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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1864
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jany. 4th 1864.
Sir
    The claim of Richard Dunn for services as farmer at Siletz Agency (under appropriation for "Removal and Subsistence" &c.) from March 1 to March 31, 1863, inclusive, has been presented at this office, the vouchers being duly certified by Agent James B. Condon.
    The claim not appearing upon the agent's Abstract of Liabilities for that quarter, the subject was referred to him for explanation, and he informs this office that the services were rendered, and are yet unpaid, but that the account was carelessly omitted in making the statement of liabilities. He has furnished a certificate in regard to the matter which I transmit herewith for your information.
    The agent's "Report of Employees" for same quarter shows that Richard Dunn was employed during the time stated, and the accounts do not show that he was paid. The rate of compensation is reasonable, and I think the account just.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indn. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 162-163.



The American Telegraph Company.
Dated San Francisco Jan. 6, 1864.
To Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    273 Vt. Ave.
        Mr. Ludlow has been engaged in the oyster fishing at Yaquina Bay & river in front of Siletz Reserve, Oregon. He is now ordered away by Indian Agent Simpson, he stating that he has rented the privilege to another party for one thousand dollars a year [for] five years. Has he the right so to do? Mr. Ludlow requests me to telegraph the above.
John H. P. Wentworth
    Supt. Spl. Agt. [California]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 617-618.



Room of Committee on Indian Affairs
    Washington Jan. 18th 1864
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. of Indian Affairs
        Sir--There is now before the House Committee on Indian Affairs a bill providing for the appropriation of twenty thousand dollars to be used by the President in causing treaties to be made with the Indian tribes of Klamath Lake and other tribes of Southern and Eastern Oregon with a view to extinguishing the title to their lands &c.
    Will you be kind enough to inform the Committee of any facts within the knowledge of your department bearing upon the propriety or necessity of the proposed measure--your opinion as to whether an appropriation ought to be made--the amount if so made--and any other suggestion that may occur to you as proper for us to consider in connection with the matter. By so doing at your earliest convenience you will very much oblige.
Yours respectfully
    Wm. Windom
        Chairman, Com. on Indian Affairs
            House of Reps.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. &c. Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 619-620.



Corvallis Oregon
    Jan. 18th 1864
Hon. Commissioner
    Indian Affairs
        Sir
            I am a poor man. I have for a long time been in the employ of the government on the Indian reserve. I have been accustomed to receive vouchers for payment when demanded at the head Supt. office of this district or the chief office at Washington.
    In pursuance to this understanding and faith in those officers who were established in office by the government I have received on June 30, 1862 vouchers for the sum of 195.00 signed by B. R. Biddle--also--quadruplicate vouchers signed by J. B. Condon March 31, 1863 $195.00.
    I am in need of--my--money. I have waited & demanded till tired at the Supt. office and now appeal to you for my rightful and wrongfully withheld dues.
    I enclose the handwriting of Mr. Woodward, clerk of Supt. Ind. Affairs, Oregon showing where my other proofs of service are and request that a warrant issued in my name to care [of] my atty. A. D. Barnard.
Thos. Briggs
    by A. D. Barnard
   
    The following described vouchers were forwarded to Comsr. Indn. Affrs. in full sets Dec. 26th 1863.
--viz--
Thos. Briggs certified by B. R. Biddle June 30th 1862 for $195.00.
See letter July 19, 1864
See letter Mar. 14, 1865
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 690-694.



Santa Clara, California Jany. 19th / 64
Hon. A. Lincoln, Sir:    My reason for troubling you with this is "hope deferred maketh the heart sick." I live in Yamhill County, Oregon, near the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, on Section 33. I went there the fall of 1853, not foreseeing that a reserve would be made. The Indians are my nearest neighbors and have been a source of annoyance and loss to me since their settlement, lately more than in former years. They destroy my cattle by killing them, horses they take and in some instances have them in their possession for weeks, almost entirely ruining them. I can get no compensation from the fact that under the circumstances I cannot bring proof in premises, and although they have destroyed hundreds of dollars worth of stock I have only been able to obtain $35.00 compensation, and that by mere good fortune, the Indian, fully expecting to be caught, to mitigate his punishment confessed the act. They annoy me by their constant passing, going at all times of the night as well as day, going and returning without permission, as I learn from the agent. They are greatly addicted to drinking, and when drunk have no reason & are often very dangerous, being disposed to quarrel & fight, sometimes congregating about my house, whooping, yelling, fighting and sometimes in a state of entire nakedness, greatly alarming my wife & children; indeed it is unsafe, especially for women or children to go out to a neighbor's for fear of meeting them. Drunk, they have often chased my boys when in search of stock or returning home, and they have been compelled to return to a neighbor's to obtain help so they could return. I have borne all this for various reasons; nearly all I now possess is my claim. The agent admits that I ought not to remain, that the reserve needs my place, that the government ought to purchase it; he thought it would!
    The great drawback being the great national expense at this time. Having waited for this unholy rebellion to cease until my patience is exhausted, my family in a state of wearying suspense and constant dread, I am prompted to write you the facts in the case; judging you to be a humane man I would fain hope you will do something to relieve me from my unpleasant condition.
    I am a minister of the M.E. Church, Oregon Conf. In consequence of a bronchial infection I was compelled to take a superannuated relation [i.e., leave of absence] 3 years ago last August. Expecting in the course of a year by the blessing of almighty God to be so far recovered as again to enter the regular work and being comparatively young, I superannuated without claim on the conference; since that time I have not been able to enter the work, and by an unprecedented hard winter together with the Indians my stock is nearly all destroyed, which was my dependence for support. My circumstances are very straitened, & being unable to perform very laborious physical labor, I am really unable to leave my place unless I could dispose of it, as it constitutes almost my entire all in the way of worldly effects. Labor that would not demand too much physical power or too constant employment of the vocal powers I could perform. Could I obtain such I would leave. If I leave without making sale of it the Indians would destroy my orchard, fences, buildings &c. I have 160 or 70 acres under fence; it has cost me very considerable. I ought to have about $2000 to make me whole, yet I would gladly take less in order to get away. Rent or sell to private parties I cannot, in consequence of the Indians. I have a wife & children. I have given you some of the grievances under which I labor. If you take the case to yourself under the guidance of right, I trust you will do something for me, praying that God may give you wisdom to guide our national affairs to His glory & our good, I am truly your humble servant, Robert Booth.
    Please write me at your earliest convenience, in care [of] Rev. C. S. Kingsley, Portland, Oregon.
Robert Booth
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 545-549.




Corvallis Oregon Jan. 28, 1864
To
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Sir
            I am requested of
Mr. Robert Hill (a faithful employee of the government for the past six years in the Siletz Reserve for Indians in Oregon) to ask for information as to when, where & how he shall apply for his pay for six months' service in Jan. 1861 for which he has 2 vouchers duly signed in triplicate by Danl. Newcomb, Indian agent.
1st
One being for service of Robert Hill as a farmer for Rogue River Indians at Siletz Agency from Jan. 1st to Mch. 31 inclusive in the year 1861 for $181.00.
2nd
Same service from Ap. 1st 1861 to June 30th 1861 3 mos. @ 65        $195.00.
    Says he is in great need of his own small pay, that upon application at the Salem Office of Indian Affairs for the state Jan. 27, 1864 he cannot get his pay, that there is always someone near to purchase at 40¢ on the dollar.
    He wishes to know--when he may expect his pay--in order that he may sell his claim if the government is unable to pay.
    He further says that these 2 vouchers are made out and signed by the agent--as are others--that he has had paid to him before and since and as he has performed the service to the best of his ability and agreeable to his employer--the agent of the United States.
    He desires to know the cause of the delay.
Respectfully
    Robert Hill
        by A. D. Barnard
            Notary Public
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 59-62.



Boonville Owyhee County
    Idaho Territory
        February 6th 1864
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor
to acknowledge the receipt of your circular bearing date May 1st 1863.
    In view of the great delay occasioned by correspondence with this distant country, where mail facilities are very inferior, I deem it absolutely necessary to proceed to Washington in order to expedite the adjustment of my accounts. I will therefore start from here about the first of June next and will be at Washington in July.
    I have mailed explanations, as required by your office, of accounts suspended &c., but have never received acknowledgment of their receipt. Whether they have been received or not or proved satisfactory or otherwise I know not.
    You will thus perceive the difficulty of settling by mail.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Late Sub-Indian Agent
                Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 24-26.



Corvallis P.O. Oregon Feb. 18th 1864
Sir:
    Your favor [of] Nov. 11th 1863, enclosing statement of exceptions taken to my accounts as Indian agent at Siletz Agency has been received.
    I have examined the exceptions and find that some of the persons are now absent who would be essential to witness some of the vouchers as required by the Department.
    As soon as possible I will make up my explanations & corrections of accounts so as to conform to the established rules & regulations of the Department.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        B. R. Biddle
            Late U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 63-64.



Office Indian Affairs
    Northern Dist. Cal.
        Yreka March 2nd 1864
Sir
    I have the honor to report that on the 14th ult. the Klamath Lake Indians with their chief Lalakes, the Modocs with their chief Schonchin, the Shastas with Josh & Park their chiefs, the Scotts Valley Indians with their chief John and the Hamburg Indians with their chief Jim met me in council near Yreka for the purpose of arranging their difficulties among themselves and arranging terms with the whites.
    Upon my entering upon the discharge of the duties of my office these Klamath Lake & Modoc Indians were making preparation for war and exhibiting hostile intentions which I then arranged by a temporary agreement as stated in a former report.
    Since then owing to some of their warriors having been killed by the Shasta & Hamburg Indians within the lines of the white settlements, in retaliation for the supposed protection rendered the Shastas, the Klamath Lake & Modoc Indians commenced depredations by stealing the cattle of the frontier settlements, robbing travelers passing through their country and uttering threats of murders or war on the opening of the spring. In view of these demonstrations & threats Col. Drew arrested and caused to be executed an Indian commonly known as George and killed an Indian commonly known as "Skookum John," two very, very vicious and illy disposed chiefs, who were counseling war continuously. George had acquired some knowledge of the English language & fully comprehended the Civil War under which our unfortunate country is now suffering & he thought or professed to think that if all the Indians should unite they could kill off all the whites and retake the country!
    The country of the Klamath Lakes & Modoc Indians is about equally divided by the line between the states of California & Oregon. the Shastas, Scotts Valley, Hamburg & Pit River Indians inhabit entirely within California. Owing to this fact and the fact that an unhappy difference existed between the agency at Jacksonville & the Military Department and in view of the impending danger to our citizens, I deemed it my duty to call the council, believing that if I could arrange a settlement among the Indians and thus relieve our citizens and authorities from the charge of molesting the Shastas in their depredations upon the Modocs & Klamath Lake Indians, I could arrange a permanent treaty with all for our benefit. The result is herewith transmitted with a hope that my acts in the premises will meet with approval.
    The expense to the government was but a trifle, as nothing but two pairs of blankets were given in presents, and the Indians fed as also their horses during the conference.
    I have faith to believe that this conference has saved the country from a bloody war with a numerous band of Indians inhabiting the western slope of the [Sierra] Nevada Mountains in Northern California & Southern Oregon.
    All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honor to be your
    Most obedient servant
        E. Steele
            Late Agt. Ind. Affairs N.W. Cal.
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner &c.
            Indian Affairs
                Washington
                    D.C.
   

To the Indians now assembled
    The white chief has called you together to arrange a settlement of all past difficulties among yourselves or with the whites. With this purpose he has through me, his agent, had you hold a council among yourselves, and you have settled all your difficulties. The white chief now wishes a good understanding with you all and his people.
    The white chief does not buy friendship or peace, but wishes a peace because it is better for both parties to live in friendship.
    Are you willing to enter into a treaty upon such a basis?
    They all answer they desire so to do.
    1st--You Schonchin and Lalakes and other chiefs of the Modoc and Klamath Lake Indians, and John and Jim of the Scotts Valley and Hamburg Indians and Josh and Jack of the Shastas agree to live in peace and friendship with each other from this time on.
    You agree that you will not kill each other or shoot each other, or steal one from the other in tribes or singly.
    You agree that any one Indian or squaw may travel through your country safely, and if any Indian breaks this agreement the chief shall give him or her up to the soldiers for punishment.
    2nd--You all agree to live on terms of friendship and peace with the white men, and the Negroes and Chinamen living under white men's laws. That they may pass in numbers of one or more through your country in pursuit of mines or on their business without being molested, taxed for right of way, or frightened to give their goods, property or money to the Indians, but you may charge a fair price for ferrying them across rivers or guiding them across the country when they wish to hire you.
    3rd--When you come into white settlements or camps you shall not get drunk or steal either small things or great. You shall not rob Chinamen of their gold or rob their sluice boxes. You shall remain out of town and in your camps nights. And you shall not sell to white men or others Indian children either of your own tribe or of other tribes, and you shall not sell--except to Indians--any squaws unless the person buying will go before the white man's judge and marry the squaw sold him.
    4th--The great white chief desires that all people, Indians as well as white men, should live in peace and have no more war, and particularly that the Modoc Indians should not go into the country of the Pit Rivers to fight or steal squaws or children to sell them. Do you agree to let them alone if they do not trouble you?
    5th--You, Indians of the Modoc and Klamath Lake country, are subject to the inspection, protection and restraint of the officers at Fort Klamath.
    Do you agree to submit yourselves and your difficulties to them for adjustment and settlement, and in case of any trouble with white men to go and state your difficulties to the officers at the fort?
    6th--Indians, except in the unsettled country or when hunting, shall not pack (carry) guns or bows and arrows, shall not bring them into the white settlements except to get them repaired, and when you come into the settlement you shall leave your guns out in camp.
    7th--On the part of the white chief, we agree to give you a right to come to our settlements, and we will protect you at all proper times. When coming to the settlements you should get a paper pass from the officers at the fort.
    This was agreed to in council before the undersigned witnesses and others.
E. W. Potter
    Justice of the Peace
D. Ream
    Sheriff
E. Steele
    Late Agt. Ind. Affairs N.W. Cal.
H. K. White
T. S. Bell
    Interpreter for Modocs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 589-595.




Senate Chambers March 4th / 64
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            I enclose Senate bill 25 providing for an appropriation to enable the President to negotiate a treaty with the Indians therein named. These are the Indians with whom Supt. Huntington of Oregon and his agents recommend should be treated with; late Supt. Geary also made a similar recommendation. A portion of them are the Indians who recently entered and partially destroyed the buildings upon the Warm Springs Reservation and in relation to which you sent me a copy of Huntington's letter. I desire to get the bill up tomorrow, and should be glad to have your recommendation upon the subject. Please send it to me tomorrow morning.
Your obt. servant
    J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 526-528.



Yreka March 5th 1864
Hon. John Conness
    Dear Sir
        On the 14th of last month I held a council with the Modoc, Klamath Lake, Shasta, Scotts Valley & Hamburg Indians and formed a settlement with them, which is herewith enclosed.
    This step may be somewhat irregular inasmuch as the Oregon agency had received appropriations heretofore for their charge and maintenance, but the misunderstanding between Rogers, the sub-agent of Oregon, & the military and the ill feeling that was growing up among the Indians and being occasionally demonstrated by the Klamath Lakes & Modocs towards the whites seemed urgently to call for an intervention to avoid a war. Besides this, although the appropriations have uniformly been made to Oregon for the charge & care of the Shastas, Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians, the former--the Shastas--inhabit entirely within the borders of California. The Klamath Lake Indians are about equally divided, and as is also their land, by the state line, and the Modoc and their land is mostly in California. These tribes inhabit the country lying west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and south of the Siskiyou Mountains to the confluence of the Scotts & Klamath rivers, as follows.
    The Hamburg Indians, known in their language as the T-ka, inhabit immediately at the mouth of Scotts River--known in their language as the Ot-te-ti-e-wa River. The Scotts Valley Indians, known in their language as the Id-do-a, inhabit Scotts Valley above the cañon. The Yreka (a misnomer for Y-e-ka--Shasta Butte) Indians, known in their language as the Ho-te-day, inhabit that part of the country lying south of Klamath River and west of Shasta River. The Shasta Indians, known in their language as the We-a-how-it--meaning stone house, from the large cave in their country--occupying the land east of Shasta River and south of the Siskiyou Mountains and west of the lower Klamath Lake. All of these Indians speak the same language and were formerly under one chief, who lived in Scotts Valley, and sub-chiefs, but for some years past have been under separate chiefs--the former regal family having become extinct by sickness and casualties about the time our white population first entered the country. They have since this--my--settlement elected a big chief (skookum tyee) called by us John, who is a smart, sober and well-disposed Indian.
    Then next east of the Shastas are the Klamath Lake Indians, known in their language as the Ok-shee--who inhabit the country about the Klamath Lakes, and east about halfway to the Goose Lake to Wright Lake, and south to a line running about due east from Shasta Butte. Then the Modoc (or Moadoc as the word is pronounced), known in their language as the Ok-kow-ish, inhabit the Goose Lake country and are mostly within the state of California. These and the Klamath Lake Indians speak the same language, though under several chiefs, the Modocs under Schonchin, head chief, and
Skitte-hon-ges and other smaller chiefs, and the Klamath Lakes under Lalakes and smaller chiefs.
    The word Modoc is a Shasta Indian word, and means all distant, stranger or hostile Indians, and became applied to these Indians by white men in early days from hearing the Shastas speak of them.
    The range of the Siskiyou Mountains, known in their language as the Mac-ki-a, forms the northern limits of the country of most of these tribes. The Klamath Lake & Modoc Indians number about fourteen hundred warriors, all well mounted on Indian ponies and armed with guns, and are skillful marksmen; are a large, active and courageous Indian and would be formidable foes, and many of our straggling citizens in the early days of the country have fallen victims to them. The large number of miners and traders emigrating this season to the northern placers, having either to pass through their country or make a circuit to Portland, the temptation of this so much the shortest route would necessarily expose many small and defenseless companies to sure destruction from these powerful bands of Indians.
    All of these facts, I feel, justify my interference, and fortunately, from some little incidents of early days, they all had learned to both fear & respect me, and they readily assembled in council and were evidently highly gratified at a restoration of peace among themselves and a good understanding with us. Since this arrangement, it has been proven by actual experience that they intend fully to comply with the terms of the compact. Their guns were all kept back on their visit to Yreka after the treaty, and individual white men have passed out into their country and back without molestation or annoyance.
    The chiefs Lalakes and Schonchin wish me particularly to visit their country this summer. The Shastas, Scotts Valley, Yreka and Hamburg Indians are reduced, all told, to about two hundred, and their country is fully settled up by the whites without any compensation to them, but with occasional trifling aid from citizens they are enabled to take care of themselves, and have never been the recipient of any bounty or care from the government.
    The land of the Modoc & Klamath Lake Indians is a high, cold plain, nearly on a level with the summit of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, too frosty to raise cereals or roots with success, and fit only for grass. The country abounds in wild game and the lakes and streams in fish. The Indians make a good living and raise a great many horses, the snow, spreading over so large a surface, not falling deep enough to cover the herbage and their stock finding good grazing all winter. On this whole plain, from Yreka east to the eastern slope of the [Sierra] Nevada Mountains, it is a rare occurrence to meet with a fall of snow exceeding six inches and then to lie but a few days, the great elevation and consequently cool surface not causing much evaporation, and that little is condensed and spread over a large extent of country; unlike the Sacramento Valley and its surrounding mountains, the peaks and ridges of which condense and accumulate to great depth the humidity of the atmosphere of the warm valleys.
    This upper country will not be wanted by white people for ages to come except as a thoroughfare, and this is now fully secured, and unless rich deposits of mineral wealth should be found there, in which last alternative the Indians soon make room for the miners.
    I am thus particular so that you may be fully advised when legislating upon this subject, and hope, should Mr. Shannon desire it, you will let him peruse it.
    I start in a few days to visit the Humboldt Indians, with a firm belief that I can make a satisfactory accommodation with all these hostile bands that are now costing the government so much. Their country is but little needed by our citizens, and much of the difficulty arises from evil-disposed white men who reside among the Indians. The Klamath River, from the mouth of the Salmon River down, runs mostly through a close cañon, and is a very broken country, and had my predecessor have allowed the Indians to care for themselves at the time of the great overflow, they would have taken to the mountains, and in a few days after the flood had subsided they would have returned to the river banks, and with fish have provided for their immediate wants (as in fact two thirds of them did & yet remain there) and would have saved the government the heavy expense of their removal and subsistence at Smith River. The great number of Indians inhabiting the Klamath and Humboldt countries, the dense redwood forests on the river bottoms, and the high, craggy, precipitous mountains back, would, to my mind, be a serious warning against any effort to remove them by military force, and, if undertaken, would cost the government as much as the great Florida war, and would be about equally procrastinated.
    True, it could be accomplished, but is it advisable thus to expend the energies of our country upon an unnecessary enterprise when we are rent with internal dissensions, and the whole power and treasure of the government is needed to restrain the suicidal hand of rebellion?
I am sir very respectfully
    Yours
        E. Steele
   
Office of Indian Affairs
    Northern Dist. Cal.
        March 8th 1864
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Sir
        Observing in yesterday's paper that an appropriation of $20,000 is about being made to effect a treaty & purchase the lands of the Klamath Lake, Modoc & Snake Indians, I thought it advisable to furnish the Department with what present knowledge I possessed of the country & Indians. This I could not better do than by forwarding a copy of a letter sent several days since to Hon. John Conness, which copy is herewith enclosed. The Snake Indians, or Shoshones, are a very numerous tribe and of rather roving proclivities, traversing from [the] southeastern portion of Oregon, a part of Washington Territory, Idaho Territory, Nevada & Utah Territories as far. I have met them as far down as southwest of Salt Lake City. A treaty with them, as in fact with all other Indians whose country is not required for immediate settlements, should be only for their good behavior, and the right of way & grazing &c. In any case the principle of presents and stipulations for purchase should be avoided, as the presents only tend to impress the Indians with a belief of their superior power & our cowardice, and whenever they desire a new outfit they will make an outbreak, with a view to a new treaty and further presents. I speak thus from actual experience. As for the question of purchase, that idea is incited in the mind of the Indian by white men, who desire to speculate out of both Indians and the government. The installments, when paid, are soon squandered to white men, who follow in the footprints of the govt. agent with whisky, tobacco & trinkets, and the Indians by it find means to indulge their most pernicious habits. The Indian in his normal condition has no knowledge or idea of proprietorship in the soil, and considers his right to consist in keeping others from occupying or owning in common with him any district of country if he has sufficient force to do so, and further to extend occasional levies on those surrounding him. The Snakes, being a very large tribe, go hither & yon as they please, and meet with no checks north until they come to the Blackfeet, or south until the Apache country. They have not been known to come west over the [Sierra] Nevada Mountains on any of these warlike excursions, though I have seen & talked with Snake Indians that had been to the Pacific Ocean.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. Steele
            Past Agt. Ind. Affairs
                N.W. Cal.
To
    Hon. Wm. P. Dole
        Commissioner &c.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 597-606.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, March 14, 1864.
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit to you by mail a map of this Superintendency showing the several Indian reservations, the tracts purchased from the Indian tribes at different times, the lands to which the Indian title is not yet extinguished, the routes usually traveled in passing over the country and the position of the towns, rivers, mountains, lakes and other objects of note. This map has been constructed under my immediate personal supervision, and if it has but small pretension to artistic excellence, it may be relied on as a correct delineation of the objects it is designed to exhibit. The public surveys have been consulted and followed in its construction so far as they have extended, and in respect to the other portions I have relied upon the knowledge which long residence and extensive travel have given me, and such other information as was applicable and attainable.
    In discharging the duties of Superintendent I have frequently been embarrassed by the want of such information in an accessible form as this map is designed to furnish, and your greater distance from the localities, and nonacquaintance with them, it is presumed will tender the compilation more useful to your office than it is to this.
    The topography, climate and soil of this state, the habits, occupations and character of both the whites and Indians inhabiting it are in many respects peculiar, and not readily understood by one who has always lived east of the Rocky Mountains. Personal intercourse and observation will make this fact evident and correct many of the misapprehensions which arise in consequence of it.
    If your other official duties will permit I respectfully suggest the propriety of your making a personal visit to this Superintendency and inspecting the various agencies and its affairs generally. It would give me pleasure should you determine to do so to afford such resistance as will be in my power to render your visit useful to the service and not unpleasant to you personally.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 209-212.




MURPHY & GRISWOLD
MANUFACTURERS & JOBBERS OF
Hats, Caps, Furs, Robes, Straw Goods &c.,
No. 19 MURRAY STREET
New York, March 14th 1864.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            I received from Hon. B. F. Harding your letter to him under date March 11th in which you say I had not informed you how I would [omission] certain vouchers filed in your office Dec. 16th 1863.
    I will have those claims paid to me at this place.
    I herewith enclose certificate of my license as claim agent.
Yours respectfully
    W. C. Griswold
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 112-113.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Mar. 17th 1864
Sir
    In reply to your letter of 29th ultimo covering note from O. Jacobs Esq. and offering to survey the tract reserved for Indian Department purposes in the vicinity of Klamath Lake, I have to say that it is not contemplated at present to survey said reservation.
    The reference you furnish as to your competency are sufficient to warrant me in saying that if a contract for the work should be let by me at some future time, opportunity will be given you to submit proposals for the work.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
James S. Howard Esq.
    Jacksonville
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 503.




Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Mar. 17th 1864
Sir
    The Commissioner of Indian Affairs directs me to forward to you the enclosed circular from the Smithsonian Institution and to inform you "that the Department expects as full returns as it is possible to make in reply, and as early as practicable." And in collecting the material the Commission requires "the interpreters to give their best assistance."
    The following quotation from the Commissioner's letter explains the manner in which it is expected that this duty will be performed:
    "As a part of this information is required for immediate use they (the agents) will first report the number and names of the tribes within their respective agencies, the boundaries of the territory occupied by or claimed by them, if they still remain upon their original lands, or if upon reservations, then what land they formerly owned, together with the present population of each tribe, designating the number of men, women and children of each sex under puberty.
    "For the purpose of ascertaining the affinities of various tribes they will fill out carefully the accompanying blank vocabularies, of which a suitable number will be issued to each agent, with the corresponding words in the language of every tribe.
    "It is to be hoped that the returns will be made at as early a day as practicable and the remaining information furnished thereafter as speedily as it can be collected."
    You will acknowledge the receipt of this letter at once and forward the required information to this office at as early date as circumstances admit.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
A copy send to each of the agents.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 504-505.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. March 17th 1864
Sir
    Referring to your letter of 26th December last enclosing circulars from Smithsonian Institution and directing that the agents of this Superintendency furnish the information called for, I have to inform you that a copy of the circular has been sent to each agent and sub-agent and with it instructions from this office requiring that the information be collected and forwarded in the manner printed out in your letter without unnecessary delay.
    You remark in the letter referred to that the agents are expected to "fill out carefully the accompanying blank vocabularies of which a suitable number will be issued to each agent." No "blank vocabularies" accompanied your letter nor have any been received up to this time.
    If any were sent they were probably lost in the mail, and I call your attention to the matter in order that you may furnish duplicates.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 505.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Mar. 19th 1864
Sir
    In relation to the Siletz Reservation--or as it is properly termed the Coast Reservation--I sent you yesterday a copy of my notice of 20th November last which gives the boundaries thereof.
    I send enclosed copy marked (A) of the letter of Hon. Thos. A. Hendrick, Commr. of Land Office, dated 13th November 1855, which was transmitted to the office by the Commr. of Indian Affairs on 17th of same month. No copy of the order of the President of 9th of same month referred to by the Commissioner is to be found in this office, nor can I find the diagram referred to. It is not material, however, for the Commissioner's letter is sufficient evidence that the order was made, and there can be no doubt that the Yaquina and Alsea bays are included in the boundaries. At the time my notice of 20th Nov. was published I sent a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affrs. in relation to the matter stating what action I had taken and enclosing a copy of the notice.On 30th December the Commissioner replied that my "action in the premises is approved" and calling my attention to the act of June 12th 1858 remarking in conclusion that "experience has demonstrated that in such cases, forbearance results in great injury to the trespassers, or in the end is most prejudicial to the right, interest and well being of the Indians, and for this reason it has been determined by this office that in the future the law shall be rigidly enforced."
    On 6th January last Supt. John P. H. Wentworth of California telegraphed to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs a dispatch of which copy marked (B) is enclosed, together with the Commissioner's answer marked ("C").
    The Mr. Ludlow referred to in the dispatch is the employee of Capt. Hillyer.
    On 29th January last the Commissioner acknowledged the receipt of my letter which informed him of Agent Simpson's action in leasing the right to take oysters to Winant & Co., objecting to some of the details of the lease and stating that if these objections are removed he will "approve a contract giving the contractor exclusive rights against whites to the oyster fishery at that point."
    Agent Simpson has acted under my instructions and has had frequent consultations with me upon the subject. His action as far as I am advised of it has the sanction of this office.
    Capt. Hillyer arrived at Yaquina Bay several months ago, erected a dwelling upon the shore for the purposes (as was said) of trade with whites and Indians. He soon after went to San Francisco and returned with a party for the purpose of carrying on beach mining. After my notice of 20th Nov. Agent Simpson ordered him to leave. He refused but finally I believe abandoned his dwelling and resided on board his schooner, claiming that as he was upon "tidewater" he was beyond the jurisdiction of the Indian Department. Finally engaging in the taking of oysters he was again ordered to leave, but refused. Agent Simpson at last reluctantly called upon Lieut. Herzer to arrest him and seize the vessel. This done, Lieut. Herzer released him upon parole, allowing him to go to Corvallis, from which place he sent such messages as induced the dispatch of Asst. Adj. Genl. Drum.
    Hillyer has been turbulent and troublesome upon the reservation and has been shown great lenity by Agent Simpson. As you may justly remark, Lieut. Herzer did no more than his duty, and it has been a matter of mortification to me that Gen. Wright has allowed an ex parte statement from such an individual as Hillyer to govern his action without effort on his part to obtain correct information.
    The officers of the Indian Department have law, equity and good policy on their side in this matter. They necessarily rely upon the military for the power to enforce the law.
    Hillyer and others emboldened by his success will probably make the attempt to commit trespass. I respectfully ask that if your judgment does not forbid, orders be given to the commanding officers at Siletz and Hoskins to arrest all persons found upon the Coast Reservation in violation of law.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Brig. Genl.
    Benj. Alvord
        Commdr. Dist. of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 506-507.




Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Mar. 21st 1864
Sir
    In relation to the subject of your letter of March 11th instant and the attempt of sundry persons to commence settlement and otherwise trespass upon the Coast Reservation, I have to advise you that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on 30th December last acknowledged a communication from this office upon the subject and remarked that my "action in the premise is approved." The Commissioner also directs that if my notice is disregarded, the fact will be communicated to him, whereupon steps will be taken to furnish "such force as may be necessary to summarily eject all trespassers from said reservation." In conclusion, after calling my attention to Act of June 12th 1853 he remarks that "it has been determined by this office that in future the law referred to shall be rigidly enforced."
    The 17th instant Genl. Wright telegraphed to Gen. Alvord to give such orders as in his discretion he thought proper in relation to Siletz Reservation. After consulting with this office Genl. Alvord sent an order to Capt. L. S. Scott of which copy marked ("A") is herewith enclosed.
    I have no doubt that Genl. Wright was induced by the ex parte statement of Capt. Hillyer and his friends to hastily make an order which his after investigation led him to disapprove Genl. Alvord is zealous in his desire to assist the officers of this Department in enforcing the laws, and if he is placed in possession of all the facts will render a hearty cooperation when the law and the facts require it.
    For your information I enclose manuscript copies of the 2nd section of act of August 18th 1856 and 2nd section of act of 12th June 1858 marked respectively ("B") and ("C").
    You will continue to be vigilant in your endeavors to prevent trespass upon the reservation, and if any new cases come to your knowledge you will promptly report them to this office with the facts and your action.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 509.



Corvallis Oregon
    March 21st 1864
To
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir
            Away back in 1860 I was hired as farmer on the Siletz Indian Reserve for small pay, and it was by me much needed. I have waited till the present time--unpaid.
    I have sold my claim to Clifford, having duly signed my name, as is customary, at the bottom. Such is the story of John Frazier and the story of about one half the employees. I am requested to present this case by the owner of these claims Mr. Clifford, and I hold the vouchers subject to the action of your department. I will refer to them in detail,
Duplicate voucher for service of J. Frazier from
    Dup. vr. Sept. 15 to Sep. 30 1860 $33.80
" " Oct. 1 " Dec. 31 1860 180.00
" " Feb. 26 " March 31 1861 66.00
" " Ap. 1 " Jan. 30 1861 180.00
" " July 1 " Sep. 30 1861   180.00
$639.80
    Please inform me as to how I may obtain Mr. Clifford's dues. We do not care to go to the expense of power of attorney for we have waited so long we may never get anything.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
        Oregon
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 65-67.




Office Supt. Indian Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Mar. 22nd 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 2nd instant, in relation to Indian Affairs in your section, and to thank you for the information therein contained.
    Advices have been this day received from well-informed private sources at Washington that an appropriation of twenty thousand dollars ($20,000) has been made for the purpose of treating with the tribe inhabiting southeastern Oregon. Under what limitations and restrictions Congress designs this fund to be expended I am not advised, but if you again have an interview with any of the Indians living near Klamath or Goose lakes you may say to them that the Superintendent, acting under the direction of the President of the U.S., will endeavor to guard their right and interests, and that before long promises will probably be made for the purchase of their lands.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Lindsay Applegate
    Ashland
        Jackson Co. Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 511.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. March 25th 1864
Sir
    In  my letter of [the] 5th instant in relation to attempts to trespass upon the Coast Reservation, I informed you that the agent supposed that he would be able to remove the intruders there remaining without the intervention of military force.
    I have since learned that on the 24th ultimo Lieut. Herzer in command at Siletz Blockhouse upon requisition of Agent Simpson arrested one Richard Hillyer, captain of the schooner Cornelia Terry for violation of the intercourse laws.
    Having been released upon parole temporarily, Capt. Hillyer went to Corvallis, from which place he communicated by telegraph with parties in San Francisco, and the result was an order by telegraph from Asst. Adjt. Genl. R. C. Drum ordering his release. A copy of the dispatch marked ("A") is enclosed herewith.
    While at Corvallis suit was instituted in the name of A. Ludlow, Richard Hillyer and Richard Harris pltffs. against Benj. Simpson and [Royal A. Bensell] defts. in the circuit court of Benton County, damage being alleged at $15,000.00, for being interrupted in taking oysters in Yaquina Bay. The [Royal A. Bensell], who is joined with Agent Simpson as defendant, is the corporal who made the arrest under orders of Lieut. Herzer.
    After the release of Hillyer he defied the agent and his authority and was turbulent and disorderly. Agent Simpson thereupon called upon Lieut. Herzer to remove Capt. Hillyer and all persons in his employ from the reservation. A copy of Lieut. Herzer's reply is enclosed herewith marked ("B").
    Capt. Hillyer then proceeded to take a cargo of oysters on board and sailed for San Francisco.
    I am unable to say when Hillyer first came upon the Coast Reservation, but on 1st April 1863 (the time when Agent Simpson and myself entered upon official duties) he was living in a house upon the north side of Yaquina Bay, claiming to have had verbal permission from late Agent Condon and Late Supt. Rector to reside there. Mr. Condon explicitly denies having given any such permission, but avers that on the contrary he ordered him in December 1862 to leave the reservation. I have not had opportunity to inquire of Mr. Rector as to the fact, but presume that Hillyer's claim is as untrue in regard to him as it is in regard to Mr. Condon. At a late day he sought permission from Agt. Simpson to erect a larger house at a point lower down on the bay and to plant out some oysters which he had brought from Tillamook Bay. Mr. Simpson refused to give the permission as to the house, and told him that the planting of oysters if done would be at his own risk, would give him no right to remain or return, that the matter had been referred to the Superintendent, and orders were expected to remove all persons from the reservation. Hillyer did however erect a large house, fitting the same up with shelves and other fixtures suitable for a store, and is said to have at the same time had on board of his schooner the remains of a stock of clothing and other goods from a store formerly kept by him at Tillamook. He staked off a small tract of land including the building, and put up written notice claiming said tract for himself, Ludlow and Harris. He also subsequently professed to be agent or associate of a large number of persons at San Francisco who designed to settle upon the reservation for mining purposes, and exhibited a paper purporting to be a bill of sale of machinery for extracting gold, costing eight thousand dollars. My notice of Nov. 20th (copy of which was transmitted to your office Nov. 21st) was issued mainly with reference to the operations of Hillyer and his gang, and copy of it was served upon him by Agent Simpson, and he [was] ordered to leave. The order has subsequently been repeated several times, and uniformly disregarded.
    On the 17th instant Genl. Wright telegraphed to Genl. Alvord, the officer in command of this military district, directing him to give such orders in relation to the Coast Reservation as he thought proper. After consultation with this office Genl. Alvord gave the orders dated respectively March 18th, March 24th and March 25th, copies of which are herewith enclosed marked ("C," "D" & "E"). I take this occasion to remark that Genl. Alvord has always exhibited a zealous willingness to assist the officers of this Department in controlling the Indians and enforcing the law, and I regard it as fortunate that General Wright has put the matter into the hands of an officer who is not only ready to give the required aid, but has by long residence in this state acquired that local knowledge necessary to an understanding of affairs.
    A. Ludlow & Co. in this complaint aver that when arrested they were "in the Bay of Yaquina in said county of Benton in three fathoms of water and about two hundred yards from the shore, the water at all times navigable from the sea and within the ebb and flow of the tide," that "the said Simpson claims to be Indian agent upon a reservation near to or adjoining said bay, by virtue of which he claims this arbitrary control over this arm of the sea," and that the plaintiffs have "never entered upon said reservation except by his permission," also that at the time of arrest they were entirely "outside of the reservation" and "all their operations were outside of said reserve if any reserve exists, and were confined to the navigable waters of said bay, and within the ebb and flow of the tide." I make these quotations not for the purpose of showing the deviations of truth contained therein, but to indicate the line of argument which the plaintiffs evidently design to pursue, to wit: that the bays where the tide ebbs & flows are not a part of the reservation, although the boundaries may include them. The plaintiffs have employed able counsel, and a vigorous effort will be made to have this view sustained by the court. Agent Simpson ought also to be represented by competent counsel, and it is manifestly unjust to require him to bear the expense from his private funds. I respectfully ask therefore that instructions be given me to authorize the employment of counsel and to pay for the same out of the funds for incidental expenses.
    It is manifest that if the court sustains the position taken by Ludlow & Co., the reservation may as well be abandoned at once, for if parties are permitted to locate on the numerous bays and inlets of the coast and by merely living on the tidewater escape the jurisdiction of the Indian Department and liability under the intercourse laws, the condition of affairs will be practically the same as if the whole district were opened to settlement.
    My instructions to Agent Simpson and Sub-Agent Harvey are to vigorously enforce the laws and expel all persons from the reservation not belonging there, and we now have the assurance of military assistance when necessary.
    This subject is of sufficient importance to merit careful attention, and the necessity for action is immediate. I trust that my action thus far may have your approval and that I may be furnished at an early day with further instructions for my guidance.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
   

("A")
(Copy of telegram)
San Francisco
    March 7th 1864
Commanding Officers
    Siletz Reservation
            Release Hillyer, and do not interfere with persons engaged in legitimate traffic without orders from
R. C. Drum
    A.A.G.
   
("B")
(Copy)
Siletz Blockhouse
    March 11th 1864
Sir
    In reply to your communication of today's date, I have the honor to send you a copy of an order received from Captain L. S. Scott, 4th Infty. Cal. Vol. commdg. Fort Hoskins and Siletz Blockhouse, Ogn.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Louis Herzer
            Lieut. 1st Rgt. W.T. Infty.
Hon. Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indn. Agent
        Oregon
   

("C")
(Copy of telegram)
Portland Oregon
    March 18th 1864
To Captain L. S. Scott
    Commdg. troops on
        Siletz Reservation
            Fort Hoskins
                (via Corvallis P.O.)
                    General Wright on 17th March directs me to give such orders as I think proper upon the Siletz Reservation. You will arrest upon requisition of the Indian agent any person found upon the reservation in violation of law, and send him immediately to Portland for trial before the U.S. District Court.
Benj. Alvord
    Brig. General
   
("D")
(Copy)
Hd. Qrs. District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        March 24th 1864
Captain
    The General commanding the District directs me to say that there is ample authority on the request of the Indian Department to expel and eject from the Indian reservation any person found on it in violation of law. This could be done previous to any arrest. If such person should return, he could then be arrested upon the request of the Indian Department, and tried under the provisions of the 2nd Section of the Act of 18th August 1856, a copy of which was sent you. * * *
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Hopkins
            1st. Lieut. 1st Ogn. Cavy.
                A.A.A. General
Capt. L. S. Scott
    4th Cal. Volunteers
        Commdg. troops on
            Siletz Reservation
                Fort  Hoskins
                    Ogn.
   

("E")
(Copy)
Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        March 25th 1864
Sir
    Your communication of the 20th instant is received. In reply the General commanding directs me to say that any action in the matter of persons intruding on the Indian reservation in violation of law must be taken upon requisition of the Indian Department.
    The General commanding the District is decidedly of the opinion that the reservation includes navigable rivers and bays and harbors to the distance of a marine league from shore. The following are the boundaries of the reservation as approved by the President of the U.S. 9th November 1855.
    "Beginning on the shore of the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of a small stream about midway between the Umpqua and Siuslaw rivers, thence easterly to the ridge dividing the waters of those streams, and along such ridge or highland to the western boundary to the eighth range of townships west of the Willamette Meridian, thence north on said boundary to a point due east of Cape Lookout, thence west to the ocean, thence along the coast to place of beginning."
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. W. Hopkins
            1st Lieut. 1st Ogn. Cav.
                A.A.A. General
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 228-240.  A copy of the letter of March 25th is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 513-515.



Washington March 28th 1864
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. of Indian Affairs
        Sir, By the Act of March 22nd 1864 the sum of twenty thousand dollars is appropriated to the negotiation of treaties with the Indian tribes of Southeastern Oregon. As it is important to the safety and quiet of that portion of the state of Oregon that the purposes of the appropriation should be carried out at as early a day as practicable, we take the liberty of suggesting early action on the part of your department upon the subject. To this end we would recommend that the sum appropriated be placed at the disposal of Supt. Huntington of the Oregon Superintendency and that he be instructed to associate with himself Agent Simpson and Sub-Agent Rogers and proceed with as little delay as possible to enter into negotiations with the Indians. In this connection we desire to say that in our opinion much should be left to the discretion of the Commissioner in regard to the manner of making treaties. These Indians are of distinct tribes, and as it would be very doubtful about assembling all at any one place, if not entirely impossible to induce them to enter into one general treaty, we recommend that the Commissioner be authorized to negotiate with all, or with the different tribes and bands, as to them may seem most advisable. Also that they be cautioned not to permit Indians really belonging to other jurisdictions to impose themselves upon the negotiations--as many are known to reside near the boundaries of the state, and the prospect of a new treaty would naturally tempt them to seek to avail themselves of its advantages. The Commissioner should [seek] to avoid complication with adjacent jurisdictions [and] be careful about this matter.
    Our direct and immediate interest in this matter will we trust be a sufficient apology for this letter.
Your obedient servts.
    B. F. Harding
    Jno. R McBride
    J. W. Nesmith
Hon. W. P. Dole, Com. &c.
    Washington D.C.
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 194-197.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. April 11th 1864
Sir
    Information has been received at this office that Capt. Hillyer, who was recently arrested by Lieut. Herzer for trespass upon the Coast Reservation has returned.
    I have to request of you that the said Hillyer and all persons employed or controlled by him be forthwith ejected from said reservation and not permitted to return.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Capt. L. S. Scott
    Commandg. Fort Hoskins
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 519.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. April 11th 1864
Sir
    Sub-Agent Harvey will be ready to leave the Alsea Agency in pursuit of escaped Indians on the 18th of the present month and hopes to have the military escort ready to accompany him at that time.
    In order to reach Alsea by that date they will probably have to start from Siletz Blockhouse as early as the 16th. Mr. Harvey will deliver this to you in person and confer with you as to time &c.
    Any arrangement he may make as to detail will have my approval.
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Capt. L. S. Scott
    Commdg. Fort Hoskins
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 519.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, May 2, 1864
Sir
    My letter of 28th March advised you of the attempt to interfere with the jurisdiction of the Indian Department over the Coast Reservation by means of a suit in equity commenced by A. Ludlow & Co. against Agent Benjamin Simpson and others.
    I have now to advise you that the case came up for hearing at the April term of the Circuit Court of Oregon in Benton County, and counsel for Mr. Simpson submitted demurrer 1st to the jurisdiction of the court, and 2nd to the allegations in the bill, for the reason that it set forth no reasons why facts which justified proceedings in equity.
    The court after argument took the matter under advisement, and it pursued the same course with regard to an application made at the same term for an injunction to restrain the Superintendent as well as the agent and military.
    It now appears that the decision of the case will turn upon the validity of the reservation itself.
    This office understands that the reservation was first selected by Supt. Joel Palmer in 1855 and confirmed by an order of the President dated 9th November 1855. No copy of this order, however, appears to have been furnished this office.
    I have therefore to request that a copy of the order alluded to, properly verified, be forwarded to this office without delay, together with such other evidence as will be of use to establish the legality of the reservation as it is in the power of your office to furnish.
    This case is one of vital importance, and its decision will probably govern the question of the jurisdiction of the officers of the Department on other reservations in this state, as well as the particular one in question. I request therefore that assistance be given from your office liberally and promptly.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 282-284.




19 Murray St. N.Y.
    May 5th [1864]
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Comr. Indian Affs.
        Washington D.C.
            Dr. Sir
                I have just learned that your department refuses to recommend the payment of the balance due claimants for improvements on the Rogue River Reservation. Will you please inform me why those claims should not be paid? The amount was appropriated by Congress to pay those claims some six or eight years ago, and used by Superintendent Palmer to buy farming implements for the Indians and his action recognized by the Department, since which time there has been an appropriation made by Congress to pay about two thirds of the amount, and why the balance should not be paid is a mystery to me. If it is not incompatible with the public interest I would very much like to know.
    I feel confident there is some mistake about this matter and that you have connected these reservation claims with the spoliation claims. An early reply will much oblige
Yours respectfully
    W. C. Griswold
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 114-116.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington D.C. May 9th 1864.
Sir,
    I herewith transmit appropriation warrant No. 93, dated 6th instant, for
Fulfilling treaty with Klamath, Modoc & Snake Indians $20,000.00
to be brought on the books of and filed in your office.
I am
    Yours respectfully
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 509-510.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington D.C. May 9th 1864.
Sir:
    I transmit, herewith, a commission from the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate appointing Amos Harvey of Oregon to be United States Indian agent in the state of Oregon.
    You will please cause said commission to be delivered to him when he shall have filed the proper bond and oath of office.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            Hallet Kilbourn
                Chief Clerk
Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 511-512.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 20th 1864
Sir
    A small band of Indians have been for some years living in the mountains west and southwest of Umpqua Valley. They seldom visit the white settlements, and when they do so it is for the purpose of committing some depredations or petty theft. On the 22nd day of April last they attacked a Mrs. Doyle and her children, severely wounding them all, the former quite severely, and plundered the house of everything movable. They then fled to their hiding place in the mountains and have not been seen since. Much alarm is felt among the settlers of that part of the country, and with good reasons, for if a depredation of that character can be committed within seven miles of Roseburg, no place in the valley can be considered secure from attack.
    I am not able to state certainly what number of Indians there are in the gang, but Mr. Nichols, who I believe you know, and whom I think likely to be well informed, thinks there are only seven men and an equal number of squaws and children. He also says that their usual range is from the headwaters of Coquille to the Big Bend of Rogue River, sometimes showing themselves at the settlement in Camas Prairie on Cow Creek (where Nichols and Riddle reside) and at other places west of the South Umpqua River.
    It seems necessary in order to secure the peace of that section of country that these Indians be removed, and I therefore have to request that you send a sufficient force for that purpose at as early a day as practicable.
    You will find in the Oregon Statesman of 2nd instant an account of the recent depredations, which information from other services indicates is substantially correct except that it is not probable that these Indians have ever been upon any of the reservations.
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Brig. Genl. B. Alvord
    Commandg. Dist. of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 533.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. May 31st 1864
Sir
    Your letter of [omission] and transmitting bill for subsistence of Indians at Klamath Lake and accompanying papers was received at this office during my absence and therefore not promptly answered.
    The regulations of the Indian Department do not authorize the issue of subsistence or other articles to Indians, except through its agents, and I have therefore no authority to pay the claim presented by you. I shall, however, refer the matter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and ask his instructions in relation to it.
    I will also remark that if necessity existed for furnishing these Indians with food and it was contemplated to claim payment for the same of the Indian Department, it would have been proper to notify this office either directly or through the nearest agent of the post before the issue was made.
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                    Ogn.
Capt. Wm. Kelly
    1st Cav. Ogn. Vols.
        Act. Com. Subsistence
            Fort Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 539.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. June 1st 1864
Sir
    Sub-Agent Harvey has submitted to this office a report of his expedition down the coast to Umpqua and Coos in pursuit of fugitive Indians from Alsea Agency. He states that the number of Indians captured and returned to the agency was forty-eight, a small number having through the assistance of white men eluded the soldiers and agent.
    Mr. Harvey speaks in high terms of the efficiency and courtesy of Lieut. Herzer and the men under his command in furthering the objects of the expedition, and I take great pleasure in thanking the military in behalf of the Indian Department for his cheerful assistance.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. P. Huntington
Brig. Genl. Alvord
    Com. Dist. Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 539.



Corvallis, Ogn., June 8th 1864
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Dept. of the Interior
        Office Ind. Affairs
            Sir
                I have the honor to be in receipt of yours of 20th Apl. last, in acknowledgment of mine of 20th Nov. 1863, in relation to my salary as Ind. agt. at Siletz Agency, for 4th qr. 1862 and 1st qr. 1863.
    You state in reply that my "accounts for the fractional 4th qr. 1862 and 4th qr. 1863 have not been received in this office for settlement, and until their final settlement no money can be directed to be paid to you."
    I have to inform you that my accounts have been rendered, and received, as evidenced by a communication from the Office of Indian Affairs, dated Nov. 11th 1863, announcing a settlement of my accounts. I have also received a document from the Treasury Dept. setting forth the balance against me--this evidence I hope will be satisfactory to you that my accounts have been received, and that my duties as set forth in "Statutes at Large vol. 3rd page 723" has been fulfilled.
    I acknowledge the correctness of your position, if the premises were as stated--I believe I have been true to my duties and instructions as I understand them. My imputed dereliction has been of the head--in form--and not of intention to do wrong--as evidence I will mention--an explanation is required--and a suspension is deemed proper before a final settlement of my accounts.
    I should have given the desired explanations promptly--but I did not know to what dept. of the Indian service to direct them. Since I recd. your communication, it seems to me that I will address it to your office, which I promise to do at an early period.
    Many things occur to retard such things--men are very much scattered, some gone away--some dead that could have been useful to me, as evidenced upon some points, so as to have relieved me from too great responsibility--but I will do the best I can to satisfy the Dept. that I have not improperly appropriated a dollar, Superintendent Rector's opinions, and his ex parte affidavits, to the contrary notwithstanding. Superintendent W. H. Rector & his clerk have gone to Washington to fix up things as is generally supposed--if in his final settlement he makes any statement implicating my honor or integrity--I earnestly hope the Dept. will hear me in full in my defense before they form a judgment. I have mentioned, or intimated to Dept. that there was something wrong in the apple tree contract--but the thing has been permitted to pass by--and no questions asked; if the govt. has lost nothing it's well--let the Supt. go. The above in part may be all out of place; if so excuse me--
    You shall be furnished with my explanations in reasonable time--
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servant
        B. R. Biddle
            Late Ind. Agt.
                Siletz Agency
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 68-71.



Corvallis Oregon
    June 8th 1864
Supt. Indian Affairs
    Washington D.C.
        Sir
            I have a voucher from the Indian agent at Siletz Reserve--Daniel Newcomb--for service as farmer from Jan. 1 to March 31, 1864, 3 mos. @ $60 = $180.00
-- also --
A second voucher dated Ap. 1 to June 30, 1861 3 mos. @ $65 $195.00.
    I have been long waiting my just dues and am uninformed as to the delay and believe that there must be some explanation. I request Mr. A. D. Barnard to write this and sign my name.
Very respectfully
    George Megginson
   
Supt. Indian Affairs
    Washington
        D.C.
            I am owner of a voucher for service of myself as farmer on the Indian reserve under Agent Condon during the months Jan., Feb. & March of 1863
also
Three months under B. R. Biddle in 1862.
    I am unable to get my pay and long since have applied at the chief office in this state and where my papers are filed. I am unable to pay--more--money out on claims which have been so long withheld--and I have instructed Mr. A. D. Barnard to apply--for me--for this claim and request you to inform him of what is lacking on my part to obtain my due--and who is to blame. I have directed Mr. Barnard to sign my name and request that the check may come in my name to his care--of if it is necessary I will upon securing the information forward a power of attorney in his name--
Very respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
        for
            Thos. Briggs
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 78-81.



Corvallis Oregon June 10 64
Chief Commissioner Indian Affairs
    Sir
        Herewith please find a certificate of the U.S. Asst. Assessor of Internal Revenue that I was and are duly authorized by virtue of the license--to act as a claim agent.
    I now present the voucher of John Frazier--the property of Mr. Clifford. At the date of transfer Mr. J. Frazier signed his name at the bottom--and then--these papers became--in this country a medium of exchange--
    But to make the transfer clear and above question, a note was addressed to the Supt. Indian Affairs, herein enclosed. You may not understand that these men live 40 miles away from civilization & its order of life and presumed they had done plainly what they wanted.
    Lastly--these men are a roving order of people--and when once loose from a spot are not readily found--I mention these things that you may put a liberal construction on this style of transfer.
    Again--you see I am entrusted with the matter for Mr. Clifford and to save expense to him I hold no power of attorney (unless I had one before). I therefore request that after this long delay & with its consequent change of--metal--in payment that a draft be forwarded on Mr. Clifford--name--to my care.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
   
CIRCULAR.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
    OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS,
        December 21, 1863.
Sir:
    I have to call your attention to a recent communication of the Bureau of Internal Revenue respecting claim agents, as follows, viz: "With a view to oblige such persons to observe the provisions of the Excise Law, I would respectfully submit for your consideration, that, before acting upon he claims submitted by them, you require either the production of a license or the affidavit of the agent that he has a regular license under the laws of the United States as a claim agent." The provisions of the law are as follows, viz: "Claim agents and agents for procuring patents shall pay ten dollars for each license. Every person whose business it is to procure claims in any of the executive departments of the federal government, or procure patents, shall be deemed a claim or patent agent, as the case may be, under this act." (See U.S. Stat. at Large, vol. 12, p. 459, sec. 64, paragraph 33, act approved July 1, 1862.)
    The act of July 17, 1862 provides that "all persons prosecuting claims, either as attorney or on his own account, before any of the departments or bureaus of the United States, shall be required to take the oath of allegiance, and to support the Constitution of the United States (or affirm as the case may be), as required of persons in the civil service of the United States, by the provisions of the act of Congress approved August sixth, eighteen hundred and sixty-two."
    In compliance with the decision and acts above given, this office can take no notice of any claims presented by an attorney unless said attorney file therewith, or has previously done so, a certificate that he has taken out a license as attorney for collecting claims, as contemplated by the Revenue Law above given, and taken the oath required.
Very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant,
        WM. P. DOLE,
            Commissioner.
   
Corvallis Oregon June 10th 1864
    A. D. Barnard, who resides at Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon, was at the date March 21, 1864 and is now a duly licensed claim agent, he having complied with the law referred to in this circular, and his signature is to be found at the close of this line.
A. D. Barnard
    For the information of all parties interested--be it known that A. D. Barnard has complied with the revenue laws and paid the sum of $10.00 and [is] licensed for the year--and taken the oath of allegiance.
Wm. A. K. Mellen
    U.S. Asst. Assessor
        for 5th Division of
            State of Oregon
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 82-86.


Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. June 10th 1864
Sir
    The prevalence of the smallpox in the northeastern counties of this state among the white population is now well authenticated, and the damage of its communication to the Indian tribes and spread throughout this Superintendency is imminent. In view of these facts agents are directed to take steps without delay to have the Indians under their charge vaccinated thoroughly and universally.
    If the resident physicians have no vaccine virus among their medical stores, the agent will see that some is procured as soon as possible, and if none is to be obtained conveniently, notice of the fact will be promptly sent to this office, whereupon the Superintendent will endeavor to obtain and forward a small quantity to each agency.
    Prompt attention to this matter is the duty of all those having Indians in charge, and is expected of all agents and physicians.
    Each agent will report to this office the first appearance of smallpox among the tribes in his charge, and the progress and spread of the disease.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. P. Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                Oregon
A copy sent to each agent and sub-agent.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 543.




Office Supt. Indian Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. June 14th 1864
Sir
    The claim of S. Mitchell & Co. of Salem Oregon for depredations alleged to have been committed by Indians from the Siletz Reservation in January 1863 was referred to this office with your letter of 13th July 1863 with directions to inquire into the same, submit the claim to the Indians charged, and report the fact to your office.
    Messrs. Caton & Cail, the attorneys, and Messrs. S. Mitchell & Co., the principals, were duly notified, and at their request the papers were put in their possession in order that they might obtain such additional evidence as would establish the Indians guilty of the outrage. They have recently been returned with the request that they be reported to your office.
    Of the facts that the robbery was committed and that it was done by Indians there is no doubt, and the testimony offered does not appear to fit an exorbitant value upon the goods taken. The leader of the gang of Indians was one "Capt. Augur," who claims sometimes to belong to the "Joshua" tribe (formerly owning the land near the coast below Port Orford) and at other times claims to belong to the California tribes. He was taken to the Siletz Agency when Robt. Metcalfe was the agent in charge--perhaps in 1858--but remained there only a short time. He has since been in the Willamette and Umpqua valleys, sometimes hiding along the streams or in the adjoining mountains, at other times laboring for some farmer, never remaining long in one place and shrewdly avoiding the agents and others who attempted to capture him. He generally has with him a gang of outlawed Indians who are afraid to return to the reservation for fear of punishment for offenses heretofore committed.
    After the depredations upon the store of Mitchell & Co. he was taken to Grand Ronde Agency and kept in confinement a short time, but soon escaped. Agent Condon made two or three unsuccessful attempts to rearrest him but he ran at large until March last. Agent Simpson arrested him near Albany and took him to Siletz. He was kept in the guard house in charge of the military for some time, but upon his release soon escaped again and is now at large, it is supposed in the southern part of the state.
    He certainly does not belong to any of the ratified tribes with whom ratified treaties are in force but probably does belong to the "Joshua" or some other one of the coast tribes included in the treaty concluded by late Supt. Palmer in 1855 which treaty you will remember was not ratified by the Senate.
    The persons whose testimony is submitted in support of the claim are well known in this vicinity and are credible. The circumstance of the robbery, the arrest of the Indians, and the finding in their possession of a part of the stolen goods are matters of common notoriety.
    The only question then to be determined is whether there is any fund applicable to the payment of the claim.
    Section 17 of the act of 30th June 1834 (to regulate trade and intercourse) is the one upon which the claim is based, but the tribe at Siletz are not parties to any treaty, have no money or property, and receive no annuities.
    It does not appear therefore that payment can be made unless Congress make a specific appropriation for that purpose. The papers are herewith returned to your office.
I remain sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 544-545.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 308-311.




Umpqua School Grand Ronde
    June 16th, 1864
Mr. Huntington Dear Sir
    In compliance with your request I take this occasion to forward you a few lines in relation to my school.
    My duties as teacher have been somewhat retarded by circumstances over which I had no control. However I have got started and am doing what I can to get out the scholars for attendance. Prospects are however far from flattering in this prospect. But few have attended as yet. Perhaps several reasons might be assigned for this, but I think the principal difficulty lies at the door of the Catholic Church. I was soon convinced after coming here that the priest was opposed to reopening this school. Soon after I came here, two priests & two sisters from French Prairie came to this place to make arrangements for opening a school & expecting the occupation of this house but left again after spending two days among the Indians. Immediately afterward I found a uniform objection to the government school among the Indians, namely that I was here only to obtain the money appropriated for the school and cared nothing for the school &c., that the Catholics were about opening a school & could feed & clothe the children. I think however I shall be able to overcome these efforts of the Catholics to break up the school. I am now having an increase of scholars and should the school continue it seems probable a fair number of scholars will be in attendance.
    Other reasons for the very limited attendance at the beginning of my school might be assigned, but when I meet you in Salem at the end of the present qr. I will explain more fully & definitely.
    My present number of scholars is eight. Daily attendance about five.
    I intend to celebrate the "fourth" in Salem, and if you are not absent I will see you then & there. If Mr. Harvey shall see proper to continue the school under my charge, or any other person, I have a few suggestions to submit in relation to the school when I shall see him, or you.
    The few scholars I have who attend regularly seem interested & progress rapidly, and could the same scholars be held in attendance one year I have no doubt a large proportion would make good proficiency in reading & writing &c.
    Possibly Mr. Harvey may not be in Salem on the fourth. If you have an opportunity I could thank you to ascertain his intentions in relation to the school &c., which may be a matter of some convenience to me when I come home.
Yours very respectfully
    P. Crandall
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 320.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        June 22nd 1864.
Sir:
    Congress has recently made an appropriation to be used in the negotiation of a treaty with the Klamath, Modoc and other Indian tribes of southeastern Oregon. A requisition has this day been made upon the Treasury in your favor for the sum of ten thousand dollars to be taken from this appropriation and placed to your credit with the Assistant Treasurer of the United States at San Francisco, California.
    The territory claimed by these Indians being common to Oregon and California, and late superintending agent Steele having already held councils with them (see copies of communication from him enclosed herewith), it is deemed best that the Superintendent of California and yourself should be associated in the negotiation of the treaty contemplated by the appropriation above mentioned. Superintendent Wiley will be informed of this arrangement, and you are directed to communicate with him by letter addressed to him at Sacramento, Cal. with a view to agreeing upon such time as will suit your mutual convenience, and the place of your meeting, and at such time and place as may be agreed upon to proceed to convene a council of the Indians embraced within the provisions of the act of appropriation and if practicable negotiate with them such a treaty as in your judgment will best subserve the interests of our own citizens and the Indians. The information in possession of this office in relation to the merits of the Indians, their habits, customs and character and in relation to the peculiarities of the soil, climate and productions of the country claimed by them is so general that I am compelled to rely upon the wisdom and prudence of yourself and Superintendent Wiley as to the provisions of the proposed treaty.
    It is not the policy of the government to admit title in the wandering tribes of Indians upon the Pacific Coast, and unless you find insuperable difficulties I would advise that the treaty should be one of peace and friendship and an agreement on the part of the Indians to reside upon a proper reservation to be selected and distinctly marked with an agreement on the part of the U.S. to provide them with such necessary supplies, farmers & mechanics as will enable them to subsist & advance in civilization so as to be able to take care of themselves. If, however, you find it necessary to negotiate for the exclusive possession of any part of the country which they occupy to enable our people to develop its mineral productions or avail of its agricultural resources, care should also be taken in that case that the boundaries of the portion retained by the Indians should be clearly defined if possible by natural landmarks, and that within its limits there should be such natural resources as will enable the Indians with but little assistance from the government, and for a time [with] but little departure from their ordinary pursuits, to obtain a livelihood and which shall also be as far removed as possible from white settlements and least liable to be intruded upon by white settlers. The territory retained should also be adapted to grazing and agricultural pursuits so that when in course of time they shall be reclaimed from their present wild and barbarous mode of life and induced to turn their attention to more civilized pursuits there will be no necessity for a new treaty and their removal to a new country. In this connection I invite your attention to the enclosed copies of correspondence from late superintending agent Steele and especially to his remarks in relation to the character of the treaty which should in his judgment be negotiated. These remarks commend themselves to me as being of practical value, nevertheless I have thought it proper in view of communications from you dated respectively Dec. 8th/'63, March 4th and 28th/'64, to leave the question as to whether the proposed treaty shall be one of cession, or merely of peace and friendship, to the discretion of yourself and associates. In either event you are however carefully to avoid any extravagant stipulations in favor of the Indians.
    Should you deem it advisable you are also authorized to associate with yourself and Supt. Wiley such one of the agents of your Superintendency as you may select to assist in the negotiation of the treaty with the Indians of southeastern Oregon and Northern California.
    The enormous expenditures of the government growing out of the great rebellion are such as to make it the imperative duty of all public officers to practice the most rigid economy in all matters relating to public expense. I therefore trust that I may rely upon you for the discharge of the duties herein indicated in the cheapest and most expeditious manner. Although the appropriation for the purposes above indicated amounts to the sum of $20,000, I have thought it possible that those purposes can be accomplished for a much less sum and have therefore made a requisition in your favor for only one half of that amount. If however you shall find it impossible to confine your expenditures within this limit I will upon being so informed take measures to furnish you with such additional sum as may be necessary.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Charles E. Mix
            Acting Commissioner
J. W. P. Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 363.



Ellensburg, Curry Co., Oregon
    June 26th 1864
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Agency
        Salem Oregon    Sir
            Last year a band of Rogue River Indians managed to escape from the Siletz Reserve and by watching chances managed to get through this country and to settle about the Chetco River near the California state line. A week or so ago another band of Rogue Rivers came down as far as the Big Bend, stating that they intended settling here at the mouth of the river and that another and larger band would follow them soon.
    One of the band just arrived [and] showed a paper which being badly written or illegible the men to whom it was shown could hardly make out that it was a permit for that one Indian to be absent about a month, subsequently allowing him a year and signed by a name they think was meant for "Simpson."
    This Indian thus favored was recognized and was pilot for the party of last year or was with them--he is known as "Charley." It has been the constant proverb in this country ever since the brutal horrors of the most horrible of Indian wars--friendly Indians being the first ones to murder--that no Rogue River Indian should be allowed to live in its limits, and previous to last summer several who ventured back here met their fate.
    Last summer some preparation was being made to drive the band then coming back, but treachery helped the Indians along--for a time.
    We are now discussing how to get rid of the band now coming, whose course from the reserve hither seems to have been marked by rapine and blood, as the papers inform us that lately houses had been robbed &c., in one case within six miles of Roseburg a woman and child were shot full of arrows and left for dead, their house plundered &c., and the Indians traced to the Coast Range (Oregonian Apl. 30th '64).
    These Indians are well armed, as were those of last year--and clothed. Fortunately meeting with prudent white men, the band stopped at the Big Bend for the present and may be induced to stop there until some action is done. I have written to Capt. J. H. Stewart, 2nd Inf. C.V., who happens to be at Port Orford with a scouting party temporarily, to know if he can or cannot take charge of these Indian runaways and take them to a reserve.
    If some arrangement of this kind can be made, why not by yourself? Much trouble will be saved.
    Our citizens are getting excited, and in fact it would be no trouble today to get a file or two of men, old Indian fighters, to clean out this county of diggers who acted worse than Sepoys in the wars here--as is generally known.
    Why is it that Indians have been away from the Siletz Reserve for one year and allowed to settle elsewhere? Why is it that Indians are leaving that reserve in large numbers--as they have threatened us for years they would and are trying to live in this county?
    Unless some movement is made by the proper authorities much trouble will ensue and probably speedily.
Very respectfully
    Geo. M. Scudder
Lieut. Stewart cannot act in this matter.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 346½.



Portland Oregon
    June 29, 1864
Sir
    When I left Washington I was positively promised by both yourself and Acting Comr. Mix that the claim of Thomas Pritchard would be forwarded immediately, without delay, to J. W. P. Huntington, Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon, for settlement and payment to the proper owner.
    I traveled all the way to Washington, incurring expense, loss of time, and bothered for three months while there, getting the claim. And was then promised that it would be forwarded to Oregon for settlement, which has not been done.
    It is now two and one half months since I left Washington City, and that claim has had ample time to arrive.
    Please forward the claim, with all the facts & with instructions, to the Supt. at once, for settlement, and much oblige
Your obt. sert.
    Charles M. Carter
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 104-106.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon July 7th 1864
Sir
    Your letter of 26th ultimo giving information about certain Indians who have escaped from the Coast Reservation has been received at this office.
    The band of Indians which you mention as having escaped from the reservation last year are probably of the Chetco tribe, but I have no information about them, and your letter is the first intimation I have had that they were in your section at all.
    The depredations in Douglas County upon a Mrs. Doyle and her children were committed by a small band who have never been on the reservation but have for several years lived in the mountains on the head of the Coquille ranging thence to Cow Creek and the Big Bend of Rogue River. The band you refer to as piloted by "Charley" of the Joshua tribe are known to have had no connection with the affair as they did not leave the agency until some time after the attack was made.
    The band whom "Charley" accompanies is in my opinion a dangerous one, and I advise white citizens to be on their guard while they are about, but "Charley" is not the leader, nor do I consider him a dangerous Indian when left to himself. He was enticed away by one "Capt. Augur," an Indian who has been a fugitive from the agents and officers of justice for the last two years. He is the one who robbed the store of Mitchell & Co. in Salem eighteen months ago. When they left the agency they were pursued three days by employees of the govt., but having a day or two the start they could not be overtaken.
    I made a requisition upon Genl. B. Alvord as soon as I heard of the assault upon Mrs. Doyle last April for troops to capture the Indians but they have not yet been furnished, nor do I know when they will be.
    In regard to the pass said to have been in possession of a part of the Indians, I have inquired of Agent Simpson, and he reports that he has never given a pass to any Indian for longer than one month and never one which allowed the bearer of it to go to Douglas or Curry counties.
    I shall dispatch an agent in a very few days to your county to gather up the stragglers and will make such effort as the very limited means at my command will permit to rid your settlement of them. If we can have the cooperation and assistance of the inhabitants, I have no doubt we can effectually clear you of the vagabonds, but if a part of the settlers are zealous to give notice to the Indians of the approach of the agent and encourage and aid to hide him or call for a writ of habeas corpus, as has occurred in several other localities, the result will probably be that the effort will fail to accomplish any good purpose.
    I shall direct the agent to call upon you and trust you will afford him any aid in your power.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Geo. M. Scudder
    Ellensburg
        Curry County Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 556-557.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington D.C. July 9th 1864.
Sir,
    I have this day signed sundry requisitions upon the Treasury for payment of accounts contracted by Superintendents and agents for the Indian Service on the Pacific Coast. I have before objected to this mode of transacting business, believing it to be detrimental to the public service, and advise you to give notice to the agents &c. on that coast that the practice of contracting debts, and giving vouchers therefor, must cease. I am convinced of its evil and have to request that you will not recognize any such transactions after time to give notice of this instruction.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. P. Usher
            Secretary
William P. Dole, Esqr.
    Commissioner
        of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 513-515.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 12 1864
Sir:
    Complaints have been made to this office that a band of Indians (which I suppose to belong upon the Coast Reservation) are and have been for a year or more in Curry County, causing annoyance and trouble to the white settlers. It is also stated by Mr. Geo. M. Scudder that "Capt. Augur" and his band have lately arrived there, and apprehensions are entertained that they may commit depredations. Mr. Scudder says also--I do not know upon what authority--that these Indians are the ones who committed the outrage on Mrs. Doyle in Douglas Co. last April.
    I deem it best under the circumstances to direct you to proceed without delay to Curry County and collect all the Indians there and remove them to the reservation. It will be necessary for you to have some military force to assist probably, and for this you will make requisition upon Capt. Scott at Ft. Hoskins stating the object of the service and the number of men necessary. It will also perhaps be proper for you to take a small number of the trustworthy Indians from the reservation to assist you in finding and guarding those arrested, but of the expediency of this I leave you to judge.
    I have also learned that there are a small number of Indians yet remaining at Umpqua and Coos Bay. You will endeavor to secure those upon your return and make the expedition, if possible, a final one, not leaving a single Indian along the coast if it can be avoided.
    The expense necessarily incurred in the trip you will pay out of the "General and Incidental Expense" and the "Removal and Subsistence" fund.
    A report of the result of the trip you will submit upon your return.
    You will find Mr. H. H. Luse at Empire City and Geo. S. Hinsdale at Scottsburg, gentlemen who will readily assist you with information or other aid and I recommend you to call upon them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 558-559.



Salem, Oregon
    July 12th 1864
Sir
    I would most respectfully call your attention to the propriety of asking his excellency the Governor to grant a reprieve to an Indian chief by the name of Wapato Dave, belonging to Grand Ronde Reservation. He is under sentence to the penitentiary for life for killing his wife some four years ago. While I have no doubt but that he is guilty of the crime charged, yet there are many palliating circumstances connected with it. He did the act while intoxicated, as I am informed, upon liquor given to him by worthless white men, who were at the time using his wife in an improper manner. He escaped from the penitentiary some three years ago and has been upon the reservation ever since, conducting himself well; in fact I regard him as being very reliable to the agent in controlling the Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 353.




    INDIAN FIGHT.--We learn from Major Glenn, just returned from Fort Klamath, that W. J. Allen had just arrived at the Fort, stating that on the 22nd and 23rd of June the Snake Indians attacked John Richardson's train, consisting of fifteen men and three families, between Silver Lake and headwaters of the Deschutes. One horse was shot from under one of the soldiers from Fort Crook; Bartrol, a volunteer from the Sacramento Valley, was shot through the arm; Emery of Shasta Valley, Cal. was shot through the arm and hand, the ball grazing his breast.
    Richardson was compelled to throw away 3,500 pounds of flour and lost 7 head of oxen. It was supposed to be a party of not more than 10 or 15 Indians. The attack was made in the morning, and about 72 miles northeast of Fort Klamath. The train consisted of 6 wagons, 12 men, 5 women and several children. Two wagons, two men with one of the wounded men and two women, arrived at Fort Klamath before Major Glenn left, from whom we learned the particulars. The wounded man was immediately placed in the hospital under the care of Surgeon Korkwright.--Oregon Intelligencer.
The Semi-Weekly Union, Yreka, California, July 13, 1864, page 1  "Major Glenn" is probably John T. Glenn of Jacksonville.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency July 14th 1864
J. W. P. Huntington Superintendent of Ind. Affairs
    Sir    In compliance with instructions I submit to you my first report of this agency. On relieving Mr. Amos Harvey on the first of July, I found enclosed 250 two hundred and fifty acres of land, 84 eighty-four acres broke, 60 sixty acres in crop this year which looks very well. This agency and farm is located on a creek and beautiful prairie extending from the mouth of Yawhich River two miles north, and about one hundred and twenty rods wide from the hills to the Pacific Ocean. This agency embraces four tribes of Indians, namely the Siuslaws, Alseas, Coos and Umpquas. The Siuslaws live on the Siuslaw River and cultivate small but rich spots of land along that stream in potatoes, cabbage, turnips, carrots, peas &c. They fish and hunt mostly for a living. The Alsea Indians live on the Alsea Bay some 8 or 10 miles distant from this agency. They cultivate small strips of land up that stream, but part of them have in cultivation 3 acres of land on [the] north end of Yawhich Prairie, all in potatoes, cabbage and turnips.
    The Coos and Umpqua tribes of Indians live at this agency on Yawhich Prairie. They have in very good crops of potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, cabbage, oats and a small patch of wheat. Most of them have private gardens which they seem to take great pains to cultivate in proper order.
All of which is respectfully submitted
    George W. Collins
        United States
            Sub-Indian Agent
J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 367.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon July 15th 1864
Sir
    It is always an unpleasant duty to censure a subordinate officer, and I am disposed therefore to overlook wrong conduct or inefficiency as long as there is hope of amendment, but when the public service flagrantly suffers by reason of misconduct of an officer, I hold that his superior shares his culpability if he does not report him to the power which can remove him.
    The case of Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers is one which cannot longer pass without report and retain a clear conscience.
    Mr. Rogers has been in charge of the Indians of Southern Oregon from April 1st 1862 to the present time, during the whole of which period he has been dilatory and careless about his accounts.
    The first which he filed was received May 25th 1863 after he had been in office more than a year. His accounts for 4th quarter 1863, 1st, 2nd quarters 1864 are not yet received, nor is there any reason assigned why they are not transmitted. Late Supt. Rector frequently urged Mr. Rogers to hasten his accounts, and I have several times called his attention to them, but admonitions seem to have but little effect. He also failed to file any annual report last year, and when I subsequently several times called his attention to the omission he still paid no attention to the matter.
    Letters upon other important subjects from this office do not appear to have been thought worthy of his notice and have not been answered.
    He resides at Jacksonville in the heart of the white settlement, although instructed by me on the 9th Nov. last to remove to and reside at or near Fort Klamath. When he visited the office last January he made sundry excuses for disobeying these instructions and assured me verbally that as soon as the roads across the mountains were open in the spring he would then immediately obey them, but the middle of July finds him still at Jacksonville.
    His services are of no value to the Indians or to the whites and I am reluctantly compelled to recommend his removal.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 561.



Ellensburg Curry Co. July 16th '64
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon
Sir
    Yours of the 7th is at hand and has tended to give us great satisfaction. Should you dispatch an agent hither it would be advisable that the object of his trip should be kept to himself for a time, until he had time for instance to gain particular information.
    For unfortunately there are those among us such as you speak of who would be more likely to assist the Indians than the agent. I would suggest that he should assume that his visit was for the purpose of examining the copper mines, or claims, up this river.
    Some of those well interested in copper are squaw men; in fact all who live from ten miles from the mouth of Rogue River to the Big Bend are squaw men.
    Two whites who have lived at the Big Bend for years (three whites this summer) have four squaws and [are] unmarried. A few miles below is another white, but he married his squaw. Several miles below this again are three whites; one is married to his squaw, the other two cohabit. Of this latter crowd we are suspicious, more particularly of the married one.
    A few miles below this again and among white settlers is another white married to a squaw, and two other whites with married squaws are rather unsettled much of the time here however. There is therefore a "squaw telegraph" constantly at work among them.
    Our citizens held a meeting at my store on the 8th and elected five men to go and take this band of Indians. They started off next day and reached the Big Bend in two days, several hours too late, as the Indians had decamped in the night preceding the morning of their arrival, evidently having seen the boat as is thought by many, but the talk among the squaws is that they were warned previously. The notice of the meeting was only posted up a few hours and was not talked of outside much, but it was known up the river speedily.
    A few miles south of us, near the coast, is another squaw married to a white, and this squaw took the news to Chetco to that band there that we had sent men up the river, but she embellished by saying that all were to be killed--bucks, squaws & papooses--if caught up there.
    The Chetcos took up a "cache" last summer--a box well caulked and pitched, as whites who have since seen it say--and supplied themselves with guns thereby.
    "Charley" was piloted by the white just mentioned as "suspicious" down here to the sea coast to try and find a cache "having plenty of guns" in it. It was not found, it is said.
    The squaw men are greatly in the minority, but of course in unity.
    There are men here who will assist your agent, as you may judge from our sending men on our own responsibility.
    The Indians may have gone back to the reserve, but many think it more likely that they will try to get on the headwaters of the Chetco &c. The Indians at Chetco are growing very saucy.
    After the above was written some men who had been copper mining upriver arrived here and informed us that a certain well-known person had told them that he was the express who had taken the news to the Indians of men going up to take them.
    Several of the squaw men happened to meet together and the result is that this scamp got a horse and gave notice to the Indians.
    Our men did not make and stay upriver and since [then] it is said the Indians returned.
    The whites at Big Bend of course knew all this but did not tell our party.
    Should your agent come I hope he will be clothed with sufficient power to remove all Indians--except those married to whites--from our midst.
Very respectfully &c.
    Geo. M. Scudder
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 366.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon July 22nd 1864
Sir
    When my letter of 12th instant was sent to you I anticipated that you would go down by the way of the coast to Curry County in pursuit of the fugitive Indians alluded to, but having since learned unofficially that you have taken the route via Roseburg, I deem it proper to call your attention to the band of Indians which committed the depredation upon Mrs. Doyle in Douglas County about fifteen miles southwest of Roseburg.
    I am not advised where these Indians now are, but think it quite probable that they are now in the mountains of Curry County. You will make inquiries about them and if possible capture them and either return them to the reservation or deliver them to the civil authorities for trial as may appear most expedient to you upon investigation.
    There is also a band of Indians upon the North Umpqua River about twelve miles east of Roseburg which has caused complaint to be made. If you can do anything with them without interfering with the main object of your expedition you will do so. This matter is left to your discretion and you will act in relation to them in such manner as your judgment indicates will best serve the public interest.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Ben Simpson
    U.S. Ind. Agt.
        Roseburg
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 563.



Roseburg, July 26th 1864
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 22nd inst. I found it in the hands of Mr. Kelly. I arrived here today and shall remain until tomorrow. The detachment will arrive here tonight. I think our first move will be tomorrow for Camas Valley. I am told that those Indians that committed the depredations referred to in your letter are in that vicinity. We shall go as far in that direction as we can with our wagon and then make camp and leave one or two men with our provision, and the balance will go into the mountain and search for those Indians, and in case we succeed in finding them all will place a guard over them and go after the others. I shall make every exertion in my power to get them all if possible. I shall visit Coos Bay and other points before I return.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 370.



Ellensburg July 30th 1864
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        for Oregon    Salem
Sir
    In a previous letter I mentioned that our citizens had delegated five of their number to go to the Big Bend from Rogue River and bring down to this place the Indians who had lately arrived there, and that the plan was unsuccessful because word had been conveyed to the Indians, who had stampeded.
    It seems that the day after our "citizens" meeting a meeting was held by the squaw men, and one of them who had been at our meeting gave such a murderous coloring to what was said at our meeting as to inflame their minds against us and to cause one to start off on horseback and carry word to the Indians &c. Our intentions were to have our "five men" to go to Chas. Foster at the Big Bend and get Foster to talk for them and coax the Indians to come and [then] come with them. This was Foster's own plan. He first gave us the news of the Indians being at his locality and that they wanted to come down here and he expressed himself as anxious to get them away, that he had no doubt they would come with him, but he urged that he wanted us to send him men to help. We intended sending the Indians to the reserve.
    But Foster changed his mind, it seemed, for when our men got to the Big Bend he talked equivocal. The Indians had gone by his place early that morning, and he not only knew it, but knew the white man who had stampeded them.
    He offered no assistance, proffered no advice, but intimated that the Indians had gone for the reserve. Unfortunately our boys allowed disgust at his contemptibleness to get the better of their judgment and turned away and came immediately back. Soon after our men left, one of Foster's hangers-on went out and called the Indians back again, and they were fishing at the Big Bend that day.
    Some miners at work a few miles below, seeing our men go up and then come down, mistrusted Indian troubles and went that same day to the Big Bend, fortunately, for there they saw Ben Bessie--the express--the stampeder of the Indians--who very coolly told the miners to tell the people down here that he was the man and that he would do the same thing again--and the miners so told us.
    I wrote to Capt. J. H. Stewart, commanding at Port Orford (on special duty), of the circumstances, and as Bessie afterward went there the Captain arrested him and has him now safely locked up in county jail.
    A few days ago the Indians came down near here, concealing themselves near the house of one of the principal squaw men, and getting the attention of one of his squaws sent word to him to come out. Wisely was this done, for in the same house was one of our "five men," who if he had known of their presence would have trapped them.
    But Mr. Ran Tichenor went out to see the Indians, and they wanted of him a "pass" for two of them to go back to the reserve via Port Orford & Coos Bay. He gave them a letter--he says-- to Capt. W. Tichenor at Port Orford, who is as they say a good friend of theirs, having while on the reserve last summer told them to come to Port Orford with plenty of squaws, as many white men there would buy them &c., and by the way Ben Bessie in presence of our miners bargained for one of their squaws at Big Bend.
    Charley and another buck have gone back to the Big Bend. The other two bucks with squaws started for Port Orford and (one of them) meeting one of our good citizens near that place asked him which was Capt. Tichenor's house, and he described the house claimed by Tichenor but occupied by Capt. Stewart, and as Tichenor is not at home I imagine the Captain will put the Indian in with Bessie. The other Indian (Charley) says that these are going to the reserve to get passes and come back here. One Indian and two squaws only went to Port Orford.
    This boldness on their part can only be from the promise of their "friends" hereabouts, and many among us think that it is the intention to get their entire band from the reserve--as they meet such of their friends in this section.
    P.S. August 1st--I have just received a letter from Capt. Stewart at Port Orford stating that he sent the Indians on to the reserve in charge of Lewis Turner, holding Turner responsible--that he should keep Bessie in jail until he hears from his superior officer at Crescent City--that he had notified Foster at the Big Bend (by letter sent to me) that he (Foster) must bring the band of Indians left to the mouth of Rogue River or he will put Foster where Bessie is &c. and if he heard of Foster or anyone harboring Indians running away from a reserve that he would have them punished.
    Foster has agreed with the Indians that they should have a piece of ground fenced in, plowed and planted by him &c. this fall, so I am most credibly informed.
    An agent from you would meet with plenty (all our good citizens) to help [word cut off] and the Chetcos and their band and some loose squaws to take away with him. But he should be here soon.
Yrs. respectfully
    Geo. M. Scudder
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 383.



Empire City Aug. 1st 1864
Wm. Huntington
    Sir    Mr. Turner is here from Rogue River. He says that he has brought up with him 6 Indians, 2 men, 2 squaws, and two boys. He says that there is only 2 Indians left on Rogue River and they are some distance up the river. I think he said near Big Bend. He says that these Indians will go to the reservation. One of the men was here with him. He says they will go to the reservation. I thought it was right that you should have all the information about the Indians within reach, and that is my excuse for troubling you at this time.
Respectfully yours
    H. H. Luse
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 580.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon August 1st 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 22nd June 1864, advising me that a requisition had been made upon the treasury for the sum of $10,000 to be placed to my credit with the asst. treasurer U.S. at San Francisco, to be used in concluding a treaty with the Klamath, Modoc and other tribes of Southern Oregon, and giving me instructions to proceed with Supt. Austin Wiley of California to make a treaty with those tribes, as contemplated by the act of Congress making the appropriation, also covering copies of letters from late Superintending Agent Steele, relating to the councils held by him with a few of these Indians last year.
    I have also received a letter from Supt. Wiley of California stating that he has been advised by your office of his appointment as my associate in the matter, and that he cannot at present meet me in consequence of other engagements. He further says that he has so advised you, and hopes that other arrangements will be made.
    It is my intention, as soon as the necessary funds are placed at my disposal, to proceed to Klamath Lake immediately by way of Jacksonville for the purpose of holding a preliminary council with such of the Indians in the vicinity of the lake as can be collected at short notice, and I shall then fix a time and place for concluding the treaty, at which all the Indians within reasonable distance can be gathered. I have written to Supt. Wiley to this effect and shall duly advise him of the time and place determined on. If however he shall fail to attend, I shall deem it my duty, in view of the lateness of the season and the importance of the proposed treaty, to proceed in conjunction with one of the agents of this Superintendency (whom your letter authorizes me to appoint) to make the treaty without his aid. I shall regret the necessity of dispensing with his services, but I trust that, under the circumstances, my proposed course will have your approval. If it does not, this letter will reach you in time for a telegraphic dispatch to be sent to this office suspending operations.
    In conducting these negotiations your instructions will be carefully considered and observed, and due weight will be given to the suggestions of late Superintending Agent Steele contained in the copies furnished. A strict regard to economy, both in the expenditure of the treaty fund and the stipulations in regard to the Indians, will be observed. The sum which I am notified will be placed at my disposal is not large, especially when the unfortunate depreciation of the currency is considered, but the expenditures will be confined to it in any event, and if they can possibly be contracted within smaller limits, the whole will not be expended.
    But it is not possible by any means to include all the Indians referred to in the act of Congress in one treaty. They are scattered over too vast a region to admit of their being all collected at one place without military force and an expense far beyond that contemplated by Congress. The bands near the Klamath Lakes are friendly with the whites, and have been for some time.
    Their desire to treat for the sale of their lands has been known for some time, but the bands north and east of these lakes have for two or three years past been making vigorous war upon whites, and upon the friendly Indians at Warm Springs. Their depredations have been so numerous and so disastrous that three military expeditions have been sent against them during the past summer. Two of these entered their country from the north and were commanded by Capts. Drake and Curry. The third started from Fort Klamath and was commanded by Lieut. Col. Drew. I have unofficial information, which I deem reliable, that many of them are willing to come to terms and submit to the control of the Department. In the present state of affairs the government is expending through the military department several times the amount appropriated for treaties with them every month.
    If the remaining ten thousand dollars of the appropriation can be used through the Indian Department to bring them into peaceful subjection, economy alone imperatively demands that it be applied for that purpose, and the advantage of a state of peace over a state of harassing war would be of vast advantage to the pioneers who are endeavoring to develop that country, and will advance the interests of both the settler and the government many times the amount of the appropriation.
    I therefore respectfully but urgently recommend that the $10,000 of the appropriation referred to be forthwith remitted, to be applied to the negotiation of a treaty or treaties with the various bands of Snake Indians who occupy the country south of the Blue Mountains and east of the Klamath and Goose lakes.
    In order to effect anything with these bands this year, it is necessary that the work should be commenced before the beginning of winter. You will therefore see the necessity, if you approve my suggestions, in permitting no delay in the transmission of the funds and instructions.
    Hoping that you will give to my statements an early and careful consideration,
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 570-571.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 411-415.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 1st 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 19th ultimo in relation to the treaty with the Klamath and Modoc Indians.
    I expect to be advised in a short time that the funds appropriated for making said treaty have been placed to my credit. I shall then immediately proceed to Fort Klamath to make the preliminary arrangement for assembling the Indians and holding a council. I presume that four or six weeks will elapse before the final council can be held. Of the time fixed you will be duly notified.
    I shall very much regret if your other occupations will prevent your attendance at the council and thus throw the whole labor and responsibility of the negotiation upon me and the agent who makes the third commissioner, but you are of course aware that unless the council is held before the beginning of winter that it must be postponed until next year. It is so important that this treaty be made and these Indians brought under the control of the government that if it finally results that you are unable to give your attention to the matter, I shall proceed in conjunction with the third commissioner to carry out the instructions of Commissioner Dole.
    In case you desire to communicate with me further upon the subject I request that your letters be addressed to Jacksonville in the care of L.S . Thompson, who will see that they are forwarded to me.
    Again repeating the wish that you can find time to assist in the negotiations,
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Austin Wiley
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Sacramento Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 572.



Mouth of Rogue River
    August 7th 1864
sir
    We were here this morning and will move on again in a few minutes. We succeeded in getting the Indians at Big Bend. We have sixteen, old and young. We are now bound for Chetco and Smith River.
    All well. Remember me to my family.
Your obt. servt.
    Ben Simpson
        U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 389.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Aug. 8th 1864
Sir
    Donald McLeod, a resident of Yamhill County in this state, has filed in this office a claim against the Umpqua tribe of Indians for depredations upon his property committed by Peter, Jos. and Jack, members of said tribe.
    The affidavits of McLeod and parties upon whose testimony he relies to sustain it are herewith transmitted to you for your examination. If upon investigation it appears that the claim is a meritorious one you will submit the same to the said Umpqua tribe for their action thereon, and if after due time having elapsed they shall reject or refuse to make just compensation for the alleged damages, you will return the papers with a report of your proceedings to this office.
    I refer you to Sections 16, 17 & 18 of the "Act to Regulate Trade and Intercourse with Indian Tribes" &c. approved June 30th 1834 for your guidance in the adjudication of this matter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Amos Harvey Esqr.
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 577-578.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon August 15th 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 11th ultimo, accompanying papers relative to the Coast Reservation in Oregon.
    I cannot find among the enclosures the proclamation of the President alluded to by you and, evidently by mistake, there are enclosed two copies of the letter of R. McClelland, Secy. of the Interior, addressed to the President of the United States of date Nov. 8th 1855.
    As the court in Benton County does not hold until the second Monday of November, there will be ample time to furnish [a] certified copy of said order, the importance of which you will readily comprehend.
    I would respectfully ask your immediate attention to the forwarding of this order to this office.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Ind. Affairs
                for Oregon
To
    W. P. Dole Comr. &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 369-370.




Ellensburg Aug. 15th 1864
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        for Oregon
Sir
    Mr. Simpson and party reached here on the 7th (bringing some Indians &c.) and today he started from here on his way back. Coming in at the Big Bend as he did enabled the party to get the Indians then there without trouble. One buck and some squaws had gone off on a hunting expedition and are still out. Meeting at the Big Bend with Charles Davis he unfortunately engaged him as guide. Unfortunately, as Davis is notorious for his assistance to the Chetco band of Indians last year, keeping them near his house for a time and helping them along, also for having piloted "Charley" this season to endeavor to find "caches" of guns and stating afterward in the citizens meeting--the minutes of which I will forward you--that it would be of no use for us to take the guns from the "Joshuas," "because they could get plenty more &c." Also for telling outrageous lies as to the intent of the citizens meeting, that our orders were to the party we sent after the Indians to kill bucks, squaws and papooses and bring none down alive, whereupon the Indians were stampeded &c. Employing this Davis upon the recommendation of similar squaw men, they finally reached here. Davis lives on the river, and as the party came this way they stopped there. Two or three squaws living there (loose ones) were missing. Davis in some way became responsible for their delivery, but today they are still out (Simpson leaving a man to find them).
    Mr. Simpson on reaching here was anxious to push off immediately for Chetco. He asked nothing as to his guide and I took occasion to tell him something of his character. Just the day before a sergeant passed through this place with orders from Capt. O'Brien (of Camp Lincoln, Smith River Reserve, near here) to bring to him "Ben Bessie" and arrest Chas. Davis. This I informed Mr. Simpson of and suggested that he should keep an eye on Davis &c. as Davis was to go with him to Chetco to point out those runaway squaws of his &c.
    About an hour after Mr. Simpson and party left, our citizens concluded that it would be advisable to send a man down to post Mr. Simpson as to the country, of the trails &c. I furnished a horse and accoutrements, and a man was sent who reached Simpson in due time and piloted him through the darkness in a "bad trail country" to Chetco that night, and by this assistance the entire band of Chetcos were captured easily.
    In the meantime Capt. O'Brien's sergeant went down to arrest Davis, which he did, and took him to Camp Lincoln, while Bessie was also sent down by Capt. Stewart (O'Brien's assistant on special duty at Port Orford). Bessie was released on the road soon after leaving here--orders from below just arriving--and Davis was released at Camp Lincoln the same day. Mr. Simpson gets the credit of this somehow. It is said that "he looked upon the matter as being purely civil," and that the military had no power to arrest--also that "there was no civil law that could reach either case."
    These are arguments that certainly were used by Mr. Simpson and may abstractly considered be sound law. He thinks so, but as such talk puts an argument in the mouths of those inclined to "aid and comfort" the runaway Indians and thus makes null and void all attempts at gathering the runaways--it were better left unsaid. For instance, all the Indians Mr. Simpson has gathered could be stampeded away from him and he be unable to do anything with the stampeding that is a natural sequence to such talk.
    The Indians from Chetco were started up this way in advance of Mr. Simpson, who followed up next day. On the way up unfortunately three bucks and five squaws got away from them, owing as Mr. Simpson said to Davis being taken away from him, although he was told here before leaving such would be the case. The fact is four soldiers could not guard the Indians.
    The result of Mr. Simpson's visit here amounts to catching "Charley" at Big Bend and his squaw and subsequently letting him go back there with Foster to try to get the other buck and three squaws--in picking up four of the loose squaws (leaving several of C. Davis') and getting the main body of the Chetcos (leaving the balance stampeded). After his visit here was nearly at its end he presented some introductory letters he had forgotten at first. The parties were and always have been acting in concert with myself and are our best citizens.
    Mr. Simpson unfortunately has left an impression that all the attempts of us citizens to aid in the retaking of runaway Indians &c. were improper, and those who opposed our efforts were favored by him--perhaps without his meaning it. I write more in sorrow than in anger, that it is my own efforts as being the principal cause of his coming here, of furnishing his men with hay to sleep upon, with salt salmon to eat, ditto potatoes gratis were scouted perhaps through ignorance--or something.
Respectfully
    Geo. M. Scudder
   
"Copy"
    At a meeting of the citizens of Ellensburg and vicinity the following resolutions were adopted in regard to a certain band of Indians, lately strayed from the Siletz Reservation and at present located at the Big Bend of Rogue River.
    M. Riley was chosen chairman.
    Geo. L. Dean was chosen secretary.
    On motion it was resolved that a committee of five be appointed to go to the Big Bend of Rogue River and bring the Indians to Ellensburg.
    James Lewis Geo. Davis
N. Stephenson E. H. Meservey
and   M. B. Gregory
were appointed on said committee.
    On motion it was resolved that subscription be made to furnish supplies for the use of the above-named committee.
M. Riley
    Chairman
Geo. L. Dean
    Secretary
Ellensburg July 8th 1849
$41.00 was instantly subscribed and less than $20 expended.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 401.




Letter from Col. Drew.
    We are permitted to publish the following, which will no doubt be read with considerable interest:
    Camp at Northwest Corner Nevada Territory, July 18, 1864.
    Hon. A. M. Rosborough, Yreka, Cal.: I am moving slowly, partly on account of threatened Indian difficulties in the rear, and partly because I am exploring a new route nearly all the way.
    Mr. Richardson continues with me. Allen's train from Rogue River Valley left me in Surprise Valley, taking the old Lassen route to the Humboldt. Frans, from Klamath River, below Humbug, and Morgan and Taylor from the vicinity of Humboldt Bay, with cattle, are with me, and will remain with me until I reach Pueblo. I shall try hard to open a wagon road from Lassen's Pass over the Sierras via the head of Surprise Valley and the Pueblo District to the Owyhee. My route now is north of east, about the right direction, but obstacles in the shape of rocky ridges and deep canyons may compel me to vary my course temporarily, but I think not to any great extent. The route from Jacksonville and Fort Klamath to this point is a good one, with an abundance of good grass and water, and wood enough for road use. The distance from Jacksonville via Fort Klamath to Surprise Valley is 240 miles. From Fort Klamath, 154 miles.
    The formation of the country begins to change to the eastward of Surprise Valley from a purely volcanic formation to slate, with now and then a boulder of quartz. Specimens of quartz, silver, copper and iron have reached me from the Pueblo District that are really rich no doubt. The quartz from the Vicksburg mines, 15 miles south of Pueblo, seems the best.
    I have had some trouble on account of the acts of some of Charley Delaplain's party from the Owyhee. A man by the name of Parker and three others--one by the name of Burton--attempted to murder some unarmed Indians whom I had directed to come into camp to give information respecting their numbers, country &c. &c. As the Indians were returning home from my camp they were waylaid and fired upon by this party and required to give up their horses. By some means, it does not appear how, Parker & co. got possession of two of the Indians' horses when other armed Indians came up and fired upon the white party, killing Burton and Parker's horse. This was distant from camp probably about three miles. Parker & co. laid no claim whatever to the horses, neither for themselves nor anybody else, but state to their comrades before they left camp that to take the horses from the Indians was a "good thing" and they meant to do it. In a word it was a direct attempt at robbery and murder in which the aggressors came off second best. I mention this because it is reported that the horses belonged to his (Delaplain's) party, and that the Indians made the attack, etc. etc. He will doubtless find newspapers to advocate his side of the story, and for this reason I mention the matter to you in advance of any publication from him or any of the thieves who brought on the unfortunate difficulty.
Yours truly,
    C. S. DREW.
The Semi-Weekly Union, Yreka, California, August 17, 1864, page 2




Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    Aug. 17th 1864
Ed. Statesman
    Sir: I see by the last issue of the Arena my name with others who are reported to have voted unlawfully at the last election in Douglas precinct, Polk County. I will say the whole charge is a slander and a falsehood from beginning to end.
    There was not a single vote polled at that election by an employee at Grand Ronde Agency that was not lawful and bona fide, and I defy the editor of the Arena or any other man to prove to the contrary.
    Mr. Jackson had gained a residence in was a resident of Polk County while engaged in the mercantile business at Fort Yamhill which having been engaged in mercantile business in said county before he was employed by government. He did not lose his residence by being employed by government afterwards. Mr. Miller has been a resident of Douglas precinct for a number of years, which will not be disputed by the vilest Copperhead in the precinct. Mr. Shannon was not in the employ of the government previous to nor at the time of voting, but he did reside some three or four weeks previous to election in Douglas precinct, Polk Co., with bona fide intentions of remaining in said precinct, and would still be here but for circumstances beyond his control.
    As to myself, I have gained a lawful residence in Douglas precinct which is "bona fide," and I shall continue to do my voting at said precinct (it being but seven miles from my residence) while I am employed by government at Grand Ronde Agency, and I hope at the next election I will live to kill a Copperhead vote at the same polls I did at last election. Believing as I do that a Union vote in Oregon is equal to a Union bullet in the South, I shall at all times, when lawful, use my ballot for my country, "right or wrong."
    The Arena must be driven hard sorely belabored or it would not resort to falsehood and slander to cover up its infamy.
Yours &c.
    J. H. Huffer
Aug. 20.
    W. Sherman in last Arena is the W. Shannon mentioned in this letter. Huffer's statements are reliable. R. P. Earhart knows all about these matters. Williams and Knight will both do well to see him.
Huntington
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  Strikeouts were made to accommodate the edits of the editor at the Oregon Statesman.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon August 18th 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of 15th inst. with enclosure of quadruplicate vouchers of Robert Hill, farmer. I am explicitly instructed not to pay claims of this date. Settlement of this matter was sent to Washington Decr. 12th 1863, and no instructions have been received in reference to it.
    Please forward the letter of Commissioner Dole in regard to it to this office.
    The claim of Briggs is in the same situation as that of Hill.
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. svt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. of Ind. Affairs
                    In Oregon
To A. D. Barnard Esq.
    Corvallis Oregon
   
W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indn. Affrs.
        Sir
            Your department has agent on Indian reserve appointed at Washington and who gave bonds for faithful performance of their duties.
    Here they employ men--and they, trusting that the delay in their pay of one, two & three years is a necessity of the government for its convenience and upon application for pay are bandied around from one to another agent of the government--with no pay--nor interest in their claim.
    I enclose Supt. Huntington's letter written after making application under instructions from you of July 19, 1864.
    Now the delay is a disgrace to the government of the United States & the Indian Department. Here are men--entirely incapable of prosecuting their claim--wheedled out of their just dues one, two & three years & some man at fault. Can't you see where it is--& have this claim paid--
Very respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
        Atty. for Claimants
Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 87-89.




Office of Supt. of Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 19th 1864
Sir
    Yours of date July 15th is at hand directing me for the convenience of your office to furnish you with the names and post office address of each agent and sub-agent (if any) in this Superintendency also the names of all the tribes in the jurisdiction of each agent, or sub-agent, & their approximate population. Which I proceed to furnish as follows, to wit:
Warm Springs Reservation
    Wasco tribe numbering by latest census return 384
    Deschutes            "            "     "           "          " 291
    Tygh       "              "            "     "           "          "   391
Total number of Indians in said reservation 1066
U.S. Indian Agent--William Logan
(P.O. address) Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon
Umatilla Reservation
    Walla Walla tribe numbering by latest census return 167
    Cayuse tribe                 "            "     "           "          " 344
    Umatilla tribe               "            "     "           "          "   210
Total number of Indians on said reservation 721
U.S. Indian Sub-Agent--W. H. Barnhart
P.O. address Umatilla Landing, Umatilla County, Oregon
Note: About 300 of the Walla Walla tribe are not upon the reservation. See Agent Barnhart's annual report for 1864.
Grand Ronde Reservation
    Confederated tribes of Willamette Valley
        Numbering by latest census returns about 500
        Rogue River Indians numbering about 111
        Cow Creek band of Umpquas         " 41
        Umpquas & Calapooias                   " 195
        Molel Indians                                   " 175
        Nestucca           )    Note: These tribes are not parties
        Salmon Rivers  )               to any treaty
        Tillamook         )                                    Numbering about   300
Number of Indians on reservation about 1322
U.S. Indian Agent--Amos Harvey
(P.O. address) Grand Ronde, Yamhill County, Oregon
Alsea Sub-Agency, Coast Reservation
    Siuslaw tribe no. about         )     These tribes are not 130
    Alseas      "      "        "             )     parties to any treaty 150
    Coos & Umpquas    "             )   250
Total number of Indians at this sub-agency 530
U.S. Indian Sub-Agent--Geo. W. Collins
P.O. address Corvallis, Benton Co., Oregon
Siletz Indian Agency, Coast Reservation
Shasta Scotans & Umpquas
                  Numbering by late census returns 123
Rogue Rivers                 "     "        "           " 121
Shasta Costas                 "     "        "           " 162
Tututnis              "     "        "           " 227
Chetcoes                        "     "        "           " 221
Mac-en-oot-enays         "     "        "           " 348
Coquilles                        "     "        "           " 142
Delmashes                      "     "        "           " 87
Sixes                               "     "        "           " 125
Flores Creek                  "     "        "           " 70
Euchres                           "     "        "           " 150
Joshuas                           "     "        "           " 250
Nolt-nat-nahs                 "     "        "           " 161
Port Orford                    "     "        "           "    125
Total no. of Indians on this reservation 2312
U.S. Indian Agent--Benjamin Simpson
P.O. address Corvallis, Benton Co., Oregon
    The Klamath Lake, Modocs and other tribes in southeastern Oregon have never been treated with; a portion of them are hostile, and the number of these cannot be ascertained.
    Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers has been assigned to duty in Southern Oregon but has exercised very little control over these Indians.
    His P.O. address is Jacksonville, Jackson Co., Oregon.
    The address given in each case is the nearest post office. I would, however, remark that letters will generally reach the agents sooner if sent to the care of this office.
    The foregoing list includes all the agents and sub-agents within this Superintendency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon
To
    Hon. W. P. Dole--Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 584-586.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 19th 1864
Sir
    You are directed to furnish this office a general statement concerning the Indian schools on your reservation, combining all the facts that may be of use in determining the course to be pursued with regard to them.
    You will also inform me if, in your opinion, it would add to the efficiency of the schools for the Umpqua & Calapooia, and for the Molel Indians, to unite them, and if such a course should prove expeditious and beneficial to the Indians.
    To inform yourself on the latter point you will consult with the chiefs of the different tribes interested in the schools and learn if such an arrangement will prove satisfactory.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon
To
    Amos Harvey, Esq. U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Yamhill Co. Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 586.



Fort Klamath Oregon
    August 20th 1864
Sir,
    A delegation of the headmen of the Klamath tribe of Indians called on me today and requested that I would write to you and say that the Indians would wish to know if you can come here this fall and make some arrangements or treaty with them.
    They desire to know what can be done for them this winter, as they are not allowed to reside in Jacksonville, Yreka or other places where they have been accustomed to winter.
    There can be no doubt but that evil-disposed persons are discouraging those Indians, and La Lake says he is almost tired trying to keep his people in good heart.
    I would most respectfully recommend that something be done to satisfy the Klamaths & Modocs this fall.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st. C.O.V.
            Commanding Post
Mr. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 403.



Ellensburg Aug. 22nd 1864
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        for Oregon
Sir
    We learn from the "Big Bend" that Foster has got the stray Indians (of the Joshuas) and gone with them to meet the agent--we hope it is so.
    Nothing is known of Davis' squaws, and the man left to find them has gone on back.
    There are thirteen of the Chetcos in all now left, and they have gone to the headwaters of Chetco, long ridge, it is said, and say they are "sullix" ["angry"].
    By starting from Big Bend they might be captured.
Respectfully
    Geo. M. Scudder
P.S. I open this to say that parties just arrived from Chetco bring word that the "Chetcos" are all captured by "Islas," the Smith River chief.
G.M.S.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 408.



Corvallis Oregon Aug. 29 1864
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Sir
            Your letter of July 19th has been received, and as far as pertains to Mr. Clifford's claim--it seems you have on file one copy--I will in a few days be able to see Mr. Clifford and procure the recpt. of the Indian Dept. for that copy--in order to identify the claimant Mr. Clifford and in relation to the other papers "to complete the set."
    I placed the same in the hands of the United States postmaster. They were in an envelope by themselves; being too many for one envelope, the transfer was put in another. Mr. Clifford will never see them again; he entrusted them to me, and I mailed them to you in the proper manner, and I hope and trust there will be no unnecessary delay further in this matter as Mr. Clifford has heretofore been long kept out of his just due. In relation to Mr. Hill &  Brigg's claim as farmers at Siletz Reserve under Condon, they have done their part, performed it in a satisfactory manner and received a certificate from a U.S. officer, are poor men and should not be cheated out of their pay--having applied to "this Superintendency." They don't know anything about paying it.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 90-92.




Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        Sept. 6th 1864.
Sir,
    I respectfully return herewith the claim of Mr. Briggs recd. from your office yesterday, $195 in triplicate; the vouchers are stated to be issued in quadruplicate. Please transmit the necessary voucher in order that the claim may be reported for payment.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        F. Andrews
            Acting 2nd Auditor
William P. Dole Esqr.
    Commissioner Indn. Affairs
   
Claim of
Thomas Briggs   $195

Vouchers on account Indian service in Oregon.
Examined, allowed respectfully referred to 2nd Auditor for settlement. charging appropriation "fulfilling treaty with Shasta Scotan & Umpqua Indians"
Payment of claims $195
Payment to be made [to] Thomas Briggs, care [of] A. D. Barnard, Corvallis, Oregon
Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        Sept. 2nd 1864
            W. P. Dole
                Commissioner
   
Sup. Indian Affairs Washington D.C    Sir
    I am owner of a voucher for service of myself as farmer on the Indian reserve under Agent Condon during the months [of] Jan., Feb., March of 1863, also 3 months under B. R. Biddle in 1862. I am unable to get my pay, and long since have applied at the chief office in this state, and when my papers are filed I am unable to pay money out on claims which have been so long withheld and I have instructed Mr. A. D. Barnard to apply for me for this claim and request you to inform him of what is lacking on my part to obtain my due and who is to blame. I have directed Mr. Barnard to sign my name and request that the check may come in my name to his care--or if it is necessary I will upon receiving information forward a power of attorney in his name.
Very respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
        for Thos. Briggs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 43-46.



Fort Klamath Sep. 10th 1864
Mr. Huntington
    Respected sir
        I write to you a letter about the Copperheads here. They are flattering themselves that they are going to get the reservation to build [i.e., secure the contract to build the reservation buildings]. Linn, the Copperhead treasurer, has the mill here, and he thought he would not move his mill.
    Now there has never been a contract let here only to Copperheads.
    Mr. Nurse here is the only exception, and the Copperheads can go to his house and abuse the government as much as they like, and he laughs. It is fun to him. I do not call that patriotism. Fowler is a Union man, yet Glenn, his son-in-law, was shares in the contract. I am told that you are intensely loyal, for which I am truly glad, and I am not asking more from you than the country expects, that is, if there is going to be any contracts, let them to men who will never laugh or sneer at our country's misfortunes, men who take an oath with as little or less feeling than a drink. I am not asking anything for myself. I have no motive, only it pains me to see our country's money falling in the hands of those who would assist a traitor to escape justice and never shed a tear at our country's calamities, such things as we see and hear from day to day and year to year has become a heavy task to bear. Here it appears to pay. They get contracts, government money, and say what they please about her that shelters as well as lines their purses. I ask this of you, feeling your cause is common with my own and all patriots to protect her friends and punish her enemies.
    Howard the surveyor and I are here working for them and are more capable to do the work than they are at a small price, but necessity forces us to do it.
    You will not if you please say anything about this to anyone. I just write this to you thinking perhaps you being a stranger here they would persuade you if it would pay, that they are as loyal as any in the land.
Yours respectfully
    E. Smith
P.S. We are carpenters, and if it was known it would cause a persecution against me, and as I am not able to leave with my family I might suffer. I would have left long ago if I had been able, for I am ashamed to live in a country represented by such a contemptible puppy as [James D.] Fay defeated Jacobs, an honorable, honest man. That is enough to judge the caliber of our people by.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 414.



Grand Ronde Sept. 11th 1864
Sir
    A Wapato Indian by the name of Jackson was murdered last winter or spring by a Klickitat Indian who lives at the Cascades. His tillicums ["people"] think they must either be paid for him or have the murderer punished. They kept at me from time to time until on the 25th of last month, when I gave their Chief Jim a letter to the commander at Fort Vancouver, which you will find enclosed with Gen. Alvord's note attached.
    Jim is afraid to go to the Cascades alone and wanted me to send men with him or write to Gen. Alvord to do so. As I was not willing to do either, I concluded to refer the matter to you, and Jim will hand you this and ask your advice and instruction. I suppose they think the soul of the departed cannot rest until they either get pay or revenge.
Yours truly
    Amos Harvey
J. W. P. Huntington
    Superintendent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 415.



Corvallis Sept. 12 / 64
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    My Dear Sir
        As the oyster season has now again opened it is due to you perhaps that I should state to you frankly that my clients design to carry on as heretofore their business at Yaquina Bay. I have not served you with any papers in this case and determine that I would not unless compelled to. I am well aware that in your official position you don't desire to have your name connected with litigation of this kind. And it was the necessity of the case that drove us to make you a party in the first place.
    When Benj. Simpson was enjoined we saw that we were still interfered with, and when we took measures to arrest him & punish him for contempt in violating the injunction we were told that the orders were given by you, so that we were compelled to make you a party. My object in writing to you now is to say that if you still design to control the agency in person I would feel compelled in duty to my clients to serve you with a copy of the complaint & injunction. If it is your design to leave the matter of the agency to be conducted by Mr. Simpson (under your instructions of course) I would not serve you at all.
    In this I am prompted by no motive except a desire to give you an opportunity to determine for yourself whether you will have  your name connected with this litigation or not. I have no doubt you will appreciate my motives, and while I am aware you ask no favors--as we do not--yet I do this much in deference to a public officer. I have had a correspondence with Genl. Alvord & while he at first (and perhaps does yet) was laboring under very great misapprehensions as [to] the facts & real question involved in this case, he says he intends no opposition to the courts. We have no desire but to fairly test our rights in this case which can be done as well with Simpson alone as defendant as it could to have you as one of the defendants.
    Please write me on receipt of this.
Yours truly
    F. A. Chenoweth
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 417.



Siletz Agency
    Sept. 19th 1864
Sir
    I have just been informed of the arrival of Capt. Kelly with his schooner. You are aware of my being restrained from interfering with him.
    The military are awaiting your instruction.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 418.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 21st 1864
Sir
    Upon my return to this place I find that I can reach Fort Klamath more economically and with less time by way of the Dalles than by way of Jacksonville. I shall therefore proceed by way of the former place and will reach the Fort at the time appointed (8th September).
    Your acquaintance with these Indians and the confidence they repose in you render it desirable that you should be present when the council is held, and I hope to secure your services. You can reach Fort Klamath at the time (or a few days before) and return directly home after the council is over. Your compensation will be at the rate of $100 per month and subsistence furnished.
    Please reply to this letter upon its receipt and advise me whether you can accept my proposition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. Lindsay Applegate
    Ashland
        Jackson Co. Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 590-591.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 22nd 1864
Sir
    I have been informed that Capt. Hillyer has returned to the Yaquina Bay upon the Coast Indian Reservation and designs repeating his trespass thereon by taking oysters &c.
    I have to request of you that you will compel the said Capt. Hillyer to immediately leave said reservation and prevent his return to the same. Trusting that you will be able to comply with this request immediately.
I remain Captain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Capt. L. S. Scott
    Commdg. Fort Hoskins
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 591.



Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver, W.T.
        September 23rd 1864
Special Orders
No. 121
-- Extracts --
    I . . . Pursuant to instructions of this date from Department Headquarters, Fort Hoskins will be abandoned, a noncommissioned officer and two privates of "D" Company, 4th California Volunteers, being left as a guard.
    II . . . 2nd Lieut. J. S. Rathbun of "D" Company, 4th California Volunteers, will be sent to the Siletz Blockhouse to relieve 2nd Lieut.  L. Herzer, 1st W.T. Infantry, in command of the detachment there. Lieut. Herzer as soon as relieved will repair without delay to Fort Yamhill for court-martial duty.
    By order of Brig. General Alvord.
J. W. Hopkins
    1st Lieut., 1st Ogn. Cav.
        A. A. Adjt. General
J. W. P. Huntington Esqr.
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 423.



Ashland Mills, Oregon
    September 26th 1864.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington,
    Sir:
        I arrived at home yesterday morning, and on the same evening received your letter of the 21st inst. requesting me to meet you at Ft. Klamath to assist in the council with the Indians, and I now write to inform you that I will be at the fort by the first of the month--October.
Yours respectfully
    Lindsay Applegate
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Superintendent I.A.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 424.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 26th 1864
Sir
    In submitting the usual annual report upon the condition of this Superintendency, it gives me much gratification to be able to state that all the Indians who have ever been brought under the control of the Department have remained friendly, have made material advances in agriculture and other civilized arts, and are now in such condition as will render further progress easy and rapid.
    The reports of the several agents and subordinates which are herewith transmitted give detailed statements of affairs at their respective reservations. My remarks will be confined to matters of general application and the suggestion of a few measures, the adoption of which will in my judgment advance their interests without detriment to the whites or material increase of expense to the government.
Partition and Assignment of Lands
    The tribes located upon the Coast, Grand Ronde, Warm Springs and Umatilla reservations have shown conclusively their capacity to learn the art of agriculture, and to support themselves by its practice. With the few exceptions of orphan children, decrepit old men and women, and those enfeebled by disease or dissolute habits, they have all during the years 1863 and 1864 raised ample supplies of food for their own needs, while many of them have had a considerable surplus, which has been sold where the location made the Indians accessible to the purchaser. The statistical returns of farming for 1863 from the several agencies, which were transmitted to your office in Dec. last show the amount of different crops raised, and will, I hope, be printed with this report. It needs no extended argument to show that Indians who are capable of producing these large amounts of valuable crops will be benefited by an allotment of land to each head of family sufficient to enable that family to support itself. And aside from the advantage to the Indian of giving him a home which he has the assurance will not be taken from him, and which he has every encouragement to improve and cultivate, as a measure of economy to the government it is also desirable. The annuities paid to the tribes with whom treaties have been made are diminishing, and will soon cease altogether by the terms of the several treaties. The government should endeavor to so instruct its wards that it will not, when that period arrives, be under the necessity of again appropriating money for their support, or permitting them to be turned loose upon the white settlements. I do not think it expedient to convey the allotments to the Indians in fee, so as to give the latter full control and power to sell. If this were done, a large part of them would soon be landless again, either through their own improvidence or the knavery of dishonest speculators. The land should be held in trust by the government, and perpetual possession and all other rights incident to ownership should be guaranteed, except the right to alienate. These rights should also descend to the heirs of the original recipient upon his decease. I recommend that the Superintendent, in conjunction with the agent hi charge, be authorized to allot a tract of land, not exceeding eighty acres, to each family at Alsea, Siletz, Grand Ronde, Warm Springs and Umatilla agencies, and that an appropriation of five hundred dollars for each of the agencies named be made to pay the expense of surveying and marking the tracts.
Restraining Indians to Their Reservations
    A large part of the labor of the agents, and the incidental expense in this Superintendency, are caused by the constant efforts of a part of the Indians to leave their reservations and live about the white settlements. If this is permitted, the Indians become an intolerable nuisance to the whites, and the effect upon themselves is most pernicious. They are always drunken and debauched, their women become prostitutes, and all soon become infected with loathsome diseases. There are found in every community a few white persons who are vile enough to associate with them and desire their presence. These persons naturally acquire the good will of the Indians and have much influence over them. By enticing them to leave the reservation, notifying them of the approach of the agent, and assisting them to conceal themselves from him, they often defeat the object of the government of keeping the white and red races apart. Another class of citizens, who are respectable, and do not furnish them whiskey or debauch their women, thoughtlessly encourage their presence to secure their services upon their farms or at other labor. But once away from the reservations, and beyond the control of the agent, they invariably come in contact with immoral influences, and the effect is the same as if the motive was bad.
    If a law could be enacted requiring the Indians to remain upon the reservations, and providing for their punishment (by withholding annuities or otherwise) if they absent themselves without the consent of the agent, and making it an offense for any white person to entice an Indian to leave, or to conceal or harbor him after he has left without permission, its effect would be most salutary, and result in a large saving of expense to the government. I therefore recommend the passage of a law embodying these provisions.
Coast Tribes
    In my last annual report I set forth the reasons why a treaty should be made with these tribes, or the one made by Genl. Palmer in 1855 should be ratified. These reasons still exist with increased force. About half the Indians in the Superintendency who are under the control of the government are located upon this reservation. Their number is about three thousand. Except the small tribe of Shasta Scotans, none of them are entitled to annuities, nor are appropriations made for their benefit. They were induced to remove to the reservation by late Supt. Joel Palmer in 1S55, and a treaty for the purchase of their lands concluded. The Senate failed to ratify the treaty, and they have consequently never received anything under it. But their part of the stipulations have all been complied with. They gave up their lands, and they have since been occupied by the whites. Common justice requires that some provision be made for them. They have no means of procuring clothing, are not in reach of any market where agricultural products can be sold, and they are consequently discontented and eager to leave the reservation whenever they can elude the vigilance of the agent. I still think, as I expressed in my report for 1863, that a new treaty can now be made with them, more economical to the government, and more suited to their want and condition. I recommend that course as best, [but] whether that is adopted or it is preferred to ratify the treaty of 1855, it is very important that some action be taken without longer delay. I repeat my recommendation of last year, that an appropriation of five thousand dollars be made to enable the Superintendent in conjunction with the agents at Alsea and Siletz to make a new treaty with these tribes.
    In the meantime it is important that some temporary provision be made for the support of these tribes until the treaty can be made and confirmed. An appropriation of ten thousand dollars was made by the act of March 3rd 1863 for "colonizing, supporting, furnishing agricultural implements, teams, seeds, pay of necessary employees, purchase of medicines" &c. &c. for those Indians in Oregon with whom treaties have been made but not ratified. I recommend a similar appropriation each year until more definite arrangements are made, and an appropriation of five thousand dollars for the purchase of blankets, clothing &c.
Encroachments on Reservations
    As the white population of the state increases, and the valuable lands of the state are occupied, the desire to intrude upon the reservations for the purpose of settlement and trade also increases. The Umatilla Reservation is a fine tract of fertile land, situated in the midst of a vast region of which but a small part is suitable for settlement and cultivation, and it is crossed by the principal route from Lower Oregon to the gold fields and agricultural settlements in Eastern Oregon and Idaho. Among the large number of persons who surround and pass through the reservation, of course a few are found who are ready to violate the intercourse laws by trading with Indians, selling them intoxicating liquors, stealing their horses, and often stealing from whites upon the credit of the Indians. Many difficulties have arisen from these circumstances, but no very serious consequences thus far have ensued. The Indians are indignant and discontented because the treaty stipulations are not observed as they understand them, and the agent is embarrassed by want of power to remove the cause of complaint. I know of no practical solution of the difficulties but a removal of the Indians to another reservation, but I am not prepared to recommend the large expenditures which this course would require while the finances of the government are so much embarrassed.
    A small force of cavalry stationed upon the reservation would have a most salutary effect, both in keeping the Indians in order and restraining disorderly whites from violating the law.
    The Yaquina Bay, which is situated about the middle of the Coast Reservation, is found to be a navigable and safe harbor, and a practicable route for a wagon road from the Willamette Valley to the head of tidewater on the bay has been discovered and partially opened by citizens. The large agricultural counties of Lane, Linn, Benton and Polk can reach the ocean by this route in less distance, and it is thought with less expense, than by way of the Columbia. But in order to make the bay available it is necessary not only that the free navigation [of the bay] should be granted, but that sufficient land for building purposes and the right of way from the head of tidewater to the eastern boundary of the reservation should be given. In addition to the facilities for transportation which the bay affords, it has also been discovered that oyster beds of considerable extent and value exist within it. These, of course, are an additional temptation to intruders to evade the law. A great number of applications have been made to the Superintendent and to the agent in charge for permission to locate upon the bay, erect buildings, engage in trade, taking oysters &c. These of course have been refused, except in one instance, when under your instructions a permit to take oysters, by paying a stipulated sum for the benefit of the Indians, has been given. It is due to the people of the counties named to say that they have uniformly respected the authority of the agent, and have refrained from violation of the law. But some persons from California have been less regardful of their duty. One Capt. Hillyer has been for more than a year and a half engaged in repeated and pertinacious attempts to evade and defy the authority of the Department, by engaging in trade, erecting houses, taking oysters, tampering with Indians &c. &c. The conduct of himself and the men in his employ became so outrageous that Agent Simpson, after repeatedly ordering him to leave, was compelled to call upon the military for assistance. Lieut. Herzer arrested him and ejected him from the reservation, but upon application of Hillyer's friends at San Francisco to Genl. Wright, Lieut. Herzer was ordered to release him and to "not interfere with persons engaged in legitimate traffic" again. Upon learning the real facts, Genl. Wright immediately countermanded his hasty order, but in the meantime, Hillyer had filled his vessel with oysters and sailed for San Francisco. Hillyer commenced proceedings in equity, in the court of the 2nd judicial district of Oregon to enjoin Agent Simpson, the military officer and myself from interfering with him any further. The hearing of the case was deferred to the next November term of the court. Within a few days Hillyer has returned, bringing with him a party of fifteen armed men, who defy the authority of the agent and express a determination to reside upon the reservation. Measures will be taken to promptly expel them at all hazards.
    The Coast Reservation is a very large tract, containing about two thousand square miles, a large part of which is so rough and inaccessible that it will never be of any value [to] either whites or Indians. A few small valleys at wide intervals afford fertile land and are amply sufficient to supply the wants of a much larger number of Indians than are now located upon the reservation. The navigation of the bay, and the right to sufficient land along it for navigation and transportation purposes, may be conceded to whiles without detriment of either the government or of the Indians. If the treaty which I have recommended is authorized, as I trust it will be, a provision can be incorporated into it which will give to the whites sufficient privileges and at the same time be guarded as to protect the rights of the Indians.
The Untamed Tribes of Southeastern Oregon

    The vast region comprising about one-half of Oregon situated east of the Cascade Mountains and south of the territory purchased of the tribes near the Columbia River, is occupied by roving bands known by the different names of Snakes, Shoshones, Bannocks, Klamaths, Modocs &c. Their intercourse with whites has always been of a hostile character, and their depredations upon life and property in the last ten years have been enormous. My last annual report gave a detailed account of them.
    The last Congress made an appropriation of twenty thousand dollars for the purpose of making a treaty with these tribes. One half of this amount has been placed to my credit, and under the instructions contained in your letter of 22nd June last, having communicated with [Superintendent of Indian Affairs] Austin E. Wiley of California, I went to Fort Klamath last month, held a conference with the chiefs and such of the headmen as could be collected upon short notice, and made the preliminary arrangements for holding a council with the Klamath and Modoc tribes on the 8th of October next. I found these bands willing to come under the control of the government, cease their predatory habits, and remove to a reservation. I anticipate little difficulty in making a favorable treaty with them, and I also hope that some of the bands further east may be induced to come in at the same council. From such information as I have been able to gather from the Indian chiefs and the military officers of Fort Klamath, I estimate the number of the Klamath and Modoc tribes at between twelve and fifteen hundred souls. Last winter Capt. Wm. Kelly, then in command of Fort Klamath, finding these bands in a suffering condition, issued to them 9,921½ pounds of beef, 11,401 pounds of flour and some other articles of subsistence from the military stores. Under instructions from the military department, Capt. Kelly afterwards presented a bill of $2,518 40/100 (this being the value of the supplies furnished) to this office for payment. As the issue had been made without authority from this office, and without previous notice of the intention to make it, I did not consider myself authorized to pay the account, but I deem it proper to say that the condition of the Indians rendered some assistance necessary, not only upon humane grounds, but in order to prevent them from resorting to depredations upon whites to obtain the food of which they stood in great want. The course of Capt. Kelly in my judgment had a most salutary effect in conciliating the Indians, and rendering future control of them easy and economical. It is but justice that the government should sanction the expenditure.
    Three military expeditions, under Capts. Drake and Curry and Lieut. Col. Drew, have spent the past summer in pursuing the marauding bands of Shoshones and Bannocks, who range through the extreme southeastern part of Oregon, the northern part of Nevada and southwestern Idaho. After a severe battle on Crooked River in July last, a part of these Indians conveyed an intimation to Agent Logan of their willingness to treat and cease hostilities. No authority was then vested in any officer of the Indian Department to negotiate with them, and a golden opportunity was therefore lost. These tribes can be gathered upon a reservation, controlled, subsisted for a short time and afterwards made to subsist themselves, for one-tenth of the cost of supporting military force in pursuit of them. It is far cheaper "to feed them than to fight them." I recommend that authority be given to conclude treaties with them whenever a favorable opportunity offers. If such instructions are given, I am confident that the necessity for costly military expeditions will be done with.
Education
    The experience of the past year has confirmed the opinion expressed in my last annual report that manual labor schools are the only ones to which we can look for improvement of the Indian children. The testimony of agents and teachers is uniform upon this point. The Manual Labor School at Grand Ronde and Siletz have improved the scholars materially, but the day schools are valueless. I again recommend such legislation by Congress as will establish all the schools in the Superintendency upon the manual labor plan.
Finance
    The greatest, and indeed the only important, embarrassment which has affected the management of Indian affairs in this Superintendency during the past year has been the depreciation of the currency. While the nominal amount of the appropriations has steadily diminished, the difference between the currency of the government and the currency in actual use among the people of this state has also reduced them more than one-half. In the purchase of supplies, this has always resulted in higher prices, and often inconveniently small quantities, but in the salaries of employees, where the law and regulations permit no increase of salary, it has caused the resignation of some of the best men in the service. There has been, indeed, a general tendency to depreciation in the efficiency and character of the employees, which is unavoidable, however much it may be deplored. I have not sought to procure an increase of salaries, in the hope that a more favorable state of affairs would restore the currency to something nearer its par value, but unless an improvement does occur, it must not be expected that efficient men will occupy positions whose compensation is far below the ordinary wages of the country and entirely inadequate to their support.
The Military
    I cannot close this report without doing the justice to the military officers who have been stationed in this state to say that their assistance and cooperation has been freely and willingly given whenever asked in assisting the officers of the Indian Department in the discharge of their duties. It is also due to the agents, sub-agents and subordinates throughout the Superintendency to say that they have generally been efficient and constant in the performance of their respective duties. 
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 596-602.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 26th 1864
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my annual report for 1864 with the reports of agents Simpson, Harvey, Logan, Barnhart and Sub-Agent Collins, and the reports of their subordinates.
    The transmission of these papers has been delayed because of some illness of myself and my family, and by business of this office which has required my immediate attention.
    I trust, however, that they will arrive in time to enable the information they contain to be embodied in the annual report of your office.
    No report has been received from Sub-Agt. Amos E. Rogers, stationed in Southern Oregon, nor was any such report received last year from him.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 602.



Corvallis, Sept. 26th 1864
Genl. Alvord
    My Dear Genl.
        I thank you for the copy of your instructions to Captain Scott, and would say that Mr. Huntington ought not to have written you as he did, because it was calculated to mislead you. The injunction was duly issued at the time I wrote, and the bonds were all ready, which Mr. Huntington knows, but the writ of injunction had not been served on him through deference to him as a public officer. Our statute does not require the writ to be served when the party is in court at the granting of the injunction--see Code Sec. 406 on page 106. Mr. Huntington did appear by atty. and was fully heard by the court, and he was bound by the injunction from the date of its grant. When I saw Mr. Huntington he told me he was glad that proceedings had been instituted and that the case would now be settled in our courts, and from what he had said to me and his atty. (Mr. Williams), I determined that I would not serve the writ on him though deference to his office if he would not interfere, but told him that we were ready with our bonds, and if he proposed to interfere I would serve him instantly. Without answering my letter he wrote to you and it appears told only part of the case.
    The bonds have been given, and he has been fully enjoined, and since he insists on it we have had the writ served upon him by the sheriff, although he had his atty. in court at the time of its hearing and knew as well about it and was as fully bound by it as he is now.
    As I have said to you before, my clients are law-abiding men and will not resist the law, and a summons of any court in the hands of any marshal or constable will command their instant obedience, nor will they in any way interfere with any regulation of the Indian agent on the land, and this being a question of boundary if the judge decides this bay to be included on the reservation they bow to the majesty of the law. The Lord knows they have advantages enough in this controversy, and there can be no doubt of their obtaining all the law allows them and full justice to the Indians.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        F. A. Chenoweth
Genl. Benj. Alvord
    Comdg. Dist. of Oregon
   
    Copy [above] respectfully furnished for the information of J. W. P. Huntington Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon.
    Mr. Chenoweth sends at the same time a certificate of B. W. Wilson, clerk of circuit court of Oregon, dated 26th Sept. to the effect that Ludlow & Co. having given bonds as prescribed by the county, "an injunction has been issued out of said court restraining said J. W. P. Huntington, Supt. &c. and all persons acting with him or under his control or authority from in any way hindering or in any way preventing said Anthony, Ludlow & Co. in the prosecution of their business in Yaquina Bay in the state of Oregon."
    If you have received the injunction I recommend that you recall your request of the 22nd instant to Capt. L. S. Scott, commanding troops on the Siletz Reservation, a copy of which I received. It is probably best to await the decision of the courts.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Benj. Alvord
            Brig. General
                U.S. Vols.
                    Comd. Dist.
To J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 2.



Fort Vancouver W.T.
    29 Sep. 1864
        8 p.m.
My dear sir
    Since I sent you this morning the copy of F. A. Chenoweth's letter it has occurred to me that I failed to say in sending it that I am well aware of the estimate (from our conversation the other day) you will place on the document, which will justly make you indignant. So far as his language assails you I am sure it is unfounded & unjust. His "deference to your office" extends full so far and no farther than he thinks it will work for the interest of his client. His appearance in the programme will extend to that object and no further.
    I wish now I had written my views on a sheet distinct from that copy.
    It is a very anomalous position for such proceeding of a state court to control an action, but it is probably best to submit under the circumstances.
    Lieut. Rathbun goes to the Siletz in charge; a sergeant & two men have [been] left in charge of Fort Hoskins, Col. Scott to Fort Yamhill when the post is abandoned. You can, however, write Scott at Fort Hoskins for a few days.
    I regret that the pressure of public duties will prevent my going to Salem during the fair.
    Come to see me on your way to Fort Dalles.
Very truly & respt.
    Benj. Alvord
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
Glorious news from Sheridan, Atlanta & Mobile--Mr. Lincoln will be re-elected by overwhelming majority. McClellan will get the rebuke he deserves--
    Pray ask the Statesman to give a conspicuous mention to the resolution of the legislature in honor of the gallant General David A. Russell. I lament deeply his death--he was a noble officer.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 7.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency October 7th 1864
Dear Sir
    The Indian Department is owing me one hundred and sixty-eight dollars for work done by me at this agency in the year of our Lord 1861 under Sub-Agent Sykes from first April to 24th June. One of my vouchers was sent from Superintendent's office Salem, Oregon to Washington two years ago to be inspected as was said and see if it was right to pay it or not. I have never heard from Washington and don't know what conclusion you have come to. Now sir if you think it not right to pay me for my labor please return my voucher to Superintendent's office Salem, Oregon so I can get it and by so doing you will confer a favor on me.
Yours truly
    Thomas Clarke
    I send a postage stamp to pay postage on my voucher from Washington to Superintendent's office Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 107-108.



    We understand that a large band of Modoc Indians have just come in from the Lakes and are encamped near town. They are very much dissatisfied with the arrangements made by the Indian agent at the Lakes, and express a desire to leave their old hunting rounds and to locate near Yreka and live under the treaty made with them by Mr. Steele when he was Indian agent. A deputation of the leading men visited Mr. Steele yesterday and solicited him to accept the office of head chief. Rather than return to their old home they have signified their intention to join "John's" band of Indians. It is evident from what we know of Indian character that they must be very much dissatisfied, or they would not offer to join their old hereditary enemies, the Shasta and Scott Valley Indians.
"Home Intelligence," The Semi-Weekly Union, Yreka, California, October 15, 1864, page 2



Fort Klamath Oregon
    November 1st 1864
Sir,
    Sky-ti-at-titk, a Snake Indian, a messenger from Paulina, Snake chief, called on me today with La Lake, Palmer, Jack, Mogen-kash-kit, Kelogue, Blogue, Chiloquin and several other Klamath Indians.
    The messenger brings the following from Paulina, viz:
    A part of Paulina's Indians were camped without fifteen miles east of the trail at the crossing of the Deschutes, at the time that Mr. Huntington and the Warm Springs Indians were returning from the treaty with the Klamaths &c., that after Mr. Huntington passed on to the Dalles, Sem-tus-tus, chief of the Warm Springs Indians, with his Indians and two white men, met one of the Snakes, seized him and tied him on a horse and took him along with them. After getting near the Snake Indian camp, they tied the Indian hand and foot and left him, then went to the Snake camp, where there was only two old men and the women of the band; the men were out hunting. The two old men, supposing the strangers were on a friendly mission, did not prepare their arms. Sem-tus-tus then prepared his pipe and they all smoked, Sem-tus-tus furnishing tobacco. During that time Sem-tus-tus told the Snakes that he and his party was down at the treaty, and he seen that the Klamaths, Modocs and some Snakes who were present got several valuable things, and that they had agreed to a friendly treaty with the whites; that was all that was said. Sem-tus-tus then seized two of the Snake Indians, tied them, and took them and four women and a boy. Two other Snake men who had been out hunting came to camp soon after, and finding their people all gone took the track in search of them, when they soon found themselves in the presence of the Warm Springs Indians, who called to them to come in, that they were friendly. They did so, and their two rifles was seized immediately by the other Indians. The two Snake Indians then broke and ran in different directions. The other Indians fired at them and shot one of them dead; the other made his escape. The Warm Springs Indians then hung two of the men they had tied and clubbed the other to death. Sum-tus-tus then allowed one of the old women to return, in consideration of her giving him a plug of tobacco. The Warm Springs Indians took off the other women and boy four horses and three rifles.
    He says that the messenger sent by you to Paulina returned with an answer to you the day that this affair occurred. Paulina said that he now doubted the veracity of La Lake's message, which he said was your words, that he feared that if himself and a band of his Indians would come in they would be killed off like squaws, and from what has occurred he feared that Mr. Huntington would not treat him like the other Indians that came into the treaty, that the gifts given to the other Snake Indians looked very much like a bait.
    He had heard what Mr. Huntington said before, and now he understands it.
    He says that he has no foolish heart; he had seen the paper sent by Mr. Huntington and he believes it was good. He does not want to make a fool of Mr. Huntington, as the Warm Springs Indians are doing in breaking Mr. Huntington's laws. He does not want to speak false to Mr. Huntington in saying one thing and doing another; he wants to do what he says he will do. He wants to know Mr. Huntington's mind about the late acts of the Warm Springs Indians, and what Mr. Huntington is going to do about it. All of Paulina's Snake Indians know Mr. Huntington's desire for peace, and they have all agreed that they will not kill any more whites on the roads, trails or in any other place. He wants Mr. Huntington in consideration thereof to have those squaws & children held by the Warm Springs Indians returned to them the [word cut off]. If he sees that Mr. Huntington returns those squaws, he will then understand Mr. Huntington's heart, or mind, and know that he intends to do what is right. That is all that Paulina has to say at present.
    La Lake desires me to say that Mr. Huntington told him to go see & speak to the Snakes for him, and he did as Mr. Huntington desired. La Lake says, "I have told Paulina that what I said was truth, that I spoke as Mr. Huntington told me to do, and that he might believe my words." Paulina said, "(Ch!) Yes, I understood La Lake, and believed him, that it was what he wanted for a long time, that he was tired fighting, and wants peace."
    Lake Lake says, "I now feel ashamed for the acts of the Warm Springs Indians towards Paulina's Indians, after my pledging my faith, and Mr. Huntington's faith for the treatment they should receive."
    La Lake desires to know Mr. Huntington's mind about the acts of the Warm Springs Indians, and if he is going to tolerate such acts by them, when he hears how you take the things done by the Warm Springs Indians, then he will understand it, and his Indians and the Snake Indians will understand your laws. If Paulina gets his squaws & children back all of the Indians will be happy and feel very good about it that is all he has to say.
    Palmer complains about the Warm Springs Indians taking away his squaw Jenny.
Very respectfully your obdt. servt.
    Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st C.O.V.
        Fort Klamath Oregon
            Nov. 4th 1864
Mr. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
   
Dear Sir,
    I have been so busy for the last three days in consequence of the paying off of my co. preparing about mustering out about half of my company, who will soon be discharged, and having another visit from Maj. Bowman. I was unable to send the above message before. It will leave here by tomorrow express.
I have the honor to be very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st. C.O.V.
Mr. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 31.



Fort Umpqua Oregon
    Nov. 8th 1864
Sir:
    Old Tim (Indian) since my return to Umpqua has been wishing me to write you for "a pass" or permission for him & his squaw to live here on the "sand spit."
    He has a good house & provisions for the winter. I would like to have him here if you feel disposed to give him "a pass."
    As we have no neighbors within seven miles of us, he would disturb no one by his presence.
Hoping that you will grant the above request
    I remain
        Yours truly
            E. P .Drew
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 35.



Fort Klamath Nov. 10 1864
Mr. Huntington
    Sir I have commenced letting the Indians have flour on the first day of this month or Nov. the 1st.
    La Lake 200   lb.
Chiloquin 200  "
Kelogue 200
Palmer 100
Sebauchin Snakes 200
Killam           "   100
1000 lb.
Nov. the 8 1864
    I divided as near as possible among them all, giving each family its proportion according to the No.
   
[missing text--page filmed while folded]
   

he has five hundred under his command title and great he says he wanted to come in and live on the road that leads to the Dalles, that his country is between that road and the route that Col. Drew went through this summer.
    The Captain give him 1 sack of rice and some sugar.
    It is pleasant and warm here at present, and I think I shan't let any more flour go till it sets in stormy and cold, for they will need it more then than now. They got 3500 lb. a short time ago from a cache that was left in the marsh [?--word cut off] this summer for taking care of the same, which was by agreement.
    I wish you would not forget to send me some blanks soon and I will make the proper returns.
Yours
    George Nurse
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 37.



Fort Klamath Oregon
    November 10th 1864
Sir,
    I herewith enclose for your information a copy of a letter sent by me to Lt. E. D. Waite, Genl. Wright's A.A.A.G. [Acting Assistant Adjutant General]. Paulina desires that a notice may be given to the whites. I would respectfully recommend that the Warm Springs Indians may be prevented from making further raids on Paulina's band.
    One of his Indians that was at the treaty here says that he thinks from the number of Indians that was then here that Paulina has about 500 Indians. He cannot tell exactly how many, as he has not counted them in a long time. When he first came he looked very sullen; his brows were knit heavily, but before he left he got cheerful with the hope of getting his women &c.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st C.O.V.
            Comdg. Post
Mr. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 38.



Corvallis Oregon Nov. 11 1864
Hon. W. P. Dole Superintendent Indian Office
    Sir
        Herewith please find the long delayed and unpaid voucher of George Megginson, who has faithfully performed his part of the contract with a United States office and long since should have had gold. Mr. Megginson--as other men--lacking education, trusted his government & should be protected therein. Herewith please find one set of 4 comp. These have been duly presented and long remained in the Superintendent's office in Oregon. I also present the certificate of the Indian Office as to having [been] heretofore sent on for payment to your office.
    I also present claim of L. Starr for $120--3 mo. service in 1861, J. B. Sykes in another envelope.
    Requesting pay as heretofore in same parties and case--in L. Starr's case the 3rd voucher was left with Rector, Supt. Oregon.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
Respectfully requesting a receipt and instructions how to proceed on the matter.
A.D.B.
   
Vouchers issued by B. R. Biddle June 30th 1862 in favor of George Megginson for $195.00 and forwarded to Comsr. Indn. Affairs by Supt. Huntington Dec. 28th 1863 in complete sets.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 678-680.




Jacksonville Nov. 12th 1864
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose through you to W. P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, my resignation as sub-Indian agent in Oregon. In view of its acceptance, I have to say that I anticipate visiting Salem in a short time, probably within 20 days, when if permitted I will deliver the horse I have in my possession, belonging to the Indian Department, to yourself in person. There being no agent or officer of the Indian Department within reach, and as I expect to leave here for an indefinite period of time, I will if permitted store the other property remaining on hand with a responsible party in Jacksonville, subject to your orders, taking a receipt therefor. I will render accts. to date when I arrive at Salem, shall I hope to find you there.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt. for Oregon
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 40.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Nov. 19th 1864
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of Oct. 27th transmitting your accounts in triplicate for 2nd quarter 1864.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
                B. C. S. Woodworth Clerk
Amos E. Rogers Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 611.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 17th 1864
Sir
    The injunction issued by the circuit court of Benton County having been dissolved, no obstacle now exists to prevent the removal of all persons trespassing upon the Coast Reservation in violation of law. I have therefore to direct that you will without delay cause the immediate ejection of all such persons whether they are upon Yaquina Bay or land adjacent thereto, and whether they are engaged in cutting timber, taking oysters or cultivating the soil, and take efficient measures to prevent their return. The policy of the government is the entire exclusion of all persons from the reservation except those in the military service of the United States, and those licensed or employed by the Indian Department. You will immediately take measures to see that this policy is rigidly enforced, and if any persons who have once been ejected from the reservation shall return to the same in violation of law, you will endeavor to have the penalties imposed by the acts of 1834, 1856 and 1858 exacted.
    Lieut. Rathbun, in command of the blockhouse at Siletz, was instructed by Brig. Genl. Alvord, comdg. Dist. of Oregon, to afford you necessary force to carry out the laws and regulations. You will call upon him whenever necessary, and it is presumed that his assistance will be given readily, earnestly and promptly.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Ind. Agt.
        Siletz Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 611-612.



Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver, W.T.
        November 25th, 1864.
Sir,
    The surrender on the 8th instant of Paulina, war chief of the Snakes, at Fort Klamath, as reported by Captain Kelly is an auspicious event.
    I have sent you, as also Captain Kelly, a copy of my instructions of the 21st instant to the commanding officer on the Warm Springs Reservation, to notify the Warm Springs Indians to cease aggressive attacks on the Snake Indians of Paulina's band.
    The women and children of that tribe, including the wife and child of Paulina, left by you on the 27th ult. in confinement at this post, will be released whenever you shall request it. I suppose however they cannot be returned before spring. In the meantime you will have means to test the sincerity of Paulina's submission and promises of keeping the peace.
    It will I think be well for you to embrace the opportunity in consideration of the pardon and amnesty (and return of his family) which will be acceded to Paulina, to require that he shall manifest his sincerity by bringing in all his warriors to some locality, say upon the Klamath Reservation.
    Pray ascertain how many warriors he can control. It is wise in us to make all the use possible of Paulina in controlling that tribe. Will you be disposed to place them on the Klamath Reservation?
    Mr. Logan, agent at the Warm Springs Reservation, said that the Snake women said that Paulina's brother was the principal chief, he being only war chief. No doubt it will be our policy to treat Paulina as the head chief, if he is friendly and peaceable, to increase if possible his power, and to make use of him in controlling all the Snake Indians.
    It will be necessary eventually no doubt to inform Paulina that all horses and mules his people have stolen, if claimed by their lawful owners, will have to be surrendered. But it will be time enough to insist on that when you come to treat with him.
    Please write me your views on all these subjects.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            Benj. Alvord
                Brig. Genl. U.S. Vols.
                    Comdg. Dist.
To
    J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 41.



Chillicothe Ohio
    November 29th 1864
Hon. W. P. Dole
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                I have to inform you that in order the better to attend to the settlement of the official accounts of G. H. Abbott, late sub-Indian agent for Oregon, I came east in August last and was en route to Washington on the 21st of Sept. when by a collision of cars on the Pennsylvania Railroad I was seriously wounded.
    My trunk containing my papers, consisting of certificates of authority &c. from the hand of Edward R. Geary, late Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon, was destroyed by fire, the baggage car being burnt. I have sent or written for new certificates and will repair to Washington as early as possible to attend to this neglected business.
    I therefore have to request that you will not think that I have willfully neglected the business, and be assured that I will attend to it as soon as I receive the certificates required by the Department.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Late Sub-Ind. Agent
                for Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 56-58.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 2nd 1864
Sir
    I transmit enclosed herewith check on Asst. Treas. U.S. San Francisco for $2790.00 favor of Michael Hanley. Triplicate receipts for same amount are also enclosed. Will you please cause Mr. Hanley to sign the receipts properly. Mail them to me and turn the check over to him.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. B. F. Dowell
    Jacksonville
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 614.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 2nd 1864
Sir
    Check for $2790.00 is this day forwarded to you in care of B. F. Dowell by Wells Fargo & Co. express with receipt for your signature to be returned to this office. In case of the nonarrival of second check in due course please advise this office immediately by telegraph.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Michael Hanley Esq.
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 614.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    Polk Co. Ogn. Dec. 5th 1864.
Dear Sir,
    In answer to a communication from your office of August last, in which I am "directed to furnish you a general statement concerning the Indian schools on this reservation, combining all the facts that may be of use in determining the course to be pursued with regard to them," I would respectfully submit that on taking charge of this agency in July I found provision made by treaty for two schools for Indian children, one the Molel manual labor school, the other a day school for the Umpquas and Calapooias. I have carefully watched the progress of the scholars in these schools since I have been here.
    The scholars, particularly in the manual tabor school, under the care and instruction of the present teachers Mr. and Mrs. Vandevort, are not only making good progress in the common branches of an English education, but are improving in their manners and learning to work--the boys on the farm and in the garden--and the girls in the ordinary work of female labor--not only kitchen and housework, but making and repairing clothes &c., while by example and precept their moral and religious faculties are carefully cultivated.
    The other school is under the care of an excellent teacher, and the scholars that attend anything like regularly learn very well, but it is impossible to get either the parents or children to understand the importance of punctual, regular attendance; consequently the progress of even those that have attended the best is very much behind that of the Molel scholars.
    This difference is noticed by their parents, and they would all prefer to have their children in that school, but the house in which the school is kept was built for a hospital and cannot with any convenience accommodate more than 15 scholars, and even if it could, the funds belonging to that school at the present cash value of legal tenders (47 cents on the dollar) would not, even by the most rigid economy, provide for more than that number.
    Under these circumstances I would respectfully suggest to your consideration the propriety of uniting the funds of the two schools. Could this be done, and means be had to erect a house large enough to accommodate say 36 scholars, connecting it with fifteen (15) or twenty (20) acres of farm and garden, on the manual labor plan, the school might raise and supply most of its subsistence.
    I find upon consulting freely with the chiefs of the tribes interested that such an arrangement would be eminently satisfactory.
    If this can be accomplished I will see to it (so long as I am in charge of the agency) that the teachers will not only teach them the branches of an ordinary English education, and instruct the boys in farming and gardening and the girls in housekeeping, sewing, knitting &c., &c., but by a careful moral and religious training, accustom them to habits of industry and economy, qualifying them to become useful members of civilized life.
    Such a result and example would also exert a beneficial influence over all the Indian families on the agency, who would not only be pleased with the improvement of their children, but would thereby be led to take more interest in improving their farms and buildings and thus secure for themselves all the necessaries and many of the conveniences and comforts of civilized life.
Amos Harvey
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Agency
J. W. P. Huntington
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
        Salem Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 21; Letters Received, 1863-1865, No. 56.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 6th 1864
Sir
    In locating a reservation for the Indian tribes east of the Cascade Mountains I have found no little embarrassment from ignorance of the topography and natural boundaries east of the Deschutes River and the Klamath lakes. I was not aware until within a few days that there had been any surveys in the district attended to, but I now understand that a line was run some two years ago south from the Columbia River, through the open country between the Deschutes and John Day River to the valley of Crooked River. The notes of that line (if such an one was ever run) will afford just the information necessary for this office.
    I have then respectfully to ask that you transmit as soon as convenient a copy of the notes of said line with a sketch of the country through which it passes. You will understand of course that a minute transcript of the field notes of the Deputy Surveyor is not required, but merely a transcript showing the position of the principal streams, mountains and other noted objects.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
B. J. Pengra Esq.
    Surveyor General
        of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 619.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 6th 1864
Sir
    In reference to the subject of the removal of the blockhouse at Siletz to Yaquina Bay, and the abandonment of Fort Hoskins, I have to say that the letter of Maj. A. D. Bowman, Actg. Insp. General, Jacksonville, Sept. 28th 1864, with the endorsement thereon of A.A.G. Richard E. Drum and Brig. Genl. B. Alvord, has been received at this office and has had due consideration.
    The post at Fort Hoskins was of no value to the Indians, the citizens or the government. Its abandonment has wrought no detriment to any branch of the public service. The condition of affairs when it was established no doubt required a strong post to keep in subjection the powerful hostile tribes which were brought to the Siletz Reservation, but those tribes have diminished in number and mostly deprived of arms and have lost the warlike disposition they formerly had. A small force sufficient to enforce police regulations, control disorderly whites and prevent the escape of Indians from the reservation is sufficient now, and in my opinion it should be located at or near the head of tidewater on Yaquina Bay. Twenty men then with horses to enable them to move rapidly will be of more actual service than three times that number at Fort Hoskins. The objection of the expense of erecting new buildings at the head of the bay is not well taken, for if the detachment remains at Siletz new buildings will must be necessary erected. It will cost less to erect them at Yaquina Bay than at Siletz. The new road recently opened from Corvallis connects the Willamette Valley and the ocean at the head of this bay, and there the intercourse of whites with Indians will begin. It is apparent that no other place is so suitable for the location of a military force. To put it at the blockhouse is very much like building a fort at San Jose or Benicia to protect the harbor of San Francisco.
    The removal of the Indians from Yamhill to Siletz is desirable for some reasons, but in view of the large expense involved and the difficulty of persuading the Indians to relinquish the rights guaranteed to them by the stipulations of the various treaties, I do not feel justified in recommending the measure at this time. Genl. Alvord is not exactly right in thinking that the Indian Department will "not consent" to such removal. The Department would be very glad to give such consent and to favor the measure if the expense involved were not too great. But the change if made will call for the expenditure of more money than it costs to keep up such a post as Yamhill for five years.
    I take this occasion to express the opinion that infantry troops (unless wholly or partially mounted) are of no value for service in Indian country or upon reservations. The Indians in this country are all well mounted, are accomplished horsemen; the same is generally true of the whites who violate the intercourse laws. To send soldiers on foot to pursue them is not only useless--it is absurd. Infantry can guard a fort or an agency as well as cavalry, but this is not the service required of them except in occasional instances. I regard this point of far more importance than the mere location of any body of troops, and I trust the general commanding the district will give it careful attention.
    The letter of Act. Insp. Genl. Bowman is herewith returned.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Lieut. Col. R. C. Drum
    A.A. Genl. Dept. of the Pacific
Through
    Brig. Genl. Benj. Alvord
        Comdg. Dist. of Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 619-620.



Washington Dec. 9th 1864
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. of Indian Affairs--
        Sir.    When we left Oregon in the month of October last Supt. Huntington of the Indian Dept. was negotiating a treaty with the Indians of Southeastern Oregon pursuant to the act of Congress passed last March. Since our arrival we learn that these negotiations have been completed. The Indians have heretofore had a sub-agent assigned to them and considering that there were no treaties & but little duty comparatively ever demanded of him, a sub-agency was sufficient. Now, however, owing to direct charge being assumed of some 1500 to 2000 Indians we think it important that the office be raised to a full agency. Will you cooperate with us in the moment in the proper way and oblige yours
Jno. R. McBride
B. F. Harding
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Com. &c. Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 521-522.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1864
Sir
    I send herewith blank forms for your return of flour issued to the Indians and a list of the names of the chiefs who signed the treaty of 15th of October. In entering their names in the roll you will please observe the same orthography. The abstracts must be filled in quadruplicate, three copies to be sent by mail to this office and one to be retained by you. Two witnesses must sign each abstract. It is preferable to have the commander of the post or the quartermaster or both.
    At this distance I cannot give any explicit directions as to when the flour should be issued, but [you] must rely upon your discretion, only remarking that the object is to so distribute it that the greatest amount of good to the Indians and especially the most needy ones, with as little expense to the government as possible.
    I shall expect you to inform me as often as practicable of the condition of affairs.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
George Nurse Esq.
    Fort Klamath
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 621.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1864
Sir
    Enclosed please find check on Asst. Treas. U.S. San Francisco Cal. for $30.00, the amount of your bill for advertising dated Nov. 26th 1864.
    Also vouchers for same amount which you will please sign and return to this office by mail.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
J. M. Sutton or
B. F. Dowell
    Jacksonville Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 621.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1864
Sir
    Your resignation of your office as Sub-Indian Agent has been received and transmitted to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with the recommendation that it be accepted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Indian Agent
        in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 623.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 10th 1864
Sir
    I have the honor to report to you, in relation to the Klamath, Modoc and other tribes of Indians that in compliance with your instructions of 22nd June last, I visited the tribes mentioned in August last, and held a preliminary conference with them upon the subject of the proposed treaty. An account of that conference was submitted to your office with my last annual report for 1864, and it is not necessary now to refer to it.
    Superintendent A. E. Wiley, of California, who was authorized to act in conjunction with myself as commissioner to conduct the negotiations, was unable to attend, and I therefore (as instructed by you) appointed Agent Wm. Logan, of this Superintendency, to act in that capacity.
    In the latter part of September I again went by the way of the Dalles and Warm Springs Agency, Agent Wm. Logan accompanying, to Fort Klamath, arriving there on the 9th October, and found a large number of Indians assembled, which number was soon increased to 1071 all told, 710 of whom were Klamaths, 339 Modocs and 22 of the Yahooskin band of Snakes. These numbers include women and children as well as men. Some others were represented, although not actually present. I estimate the total number at 1500 to 2000 souls, which includes all represented in the treaty, which was concluded on the 15th October.
    The wishes and intention of the government were very carefully and fully explained to the Indians, and they exhibited a complete willingness to become subjected to the United States and cease depredations upon the citizens thereof in accordance with the treaty. To the stipulations of that instrument I invite your careful attention. Its provisions are in some respects similar to those of other treaties heretofore negotiated with tribes in this state, but they differ from them in calling for the expenditure of smaller amounts of money, and in subjecting the Indians to a somewhat stricter control of the government.
    The census of the tribes as given in this letter will be found to differ materially from the estimate of Maj. C. S. Drew and Superintendent Steele, which have been submitted to your office. The former put the number of warriors at 900, not including any of the Snakes. (See his letter of Feby. 20th published with my annual report for 1863.) The latter estimates them (excluding Snakes also) at 1400 warriors. (See his letter of Mar. 5th, copy of which was sent from your office to me. This letter was printed with the annual reports for 1864.) The number of women and children for each warrior cannot be less than four, which would give by Maj. Drew's estimate 4500 Indians, and by Supt. Steele's 7000. I am sure that these numbers are far too large. There may be 2000 of them all told--certainly not more.
    The country ceded by the treaty of 15th October is of vast extent, as you can see by reference to the map, say 15,000 to 20,000 square miles, and presents great diversity of topography, soil and climate. Parts of it are barren mountains and sage plains, of no agricultural value, but probably possessing great mineral wealth. Other portions are valuable for grazing purposes, producing a large amount of nutritious grass, but containing little or no land fit for cultivation. The valleys of the Klamath Lakes, Rhett Lake, Goose Lake, Lost River and seven others, have much fertile soil. Some portions are well supplied with excellent timber, while in other parts there is very little. The climate of the whole region is dry--differing widely in that respect from the damp coast counties of Oregon, and while some parts of it enjoy a mild, equable climate temperature in winter, the cold in other parts is severe. Its convenient situation with reference to the mines of Idaho, eastern Oregon and Washoe, will always assure to settlers who may locate therein a favorable market for their products.
    The reservation designated by the treaty for the use of the Indians includes (besides much country almost a desert) the Upper Klamath Lake or marsh, which affords great supplies of edible roots and seeds for the Indians, and much fine grazing land, and gives them access to the Middle Lake and the Klamath or Williamson River, connecting the two, for fishing purposes. It also takes in enough arable land of good quality near the mouth of Williamson River to support all the Indians which are ever likely to be placed upon it. The more extensive valleys upon the Middle and Lower Lakes are not embraced within its limits. In determining the bounds of the reservation, I sought primarily to secure a tract of country which had local advantages for supporting a colony of Indians by industrial pursuits. I think this tract will satisfy this--in my judgment the greatest--demand. A second object, and one scarcely less important, was to so locate the tribes that their separation from whites would be as nearly complete as possible. This reservation is not likely to be traversed by any important line of travel, and but a small portion of it will be coveted by whites for settlement. I consider it in every respect well adapted for the purposes for which it was designed.
    I respectfully recommend that the treaty be sent to the Senate for ratification. When it is considered that it embraces the largest number of Indians ever included in one treaty in Oregon, that it cedes the largest area of country ever purchased at one treaty, and that it involves the expenditure of a smaller amount of money than any other important treaty, I think there can be no objection to its confirmation by the government.
    Upon its ratification the necessity for an additional agent will be immediate and apparent, and no delay should be made in appointing one. At the council the Indians unanimously concurred in the desire that Lindsay Applegate (of Jackson County) be appointed agent to reside among them. Mr. Applegate has been a resident of this state since 1843, is well known to the Indians, is familiar with their country, habits and character, and his appointment would in my opinion be a discreet one.
    Upon the ratification of the treaty, certain appropriations will be necessary to carry into effect its provisions. An estimate of what is necessary, according to my judgment, is herewith transmitted.
    In regard to the expense of negotiating this treaty, I will only remark at this time that only one-half of the appropriation ($10,000) was placed at my disposal to be expended, and that a considerable portion of this sum remains on hand, leaving the details to be transmitted with my accounts for 4th quarter 1864. Not withstanding the funds have been legal tender notes, worth only 45 and 46 cents on the dollar, the total disbursements are less than any similar expedition of previous years.
    In addition to the presents distributed at the time of holding the council, I left a quantity of flour--nearly 16,000 pounds--at Fort Klamath to be issued to such of the Indians as chose to remain there during the winter. This will have the effect to quiet them and convince them of the good faith of the government.
    After the conclusion of the treaty, while upon the return from Fort Klamath to Warm Springs, Agent Logan and myself, riding in advance of the remainder of the party, came suddenly upon two Indians, who immediately endeavored to escape to the bush. They were stopped, however, and upon examination we found them to be Snakes, of Paulina's band. I immediately caused the party to encamp and sent out scouts in search of the camp of the main body. They were found late in the day upon Mill-ke-ke Creek, about 15 miles east of where that stream empties into the Deschutes. Three men, three women and two children were captured and brought into camp. They were assured that they should not be harmed, and I was congratulating myself that I had at last the long-desired opportunity of communicating with the hostile Snakes, when the five men suddenly made an attempt to seize our guns, which were standing around some trees in camp. We were compelled to commence firing upon them at once, and three of them were killed, the other two escaping, badly wounded. One of these I have since learned died that night, while the other escaped to Paulina's camp and recovered. One of the women proved to be the wife of Paulina, the celebrated war chief of the Snakes, who has been the leader in the war which has been waged upon whites for so many years in that region. I brought her with the other women and children to Fort Vancouver and turned them over to Brig. Genl. Alvord for safekeeping. I rely much upon them in bringing Paulina to terms. Paulina himself has since come in to Fort Klamath in response to my invitation and assurance that he should be permitted to depart unharmed. Capt. Kelly, in charge of that post, delivered to him my message, and received one from him to me to the effect that he was tired of war and ready to make peace, if he could have protection. As soon as the snow will permit me to cross the mountains, I shall go in accordance with your instructions of Oct. 24th last to that country and endeavor by means of a treaty to put a stop to the horrid state of war which has existed there for several years past. I confidently hope to be able to report before next summer an end of hostilities and the opening of that rich mineral country to exploration and settlement.
    In closing this lengthy report, I feel it my duty as well as pleasure to say that the assistance I received from Dr. W. C. McKay and Capt. Lindsay Applegate, who acted as counselors and interpreters to the Indians, Lieut. Halloran, of the 1st W. T. Infantry, who commanded the small military escort, and Capt. Kelly and Lieut. Underwood, stationed at Fort Klamath, was very valuable to the expedition and aided much in producing its favorable results.
    The treaty is herewith transmitted.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Hon. Wm. P. Dole
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 623-626.  The original letter is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 613 Oregon Superintendency, 1862-1863, frames 130-135, though the last page is missing or unfilmed.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 12th 1864
Sir
    With reference to the inquiries from your office in relation to the Coast Indian Reservation, and the practicability and expediency of establishing a town-site reservation at the head of navigation on Yaquina Bay, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved March 3rd 1863, I have the honor to submit the following report:
    The Coast Reservation was selected by late Superintendent Joel Palmer in 1855, at a time when the western slope of the Coast Mountains had been but partially explored, and was supposed to be nearly or quite worthless. The only valleys suitable for human habitation then known to exist were needed for the occupancy of the Indians, and those best informed believed that the rugged nature of the Coast Range of mountains would forever debar the population of the Willamette Valley from using the harbors which were found at the estuaries of the Siuslaw, Alsea, Tillamook and Yaquina rivers. Under this belief it was quite natural that little regard should be paid to economy in appropriating territory which was considered so valueless, and consequently the Coast Reservation was made very large, extending north and south about one hundred miles, and averaging in breadth about twenty. After the removal of Indians to this tract was commenced, it was found that the expense and difficulty of transporting supplies across the Coast Range was so great that economy required a location for the interior tribes on the eastern slope of the range, and accordingly the rights of the settlers in a small valley known as the Grand Ronde (upon the head of Yamhill River) were purchased, and that tract (townships 5 and 6 south, range 7 and 8 west) was added to the already large reservation, and an important agency located thereon. The total number of Indians upon this reservation is by enumeration 4164, distributed as follows, to wit: 1322 at Grand Ronde, 2312 at Siletz and 530 at Alsea. Those at Grand Ronde have no communication with the Yaquina Bay, and will not be affected by anything that may transpire there.
    The Siletz Agency is about twenty-five miles from the ocean, seven miles from the head of navigation upon the north fork of the Yaquina Bay, and thirty miles from the proposed town site, which is upon the south fork. It is located in the southern edge of a valley upon the Siletz River, and is surrounded by a district of very fertile land sufficient in my judgment to support a larger number of Indians than are at all three of the agencies combined. There are other valleys of less extent further north upon the Salmon, Nestucca and other streams which put into the ocean, upon which there are no settlements.
    The Alsea Agency is upon the ocean, about thirty miles below the Yaquina Bay, and eight miles below the Alsea. Only two-thirds of the Indians reported under the control of that agent are actually at the agency. The remainder are at the mouth of the Siuslaw River, about thirty miles further down the coast, where they have been permitted to remain because they do not interfere with the whites and subsist themselves by fishing and a little agriculture.
    The foregoing statement, if read with a map of the reservation at hand, will enable you to understand the location of the Indians, and it is apparent that a settlement of whites at the head of the south fork of Yaquina Bay would be in immediate contact with Indians on both sides. Experience has always shown that such contact always results unfortunately to both whites and Indians, and in my judgment it ought to be avoided. But at the same time I think such change can be made in the disposition of the Indians as will enable the white settlements to take advantage of the facilities for transportation which the harbor of Yaquina affords, and at the same time escape the evils which joint occupancy of the same territory by whites and Indians will surely entail. There are but 530 Indians located below (south of) the bay referred to, but those of Siletz have the privilege of visiting it for fishing purposes. Fish are as abundant at the mouth of Siletz River as at Yaquina, and ample supplies for all the Indians can be there obtained. Besides the tribes are all advancing rapidly in agriculture, and as they have more abundant supplies of farming products their want of fish diminishes. If all who are located below the Yaquina can be removed to places north of Siletz, there will then be no objection to throwing the whole southern half of the reservation open to settlement, and the interest of both government and Indians will be advanced--the latter by being more compactly located upon land which will afford them ample subsistence, and the former by greater economy and efficiency in their control and management. The necessity for an agency would be done away with and its expenses avoided, while no additional expense after the removal would be entailed upon the agency at Siletz. I therefore recommend that measures be taken to remove the Indians from Siuslaw, Alsea and Yaquina to Siletz or some of the smaller valleys farther north.
    If this is determined upon, the question will then arise, Where shall the southern boundary of the reservation be fixed? This office is not in possession of sufficient information to enable me to express a definite opinion upon this point without a particular examination of the locality; but the boundary should undoubtedly be somewhere between the Siletz and Yaquina. The district between the two streams varies in width from seven to thirty miles, and except [for] the grist mill belonging to the Indians near the south bank of the Siletz, and the small settlement of Indians along the shore of Yaquina, is entirely unoccupied. It is densely wooded, portions of it rugged mountains, and other portions worthless swamps, and none of it likely soon to be wanted for settlement. A line passing through some parts of this tract would undoubtedly be a proper division, but just where it should begin, how it ought to run, or where end, I cannot determine without a close examination.
    In removing the Indians (should that course be determined upon), their consent must first be obtained and provisions made for the expense which will be incurred. I have repeatedly called the attention of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (vide my annual report for 1863 and same for 1864) to the necessity for some treaty provisions with the coast tribes, and permanent arrangements for their control and guidance. It is unnecessary for me to repeat those suggestions at this time, but I cannot too strongly urge the attention of the Department to them.
    In regard to the expense attending the removal I have not been called upon for an estimate; but it is proper, in view of the desirableness of immediate action by the government (if action at all is determined on), that I should submit data which will enable an appropriation to be made without the delay of again referring the matter to this office. The enclosed estimate covers in my judgment the necessary expenses, while it has been reduced to as low a sum as the circumstances will warrant, and it is respectfully submitted for your consideration.
    You will note that my remarks have been confined mainly to the effect of the proposed measure with reference to the interests of the Indians and of the government in its relation to them. This I understand to be, strictly speaking, the scope and extent of your inquiry; but I trust I shall not be considered exceeding the limits which it is proper I should observe if I remark briefly upon the importance to the white settlements of the opening of this bay.
    The bay of Yaquina has not, as your letter seems to assume, been unknown until recently. It was known as early at least as 1849 that a harbor existed there, and so long ago as April 1850 I happened to accompany an old resident of Benton County on a visit to this bay and the adjoining country. Vessels entered there certainly as early as 1853, and more or less have come there every year since. But the trail by which the mountains in that direction were then traversed was exceedingly rough and difficult, and it has only recently been discovered that a road over which heavy transportation was practicable could be made. But such a road having been found and opened during the past summer by citizens, it is now evident that the central counties of Middle Oregon can obtain their freight, a part of the year at least, through that channel much cheaper than by the old route of the Columbia River. If the bay and adjacent lands are thrown open to settlement, the counties of Linn, Lane, Benton and part of Polk (the best agricultural district of the Pacific Coast) will use it partially or wholly as a means of communication with the ocean. As a mere measure of revenue, the government ought to open this district to the public, for the town site, under the act of March 3rd 1863, will probably yield more money than will several times repay the cost of removing the Indians, and the thrifty town which must grow up at the head of navigation will be no mean source of wealth to the nation as well as to the state.
    I trust that this somewhat lengthy communication has, without going into all the details, at least made these points apparent:
    1st. That a joint occupancy of whites and Indians in the district referred to will be unwise, and should be avoided.
    2nd. That a removal of the Indians should precede any admission of whites into the reservation.
    3rd. That the wants of trade in an important part of this state require that access be given to the bay.
    Hoping that the above will afford you satisfactory information, I have the honor to be,
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. J. P. Usher
    Sec. of the Interior
        Washington D.C.
Estimate of Funds
Required for the removal of Indians from the southern part of the Coast Reservation to the north of Siletz River.
Object of Appropriation Amount
For Paying the expense of negotiating with the several tribes including presents &c. $3,000.00
For Expense of removing, including subsistence en route and transportation 6,000.00
For Expense of subsisting the Indians first year after removal over and above what they will be able to provide for themselves     4,500.00
Total   $16,500.00
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 628-631.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 765-773.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 12th 1864
Sir
    I have delayed replying to your letter in relation to Indian affairs in your section because I was undetermined whether or not I would visit Fort Klamath during the present month. I find however that the severity of the weather forbids my doing so until spring.
    In the meantime I request you, if opportunity offers, to communicate with Paulina to say to him that I have received his messages and given them attention. The Warm Springs Indians and the soldiers at the Dalles will not go out to make war upon him until I have seen and talked with him. I desire to make provisions for his people similar to those made for the Klamath and Modoc Indians. He must, however, if he wishes to be unmolested, avoid the road, commit no depredations upon whites, and not go near the Warm Springs Reservation. I am glad to know that he desires to submit to the government and cease war, but he cannot expect that the Indians and whites whom the has been robbing and trying to kill for years will refrain from shooting him if he goes where they are. If he makes a treaty and observes it he will then have a claim to the protection of the government.
    The women which have been taken from his tribe at various times will be given up whenever he makes a treaty, and he will be expected also to give up the women and children his people have stolen from the friendly Indians at Warm Springs.
    I shall come to talk with him as early in the spring as the roads &c. will permit, at which time I will explain the wishes of the government more in detail.
    I am much indebted to you for your effort to assist me in the matter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Oregon
Capt. Wm. Kelly
    Comdg. Fort Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 633.



Corvallis Oregon
    Dec. 22 1864
Hon. J. P. Usher
    Secretary of the Interior
        Washington D.C.
Having examined the report of Supt. Huntington of Indian Affairs in Oregon, in which he favors the opening of the seacoast and its harbor to the citizens of this great valley of Oregon, I would say the state of Oregon was settled up by emigrants who crossed the great plains with their families & household goods in wagon, and this mode of travel is a cheap, convenient and practical way of getting along to us. As being a farming community, each household is provided with the common mode of conveyance, the wagon & team. Heretofore the farmers of the Willamette Valley have had to transport their grain & produce, generally at great expense to them of transportation, on the river, handling over four times including a portage around the falls of the Willamette River, moving it in all some 225 miles from here and 275 from the upper end of this valley to the sea, those at the mouth of the Columbia River occupying in transit 5 to 7 days.
    In contrast we now do with a new road, not perfect, in 45 miles travel with our own means of transportation reach salt water. Grain sells here at Corvallis at $1.00, worth at least $1.50 per bushel at Yaquina, but until opened up by action of the government we cannot build store houses. I mention these things only that the immense interest of a state may not be too long delayed to go through the formality (or the folly) of obtaining the consent of the Indians.
    What are the facts of the case? These--the Indians are settled on the Siletz Reserve, a pretty valley, amply extensive to support and maintain all the Indians Supt Huntington mentions and others and export quantities of potatoes, &c., which the Indians will do when commerce comes to the bay & markets open only 7 miles from them & water conveyance thereunto.
    Why? Potatoes, the easiest, most prolific crop, are worth $2.50 a bushel on the bay. To the oyster men [they] are worth 3¼¢ a pound in San Francisco today--can pay the Indians well to produce at 25¢ a bushel, or ½¢ per pound.
    Again--there is a dividing ridge between the Siletz River & valley and Yaquina Bay, which is a natural boundary line, and the Indians do not live on this bay, but on the Siletz River. This bay is not needed or used by them.
    The Superintendent says there are 2312 Indians on the Siletz. I presume that that is the number. But of course that includes women & children, and I presume the 2200 never was at the Yaquina Bay. And I often employ Indians from both reserve and those from Alsea, or south reserve, [who] do not come to the valley by the way of the Yaquina, but through the Alsea Valley. These Indian men are of great assistance to the farmers in harvest--are as good hands as whites & learn agricultural pursuits thereby.
    There will be very little more connection between the Indians with the bay opened to the public than as it is, for they will have still their present location, present home, and a natural barrier, the dividing ridge & swamp. Save the one pass & easily guarded [by?] the Siletz River. We have a splendid valley of land, a never-failing source of supply to this coast of wheat and sustenance.
    We never have a drought in Oregon. Last year California starved; we never had such crops in Oregon before. Our interest in this matter is immense, and no delay should occur (on account of all the Indians) in opening & inviting the travel this way.
    Again? By reference to the map you will notice the bearing this valley has on the new mining regions. It is only 120 chained miles from Corvallis or 166 miles from salt water to the east bank of the Deschutes River, and a new road to the John Day mines east through the Cascade Range up Santiam River or southeast from this bay via Eugene City coast fork to Canyon City, Boise & Owyhee, all of which is apparent by the map.
    These Indians in the 6 years past have visited only a very limited portion of this immense reserve, and never will. They are indolent and never wander far away from the source of supply, following the example of some military men, lacking means of transportation always.
    Respectfully and without any private interest to gratify other than as success to the Willamette Valley & people
I beg leave to remain
    Yr. obt. svt.
        A. D. Barnard
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 614 Oregon Superintendency, 1864-1865, frames 681-689.





Last revised November 26, 2016