregon
Brig. Gen. Geo. Wright
    Commdg. Dist. of Pacific
        San Francisco
            Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 414.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon, Oct. 18th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose herewith the official bond and oath of Amos Harvey, appointed sub-Indian agent for Oregon, duly executed, and the sufficiency of the sureties certified by Judge M. P. Deady of the U.S. District Court.
    Mr. Harvey has been directed to remain in charge of the Alsea Sub-Agency, the same of which he has for the last year had the control as special agent.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1071-1072.



Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        Oct. 19th 1863.
Sir,
    Having considered your request that a settlement shall be made of your claim for $820.00, being for money paid by you for eighty-two weeks' board of P. C. Dart while he was acting as your clerk and interpreter in Oregon in the years 1851, '52 & '53, I must decline to comply with it for the reason that the claim has once been settled. It was allowed to you on the 3rd day of April 1862, with the approval of the 2nd Comptroller, and reported for payment.
    The evidence was satisfactory that P. C. Dart while acting as clerk and interpreter boarded the number of weeks claimed, that the price charged was the regular price of board then at that time--that the board was paid by you and that you had not been reimbursed.
    Being satisfied of your authority to make the payment, under your instructions, the accounting officers allowed the claim under the act of Congress for your relief.
    While my views are unchanged in relation to the justice of your claim for the amount for the foregoing reason, which I regard as sufficient, although there are others to which I have not alluded, I regard a restatement of your claim as unnecessary and improper.
Respectfully
    E. B. French
Anson Dart Esq.
   

    I concur in the foregoing statement of the 2nd Auditor.
Jno. Brodhead
    2nd Comptroller
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 841-843.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon, Oct. 23, 1863
Sir
    In reply to your letter of 12th June last in relation to a map of the Coast Reservation, to which late Agent Biddle refers in a statement forwarded to your office with his Report of Employees for 2nd quarter 1862, I have the honor to inform you that Agent Simpson has advised this office under date Oct. 21st 1863 that he has been unable to find the map referred to among the papers of his office, nor has he any knowledge that such a map has been compiled.
    I will here mention that it is my intention to cause to be drawn in this office a map showing the location of the various agencies in this Superintendency, the typographical features of the country, the routes of travel and other valuable information, and that a copy of said map when completed will be forwarded to your office for your information.
    The explanations called for in your letters of June 2nd, June 12th and Sept. 15th as to discrepancies in Reports of Employees at Siletz Agency for 4th qr. 1862 and 2nd quarter 1863 will be forwarded within a day or two.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1073-1075.



San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 7th 1863.
Captain,
    I have the honor to submit, for the information of the genl. commanding, the following report of an inspection made in compliance with S.O. No. 232, dated Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific, Oct. 10th, 1863.
    I was directed by this order to make a critical examination of everything which pertained to the military in the vicinity of Camp Baker and the new fort at Klamath Lake, Oregon, and also to inquire into certain reports adverse to the conduct of Lieut. Col. C. S. Drew, 1st Oregon Cavalry, who is now the commanding officer at Fort Klamath.
    The report adverse to the conduct of Col. Drew, to which my attention was specially directed, emanated from Amos E. Rogers, U.S. Sub-Indian Agent, and are very voluminously set forth in copious extracts from his official letters to Mr. Huntington, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
    The gist of these complaints is contained in the following propositions:
    First: Col. Drew has located the new fort in the Klamath Lake Valley at a place where it can be of little or no service to the Indian Dept. in controlling the Indians, and of no utility to the military in protecting the citizens and emigrants from the hostile tribes that live in that section of the country.
    Second: That Col. Drew has openly declared himself inimical to the policy of the Indian Dept. and has taken every opportunity to insult its dignity, weaken its power, lessen its influence and to destroy its authority.
    In giving my opinion in regard to the first proposition, it is proper for me to state that the lateness of the season prevented me from making a personal examination of the country which surrounds the Klamath Lake Valley. The information which I obtained concerning this region was collected verbally from many individuals who have partly explored it, and from the official reports of those officers who have partly surveyed it.
    I have conversed with some twenty persons living in and about Jacksonville and Yreka, all of whom seemed to have more or less personal knowledge of this country, although I found some difference with regard to their statements, the conclusion at which I have arrived is based upon that which I considered the best and most reliable information offered.
    There can be no question as to the fitness of the place selected for this new fort, if the only considerations are the health of the troops and economy in their support. It also appears equally clear that as a strategic position, taken for the purpose of holding in subjection Indians that are considered hostile, it offers very many advantages.
    Indeed, with the limited means at Col. Drew's disposal for the construction of a new fort in that section of the country, it is hardly possible that one could have been located which would have offered greater advantages and have secured like protection to emigrants and to citizens.
    With regard to the second proposition, I have only to say that Col. Drew pronounces as wholly untrue the language which Sub-Agent Rogers has imputed to him.
    Col. Drew claims that he has ever been willing and ready to cooperate with the sub-Indian agent whenever such cooperation would have added to the public safety, or have reflected credit upon either department.
    I am of the opinion that no cause can be cited, at least I have heard of none where cooperation was refused, which if closely examined will draw censure upon Col. Drew's conduct or reflect indiscretion upon his judgment.
    I have listened to many complaints against Col. Drew made by respectable citizens in Jacksonville, the complaints having reference to the manner in which the troops in that vicinity have been supplied, and to the persons who have supplied them.
    After giving the subject that careful consideration which the cause demands, I could only arrive at the conclusion that the cause for complaint was more apparent than real.
    The citizens understand but little with regard to the mode of supplying troops, therefore transactions which in themselves are strictly proper, and which save the government much unnecessary expense, excite their suspicion and call forth from them remarks which have not the slightest foundation in reason or fact, and this is more especially the case when a person whose political faith is a question with a portion of the community is in any way engaged in supplying troops.
    I find in this case but one person, a Mr. Glenn, who is known in any contract against whom objection is made, and that on account of sympathies which it is said he has with the Rebellion.
    This person, however, has taken the oath of allegiance and is in partnership with one whose Union sentiments none dare asperse.
    With regard to Mr. Glenn's loyalty, Col. Drew has been the judge, and I have had no proofs offered to me which are sufficient to induce me to believe him disloyal.
    Before closing these remarks with regard to the complaint of the sub-Indian agent and citizens against Col. Drew, it becoming upon me to state that I have not considered it necessary to mention in this report all the facts and all the statements, which have induced me to the conclusion I have formed. I trust I have given the matter a careful, thorough and impartial investigation. That there exists in the minds of a few a strong feeling, and in some cases honestly but nevertheless erroneously entertained, against Col. Drew, there can be no question. That petty jealousies, personal interests and party prejudice have had more or less to do with its formation, it would be folly for anyone to deny.
    I have therefore endeavored to be guided by facts, and from these alone have I formed any conclusions.
Camp Baker
    Camp Baker, situated about eight miles from Jacksonville, consists of a few old log buildings now of no use to the government.
    I would recommend that everything which is of any value, such as locks, windows and doors, be removed, and the rest be abandoned or left in charge of any person who will take care of it for the privilege of living in some of the houses and of using the remainder for any purpose he may desire.
"Fort Klamath"
    Fort Klamath, Oregon is situated 8 miles north of the waters of the Upper Klamath Lakes. It is about 86 miles from Jacksonville by the new wagon road leading to it, about 20 miles south of the Rogue River and John Day turnpike, which runs from Jacksonville to the Boise mines, and about 50 miles north of the Southern Emigrant Road leading into Oregon. Near to where the post is located run all the trails leading from Yreka northward.
    The fort is placed in the most beautiful and pleasant part of the valley. It has a southern exposure and is surrounded by wood and water in the greatest abundance.
    The soil appears of a peculiar nature, but the luxuriance of the grass would seem to indicate that it was capable of producing grain and many of the vegetables in general profusion. It is my opinion that within a year or two cavalry will be as cheaply sustained at the place as it is now in the Rogue River Valley. It is claimed by many that there are at least six townships of good land in close proximity to the fort which holds out great inducements for settlers.
    That it is quite cold in this vicinity during the winter is certain, its elevation being about 4000 feet above the sea. Still, the Indians say that the lake is seldom frozen over for more than a few weeks, and it is quite certain that they winter their stock but a few miles further south.
"Roads"
    The road from Jacksonville to Fort Klamath was made in about one month by Co. "C," 1st Cavalry, Oregon Vols., commanded by Capt. Wm. Kelly, who has been all the time on duty with the company, and 2nd Lt. D. C. Underwood, who has performed the duties of quartermaster and commissary. The road runs near Mount McLoughlin and is as good as could be expected. The work expended upon it shows that the men must have labored with more than ordinary industry to have finished it in so short a time. It is anticipated that soon a wagon road will be opened from the fort to the John Day turnpike north, and also to the Yreka wagon road south. It is my opinion that the fort can be supplied much more cheaply by the way of Yreka than it is now through Jacksonville.
    Again the present location of the fort is on the old Nez Perce Indian trail leading from California to Snake River, and it is on the road from Yreka to the emigrant road leading from Fort Boise to the middle fork of the Willamette River, and it is also in the vicinity of the new wagon road leading up Rogue River to the Boise mines. It is more than probable that three times the amount of travel will pass these trails, and this road than will pass over the old emigrant road through the Modoc country. (The above is taken from a petition addressed to the Governor of Oregon, praying that he will use his influence that the new fort may not be removed.)
    There can be but little reason to doubt that soon cavalry stationed at this fort will find roads in all directions, by which they can operate and hold in subjection the Indians in all the surrounding country.
"Buildings at Fort Klamath"
    The buildings now in process of erection are being constructed under estimates and plans made by Col. Drew and approved at Dept. headqrs. Col Drew appears to be exercising the best of judgment in their location and the greatest economy in their plans. In the original plan the store house was found to be too small to answer the purpose of the quartermaster & commissary. It has accordingly been built 80 by 30 feet, which is quite small enough for a two-company post.
    There is no estimate or plan yet made for a stable, and I would recommend that the stables be at once built. The carpenters are now at the fort, and they will work quite as cheaply, if not cheaper, during the winter than they will in the spring.
    An office building for the comdg. officer and also for the office of the Q.M. & commissary should also be added to the original estimates.
"Quartermaster & Commissary Dept."
    Lieut. Underwood is the acting Q.M. & commissary. He, up to this time, has done the duties at both Camp Baker and Fort Klamath. This has to some extent made him responsible for property beyond his immediate control, inasmuch as the horses are this winter to be kept in Rogue River Valley, and a sufficient number of men to care for them. I recommend the responsibility be divided between two officers, one with the horses, and this at Fort Klamath, which Col. Drew has decided to order.
    The business in these depts. has been conducted with economy. It is true that in all cases the usual mode of advertising for contracts has not been resorted to, but in every case, before supplies have been bought, authority for the purchase has been received from the headqrs. of the Dept. The dispatch necessary in building and supplying the new post would hardly allow the usual method of advertising in all cases, and it is very questionable, had this method been followed, if the government would have profited by it.
    I therefore believe that although the course pursued has promoted some jealousy among the citizens, nevertheless the government has not been the loser.
    The papers in these departments seem to be well kept and very well understood.
"Company 'C' Oregon Cavy."
    Company C numbers 79 men, rank and file. 76 of this number are present. The men appeared in good health, only 3 being sick at the time I inspected.
    The arms and accoutrements were good, the clothing apparently new, and the company dismounted made a fine appearance. The horses are nearly all American and Oregon raised, in fine condition, and serviceable for any duty. These horses I inspected at Fort Klamath and in Rogue River Valley.
    The company books are well kept, as well as the company property accounts.
    The officers and men were in camp at the time I inspected, and just having moved and not yet being settled, there were allowances to be made for many things relative to official papers and records.
"Indians"
    Col. Drew thinks that about 10 miles south of the for there is a good place for an Indian reservation, and which, if selected, will place all of the surrounding Indians directly under the command of the fort.
    Lalakes' tribe now live in this vicinity. The Indians have already given up to the troops several horses and one mule, showing that their presence is already felt and appreciated. I have little fears of murders on the emigrant road, where they are said usually to have occurred, if Fort Klamath is occupied by cavalry. During the winter the troops at Fort Klamath will hold completely at their mercy all the tribes in the vicinity of the Klamath Lake Valley.
I have the honor
    To be, Captain,
        Your obt. sert.
            Jas. Van Voast
                Capt. 9th Infty.
                    Inspg. Officer
Captain E. S. Purdy
    Asst. Adjt. Genl.
        Dept. of the Pacific
   

Headquarters Department of the Pacific
    San Francisco Nov. 10th 1863
Official
    B. C.
        A. D. C.
Headquarters Department of the Pacific
    San Francisco Nov. 12th 1863
Approved
    Geo. Wright, Brig. Gen. U.S.A.
        Comdg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  Drew murdered Tyee George on November 20, 1863, less than two weeks after this letter was written.




Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Nov. 9th 1863
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 22nd ultimo in reply to my communication of 28th September last.
    Upon receipt of this you will forthwith proceed to the country at or near Fort Klamath, reside there during the coming winter, and exercise such control over the Indians there as circumstances and the limited means at your command permit.
    This office is not in possession of information in regard to those Indians definite enough to enable me to give you detailed instructions for your government during the ensuing six months. Your efforts must be mainly guided by your own discretion, aided by the general instructions to be found in the Revised Regulations and the established usages and policy of the Indian Department.
    You are aware that the Rogue River Valley was purchased many years ago from the Indians to whom it originally belonged and thrown open by the government for settlement. The white settlers now very justly complain of the presence of Indians who have no right there and whose habits and conduct our service [omission] constantly of annoyance and trouble. It is expected that you will be able to induce them to remain altogether outside of the settlements. To this end the funds now in your hands will be applied, and you will be furnished in addition with two hundred and fifty dollars ($250) from the "general and incidental" appropriations for the service during 1st quarter 1864. I am aware that these amounts are small and inadequate to the wants of the Department in the district to which you are assigned, but they are all that can at present be furnished, and your expenditures will be strictly limited to these, in no event incurring liabilities in advance of appropriations.
    It is desirable for many reasons to have a large tract in that region set apart as a reservation, and although this office does not presume that your knowledge of the country is sufficient to enable to you decide certainly where the permanent location should be made, yet in view of the fact that white settlers are rapidly locating upon the arable land of the [Klamath] Lake valley, it is deemed best to select a tract at once for those purposes and having given public notice of the boundaries by advertising and in such other ways as appear necessary. You will then endeavor to remove the Indians to the reservation and prevent whites from trespassing upon it. From the statement in your letter of 12th ultimo it is probable that a tract on the east side of the upper lake will afford the indispensables requisite, to wit: arable lands, fresh water, timber for fuel and building purposes, and access to the lake for fishing. A location can probably be made there of 1200 or 1500 square miles, suitable in all respects and not interfering with any white settlers--if upon a careful examination it is found that the facts are otherwise. You will use your own judgment as to the location.
    You will particularly avoid making definite promises to the Indians which may never be fulfilled, but you may say to them that the President and the offices of the Indian Department are not unmindful of them, and will in due time provide for their necessities and assure them that in no event will their lands be taken from them without compensation. You will also take an early opportunity to inform them that the Indian Department through its agts. alone has authority to treat with and govern them or to purchase their lands and dissuade them from listening to the persuasions or promises of any other persons.
    The necessities of the service will of course require a building of some sort, but this office cannot with the light now before it decide whether it will be more economical to rent or  erect one. This is left wholly to your discretion with the remark that your means do not permit any other than very limited expenditures for either object.
    You will call upon the military authorities at Fort Klamath for such aid as you may from time to time require to enable you to carry out the objects of the Department, and as the officer has been advised by Gen. Geo. Wright, commanding Dept. of the Pacific, that he has instructed "officers in command to afford any assistance in their power to enable the officers of the Indian Department to accomplish the design of the government." It is presumed that upon your written requisition the cooperation of the troops can be obtained.
    You will of course require the services of an interpreter, and funds for his salary will be duly furnished. Other employees if you find any necessary will be paid out of the funds now in your hands.
    You will neglect at no opportunity to furnish this office with such information as you may collect in relation to the Indians or topography, characteristics and resources of the country they inhabit. It is also desirable to know the number and locality of the white settlers upon Indian territory.
I remain sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Amos E. Rogers Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 426-428.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon, Novr. 11th 1863
Sir
    In reply to your letter of 2nd June last pointing out discrepancies in Agent J. B. Condon's list of employees at Siletz Agency for 4th quarter 1862, I have to inform you that
    George Leisure, Blacksmith, John Willis, Asst. Farmer
Danl. Wells, Physician, Joseph Beazley, Farmer
"Bob," Interpreter and Jacob Allen, Supt. Farming
were all discharged from the service, Jacob Allen on the 30th June 1862, the others on the 10th October 1862, the day on which Agent Biddle was relieved by Agt. Condon.
    George Leisure was reappointed blacksmith and John Willis asst. farmer by Agent Condon, October 17th 1863. The other parties named were not employed by Mr. Condon at all.
    Wm. H. Spencer, commissary &c,. is reported on Agent Biddle's list of employees for fractional 4th quarter 1862, as "continued in the service until the 30th Nov. 1862," forty-four days after Mr. Biddle had left the agency. He was not employed by Agent Condon at all, and was not at the agency during that period. This office is not informed at what place the services were rendered during the period mentioned, nor what necessity existed justifying Agent Biddle in employing a commissary when he had no agency in his charge.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1153-1155.



Oregon Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon Novr. 12th 1863.
Sir
    Referring to your letter of 15th September last acknowledging receipt of Agent Simpson's list of employees at Siletz Agency for 2nd quarter 1863 and noting sundry objections thereto, I have the honor to inform you that Daniel Wells, physician, and Joseph Beazley, farmer, were discharged by late Agent B. R. Biddle on the 16th October 1862 and have not since been in the service.
    Horace Carpenter, physician, S. Hatch, commissary and Frank Johns, interpreter, were discharged at the time Agent Condon was relieved by Agent Simpson, to wit:
March 31st 1863--
    Harris Knight, farmer, was discharged by Agent Condon.
March 13, 1863--
    None of the persons named in your letter were in the employ of Agent Simpson at any time.
    In regard to the increase of salary of farmers from $780 to $960 per annum, Agent Simpson informs this office that it was done in compliance with instructions from late Superintendent Wm. H. Rector, and that it was impossible in consequence of the depreciation of the currency to employ suitable persons at the former rate of compensation.
    A copy of the letter of Mr. Rector referred to (taken from the records of this office) is herewith transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1162-1164.  Rector's letter of March 17th is transcribed above.




Notice
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 20th 1863
    Information having been received at this office that parties in California and elsewhere are intending to proceed to Alsea and Yaquina Bay and points adjacent thereto for purposes of settlement, I deem it proper to give notice that the points named are within the "Coast Ind. Reservation," the boundaries of which are as follows, to wit:
    Beginning on the shore of the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of a small stream about midway between the Umpqua and Siuslaw rivers, thence easterly to the ridge dividing the waters of these streams and along such ridge or highland to the western boundary of the eighth range of townships west of the Willamette Meridian, thence north on said boundary to a point due east of Cape Lookout, thence west to the ocean, thence along the coast to place of beginning.
    This tract was first designated as a reservation by late Supt. Joel Palmer on the 17th of April 1855, and his action was subsequently approved and confirmed by the Department of the Interior and the President of the United States and the land withdrawn from settlement and sale. The settlement of persons not in the employ of the Indian Department can [not] be permitted within the boundaries above named and parties attempting such settlement will be required to remove forthwith.
    The tract has few attractions for whites, while there are numerous equally valuable locations now unoccupied both above and below on the coast.
    It is hoped good citizens will discourage attempts to trespass upon the only tract now remaining when Indians can be located apart from the white race.
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Copies sent to the Oregon Statesman and San Francisco Bulletin for publication.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 437. Original [unidentified] clippings are on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1173 and 1188.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Novr. 21st 1863
Sir
    This office is in receipt of information from various sources that attempts are about to be made by persons in both Oregon and California to commence settlements upon the "Coast Reservation" in this Superintendency, some for agricultural purposes and others with a view of mining. Reports have been industriously circulated in San Francisco and elsewhere that rich deposits of gold have been found near Yaquina Bay, and I am credibly informed that a considerable number of men--some of them having families--are preparing to remove thither. In view of these facts I have thought it advisable to insert a notice (copy of which is hereto appended) in the Oregon Statesman and the San Francisco Bulletin forbidding any trespass upon the reservation, and I shall consider it my duty to use every effort in my power to prevent settlement thereon, and to remove any persons who may succeed in establishing themselves there. I trust my action in this case my have your approval.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1172-1174.  The clipping referred to is transcribed above, under date of November 20th.


Klamath Lake.
Jacksonville, Nov. 21, 1863.
    Dr. Editor:--On the 30th, a party of us, escorted by old George and some dozen of his men, who had been prowling round camp a day or two, selling purses, buckskins and such other ictas ["things"] of Indian commerce as they had to dispose of, started for the lake. Our route lay over a fine, fertile country, down Fort Creek. On our left a basaltic ridge of some few hundred feet elevation runs parallel with our trail. About four miles travel brought us to a bridge of rather primitive construction--a relic of the "pathfinders." It was made by felling a large tree across the creek and flattening the top, which, withal, made a very good bridge for animals. After leaving the bridge some two miles, we came to the crooks of Fort Creek. Here the creek seems to be badly bewildered, judging from the intricate windings of its course. In a distance of half a mile its channel is so crooked and winding that the water runs five or six times that distance, sometimes running around four or five hundred yards and running within a few feet of the same place. At one place I noticed that the channel, after winding near a quarter of a mile, came back within six feet of the same place, and was connected by a narrow channel, and so level was the country that from the road, a distance of fifty yards, I could not discover any current passing through it. Just below the crooks the trail from Klamath Marsh forms a junction with the creek. The Indians at this place had several hundred lbs. of water lily seed piled up, awaiting the arrival of their canoes to transport it to their quarters on the lake. From the last named place, our road lay along the left margin of an extensive marsh, dotted here and there with islands of dry land, on which occasional bands of Indian horses were luxuriating, half hid in the tall grass. About noon we arrived at La Lake's camp. It is situated at the upper end of the lake, in a barren, dusty and sagey region. This camp closely resembled those of the Snake Indians, the houses being made of bark, skins, blankets, and, indeed, anything that will shut out the direct rays of the sun. One house I noticed embellished with a large sign painted on canvas "Hotel & Restaurant." Supposing it, however, to be a trophy of some petty larceny and not an invitation to dinner, we did not call, although our appetites felt some sharpened at the sight, notwithstanding it was wrong-side up. Our arrival had a similar effect on this ranch that a walking cane would have had poked into an anthill. Old men, women and children came peering out of every house, until one would have thought that the very sagebrush was turned to noncombatant siwashes. And what a sight! Old men with but the ghost of a blanket to hide their nakedness. Children clad in almost every conceivable style, from nudity to more than a comfortable abundance. Every garment, save that which graced the back of siwash royalty itself, had doubtless been debarred the luxury of soap and water from the time they had been stolen. About midway the village stood a pole, some twenty feet in length, tapering to a point at the top. It was painted with alternate rings of red and white; the white however was the natural color of the wood. These stripes were variegated by hieroglyphical dots and marks of a peculiar style. On inquiring of La Lake the object of this singular monument, he told me it was the medicine man's pole. All inquiries of him as to its use were of no avail; he, however, pointed out the man of medical science, a tall, well-made hombre of some thirty "snows," dressed in red drawers fitting tightly to the skin, mysteriously fringed down the outside of the legs. His cap was of peculiar "cut," having a broad, leathern brim, evidently made out of an old boot leg, with a crown of blue blanket, profusely plumed with cabalistic feathers. Even the variegated patches on his coat seemed to assume a mystical arrangement. Hoping soon to be able to startle the world by a discovery of the true mysteries of the ancient Kabbalah, as handed down through the sages of the digger nation, I approached this man of medicine with nervous anxiety, and with all the respect and humility due his dignity, for the purpose of quizzing him. But after all my laudable efforts, I must confess Indian hygiene still remains a mystery to me, and as a consequence a loss to mankind.
    Our attention was next attracted to a weeping squaw who sat on the ground some little distance from La Lake's palace, with her face buried between her hands. My pity being aroused, I made some inquiries as to the source of her grief. I was told that her sister had been so unfortunate as to be bought by a very bad "Injun," who that morning had taken it in hand, by way of warning for the future, to give said sister a gentle chastisement in the shape of a few loving kicks and thumps, producing a bloody nose and two black eyes, and this squaw was mourning her sister's fate. I mention this incident to show that even among these degraded beings some may be found with a remaining spark of humanity within their breast, to distinguish them from brutes. The shedding of a single tear of sorrow, for a sister, is a distinctive mark between man and brute.
    Leaving La Lake's camp, and following around the lake in a southeasterly direction, we passed several other Indian camps, each presided over by some petty sub-chief, who claimed La Lake as his head. The principal feature of these camps, like that of La Lake's, were the great number of naked children that came swarming from the tents, some running for the brush, some jumping and hallooing as if in a frenzy of excitement. After traveling up the lake some three miles, we turned to the east, over a ridge, towards Klamath River, which connects the upper marsh with the lake. Here the timber (a species of pine) began to assume a low, scrubby appearance. The alkali, sage and greasewood, with an occasional scrubby juniper, which we found in this country, strongly reminded one of his days of emigration on the plains. The coarse, stiff grass, or wild rye, and the light, ashy soil, are identical with that along the sterile regions of the Snake River. Klamath River is not quite so wide as Rogue River, and where we first struck it, runs with a very sluggish current, having only six feet fall in a mile. Following up the river, the country assumes the appearance of a mineral region. We found some sand and blue washed boulders, but were only able to find one very small piece of quartz. We also found some indications of iron. The water in the river is of a bottle-green color, and of a very bad taste, so much so that some actually preferred whisky to this water. Fortunately, in this case, a small flask containing some of that article was discovered securely stowed away in the off side of a pair of cantenas [saddlebags], which accidentally accompanied the party.
    As I shall have to make "two bites of a cherry" with my remaining notes, I will remain on Klamath River until my next, lest I should have only the stone of the cherry left for the last.
X.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 28, 1863, page 4



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon November 27th 1863
Sir
    Your letters of Nov. 11th and Nov. 23rd instant, with their enclosures, have been received at this office.
    My letter of 9th instant, which it is presumed you have received before this time, contains sufficient answer to the points raised in your letter of 11th instant. I will remark in addition, however, that it is your duty wherein your judgment the public welfare demands it to require the officer in command of the nearest military post to arrest and detain any Indian guilty of violation of law or refusal to submit to the authority of the Department.
    The use of this power however is to be tempered on your part with mildness and discretion and must be so regulated as to inspire respect and good feeling among the Indians, not only toward the officers of the Indian Department but toward the whites generally.
    It is equally your duty to require the military to arrest and confirm any white person guilty of infraction of the laws regulating intercourse with Indian tribes (especially the act of 30th June 1834) or who shall in any manner trespass upon the rights of the Indians. You are in fact by your official position a guardian alike of the rights of Indians and the rights of whites, and if the military officer in command should so far forget his duty as to refuse to cooperate with and assist you after having received a written requisition to do so, you will thereupon promptly report the facts to this officer. It is proper that I should say however, in view of recent occurrences detailed in your letter, that if you have reason to believe that the officer in command will cause an Indian to be hung, or will connive at or permit such hanging by other persons, without previous trial and condemnation in due course of law, it will be a violation of duty on your part to put him into the power of such officer for any purpose. These remarks are intended of course to apply only to a time of peace, such as now exists, and not to time of actual war, when the powers of military are much enlarged.
    The action of Lieut. Col. Drew in hanging and Indian in time of peace, without trial, without indeed any charge of crime of a capital nature, after having notified the agent that the Indian would be removed to Fort Klamath, and not having given any notice of his intention to do otherwise, is so extraordinary, so gross a violation not only of law but of the principles of right and the dictates of good policy, that I am reluctant to give credence to the whole statement, but am constrained to believe that you have misapprehended the facts, or have learned only a part of them. You are directed to make immediate inquiry as to the details of the action of Lieut. Col. Drew in the premises and report the same to this office without delay. Explicit information is particularly desired upon the points enumerated below, to wit:
    1st Whether the Indian "George" was hanged by the order of Lieut. Col. Drew, or upon the order of some subordinate officer.
    2nd Upon what charges was he hung? What was the accusation against him.
    3rd Did Lieut. Col. Drew refuse to permit you to be present at the trial or investigation? Or were you ignorant that it was in contemplation to dispose of the case summarily.
    4th Was there any trial? And if yes, before whom.
    5th What has become of the Indian "Jack." Is he still in the hands of the civil authorities? And what are Lieut. Col. Drew's intentions toward him.
    In addition to the above you will add such particulars as will throw light on the transaction.
    In view of the fact that the Indians have all left Rogue River Valley, and are now at the lake, your presence at Jacksonville can no longer be required, and you will therefore lose no time in removing to the vicinity of Fort Klamath and remaining there during the ensuing winter. You will use your own discretion about the issues of flour and beef to which you refer in your letter of Nov. 23rd. No issues will be made which are not necessary, but your former letters have stated that the Indians could not live at the lakes without aid of that sort. If they can subsist themselves the office will be very much gratified to have them do so.
    Mr. Lindsay Applegate is a gentleman well qualified by his long residence in the country, his acquaintance with those Indians and with Indian character generally, to render you valuable aid, and if his services as interpreter can be secured you will do well to employ him. Otherwise you are recommended to confer with him frequently and secure his influence with the Indians in the discharge of your duties as sub-agent.
    I can see no occasion for your visiting this office at this time so urgent as to warrant you in remaining away from the Indian country. The "communications concerning the existing condition" of affairs in your district which you propose should be made by letter.
    I take this opportunity to again remind you that your accounts ought to have been forwarded long since, and to call your attention once more to your mission to furnish my annual report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Amos E. Rogers Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent.
        Jacksonville Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 441-443.



    Article of Agreement made and entered into this first day of December A.D. 1863 between Benj. Simpson, U.S. Indian Agent Siletz Agency, Oregon of the first part and Winant & Co. of San Francisco, California of the second part. "Witnesseth" that the said Simpson of the first part agrees to lease unto the said Winant & Co. for the term of five years commencing on the fifth day of December 1863 all of the natural oyster beds of Yaquina Bay, Oregon for which the said Winant & Co. agrees to pay the sum of one thousand dollars in United States coin on or before the first day of March 1864 to the said Benj. Simpson for the use of the Indians at Siletz Indian Agency, and it is further agreed by the said Winant & Co. that the refuse oysters are to be laid or bedded out in such a manner as to be the most beneficial to the oyster beds, and it is further understood and agreed that there shall be no trading done with the Indians by the said Winant & Co. or their employees without a permit from the U.S. Indian Agent at Siletz Agency. And the said Winant & Co., parties of the second part, agree to conform to all the rules and regulations of the Indian Department of Oregon at all times. It is further understood that the said Winant & Co. are to have such protection as may be required for carrying on the oyster trade at Yaquina Bay without interruption or competition from other parties. It is further understood that the said Winant & Co. shall have the right to erect such building as they may require for carrying on the oyster trade, and it is particularly understood that the said Winant & Co. or employees shall claim no right of settlement thereon, and at the expiration of the five years they shall peaceably withdraw therefrom.
    The above agreement is subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
B. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
Winant & Co.
Witness
    C. S. Woodworth
    James B. Condon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



(Private)
Jacksonville Oregon
    Dec. 2nd 1863
Hon J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir,
        I have seen Mr. Rogers' correspondence with you, and notwithstanding he has said to you that it was possible, and that he desired to remove and remain at the Klamath Lake the coming winter, yet I feel constrained to say it would be very imprudent and even personally unsafe for him to do so. As he has believed it to be necessary to the good of the service, he has determined to risk it against the advice of friends. Since the hanging of Indian "George," the arrest of "Jack" and the shooting of "Skookum John" and the consequent impression made upon the mind of the Indians and sought to be made in regard to the agent and his authority, the case to my mind scarcely admits of a doubt. In fact it seems to me that the proceeding was calculated to impress upon the mind of the Indians that the gravest of the offenses for which he suffered death was that he attempted to recognize that the agent had any authority at all.
    The Col. [Drew] actually appears to ignore the agent, his authority and that of the whole department and to treat as a usurpation and a crime the mere claim of it in any shape.
    There is a dreadful state of affairs here, and some incredible things have transpired which could only be known by a personal interview with the agent. The war made upon him is so bitter, and the spirit manifested so reckless and malicious, there is in my candid opinion no judging to what extreme lengths it might be carried towards him. There is traitors in this combination against him as dark-hearted as any in Quantrill's band--in fact of the same breed and the same stripe. There is no telling, I say again, what might happen to the agent under this most unfortunate train of circumstances.
    I believe that before any investigation into the hanging is had that the agent ought to be ordered to report in person to your office.
    I hope you will excuse me for appearing to advise, and permit me to say again that I positively believe--yea, I know--Rogers should be ordered immediately to your office.
In haste
    Your most respectfully &c.
        E. L. Applegate
P.S. Mr. Rogers has received yours of the 27th ult. James T. Glenn only a few moments ago confessed to Rogers, in my presence, that George positively had no trial of any kind whatever. He also stated that he was the man who took down the Indian's testimony, which was published in the Intelligencer. [That issue of the Intelligencer, along with George's testimony, is now lost.]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, no number.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon Decr. 4th 1963
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my estimate of funds required for the Indian Service in this Superintendency during first and second quarter of 1864, amounting to $109,315.62.
    Upon examination you will perceive that this estimate includes the usual amounts for similar periods to carry out the stipulations of the treaties with the "Shasta Scotan and Umpquas," "Umpquas (Cow Creek band)," "Umpquas and Calapooias of Umpqua Valley," "Calapooia, Molalla and Clackamas," "Walla Walla, Cayuse and Umatilla" and "Rogue River" tribes, and that portion of it is respectfully submitted without further remark.
    For the "Confederated Tribes of Middle Oregon" in addition to the usual amounts for current expenditures, I have asked for the following, to wit:
    For beneficial objects, under direction of the President, per 2nd art., treaty June 25th 1855 $  1,638.20
Erection of buildings, opening farms, fencing, purchase of tools, farming implements, seeds &c. per 3rd article treaty June 25th 1855 14,528.08
For erection of hospital buildings, per 4th art. treaty June 25, 1855 1,100.00
For erection of school house, 4th art. treaty 2,000.00
For dwelling houses for employees, 4th art. treaty 2,400.00
For saw and flouring mills, 4th art. treaty 450.00
For dwelling houses for Indian chiefs, 4th art. treaty 1,126.00
    These are balances unexpended of the Act of March 29th 1860, making appropriations for carrying out the provisions of the treaty with those tribes.
    I do not consider it best for the interests of the Indians that the whole of the sums under the 2nd and 3rd article of the treaty be expended at once, but it is advisable in order to educate them in agriculture and furnish them teams and implements necessary that a part of the money be expended during the coming season, and the remainder as their wants require. Moreover the treaty guarantees to them an expenditure, for the objects named, of specific sums, and good faith to them requires that it be no longer withheld.
    The buildings at the reservation were originally inadequate to the wants of the agency, and were left in an unfinished condition.
    The hostile Snake Indians in one of their raids a few years ago burned the principal houses, and those remaining are deficient in number, small, uncomfortable and dilapidated, quite insufficient to the wants of the service. It is always desirable to employ men with families at agencies, both because they are more apt to be permanent, and for the good moral effect of white families among Indians, but this cannot be done at Warm Springs for want of dwelling houses.
    The school house is in no respect fit for use, being so small, open and badly lighted as to be hardly tenantable in winter.
    Medical treatment suited to many of their diseases cannot be given them for want of suitable hospital accommodations. I refer you to my annual report for current year for further information on these points and trust that you will remit the amounts for the objects named above, to be immediately expended.
    The estimates under the heads of "General and Incidental Expenses" and "Removal and Subsistence of Indians Not Parties to Any Treaty" are respectively $11,666.67 and $16,666.67. The amounts appropriated by Congress under these heads for the current fiscal year were respectively $35,000 and $50,000, "for the Indian Service in Oregon and Washington," and the custom for years has been to divide these amounts equally between Oregon and Washington, thus giving each $8,750 of "General and Incidental," and $122,500 of "Removal and Subsistence" for each half year.
    In a letter dated Sept. 5th 1863, advising me that a requisition for $58,416.66 has been made upon the Treasury of the U.S. for the Indian Service in Oregon, Acting Commissioner Chas. E. Mix is pleased to remark that the fund appropriated for the objects named above "were made for the Territory now embraced in Oregon, Washington and Idaho, and they must therefore be divided between them according to the business in each Superintendency," and further that if the division made is not a proper one, "it will be adjusted in remitting the last half of them."
    Mr. Mix has evidently fallen into the error of assuming that the creation of the new Superintendency of Idaho has relieved the Oregon Superintendency of a part of the Indians and business belonging to it, while the facts are that Idaho was created out of Washington wholly, and has not taken from Oregon an Indian agency, an Indian or an acre of territory. The business of Washington is doubtless diminished, because it is relieved of several agencies, many thousand Indians and nearly half of its extent, but the business of Oregon is in no way affected by the change. To divert then a part of the funds appropriated for Oregon to Idaho is clearly not warranted by the existing facts, and it is fortunate that Acting Commr. Mix was so cautious as to provide that the error could "be adjusted in remitting the last half of the appropriations."
    The amount indicated in my estimate will if added to the amounts remitted for 3rd and 4th quarter 1863 make just one half of the appropriations for one year, and I trust they will be included in the next requisition upon the Treasury.
    In the letter alluded to above, Acting Commr. Mix further remarks that the Department confidently expects that the Indians "will be enabled to procure a comfortable subsistence with the aid of the large sums remitted" and that the whole amount is not to be "expended unless the wants of the service absolutely require it."
    I take the liberty in this connection to refer you to the "Statistical Returns of Farming" from a part of the agencies, forwarded by the same mail which carries this letter, and to my Annual Report for the current year, for evidence as to what the Indians are doing toward raising their own subsistence. Indeed an inspection of the accounts of agents, having in view the number of Indians under their charge, will show you that subsistence is furnished by the government to only a very small part of them. A few sick, aged, orphans and individuals otherwise helpless are to be found in each tribe who must be supported by the government or starve, but the main body of the Indians do not and have not for some time drawn their support from the Treasury. And when we consider the brief period during which these tribes have been under tuition, and the total change which is sought to be made in their habits--converting a bloodthirsty horde of savage nomads into patient, intelligent, systematic cultivators of the soil--may we not wonder that so much progress has been made, rather than so little?
    I beg to assure you that I shall sanction no disbursement which does not appear necessary to advance the interests of the Indians, but at the same time I regret to say that there is small prospect of any balance remaining on hand unexpended. This will be due in part to the gradual diminution which is constantly made in the amounts remitted, but chiefly to the derangement of the currency.
    The funds furnished to all of my predecessors were in gold, while since my incumbency no other funds than legal tender notes have been furnished. These notes as you are aware are not currency upon the Pacific Coast, but are a depreciated commodity varying in value from sixty to seventy-five cents on the dollar. The effect of this is exactly equivalent to reducing the appropriations thirty or forty percent. Operations on all of the agencies have been necessarily somewhat curtailed in consequence, and unless a change occurs must be still further reduced. I do not ask for increased appropriations, for I hold that the Indian Service ought to bear its share of the burdens imposed on the government by the great effort to maintain its own integrity, but I do ask that this fact be not overlooked in estimating the results of last year's operations, and in the future so long as the difference in the currency exists.
    The curtailment which Acting Commr. Mix thought it his duty to make in the remittance for 3rd and 4th quarters 1863 has unfortunately fallen upon those funds which were before most restricted in proportion to the demands upon them. The appropriations for "General and Incidental Expenses" have for many years been fixed at the same amount, while the appointment of an additional agent in Southern Oregon, the purchase of goods in the East (bringing transportation charges against the fund), the withholding of the usual remittance for clerk hire while new demands are constantly emanating from your office for clerical labor, and the general increase of business, all combine to increase the expenditures under this head. When the nominal amount is reduced one third and this paid in notes worth only say 66⅔ percent, you will perceive that the available amount is cut down just one half.
    The fund for "Removal and Subsistence of Indians Not Parties to Any Treaty" is as you are aware the only one applicable to the benefit of the large number of Indians of that class located upon the Coast Reservation. The wants of the service make so many demands upon this fund (always small and now reduced by the action of Mr. Mix and the depreciation, one half) that the operations at Siletz and Alsea agencies have necessarily been limited, and had I not received a balance of $4929.32 of same fund from my predecessor Mr. Rector, must have been to a considerable extent suspended. I submit herewith a memorandum showing the number of Indians at each agency, the amounts appropriated for their benefit, and the amount per capita, from which you will perceive that the "Indians not parties to any treaty" receive only $3.03 per head, while those under treaty receive sums varying from $13.42 to $8.26 per head. In this connection it should be remembered that these Indians "not parties to any treaty" made a treaty with late Supt. Joel Palmer, in 1855, by which their lands were ceded to the United States, and in full faith that the government would sanction the acts of its agent, they gave up their lands to settlement and removed to a reservation, thus fulfilling their part of the compact, but as the Senate did not ratify the treaty, the United States has not given them the compensation for which they stipulated.
    There are a very large number of other Indians "not party to any treaty" in this Superintendency, but no part of this fund has been expended for their benefit except the sum of $500, placed in the hands of Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers for the use of tribes in Southeastern Oregon.
    The sum of $10,000 was appropriated by Congress March 3rd 1863 for "Colonizing, supporting" &c. &c. &c. "those Indians with whom treaties have been made but not ratified" and on the 9th September last I transmitted to your office a requisition for the same, but have not yet been advised of its transmission. As the wants of these Indians urgently require its use, I have included it in my present estimate and hope it may not be any longer withheld.
    Unless the appropriations for these Indians are more commensurate to their number and wants, the efforts of the Department in their behalf must be to a great extent suspended, and in that event they will again scatter to their old haunts and the lamentable consequences which always ensue when communities of whites and Indians are thrown together will be inevitable. I earnestly ask your careful attention to this subject and do not doubt that you will adopt such measures as circumstances permit and the facts warrant.
    I respectfully ask that the amount of this requisition be remitted at an early day. The funds for 3rd and 4th quarters 1863 were not placed at my disposal until 13th November last, although the requisition upon the Treasury was issued prior to Sept. 5th. I am determined if possible to so manage the affairs of this branch of the service as to incur no indebtedness, but in order to do so it is indispensable that funds be regularly, early and promptly made available.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 126-137.





Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 8th 1863
Sir
    I have been permitted to read a private letter from you to Hon. J. W. Drew of this place, in which you state that the Indian "George," needlessly hanged by Lieut. Col. Chas. S. Drew at Camp Baker, made no confession of having been guilty of murder of white men, had no trial &c. &c.
    In order to arrive at a full understanding of this matter it is desirable to ascertain just what took place at and before the hanging, and you will if possible procure sworn statements of credible persons who were present, of the details, and especially as to what proof was had either by confession or testimony of others of the criminality of "George."
    These statements should be brief, explicit and include no unnecessary verbiage.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Amos E. Rogers Esq.
    Sub-Ind. Agent
        Jacksonville Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 453.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Dec. 9th 1863
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose herewith the report of the Manual Labor School at Grand Ronde Agency, rendered by Mr. C. M. Sawtelle, principal teacher, for 3rd quarter 1863.
    I also enclose a copy of the report of the teacher of the "Shasta Scotan and Umpqua School" kept under the supervision of Mr. J. C. Clarke at Siletz Agency, for same quarter. Mr. Clarke having omitted to furnish more than one copy of this paper, I have preferred to send a copy prepared in this office (its correctness certified by me), filing the original there, thus avoiding the lengthy delay which would be incurred by sending to the agency for duplicates.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 455-456.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1863
Sir
    I enclose herewith the "Statistical Return of Farming" at Grand Ronde Agency for the last year, and respectfully ask your careful attention to the same. The soil at this agency is well adapted to the production of cereals but does not yield large returns of vegetables--in this respect differing from other parts of the same reservation nearer the coast, where the climate is more moist and cool.
    This explains why wheat and oats are the chief crops here, while at Siletz and Alsea (both on the opposite side of the Coast Range of mountains) potatoes and other esculents figure so largely in the returns.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 456.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 19th 1863
Sir
    Within the last two years it has been discovered that natural oyster beds of considerable extent exist in Yaquina Bay on the Coast Reservation in this Superintendency. Although this bay has been a fishing ground for Indians for centuries, and has been frequented by whites to some extent for twelve years, these beds have remained unknown, partly because of their lying in very deep water, but mainly for the reason that the Indians very seldom use oysters as an article of food. Since the discovery various attempts have been made by whites to engage in taking and shipping the oysters to San Francisco, and the persons employed in the business have occasioned some trouble by Indians and violations of the Intercourse Laws.
    In view of these facts, Agent Benj. Simpson has thought best to enter into a contract with Winant & Co. of San Francisco by the terms of which they are to have the exclusive privilege of taking oysters in said bay for the term of five years, and are excluded from privileges of trade or to acquire right of settlement. For the rights thus given them they are to pay the sum of one thousand dollars "for the use of the Indians at Siletz Agency" and agree also to plant out the unsalable oysters in such manner as to improve the deposit. Said contract is made subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Ind. Affairs, and the enclosed copy thereof is furnished by Agent Simpson for transmission to your office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 464.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 1184-1186.



Office, Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 26th 1863
Sir
    I transmit herewith enclosed copies of boundaries of the following Indian reservations in this Superintendency, to wit: the "Umatilla," the "Warm Springs," the "Table Rock," the "Coast" with additions thereto and the "Klamath Lake."
    The last named has recently been selected by order of this office, but has not yet received the final sanction of the Department of the Interior.
    In examining its boundaries I am in doubt whether it does not include a part of the lands selected by the executive of this state for state purposes in the Klamath region, and it is also a question whether the description of the initial point does not involve an absurdity.
    According to the diagram published by your office on the 16th August 1861 the "Lower Klamath Lake" has no outlet in Oregon, and if that part of the diagram is from actual survey the description as laid down by Sub-Agent Rogers is meaningless.
    Other maps however indicate the outlet of the lower lake north of the parallel of 42° north latitude.
    Will you be kind enough to throw such light upon this point as you are able for the information of this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
B. J. Pengra
    Surveyor General
        Eugene City Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 470.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 26th 1863
Sir
    On the 9th ultimo I directed Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers to select a tract near the Klamath Lake in southeastern Oregon for an Indian reservation.
    A copy of my instructions to the sub-agent is hereto appended (marked "A") from the perusal of which you will learn the reasons which in my judgment rendered action necessary, and the course which was indicated for the guidance of the sub-agent.
    In pursuance of these instructions, Sub-Agent Rogers on the 24th ultimo selected a tract for the purposes named, and published notice thereof (a copy of which marked "B" is hereto appended) in the Jacksonville Sentinel newspaper.
    The boundaries of the tract reserved are minutely described in the advertisement. The sub-agent also advises this office that the body of land selected contains enough arable land, is supplied with timber and water, and includes the principal fisheries upon the lakes and Lost River.
    Some confusion exists as to which is the "Lower Klamath Lake." Upon some maps, that designated as Klamath Lake in the diagram of the Surveyor General B. J. Pengra (copy of which was forwarded to your office with my letter of June 1st last) is known as "Upper Klamath Lake."
    On others the same is known as "Upper Klamath Lake," while another marked "Lower Klamath Lake" is shown having its outlet north of the parallel of 42° north lat.
    I have taken steps to procure information which will definitely settle this doubt and will forward the details to you as soon as received.
    In the meantime, however, I have deemed it my duty to acquaint you with the action thus taken, and trust the same will have your approval.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon.
    Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner &c.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 470-471.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 26th 1863
Sir
    Referring to your letter of 24th ultimo and your advertisement in the Oregon Sentinel, it is observed that the boundary of the Klamath Indian Reservation is described as beginning at "point on the line dividing the state of Oregon from California due south from the outlet or lower end of the Lower Klamath Lake on the west side thereof, thence running due north" &c. &c.
    The diagram published by Surveyor General B. J. Pengra 16th August 1861 does not show any outlet to said lower lake within the limits of Oregon, and if that diagram is correct, a point on the boundary between Oregon and California due south of said outlet cannot exist, because the outlet must be in California south of said boundary. The sketch which you sent to this office some time ago does not indicate the boundary between the two states, and therefore throws no light on the question.
    McCormick and Pownall's map of 1859 and the map compiled by the Secretary of War in 1859 both agree in placing the outlet of the lower lake in Oregon.
    It is important that this office learn without delay the facts as to the location of said outlet, and you will therefore immediately transmit such information as you can obtain in relation to it.
    I send you herewith a sketch copied from the Surveyor Genl.'s diagram referred to, showing the relative position of the lakes, Mt. Pitt (McLoughlin), Cascade Mountains, Jacksonville, the California boundary and other important objects. From an examination of this you will perceive the discrepancy to which your attention is now directed, and the necessity for explanation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Amos E. Rogers
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 471-472.





Last revised November 30, 2016