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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1866
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jany. 1st 1866
Sir
    I have recently received from some of the agents in this Superintendency applications for instructions upon the subject of arresting persons engaged in traffic in ardent spirits with Indians. I have therefore prepared a circular letter, [a] copy of which is enclosed herewith, and send it, with manuscript copies of the laws referred to, to each agent and sub-agent. I ask that you give the matter your attention and advice on whether these instructions are warranted by the law, and if they have your approval.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
   

Circular.
Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon, Jany. 1st 1866
Sir:
    I transmit herewith manuscript copies of all the acts of Congress relative to the sale of ardent spirits to Indians, penalties therefor, and powers and duties of agents, which have been passed since 1834. The old intercourse law approved on the 30th June of that year is published in the pamphlet of "Revised Regulations" with which you are furnished, and although it is still in force, as to other matters the portions which relate to this matter are so modified by the more recent acts as to be of little consequence.
    You will find, upon examination, that the acts of Feby. 13th 1862, and of March 15th 1864, give to the agent plenary powers over the persons and property of individuals engaged in this nefarious trade, whether actually within the limits of the reservation or outside its boundaries, carrying on a clandestine traffic with the Indians living upon it. The latter class of violators of the law have always been found most troublesome, and the present acts will probably enable some in your vicinity to be reached who have hitherto baffled all efforts to interrupt or punish them. You are directed to use diligent efforts to enforce these laws, and if necessary call upon the commanding officers of the nearest military post for assistance.
    A justice of the peace is authorized to commit or bind over any person arrested under this act to appear in the U.S. District Court or in the Circuit Court of the state, as in discretion, justice and the enforcement of the law will be best attained. When the arrest of any person is caused by or known to you, you will attend the preliminary examination as counsel for the government (unless the prosecuting attorney is present) and strive to have the case fully and fairly heard, and in case the defendant is held to appear, see that he is not permitted to escape justice by means of "straw bail," or other chicanery common to the practice of the shysters who are prone to infest military posts and the borders of reservations. You will also advise this office of all seizures and arrests for any of the offenses enumerated in the laws alluded to.
    The copies of laws herewith sent, as well as this circular, will be made a part of the records of your office, to be turned over to your successor.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
A copy sent to each
agent and sub-agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 86-89.



Grand Ronde Indn. Reservation
    January 3rd 1866
J. W. P. Huntington Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Sir
Enclosed I send you a communication from A. D. Babcock in which he desires that the government would remove the restriction from a small lot of land now on this reservation. On examining the land I see no reason why his request may not be granted, as the land is of no use to the Indians on this reservation.
Very respectfully
    Yours Amos Harvey
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 124.



Grand Ronde Indian Reservation
    January 3rd 1866
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            I enclosed send you a communication from A. D. Babcock in which he desires that the government would remove the restrictions from a small lot of land now within this reservation. On examining the land I see no reason why his request may not be granted, as the land is of no use to the Indians on this reservation.
Very respectfully yours
    Amos Harvey
   
    The above is a true copy of a letter of Amos Harvey, U.S. Indian agent at Grand Ronde, addressed to me as Supt. Indian Affairs. I recommend that Mr. Babcock's petition be granted and the tract of land known as the W ½ SE ¼ (frac.) Sec. 8 and the W ½ N.E. ¼ Sec. 8, Twp. 6S R7W be thrown into market for sale and settlement.
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
   
Grand Ronde
    Jan. 1st 1866
Mr. Amos Harvey
    Indian Agent Grand Ronde Reservation
        Sir
            There is a small strip of land lying joining and between lands that I own and have interests in which are within the bounds of your reservation and of no practicable benefit to said reservation as will be seen by reference to the map herewith enclosed, which I would ask that you you recommend the removal of the restrictions that now exist upon lands lying west of said reservation line so far as forty acres off of the south end of said land is concerned.
A. D. Babcock
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 233-237.




Corvallis Jan. 3rd 1866.
Sir
    I was informed on the 30th of last month that a number of persons had entered upon the Siletz Reservation in the vicinity of Yaquina Bay for the purpose of taking land claims.
    I made a requisition upon Lieut. Dunbar, comdg. detachment at Siletz Blockhouse, for assistance to remove all persons from the reservation who were there in violation of law. He very promptly complied and proceeded forthwith with a detachment of men under his command to the locality above mentioned. I accompanied him myself and found when arriving at the place designated that a number of persons were there and that they had erected houses &c., claiming the land. I directed their buildings to be destroyed and that all such persons be removed from the reservation immediately, which was promptly complied with.
    I would most respectfully submit the foregoing and ask for further instruction.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 122.



(Telegram)
Salem Oregon Jany. 4th 1866
D. A. Cooley
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
    Yours received. What shall be done with government buildings property and Indians upon part of reservation relieved. Shall they be permitted to remain. Trouble apprehended.
J. W. Perit Huntington
Charges $31.31 coin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 767.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jany. 5th 1866
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 3rd instant advising this office of recent transactions upon the Coast Reservation upon and in the vicinity of Yaquina Bay and asking further instructions in the matter.
    In reply I have to say that a telegraphic dispatch dated 24th Dec. 1865 was received at this office on the 3rd instant from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as follows.
    "The President has relieved from reservation the following boundary. Commencing at a point two miles south of the Siletz Agency, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, thence south along said ocean to the mouth of the Alsea River, thence up said river to the eastern boundary of the reservation, thence north along said eastern boundary to a point due east of the place of beginning, thence west to the place of beginning."
    No further official intelligence upon the subject has been received, but I learn that private dispatches from Washington of similar tenor were [received] some days earlier.
    Of course so brief and indefinite a dispatch is insufficient for complete guidance in the matter, but as it clearly indicates the intention of the government to give the land included in the boundaries named to settlers, upon some terms or other, it may properly be construed as suspending previous instructions as to expulsion of squatters. I therefore direct that you do not (unless otherwise instructed) interfere with any person settling upon said tract so long as they obey the intercourse laws and conduct themselves properly.
    I refer you particularly to the acts of Congress approved June 30th, 1834, March 3rd 1847, Feby. 13th 1862 and March 15th 1865 and to the "Revised Regulations."
    The lands on the western slope of the Coast Mountains as you are aware are unpurchased Indian country, the title to the same being vested in the Indians. Of course settlers going there do so at their own hazard, and you will not assume to give them any right of domain; therefore, in view of the implied intention of the government above alluded to, you will not interfere with orderly persons. Those who undertake to interfere with your jurisdiction over the Indians or your control of the government property--to introduce liquor or debauch or demoralize the Indians--you will arrest without delay or mercy. (See Sec. 23, Act 30th June 1834, Sec. 2, Act 18th August 1853, Sec. 2, Act 12th June 1858 and acts previously cited.) No tolerance or countenance will be given to the class of persons whom those laws are designed to reach.
    The instructions contained in this letter are given temporarily, merely for your guidance until further intelligence can reach this office from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. I shall communicate with the Commissioner by telegraph further upon this subject as soon as the line is again up, and by letter also. The replies I receive may modify materially, or totally change, the policy and action of this Superintendency.
    I merely accept the Commissioner's dispatch as a brief expression of the intention of the government to finally adopt the course repeatedly recommended by me in my reports and correspondence.
    Bearing this carefully in mind, you are expected to carry out your instructions promptly and in good faith. Whatever additional information comes here will be promptly transmitted to you.
    In the meantime I hope to have frequent and full information upon affairs as they transpire.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz Agency, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 767-768.



THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH CO.
Salem Oregon Jan. 8th 1866
Received at Washington Jan. 13th
    To D. N. Cooley
Yours recd. What shall be done with government buildings, property & Indians upon part of reservation. Relieved Agent Simpson is here, reports great influx of settlers, that they be permitted to remain. Trouble apprehended.
W. P. Huntington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 70-72.



Siletz Agency Jan. 8th 1866
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 5th inst. in which the following is communicated. "The President has relieved from the reservation the following boundary commencing at a point two miles south of Siletz Agency thence west to the Pacific Ocean thence south along said ocean to the mouth of the Alsea River thence up said river to the eastern boundary of the reservation thence north along said eastern boundary to a point due east of the place of beginning thence west to the place of beginning."
    You also direct that I do not interfere with persons settling upon said tract so long as they obey the intercourse law.
    I have here to state that quite a number of Indians under my charge are already occupying the tract of country above described. They were located there by me some [blank] years ago, since which time many of them have erected houses and opened fields, feeling themselves permanently located. Soon after the news was received that it was opened to white settlement quite a large number of persons were on the ground, cutting timber and erecting houses. This I assure you created no little excitement among the Indians; some them were in favor of fighting for their rights, while others called upon me for protection, referring me to my past promises that no part of their country should be taken away from them without their consent. I explained the matter to them in the most favorable light possible; I told [them] that their great Father at Washington was not aware that any of them occupied that portion of the reservation. This fails however to give satisfaction. They say that their country was taken from them before without compensation and that the Coast Reservation was given in lieu of it. Now that is to be taken and that it would be better for them to die rather than give it up. They can be forced to submit, but will it be good policy to do it without some kind of compensation. It is the character of an Indian to retaliate and to seek secret revenge when he considers himself wronged, and in this case unfortunately the arguments are all in his favor.
    I would therefore most respectfully suggest the propriety of making some compensation to them. By that means their confidence and good will can be retained and they will feel more encouraged and better satisfied to go on and make permanent improvements upon that portion of the reservation which is retained to them.
    I would most respectfully submit the foregoing and await further instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 133.



[Telegram]
Washington Jan. 15th 1866
C. H. [sic] Huntington Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem
Retain possession of the public buildings and property. Letter by mail.
D. N. Cooley
    by W. S. Line to Atkinson 19th
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 139.



(Telegram)
Salem Oregon Jany. 16th 1866
D. N. Cooley
        Commr. Indian Affairs
    Whites are seizing farms and horses of Indians on relieved part of Coast Reservation. What shall be done.
J. W. Perit Huntington
Charge 18 words $17.72 coin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 771.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 73-74.



[Telegram]
Washington Jan. 17th 1866
J. W. [sic] Huntington
    Salem
Probably error in telegram reciting boundaries receiving [sic] from reservation. No homes or farms released. Protect all Indians and government property.
D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        By W. S. Line to Atkinson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 140.



Grand Ronde Ind. Agency
    January 20th 1866
Sir
    The rest of the money stipulated by treaty for employment of farmer for the Indians at this agency was expended in 4th quarter of last year.
    As the government stock &c. requires the constant care and attention of some competent person I have detailed the teacher of the Umpqua day school for that purpose, and his time thus far has been taken up in attending to the stock &c. and rebuilding fences, all of which have been blown down twice by the fearful storms that we have had this winter.
    As the spring work will soon commence the Indians will need some competent person to superintend and instruct them in properly putting in their grain and gardens--and also to see that when in they take proper care of the same. I do not see how we can dispense with his services, for a farmer is needed not only to raise grain &c. for seed, the government stock &c. but also to provide food for a number of old and infirm Indians that are unable to procure food for themselves and must be fed by the Department or starve.
    I believe that the assistance and instruction that in that position he could give would be of more benefit to them than any instruction he would be able to impart to the few scholars that would attend the school, for the most of them will attend the manual labor school here in preference to the day school.
    I have conversed with the Indians with whom the treaty was made, and they all prefer that the teacher should teach them farming rather than reading, writing &c., believing as they do that they will have to depend upon their farms for a living rather than on their brains.
    I would therefore earnestly recommend that I be instructed to continue him in that position instead of in the schoolroom until further arrangements can be made.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 145.



Ashland Mills Oregon January 20th 1866
Sir
    Arriving at Fort Klamath, I immediately made inquiry and observations in regard to the condition of the Indians.
    The Klamaths, although they clamored loudly for flour, I found had laid up an ample supply of dried fish &c. for the winter. Considering it good policy however in order to maintain among them as good a state of feeling as possible toward the government I made some issues of flour to the chiefs.
    Seeing Paulina on the 25th ultimo, he informed me that but 22 of his people were with him on the reservation and that they were in a very destitute condition. He said that being doubtful about being subsisted by the government this winter the greater part of his people in opposition to his wishes had gone to pass the winter in that part of the country where his wife was taken prisoner in 1864, and that they had promised to join him on the reservation early in the spring.
    He said that it would be impossible to see his people this winter, as the snow had fallen on the mountains deeper than before for several years. He said he had a hope that he could induce Howluck and Weahwewa to come in and make peace, and promised to go and see them as soon as possible from the sinking of the snow, and find whether or no they would come in and make peace.
    Howluck, Paulina thinks, is wintering in Chewaucan Valley, and Weahwewa in the vicinity of Harney Lake.
    According to previous arrangement Paulina, together with all of his men who are wintering with him, arrived at Fort Klamath on the 28th ultimo. On that day I issued to them such an amount of flour and shorts as I calculated would subsist them for the remainder of the winter.
    There are but four men
with Paulina in Mo-shen-koska's country, the remainder of the 22 being women and children.
    If the treaties of October 15th 1864 and August 12th 1865 are ratified at the present session of Congress I apprehend no difficulty in maintaining a good state of feeling between the government and the Indians, and from what I can learn from Paulina as to the state of feeling among the Snakes, I believe that as soon as they see the government commencing to carry out the stipulations of the treaties, there will be no difficulty in treating with all the Snakes, but if the treaties are not ratified at the present session of Congress, and the necessary appropriations are not made to carry out the policy of the government as regards the Indians, I think it probable that the war will be continued and possibly on a larger scale, for even the Klamaths and Modocs are growing distrustful, and prompt action on the part of the government is necessary to inspire them with proper confidence in it.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon
        Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 144.



Ashland Mills, Oregon
    January 20th 1866
Sir,
    In the matter of the Modocs leaving their country and of their deposing their high chief, I have learned but little.
    I think, however, that they are regretting their move, as they left word for me at Link River that they wanted to see and talk with me.
    I sent word to them to send in some of their principal men to Ashland to talk with me, as I could not conveniently come in via Butte Creek Valley and see them.
    From what I was told by Indians who had seen and talked with the Modocs, I am satisfied that in the event of the ratification of the treaty of October 15th 1864 they would willingly come onto the reservation and acknowledge the authority of their old Chief Schonchin (Sun-cin-ches).
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon
        Salem, Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 143.



(Telegram)
Salem Oregon Jany. 22nd 1866
Senator Nesmith
    Chairman Committee Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
    The action at Yaquina Bay is disastrous. We implore that appropriation be made to treat with and remove all Indians to north of Siletz immediately. See Huntington's letter of twelfth of December sixty-four.
B. Simpson
J. W. Perit Huntington
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 771.



(Telegram)
Salem Jany. 30th 1866
Lindsay Applegate
    Sub-Agent
        Ashland
    Can you come here right away. Do so if possible.
J. W. Perit Huntington
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, page 771.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 6th 1866
Sir
    With reference to your letter of 1st December last concerning affairs of late Sub-Agent Amos E. Rogers, I have to say that his accounts for 1st quarter 1864, though marked "copy," really should have been marked "duplicates" or "substitutes."
    Sub-Agent Rogers' accounts for that quarter having been delayed beyond the proper time, and his attention called to the neglect, he informed this office that the accounts had been properly sent in the mail, and that to its failure was the non-arrival due. I immediately directed him to make out the same account, which he did and forwarded to this office, accompanied by an affidavit which is on file here, stating the fact of the loss. The accounts and vouchers are all signed by the parties whose names appear, and I have no doubt the signatures are all genuine as was stated by Mr. Rogers, but the error was committed, by him, of marking the papers "copies," whereas they were merely original duplicates.
    Your letter of June 16th 1865 reached here when I was absent in the Klamath Lake country, and in clearing up the large amount of accumulated office work which had accrued during my long absence it was overlooked. This is the reason of the neglect to answer it.
    Mr. Rogers now resides at Umatilla Landing, about forty miles from the Umatilla Agency. He is not in the employ of the government in any way. I called upon him in person again in September last, to refund the money to the credit of the United States in his hand but he has up to this time failed to do so. The Department property in his possession (the value of which was very small) was turned over to me in May 1865, and has since been transferred to Sub-Agent Lindsay Applegate.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
J. W. Perit Huntington [sic]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 138-139.



Ashland Mills Oregon
    March 10th 1866
Sir
    You will please find enclosed oath of allegiance in triplicate taken by Oliver C. Applegate before entering upon his duties as interpreter for this sub-agency, which I hope you will find correct.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon
        Salem, Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 171.



United States Telegraph Company.
Mch. 14 1866
    Ashland Oregon
Senator G. H. Williams
    Please urge ratification of Klamath treaty. Indians becoming disaffected.
Lindsay Applegate
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 333-334.




Ashland Mills, Oregon, March 19th 1866.
Sir,
    Having been quite unwell since my return from Salem I have not been around in the valley much, but nevertheless sufficiently to find that owing to the severity of the winter work cattle are in very poor condition, and considering that there is not feed sufficient in the Klamath country to support a working team of poor cattle, and may not be for a month or more, I feel very doubtful about being able to put in much of a crop there this spring, unless it be of potatoes or of something of that kind.
    Having thought on the matter considerably, I am impressed with the idea that a crop of potatoes would better repay perhaps than to attempt the putting in of grain there this spring.
    Before purchasing the team and necessary outfit, I have thought it well to receive your advice on the matter and hence await your instructions.

Your obedient servant
    Lindsay Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        in Oregon    Salem.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 176.



Ashland Mills, Oregon, April 4th 1866.
Sir
    There are a few straggling Indians reported to be somewhere in Josephine County, as also some near Jacksonville, on Jackson Creek. These Indians are said to be squaws, without exception, and several of them are said to have families of half-blood children.
    Upon Rogue River near Flounce Rock there are 13 Indians--two boys and the remainder women and children. These Indians are said to be under the influence of two white men, who it is said hold some 4 or 5 each of the squaws as concubines.
    I desire instruction in regard to the course to be pursued with these stragglers. Those on Rogue River at least I think should be taken onto the reservation, and if it is true in regard to the system of concubinage practiced there I think those harems should be broken up.
Your obedient servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 184.




Dalles April 7th 1866
Sir
    Your letter of March 19th 1866 reached Salem after I had left and was forwarded to me at this place. I regret that your ill health continues but trust it will not prevent you from getting in a crop upon the Klamath Reservation this spring. It is of the utmost importance that a few agricultural products be raised there this year, not as much for the value thereof as to give the Indians some tangible evidence that we intend to fulfill some of the promises made to them.
    I do not undertake to decide whether it is best to sow grain or plant vegetables. These are matters which are necessarily left to your discretion and you must exercise it. I may remark, however, that the experience of the reservations shows that, in a region subject to severe frosts as the Klamath country is, potatoes are a precarious crop. Carrots, turnips and cabbage are more hardy and more prolific. Carrots are especially adapted to such a climate. Of grain I think it very doubtful if you can grow wheat at this late season, but oats or barley, particularly the former, may prove successful. All farming operations at Klamath are necessarily experiments, and they should be prosecuted this year, even if limited to small extent, not only for the reasons mentioned above but to determine for future guidance what crops can be most profitably raised.
    You should endeavor by all means to get in as large an extent of crops as the limited means in your hands will permit, and I direct that you make other operations and affairs of your agency subservient to that end.
    Full report will be expected from you often of your operations, and specification concerning the crops raised, the success of each, and your opinion derived from experience as to what should be raised in future are desired.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
        Ashland Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 5-6.



Hd. Qrs. Fort Klamath Ogn.
    April 24th 1866
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that a messenger from the camp of "Mo-shen-koska" has just brought information of the sudden departure two days ago of the chief "Paulina" and all his people for the Snake country.
    The messenger reports that they left in obedience to a summons from "Howluck," who has declared that, in consequence of the killing of a number of his people a short time ago near Surprise Valley by the California troops, he is now very angry and determined to take the war path for revenge.
    I will learn more if I can and write you again on the subject. I send a copy of this to Mr. Applegate.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            W. V. Rinehart
                Major 1st Oregon Infy.
                    Comdg. Post
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 202.



Headquarters Fort Klamath Ogn.
    May 3rd 1866
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
Sir
    Since writing you of the sudden departure of "Paulina" and his people from the reservation I have ascertained from "Mo-shen-koska" and "La Lake" that he left without having mentioned such intention to either of them. "Mo-shen-koska" was at this post when "Paulina" left his lodge. One of Mo-shen-koska's men asked "Paulina" where he was going. After repeating the question several times, and telling him if he left without.saying where he was going "
Mo-shen-koska" would be angry, he replied, "Why do you ask me that. Why do you watch me. I don't intend to leave. I don't want you to ask me where I am going. I intend to stay here. It is my home. Who told you I was going far off and who are you going to tell. I don't want to go far away. I am going a little way off to hunt for deer. I want you to catch plenty of fish, for I may want some when I come back." He was asked when he would come back. He laughed a great deal and replied, "Perhaps before cold weather." He then left.
    "Giltawa" (one-eyed) Indian and another of "Paulina's" men had been gone and returned the day before "Paulina" left. "Giltawa" told "Sharpy" (Mr. Pengra's interpreter) that he had seen "Howluck," and that he (Howluck) was on the war path, that Capt. Kelly had killed one of his people while Mr. Huntington had sent an Indian with a pass to ask him to come in and be friends. (It was explained that while the pass was for only twelve days, the killing occurred more than twenty days after the pass was given.) He said the friends of the man killed had stolen many cattle and horses since his death. Soldiers had followed them and killed seven of his men, six women and all their children and taken back all the stolen stock and nearly all the Indian horses they had. He knew "
Mo-shen-koska" well, and if he came out to his country with soldiers he would fight him and all the Klamaths the same as white men.
    Two men were sent out by "
Mo-shen-koska" to ascertain where "Paulina" had gone. They went to Summer Lake, then to Silver Lake and found no Indians, but saw one fire far northward toward Deschutes River. They saw to think from tracks and signs found that he has gone to the vicinity on Deschutes where you captured his family and killed those Indians.
    The Klamath chiefs agree unanimously that he has broken the treaty and deceived them and that he has gone not to return.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            W. V. Rinehart
                Major 1st Ogn. Infy.
                    Comdg. the Post
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 209.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon May 5, 1866
Sir
    I enclose herewith three copies of a photograph of Pauline (Pau-lý-nee), chief of the Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snake Indians, and one of the fiercest and most warlike Indians ever known on the Pacific Coast. The likeness was taken at Fort Klamath and is an excellent one.
    I suggest the propriety of authority being given to me to have similar likenesses taken of noted members of the various tribes, the cost of the same being paid out of the fund for incidental expenses.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 186-187.



Corvallis, Benton Cty. Oregon
    May 6th 1866.
Sir
    I would respectfully call your attention to the balance due me on salary as U.S. Indian agent, which the Department has thus far overlooked or entirely ignored.
    In consequence of a personal difficulty existing between myself and W. H. Rector, Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon, and in the exercise of his prerogative, my duties as agent at the Siletz Agency were suspended, and in pursuance of orders from Supt. Rector dated Oct. 10th 1862 I turned over Indian Dept. funds and property to Agt. James B. Condon on Oct. 16th 1862 and was relieved, or suspended, from active duty until the Department at Washington should act in [the] matter. It seems from the records and official papers on file in [the] Supt.'s office of Oregon that the Department took no official notice of the matter until on or about the 28th day of April 1863, under which date Hon. W. P. Dole, Commr., informs the Supt. of Oregon "that Agent Biddle has been removed and that no further funds will be placed in his hands &c. &c."
    Now during all this time I was kept in a state of suspense and expecting to be assigned to active duty. It certainly was not my fault if I was kept idle all this time. I was prevented from attending to any private business, for I could not tell what day I might be called to active duty. I was led to believe that this relief from duty was only temporary, and it will be nothing more than justice that I should receive salary up to the time, at least, that the Dept. notified the Supt. of Oregon of my removal--which was 28th day of April 1863.
    If my claim is valid, I am entitled to wages as Indian agent from Octr. 17th A.D. 1862 to April 28th 1863 inclusive, at the rate of $1500.00 per annum, which amounts to $797.26. This amount is just and correct, and one which I hope the Department will award to me, as both legally & morally right.
    I will here state that my accounts are all in and settled--if my last letter reached the Treasury Dept.--with the exception of $1.00 which seems to be a balance against me for not accounting for six tin cups.
    I have not pressed this matter upon the Dept. on account of our national troubles, and would not now--if I did not believe that my claim was just & right.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        B. R. Biddle
            Late Ind. Agt. Siletz Agency
To
    Hon. D. N. Cooley, Commr. In. Affairs
        Washington,
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frame 337.




Grand Ronde Ind. Agency
    May the 14th 1866
Sir
    At the request of the chiefs and principal men of the tribes under my charge I write to you to ask the privilege of buying a threshing machine to thresh the grain on this agency. They have heretofore had their grain threshed by machines owned by men outside and have had to wait until all their grain was ripe before a machine would come in, consequently when the season was wet much of the grain was injured before the balance was fit to thresh.
    They will have this season from six to eight thousand bushels to thresh, which at eight cents per bus. (in coin) the common price will cost from four hundred and eighty to six hundred and forty dollars to thresh.
    A machine and separator will cost six hundred dollars (in coin). Many of these Indians have assisted farming with their machines and are entirely competent to manage and own one, and they have teams amply sufficient.
    The grain on this agency ripens from the first of August to the first of October. By having a machine it could all be saved in good order at no greater expense to the Indians than to hire it threshed, and then they would have a machine. I hope therefore you will direct me to purchase one in time for this coming crop.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient [servant]
        Amos Harvey
            Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 208.



Fort Klamath, Oregon
    May 19th 1866
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following in regard to progress in furtherance of the colonization of the Indians in this sub-agency.
    Having procured four yoke of young likely oxen, a wagon, a plow and what else I considered absolutely necessary, I left Ashland on the 1st instant and arrived at the prairie on the upper extremity of Klamath Lake, above Williamson River, where I am at present located, on the 12th instant.
    The location I have chosen for the putting in of a crop possesses many advantages which would be desirable in case permanent improvements are made, among them, aside from a very rich soil, are water, grass, stone and timber of the very best quality, in fact I am satisfied that as far as these things are concerned the location could scarcely be excelled.
    Up to the present time I have plowed some five acres in an exceedingly rich soil and have put in on it barley, oats and wheat. I yet design plowing 7 or 8 acres more and putting in, aside from some more grain, Indian corn, squashes, potatoes, carrots, artichokes [presumably Jerusalem artichokes] &c.
    About the 1st of May I had put in on Williamson's River a large variety of garden vegetables as well as a small amount of wheat. At any rate I shall be able by the close of the summer, undoubtedly, from what I have already done and propose to do, to test the suitableness of the climate and soil to the production of a large range of garden vegetables and cereals.
    The Indians I find rejoiced at my coming and [are] willing and able to work, and by moderate issues of shorts to use while laboring, I have induced them to build a fence from the lake to the south to the summit of the mountain on the east of my present location. I also design having them to do some fencing above, so as to effectually prevent the intrusion of animals onto the prairie from any side.
    I have exceeded my most sanguine expectations in regard to the employment of the Indians in work, and now have some of them engaged in cutting logs for a cabin or two, which I have thought it well to construct here for comfort of anyone who may necessarily be here, as well as for the storage of articles which it may be necessary to shield from the weather.
    Before leaving the valley, I employed a man to drive the team, assist in plowing & considering it an absolute necessary and he, myself and my interpreter are are laboring on the reservation [sic].
    I think by leaving a man here, after putting in what spring crop I am able to put in, a considerable amount of land could be broken for fall sowing. The Indians would be all the assistance required.
    I should be happy to be governed in my proceedings here by your judgment and hence am desirous that you advise and instruct as to the future course to be pursued.
Very respectfully
    Lindsay Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Superintendent of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 219.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon May 26th 1866
Sir
    Wappata has just arrived with your letter to Mr. Shaw, and the message concerning the escaped convict who is now lurking among the Indians at your agency. He did not escape from the Penitentiary, but from the Portland jail. His offense was for cutting a man very badly at the Cascades two years ago.
    I am astonished that you have not arrested the man at once instead of permitting him to remain among the Indians. Upon receipt of this you will immediately cause the man to be arrested, using for this purpose the employees, Indians, or calling upon the military, as in your judgment is best and putting sufficient irons upon the man to make his escape impossible. Send him to this place with a guard. He is a desperate character and will need energetic treatment to deliver him to the authorities. If the military authorities cannot furnish you sufficient force to capture and guard him, you will detail a part or all of the employees for that service. The Indian reservation must not be made a harbor for escaped convicts or any other fugitive from justice.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Amos Harvey
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 13.



Klamath Agency May 30th 1866
Sir
    Upon my arrival here on the 12th instant, I at once made diligent inquiry among the Indians in regard to "Paulina's" departure, to elicit if possible some reason for his leaving--to ascertain if possible whether he went away with hostile designs or merely to carry out his promise in influencing the chiefs Howluck and Weahwewa to come in and make peace.
    "Paulina," the Indians say, did not expressly tell them that he was bent on war but that his conduct directly previous to and his departure in a clandestine manner led them to believe that his design was to unite his forces with Howluck's against the whites.
    On the 21st instant a large number of the Klamaths brought here a Snake whom they had taken prisoner up on Sprague River by making smokes and thus decoying him into their hands.
    Before going to the fort the Indian said as it was interpreted that he was of those of Paulina's people left near Silver Lake last fall and that before going Paulina with all those left there he had come onto the reservation to hunt him up but could not find him--knew not whither he had gone.
    On the 22nd having gone to Fort Klamath to have a talk with the Indian his story was in direct contradiction with the first, as he said that Paulina together with Weahwewa had gone to see "Howluck" in regard to the course to be pursued by the Snakes whether to make peace or join in a more desperate war against the whites. The idea he designed to convey was that "Paulina" was zealously working for peace, but the contradiction in his story and his bringing up the killing of a Snake last summer and the massacre of some women and children in the northern or eastern part of Howluck's country during the talk as cause for revenge on the part of the Snakes conveyed a contrary idea from what he evidently intended.
    It is altogether probable in my estimation that the Snakes will all unite for a desperate war against the whites this summer and are now embodying for that purpose.
    The Klamaths are fearful lest the Snakes make a raid into this country and run off their horses, and a constant watch is kept up on Sprague River.
    Maj. Rinehart will no doubt station some troops in the Sprague River or Silver Lake country the better to guard against invasion by the Snakes for horse stealing or other purpose, as after consideration of the matter we here conjointly decided that such would be a proper course.
    Mo-shen-koska has in his keeping a paper from me warning travelers not to enter the Snake country unless well-prepared for defense.
    Mo-shen-koska, having considerable influence with the Snakes, he yet hopes to induce them to give up war and proposes to see Howluck in person if it is possible for him to do it and see what effect his argument will have on him. He is watching closely for the Snakes, and what information he can gain will be communicated to me at once, or in my absence to Major Rinehart.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 2.



(Telegram)
(Salem May 30th 1866)
James Harlan
    Secty. of the Interior
        Washington D.C.
    Orders from War Department to muster out all volunteer troops are received. This will leave Siletz Alsea Yamhill Lapwai and Umatilla without military protection and an Indian war will be inevitable. Can it be countermanded. Consult Williams and Nesmith.
J. W. Perit Huntington
Supt. Indian Affrs. in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 13,




(Telegram)
Salem May 30th 1866
Maj. Genl. Steele
    Fort Vancouver
    It is reported that Siletz Blockhouse is abandoned. Such action is disastrous to Indian Department and I ask suspension until further communication can be had.
J. W. Perit Huntington
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 13,



[Telegram]
Vancouver May 30th 1866
    31st @ :40 a.m.
To
    J. W. P. Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Salem
    Troops at Siletz Blockhouse are ordered in to be mustered out. I will suspend the execution of the order. Please send information to that effect to commander at Siletz.
F. Steele Maj. Genl.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 22; Letters Received, 1865-1866, No. 223.



Klamath Agency
    Fort Klamath, Oregon June 4th 1866
Sir,
    On the 31st of May I completed what work I had designed doing here unless further instructed and will leave here for Ashland as soon as I can arrange things for my departure.
    I have put on sixteen acres of the finest land it has ever been my pleasure to cultivate. Seven acres in wheat, oats, bearded and bald barley, seven in corn and beans and two acres in potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, artichokes and onions.
    By the number of varieties of cereals and garden vegetables that I have sown or planted can be satisfactorily determined the practicability of raising subsistence for the Indians here.
    It is certainly too late to put in any more seeds than I have already put in here this season, or the early autumn frosts would destroy the vegetables before they could reach maturity; plowing I think, however, might be continued a month or so longer.
    In a communication written some time since I spoke of the practicability of continuing the plowing for a fall crop, but in my opinion sufficient plowing could be done in the fall to make in connection with that already plowed a sufficiently large piece of ground for a fall crop of grain.
    If there were sufficient funds on hand to defray the expense I believe it would be well to keep some man here to care for the crop properly, and in such case he could continue to plow some, by the assistance of the Indians, whenever the ground be in condition.
    I am aware that there are but little funds on hand for further operations, and from the fact of this scarcity I have been as saving as circumstances [omission] have myself, together with the interpreter, performed most of the labor here, and having purchased only what was absolutely necessary to comfort and convenience while here.
    The ground which I have planted here is a mellow sandy loam and germinates seeds in as short [a] time as I ever knew soil to do. Grain sown on the 18th and 19th of May is up 3 inches high and looking exceedingly well. Indian corn planted as late as the 29th of May is up finely.
    All of the vegetables planted about the 1st of May at Williamson's River are up and looking very well. The corn was cut down by frost about the 20th of May but is now growing again, and since that time there has not been sufficient frost to hurt it. I think it is far safer to put in corn and such tender vegetables as late at least as May 15th or 20th, at any rate if the spring be as late as this.
    The Indians have continued their labors until they have enclosed with a good substantial brush and log fence about 1000 acres of land, two-thirds suitable for cultivation. I have continued to issue shorts to them while laboring.
    We have constructed in the vicinity of the field a good substantial log house 16 feet square floored with lumber and having a floored loft. This will afford comfort to persons when necessarily here as also some room for storage.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 9.



Department of the Interior
    Washington D.C. June 8, 1866
Sir
    For your information I herewith transmit copies of telegrams addressed to this Department from the office of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon in regard to the mustering out of troops in that territory, and my reply thereto.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            W. T. Otto
                Acting Secretary
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commr. of
        Indian Affairs
   

Telegram
United States Telegraph Company
    Salem, Oregon, May 31st 1866.
Jas. Harlan,
    Secretary of the Interior,
        Orders from War Dept. to muster out all volunteer troops are received; this will leave Siletz, Alsea, Yamhill, Lapwai, Umatilla without military protection, and an Indian war will be inevitable; can it be countermanded? Consult Williams and Nesmith.
J. H. Hewitt
   
Telegram
Department of the Interior,
    Washington D.C. June 7th 1866.
J. W. P. Huntington,
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs,
        Salem,
            Oregon.
                Your telegram has been received. The Secretary of War ordered Gen. Halleck to use his discretion in regard to mustering out troops in Oregon and to confer with you on the subject.
W. T. Otto
    Acting Secretary.
Charge
    Department of the Interior,
        W. Penn Clarke,
            Chief Clerk.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 302-306.



Senate Chamber
    June 9th 1866
Sir
    Enclosed please find communication to you from B. R. Biddle, late Indian agent at Siletz Agency in Oregon.
    This communication accompanied one to me from Mr. Biddle in which he repeats substantially what the enclosed letter contains & says that his claim for unpaid salary is just.
    I submit the matter to you expressing the hope that you will find it consistent with public duty to pay Mr. Biddle what he claims.
    I have always believed that he was wrongfully removed from office.
    I presume that my colleague would concur with me in opinion upon this subject.
Yours truly
    Geo. H. Williams
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Comr. Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 335-336.




Steamer Constitution
    June 19th 1866
Sir
    Your letter inquiring about the claim of your late brother J. M. Anderson for beef issued to Indians by the quartermaster at Fort Klamath reached me at Salem too late for answer. I had previously answered a similar letter but infer from the tone of yours that my answer never reached you.
    Senator Nesmith brought me no instructions or information concerning the claim, nor have I received any instructions to pay the same.
    The matter was referred to me by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for examination, and copies of the vouchers furnished me. I referred to Capt. Kelly and others for information and found that certain beef was furnished by your brother (under contract) to the quartermaster at Fort Klamath, that a part of the beef so furnished was issued by order of Capt. Kelly to Indians, and a portion of that so issued was paid for out of quartermaster funds, while for the remainder certified vouchers were issued by the quartermaster and constitute the basis of the claim now in question. They have been presented as I understand to the chief quartermaster at San Francisco and payment refused, and now it is desired that the Indian Department assume and pay them. The claim is in no sense valid as against the Indian Department, because the beef was not purchased by any officer of the Department nor upon his order or by his request, was never in possession of any such officer, and no such officer had any cognizance of the purchase until many months after it was made and the beef issued and consumed. It is valid as against the quartermaster department if regularly contracted and certified, and to that department you should apply for payment.
    I am now on my way to Washington, and while there will call the attention of the proper department to the claim, and will take pleasure in assisting you as far as I can to collect the money.
    If you wish to communicate with me while there, address letters to Norwich Connecticut.
Very respectfully
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
E. K. Anderson Esq.
    Jacksonville
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 41.



Headquarters Fort Klamath
    July 2nd 1866.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to report, for your information, that I have arrested two of the signers of your treaty of the 12th of August, and have them now confined in the guardhouse at this post. They were brought in by the Klamaths, in accordance with instructions issued to the chiefs at the time Paulina left the reservation. These instructions were to the effect that no Snake Indians should be permitted to visit any part of the reservation without coming, or being brought, to these headquarters. Twice before Snake emissaries have been brought in and interrogated here and then permitted to depart, with the understanding that they desired to return soon with their families to live on the reservation. I have failed to elicit any valuable information from any of these spies. My former opinion, that Paulina intended to disregard the treaty, has now deepened into a conviction. In accordance with this conviction I have determined that the interests of the government demand a speedy breaking up of the traffic and intercourse between the Snakes and Klamaths. In the effort to accomplish this, I have the assurance of valuable assistance from all the Klamaths except Mo-shen-koska, who will be closely watched by the other chiefs.
    One of the prisoners is named "Giltewa" and is blind in one eye. The name of the other is unknown to me, but he says he signed the treaty.
    I have to request that any recommendations you have to make with regard to the disposition to be made of these prisoners may be forwarded through the headquarters of this military department at Fort Vancouver for endorsement by the maj. genl. commanding.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        W. V. Rinehart
            Maj. 1st Oregon Infy. Comdg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 26.



Department of the Interior.
    Washington D.C. July 6, 1866
Sir
    I transmit herewith the treaty with the Klamath and Modoc tribes and Yahooskin band of Snake Indians, of the 14th Oct. 1864, together with a resolution of the Senate of July 2, 1866, advising and consenting to the ratification of the same, with certain amendments, which amendments, if that course cannot otherwise be avoided, you will submit to the Indians interested for their acceptance.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        W. T. Otto
            Acting Secretary
The Commr. of
    Indian Affairs.
   

    Whereas the Senate of the United States in executive session did on the second day of July A.D. 1866 advise and consent to the ratification of the articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Klamath Lake, Oregon, on the 14th day of October A.D. 1864 by the commissioners on the part of the United States and the Klamath and Modoc tribes and Yahooskin band of Snake Indians with the following
Amendments
    1st--Article 1, paragraph 3, line 3, strike out the word "guaranteed" and insert in lieu thereof the word and
    3rd [sic]--Same paragraph, line 7, strike out the word "guaranteed" and insert in lieu thereof the word reserved so that said paragraph of said 1st article as amended by the Senate will read as follows, viz:
    "It is further stipulated and agreed that no white person shall be permitted to locate or remain upon the reservation except the Indian Superintendent and agent, employees of the Indian Department, and officers of the army of the United States, and that in case persons other than those specified are found upon the reservation they shall be immediately expelled therefrom, and the exclusive right of taking fish, in the streams and lakes included in said reservation, and of gathering edible roots, seeds and berries within its limits is hereby secured to the Indians aforesaid, provided also that the right of way for public roads and said roads across said reservation is reserved to citizens of the United States."
    And whereas the foregoing amendments have been fully interpreted and explained to the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the aforesaid Klamath and Modoc tribes and Yahooskin band of Snake Indians, we do hereby agree to and ratify the same.
    Done at [blank] on this
[blank] day of [blank] 1866.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 307-311.




Headquarters Fort Klamath Ogn.
    July 9th 1866.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
        Salem Ogn.
Sir
    In compliance with the instructions indicated in my communication of the 2nd instant the Klamaths arrested and brought to this post on yesterday another Snake, named "La-pa-k-u-git." They also informed me that there were three more Snake Indians near a small lake, from which a small stream flows southward entering Sprague a short distance above the council ground. They seemed to have fears lest these would suspect them of murdering the three Snakes now prisoners at this post and, in retaliation, steal into the vicinity of the marsh, where they are now preparing to gather wocus, and kill some of the Klamaths. To prevent such an occurrence I have sent ten Indians under "Blow" with "Giltewa" for guide to secure those three Snakes and bring them in as prisoners.
    My instructions to the Klamaths forbid them going beyond the limits of the reservation after Snake prisoners unless soldiers are with them. This has raised a question in regard to the northern boundary of the reservation.
    If you have a map of the reserve, I would be pleased to have a copy forwarded to these headquarters. If you have no map, you will please inform me in regard [to] the boundaries.
    Does the reserve include all of the country drained by Sprague River and its tributaries, and do you understand that there is a small lake east of the marsh and north of the council ground, which is within the limits of the reserve? I have not so understood the boundaries, but the Klamaths agree in claiming this small lake. They say it is a half day's ride (say twenty miles) south of Silver Lake, and about an equal distance north from the council ground.
    Copies of all my official letters to you are sent to Department H.Q. and to Mr. Applegate, sub-Indian agent.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            W. V. Rinehart
                Maj. 1st Oregon Infy.
                    Comdg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 33.



Siletz Agency
    July 10th 1866
Sir
    On the 4th inst. some fifteen or twenty Indians belonging to this agency were intoxicated at the mouth of the Yaquina Bay, which created considerable excitement. Being informed of the fact I proceeded immediately to the point referred to and had two men arrested who I was informed had let them have whisky. I succeeded in getting them committed to jail or bound for their appearance in court at the ensuing term in Benton County. From present indications I am of the impression that in order to keep the Indians on the reservation and force obedience to regulations in the absence of soldiers, I shall be compelled to increase the number of employees & I would therefore most respectfully ask to be instructed immediately upon this subject.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 28.



H. Qrs. Fort Klamath Oregon
    July 12th 1866
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
            Sir:
                A messenger has just arrived from the detachment sent out to capture the Snake Indians. He informs me that they succeeded in capturing four men, two women and five children. The men are being brought to this post. The women and children will be left at Mo-shen-koska's on Sprague River.
    As Indian prisoners are not considered a desirable appendage at a military post I would suggest the propriety of having these seven sent to Siletz or Yamhill reservations until a permanent treaty can be effected with their tribe.
    The operations of the troops on the eastern borders of the Snake country will likely drive them into these parts, and I shall endeavor to catch as many as possible. Two large droves of cattle (nearly a thousand) have lately passed up Sprague River en route to the mines.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        W. V. Rinehart
            Maj. 1st. Ogn. Infy Comdg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 34.



Ashland Mills Oregon
    July 24th 1866
Sir,
    From all the information I have been able to gain upon the subject of Paulina's leaving the reservation and of the present state of feeling of the Snake Indians it seems sufficiently evident that their chief did leave the reservation with hostile intent and that those Indians are now far from harboring feelings of amity towards the whites.
    The universal belief among the Klamaths [is] that the Snakes are all for war. The withdrawing of Paulina and his people from the reservation and the return of some Snakes to clandestinely lurk around the limits of the reserve would seem evidence sufficient perhaps to justify the military authorities to take action on the matter.
    Major Wm. V. Rinehart, commanding Fort Klamath, has captured altogether and brought to Fort Klamath and placed under guard up to the 20th inst. about 16 Snake prisoners. They have been captured usually on the headwaters of Sprague River. Two have escaped from custody, and one was killed in attempting to escape. Thirteen women and thirty children are on the reservation with Mo-shen-koska's people, having left there by the capturing parties of soldiers and Klamath Indians. These women and children are those who belong to the prisoners at the fort.
    The war carried on farther north has probably driven these Snakes to seek refuge in this part of the country.
    Major Rinehart informs me that these prisoners are very desirous of seeing me. They may plead that they are noncombatants, that they thought they were on the reservation in pursuance of requirements of the treaty, and for these reasons may probably think that I will free them from custody.
    On account of the scarcity of subsistence at the fort, Major Rinehart has requested permission to place some of the prisoners on the reservation under such regulations as may be deemed proper for their safekeeping, stating it is his opinion that if four or five be kept under guard at the post that the remainder may be let out safely under the care of the Klamaths, having them report at the fort occasionally, say once a week.
    I have replied to this as follows: "The prisoners now in your keeping, being held as prisoners of war, or having been taken with belief that they were not disposed to be peaceable, are not hence fit subjects to be cared for by the Indian Department, and as I understand my instructions, I do not believe I would be justified in taking them upon the reservation and subsisting them, but good reason being shown I will allow their being placed on the reserve under the care of the Klamaths."
    I desire very much to be explicitly instructed in regard to the course to be pursued in the premises, but in the meantime will continue to act in this matter as in others pertaining to my duties as seems best calculated to promote the good being of the service, trusting to my endeavors in what seems to be the proper course for approval of my acts.
    The Klamaths are eager to vindicate their loyalty and would willingly become our allies in an invasion of the Snake domain, and they fully appreciate their duty in guarding the country from Snake invasion.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 66.



Corvallis, Ogn. July 28th 1866
Dr. Sir
    Your favor of June 20th is at hand, also the communication from Comr. Mix.
    I am fearful that I placed you in a delicate position before the Indn. Dept. in asking for money when I was indebted to them, and had not settled my accounts. I stated to you that I was due them one dollar.
    I have enclosed copy of my last correspondence with the 2nd Auditor for Treas. Dept. My statement to you was predicated upon those papers. I have received nothing from the Dept. that would change that statement. The enclosed papers will explain themselves. I presume they mean that my accounts are settled, setting forth certain differences. My letter to them will show that I adjusted that difference with the exception of one dollar for six tin cups.
I have furnished you these papers to relieve you from any embarrassment in the case. I hope this will be satisfactory. The Dept. has kept this matter before them for years, asking explanation after explanation, to which I have complied until I thought, as only one dollar separated us (taking it for granted that my last explanation was satisfactory), I could venture to present my little claim of salary without compromising my patriotism or entrenching upon modesty. Your prompt attention to this business has placed me under additional obligations to you, which I hope to have an opportunity of discharging.
    We are getting along quietly since the election. You have learned ere this that Benton [County] "stood by the flag." We fought hard and long; victory was our reward. The subject of U.S. Senator claims some attention, but there is no doubt that whoever he may be that he will have stamped upon his frontlet "the Union forever," and the endorsement of Congress.
    I don't think Johnson or the "National Union Party" will work any radical change here; those that stood by us in our sixth trouble will not desert us in the seventh.
    You & the friends of freedom & right have had to pass through a fiery ordeal; the times truly have tried men's souls--you have lost some by the way--the remainder are purer & better men for the trial.
    I see Nesmith has signed the call--"Let him alone, he is joined to his idols."
    Oregon's prospects were never brighter--health, peace & plenty--our harvest is abundant. The Yaquina Bay is opening up & improving rapidly. I am putting up a building at the mouth. Dr. Bayley has taken a claim there--the government has authorized a town site to be taken & surveyed. I have that an agt. of the govt. is now in S. Francisco on his way to survey the entrance and harbor of Yaquina Bay. This will tell what we have, or may expect from that source, as connected with the valley. We must have a railroad from that point to Corvallis, or we stand but a poor chance of accomplishing much in that direction.
    Hoping you are in the enjoyment of the blessings of life--particularly health--I remain
Respectfully
    Yours truly
        B. R. Biddle
Hon. Geo. H. Williams
    U.S. Senate
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 536-540.




Executive Office
    Salem, Oregon
        September 26th 1866.
Telegram recd. 9 p.m.
    Hon. Edwin M. Stanton
        Secretary of War.
            Hostile Indians are overrunning eastern Oregon. Department Columbia has not troops enough to furnish need. Regiment cannot be raised in time. Immediate protection must be given. Army Bill names one hundred Indian scouts for Oregon. No provision for officering them. Officers unacquainted with Indian character could do no good, and no officers here to spare if they could. Indians can be held. Shall I appoint officers, or will you. Or shall I call out five hundred volunteers for one year and officer them, and have them mustered into service United States?
    Give me instructions.
George L. Woods
    Gov. Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



War Department
    Washington City,
        September 27th 1866.
Telegram:
    Major General Halleck,
        Commanding &c.
            San Francisco.
    The accompanying telegram has just been received from the Governor of Oregon, and he has been referred to you. In respect to the Indian scouts, a telegram of the Adjutant General of the 1st of August authorized you to raise two hundred scouts to receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers. The Adjutant General states that it has not been the practice to officer such force, but attach it to other organizations. If, however, you think scout officers necessary, you are authorized to appoint them provisionally, forwarding the roster here for definite appointments.
    In respect to the volunteer force, there is no existing law authorizing it, but if you deem it necessary, upon receiving your report to that effect, authority will be given to call upon the Governor for such number as you may think necessary. Past experience teaches the Department rigidly to confine its authority to the responsible military commanders, for if the calls from state authorities are recognized, there can be no check or restraint. You will please therefore report fully by telegraph what you deem necessary to meet the exigencies in Oregon and what powers, if any, you need beyond those you already possess.
    The Adjutant General reports that you have raised one company of cavalry, and three hundred and fifty cavalry recruits will start from New York on Monday.
(signed) Edwin M. Stanton
    Secretary of War.
Sent 1:05 p.m.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Klamath Sub-Agency, September 30th 1866
Sir,
    In regard to affairs in this sub-agency for the present month, I have the honor to report as follows.
    On the 16th instant in company with the interpreter and a laborer I left Ashland for the Klamath Reservation, where I arrived on the 18th instant.
    The Klamath Indians I found had finished collecting "wocus" for winter consumption and as a general thing had commenced the erection of their winter habitations along Williamson River and the shore of the lake. They complain that although they commenced gathering wocus with more than usual preparation, having built many new canoes for the purpose, it proved an unusually small crop, and hence they have not been able to lay up much of a winter supply. This is another strong reason why the Department should not delay in making some provision for their subsistence through a portion of the winter at least, say through the months of January and February.
    The Klamaths showing a disposition to provide hay for their horses, I encouraged them and loaned them one of the scythes belonging to the Department, which they have constantly used since, and they have already put up quite a supply of hay for winter.
    I found that the farmer had cut a fine lot of hay, which has been put up and covered with a good roof of boards. There is hay of the finest quality amply sufficient in quality to winter the stock belonging to the Department, and perhaps another team if one should be purchased before winter, there being near 25 tons. The farmer has also busied himself in making rails, attending to the crop, taking care of the stock and in getting out material for another log house.
    Up to this time twelve acres of wheat have been put in on ground broken last spring, and I design putting in several acres more, in order to test thoroughly the suitableness of the climate and soil to produce fall grain.
    The crop as a whole exceeds my most sanguine expectations, everything except the corn and beans being rank, thrifty and flourishing. The latter I consider unsuited to the climate, but the former I think would do well if an early variety could be secured. I did not succeed in securing the seed of an early variety, and hence before quite mature--about the 20th instant--it was cut down by the frost, before which date I am sure some other varieties would have ripened. In regard to oats, wheat, bearded and bald barley, turnips, carrots, cabbages, beets, onions, potatoes, artichokes and peas, I must report that I never before saw such a yield on broken sod. The bald barley will I think yield more than 50 bushels to the acre, and many of the turnips are 30 inches in circumference. A small piece of spring wheat not quite mature yet stands upwards of six feet high and is remarkably heavy. Most of the grain, part of which on very dry land did not do well, has been cut, but not yet threshed.
    There are some Snake Indians on the reservation in Mo-shen-koska's country, in the care of that chief and his people. They are the same who were placed there by Maj. Rinehart by my permission. I understand that they desire to talk with me, and I have appointed the 3rd of October for a talk with them. I do not have confidence that they are disposed to be peaceable only so far as they think may bring them winter subsistence, and as they are a very treacherous race of beings I suspect that they have where they now are constant communication with war parties, and if required to come down nearer to the fort and the Lower Klamath Indians, so that their communication with Paulina would have to cease, they would possibly leave the reservation if they could make their escape.
    I am fearful lest Paulina make a raid into this section of the country, knowing as he does, no doubt, the condition of things. In fact I consider the danger of such an invasion imminent, and the stationing of at least another company at Fort Klamath an absolute necessity.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Ashland Mills, Oregon, October 11th 1866
Sir,
    In pursuance to previous understanding I met the headmen of the Snake Indians on the reservation, at the agency on the 3rd instant, to have a talk with them, Captain F. B. Sprague, commanding Fort Klamath, as also Lieut. Oatman being present.
    These Indians having been placed on the reservation by the military as prisoners of war and their loyalty being doubted since, I was of the opinion that I could not take control of them or positively promise them any winter subsistence without special instructions from your office, but as they wanted to talk I embraced the opportunity to learn all I could in regard to them and also assure them that by good behavior and convincing proof of their intention to remain faithful they might yet receive the benefits of the treaty, now ratified and made good, as also to ask of them to obey the commands or requests of Capt. Sprague, until I could be instructed in regard to my course in relation to them.
    Shas-took (a signer of the treaty), Enkailtoak and Wail-a-cho-ak appeared on the day specified, and assuring me of their friendship and of their intention to do anything I might require of them as proof of their loyalty, agreed positively to come without delay to council grove (where the Klamath treaty was made), having the privilege after arriving there from Capt. Sprague of hunting, fishing, collecting roots &c. until I could be instructed in regard to my course in relation to them.
    They gave the whole number of Snakes proper, then on the reservation, at 60 persons--16 men and 44 women and children--some of the men being signers of the Snake treaty, namely: Shas-took, We-ak-chau, She-zke, Sah-loo-loo-we and Now-hoop-a-cow-ick. Three of the signers of the treaty they said were dead.
    The night ensuing the headmen, eluding the vigilance of Mo-shen-kosha and his men, escaped to Sprague River Valley, and in the absence of the chief and his men took two of his horses and five guns belonging to his people, and with all the Snakes except a few men out hunting and 3 women out digging roots left the limits of the reservation, and a train of ten mules sent out by Capt. Sprague to transport their luggage down to council grove returned.
    Twenty Klamath Indians under sub-chiefs "Allen David," "Blow" and "Palmer" being provided with ammunition and rations by Capt. Sprague, together with seventeen men under Lieut. Oatman, on the morning of the 5th inst. started in pursuit of the Snakes, since which time I have learned nothing to report.
    In the absence of the detachment under Lieut. Oatman only 9 or 10 men are left at Fort Klamath for duty, several other detachments being out on escort duty &c. The fort with its small number of men, considering the necessities which frequently require the sending out of parties on detached service, would not at all be in Paulina's way should he conclude to make a raid for the purpose of getting the military supplies for the winter at the fort, and the fat cattle on the prairies surrounding.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Superintendent of Indian Affairs
            Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 76.



Ashland Mills, Oregon October 16th 1866
Sir,
    You will see by the letter herewith that the lines have been drawn between the friendly and unfriendly Indians--that the Snakes are on the war path, and that the Klamaths, their declared foes, are the firm friends and allies of the whites. The clouds of war seem to be thickening in this quarter, and the hurrying up of reinforcements is more and more required by the condition of things to protect government property and the friendly tribes on the Klamath Reservation.
    It is likely that the Klamaths, particularly Mo-shen-koska's people, have lost a greater part of their winter supplies, and the necessity of supplying them grows more apparent. Likely in the course of a month or so the roads north of here will be blocked by the snow, so that if supplies should be purchased for the Indians, they could not be taken out by teams, but in this event I would suggest the issuing of supplies to them here and having them pack them out themselves on the emigrant road. This they would willingly do, and the expense of transportation would be saved the government.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon
            Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 30.



Washington D.C. Oct. 22nd 1866
Sir
    In the examination of accounts submitted by me to your office for expenditure of Indian Dept. funds in my hands are several suspensions on account of purchases having been made without advertising and formal contract.
    The act of March 2, 1861 provides that purchases may be made in open market when immediate delivery or performance is required by public exigency. Until receipt of the circular from your office dated Nov. 23, 1865 it was the practice for Superintendents and agents in Oregon to purchase articles upon their own judgment that the exigency of the service demanded immediate delivery. The circular of Nov. 23, 1865 changes the practice in this respect, but it ought not to be held to govern cases which had arisen before its receipt.
    I also call attention to the fact that said circular requires of Superintendent and agents, when it becomes necessary to make purchases, to report the facts and await instructions. After receiving instructions, they are to advertise, make contracts and submit the latter to the Department for approval. They are expressly inhibited from receiving any goods until they have received notice of such approval.
    Under this process--involving transmission of letters four times between the distant agencies of Oregon and Washington City, together with the delay necessary to consider the matter, advertise &c.--no purchase can ever be made in less than six months after the necessity for the same arises, and the time will oftener be eight months than six.
    I respectfully ask that you consider this matter and make such modifications in the instructions as will adapt them to the condition of that distant Superintendency.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 258-261.




Ashland Mills, Oregon Oct. 25th 1866
Sir,
    By a messenger just arrived from the Klamath Agency bearing a communication from farmer Whitmore, I learn that there are exciting times there. The Klamaths are embodying for defense, daily and nightly looking for an attack from the Snakes. "Lalakes" some days since went to see Schonchin to ascertain how many of the Modocs he can depend upon to assist in the defense of the agency and the Klamath country, and by this time "Lalakes" may have returned with a division of the Modoc war party. The Yahooskin Snakes are considered to some extent doubtful, and to unite them in the defense with the Klamaths if possible and to provide for the defense of the agency and government property there I start for the Klamath country today. A Snake spy was seen in the vicinity of the agency five days ago and pursued ten miles into the Klamath marsh country, when the pursuing party, consisting of five Klamaths and three soldiers, returned, fearing the Snakes in force on the marsh. Capt. Sprague, being now gone with almost all of his available force into the Goose Lake country, I fear a descent of the Snakes from the north and the complete sacking of Fort Klamath, which could easily be done by a very small party, as there are but six or seven men left for duty there. I fear that before the place can be reinforced it may fall, with all government property there, into the hands of the Snakes.
    I shall exert myself to the best of my ability to prevent any division in the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin Snake tribes and to organize them for defense, hoping the military will be able to render some assistance.

    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 89.



Washington D.C. Oct. 26th 1866
Sir,
    Upon the subject of this reservation made in favor of the "Rogue River" Indians temporarily in 1853 (per treaty of Sept. 10th of that year) and confirmed in 1854 (per treaty of 15th Nov. of that year) and commonly known as the "Table Rock Reservation," I submit the following suggestions.
    The design of the Department in locating this reservation appears to have been to make it a colony of many other tribes besides the Rogue Rivers (such as the Coast Reservation is now), but the warlike propensities of the Indians and the facilities which the neighboring mountains gave them for committing depredations rendered their removal necessary.
    Accordingly in 1856 they were taken to the Coast Reservation and divided between the Grand Ronde and Siletz agencies.
    This was ten years ago, and since that time there has not been an Indian upon the tract.
    As a reservation for Indians it is useless. It contains 300 or 400 square miles, a large portion of which is arable land, and if opened to settlement would soon be occupied by an agricultural population. The importance of accomplishing this end is apparent.
    I recommend therefore that such action be taken as will bring the land into market and permit it to be occupied.
    This may be accomplished in two ways--first, by selling (with the consent of the Indians) the land in small parcels, the proceeds (less the expense of surveys) to go to the Indians, and second, to purchase from them by treaty or otherwise the entire tract and treat it in the same manner as other lands of the United States.
    In my judgment the latter is the most economical and speedy course.
    Action of Congress is of course required, and I trust that you will examine the matter and recommend such legislation as will accomplish the object.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Ind. Affs. for Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
   
Rough Draft Report
D.I.O.I.A. Nov. / 66
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a communication from Supt. Huntington of Oregon, in reference to a reservation made some years since for the Rogue River tribe of Indians in the southwestern part of that state, but which has not for some years been occupied by those Indians, and which it is deemed desirable to vacate and throw open for a settlement by whites.
    The following facts appear in the case:
    September 10th 1853, a treaty was made with the Rogue River Indians by which they ceded a large tract of land in Southern Oregon, as shown upon the rough sketch herewith, then being reserved for their temporary home a tract called the "Table Rock Reserve," shown in the same sketch. In consideration of this cession, the Indians were to be paid the sum of $60,000 (see Article 3 of the treaty, p. 1018, 10th vol. Stat. at Large); this sum to be paid in the manner following, to wit: $15,000 for losses to property by whites, $5000 in goods, implements and for permanent improvements of claimants of lands, and the remainder ($40,000) in sixteen annual payments in goods, clothing and other useful articles. Besides this, the government undertook to erect a dwelling-house for each of those chiefs, not to cost more than $500 each, to provide improvements upon any new reservation to which the Indians should be removed equal to those relinquished, and upon the removal to a new reservation to pay $15,000 in five installments to commence upon the expiration of the installments before mentioned.
    Thus for the treaty of 1853.
    Nov. 15th 1854, another treaty was made with these Indians (see p. 1118, vol. 10, Stat. at Large) by which provisions were made for the residence of other tribes, if deemed necessary, with the Rogue Rivers upon the Table Rock Reserve, in consideration of which the government agreed to pay $2150 in goods and other articles, and that in treaties with other bands, provision should be made for mechanics, farmers, schools and a physician for the reservation. It was also agreed that whenever the Indians of the reserve should be removed to another location, the last $15000 provided in the treaty of '53 should be shared alike by all, and that if no other tribes should be placed upon the reserve, the $2100 above mentioned should be deducted from the annuities of the Rogue Rivers.
    Hostilities continued from time to time in which a portion of this tribe was involved, and, as stated by Supt. Huntington, in 1856 the tribe was removed in a body to the Coast Range Reservation. The history of the hostilities referred to, and of the removal, is found at pages 199 to 222 of the annual report of this office for 1856.
    Congress annually appropriates for these Indians the installment of $2,500 provided in the treaty of 1853, and it is expended for their benefit at their present location. There are three installments yet due. Of the $15,000 provided to be paid for damages to whites, the sum of $2,581.02 remains unexpended, and only $500 has been used for erection of houses.
    The Superintendent now proposes that arrangements be made for selling the Table Rock Reservation, either by a sale in small lots for the benefit of the Indians, with their consent, or by treaty with the tribe, paying them a consideration agreed upon, and putting the reserve into market as other public lands.
    The subject is respectfully referred to the Department for such action as may be deemed advisable.
Very respy. &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 262-268.  Map attached.  Copy of the Oct. 26 letter on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 42-43.



Washington D.C.
    Oct. 26, 1866.
Sir
    The appropriations made by Congress at the last session of Congress to carry out the provisions of the treaty with the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin Indians ought to be applied for their benefit without delay. I therefore submit for your consideration a requisition for such part of them as can be immediately expended with profit, and respectfully ask that the amounts named to be placed to my credit for disbursement for the objects for which they were designed. The portion of the appropriations not included in the requisition could better remain in the Treasury for the present, and when they are needed your office will be duly notified.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
   

Requisition for the Klamath and Modoc Indians
in Oregon for the 3rd and 4th Qrs. 1866.

    1. For 1st of 5 annual installments, to be applied under direction of the President &c. &c. $4,000.
    2. For this amount, to pay for such articles as may be advanced the Indians at the time of signing of the treaty &c. &c. $10,000.
    3. For the erection of one sawmill, one flouring mill, building for blacksmith shop &c. &c. $11,300.
    4. For the purchase of tools & material for saw & flouring mill, carpenter shop &c. &c. $1,500.
    5. For first of 15 installments to pay salary & subsistence of one supt. of farming &c. &c. $3,000.
    6. For 1st of 20 installments to pay salary and subsistence of one physician &c. &c. $1,800.
    7. For the erection of agency buildings $4,000.
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs for Oregon
Hon. D. N. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 277-279.




Annual Report for 1866
Washington D.C. Oct. 26, 1866
Sir
    Making my annual report for the current year at the distance of many thousand miles from the Indian Superintendency which I have the honor to represent, and while suffering from severe illness, it will be impossible for me to be as minute in detail as if I were at home. The very full reports of the several agents, however, render it unnecessary for me to go as much into particulars as has been usual.
    With a few brief remarks about each reservation I shall, then, confine myself to some general matters which do not properly come within the purview of the agents.
Grand Ronde Reservation
    This reservation consists of two townships and two fractional townships of land adjoining the Coast Reservation, withheld from sale by an executive order, and upon it is located the oldest Indian agency in the Superintendency. The tribes located there are those who earliest came into intercourse with white people, and they therefore exhibit most completely the effects of civilization upon the savage.
    There has been among them a steady progress in useful arts, a constant though slow advance in education, and a regular diminution in numbers. They are always peaceable and well-behaved when whiskey can be kept away from them, and most of them are industrious and thrifty.
    They are located upon the border of an extensive white settlement and are therefore most exposed to the corrupting influence of the vile whites, who are always ready to minister to the depraved wants and habits of their savage nature.
    The soil of the reservation is well adapted to the production of cereals, and produces some vegetables tolerably well. Its great elevation, however, being near the summit of the Coast Mountains, makes it too frosty for any but hardy plants and makes it liable to more snow in winter than the lower region of the Willamette Valley.
    The Indians have for several years raised enough grain and roots for their own subsistence, with the exception of a few old and decrepit ones and orphan children, who are supported wholly or in part by the government.
    They own a few cattle and more horses. They are on the whole moderately prosperous, though of course that community, like any other, has a share of vagabonds, paupers and criminals.
Siletz Agency
    This agency is situated upon the Coast Reservation, a tract of land which was reserved for Indian purposes by Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in 1855, and confirmed by an executive order in 1856, and is about one hundred miles north and south by twenty miles east and west.
    A larger number of Indians are located at Siletz than at any other agency in the Superintendency, and they are in some respects the most prosperous.
    Their land is not well adapted to the production of wheat, and oats, peas and potatoes are their principal articles of food. Of these their soil is remarkably prolific, and as new land is brought into cultivation the product of them steadily increases. They own but few domestic animals, but have a strong ambition to possess them and are gradually increasing their stock. The want of funds applicable to this agency has been a serious embarrassment. Only a very small part of these Indians draw annuities, and the whole appropriation applicable to their benefit are only $2.50 per head. With this very limited means much has been accomplished., a part of this no doubt is due to their very favorable location, which affords plenty of fish and game and yields agricultural productions with but very little labor, but much is also due to the efficient and judicious management of Agent Ben Simpson.
    A special report which I made to Hon. J. P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior, under date of Dec. 12, 1864, in reply to inquiries concerning Yaquina Bay, was published in the annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865 (page 105). To that I respectfully refer you for a full description of the Coast Reservation. In that report I urged the importance of providing for a removal of the Indians located upon and about the bay before the land was thrown open to settlement. My suggestions in this respect have been totally disregarded, and a district about twenty-five miles north and south by twenty east and west, beginning two miles south of the Siletz Agency and including the whole of Yaquina Bay, was thrown open to settlement by an executive order. Upon this tract were located some Indians who had been encouraged to open farms, erect dwellings and establish themselves permanently. The effect upon them and upon the other Indians was most disastrous. They had all been promised protection in the possession of these lands, and that protection had hitherto been afforded them, but now the agent was powerless, and whites occupied the lands as they pleased. There were also some public buildings upon the reservation, and some boats belonging to the Indian Department, but these were of comparatively small consequence.
    Common justice required, and still does require, that some compensation be made these Indians, and that provision be made for their removal to lands not occupied by whites.
    The northern boundary of the abandoned tract also was fixed and unfortunately near (two miles) to the agency. It gives an opportunity to any vagabond white or half-breed who desires to do so to establish a whiskey shop within two miles of the largest settlement of Indians on the Pacific Coast, and there, for paltry gain, by ministering to the depraved and vicious desires of the Indians, to be able to undo the good work of twenty missionaries and school teachers.
    The whole treatment of the government towards these Indians has been characterized by bad faith. At the risk of repeating what I have said in reports of former years, I will now briefly detail it.
    In 1855, Joel Palmer, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs, made a treaty with nearly all the tribes along the coast from the Columbia River to the California line.
    By the terms of the treaty the Indians ceded all their lands and agreed to remove to the Coast Reservation. In consideration the government promised to pay certain annuities, to build mills, provide schools, physicians, open farms, erect buildings &c. &c. This treaty the Senate refused to ratify, and it has therefore not been held to be binding upon the United States, but the Indians fully complied with the terms of their side of the treaty, abandoned their lands, removed to the reservation designated for them, and have with few exceptions remained there since.
    White settlers occupied their lands, and still occupy them. The Indians complain--justly, I think--that having complied with their side of the treaty, we ought to comply with ours.
    This discontent is much aggravated by seeing that other Indians draw annuities and are so much better provided for. It is also often aggravated by the machinations of malicious whites, who foster their discontent and encourage them to leave the reservation, and, seeking their own country, endeavor by retaliation to recover just compensation. They had concluded, however, that at least they were secure in the possession of the land they occupied, but they are again now again doubly alarmed by having a part of their reservation suddenly taken from them, and apprehensive that the taking of a part is only preliminary to the taking of the whole.
    I recommend either that the treaty of 1855 be ratified, that provision be made for making another, or, in default of either, that some other plan be devised by which those tribes ran be assured in the possession of the reservation and some compensation be guaranteed to them for the lands they have surrendered.
    In case a new treaty is decided upon, an appropriation of $8000 will be necessary to defray the expense of making the same. But whatever disposition is made of the general question, it is very important that measures should be taken to remove the Indians from the tract thrown open to settlement (which tract, I may remark, is rapidly filling up with whites) and to compensate them for their improvements. I deem an appropriation of $5000 sufficient for that purpose, and recommend that it be made.
    The boundary between Siletz Agency and the district thrown open to settlement being an imaginary line, it is uncertain and ought to be located by actual survey and marked by durable monuments. I recommend that an appropriation of three hundred and fifty dollars be made for that purpose, to be expended under the joint direction of the Surveyor General and the Supt. of Indian Affairs.
    The teams at this agency are old and worn out, and many of them die off each year. The agricultural implements are, many of them, worn out and worthless. As the number and extent of the Indian farms increase, the demand for both tools and teams increases also. I recommend an appropriation of $5000, to be expended in the purchase of teams, agricultural implements and seeds for the use of this agency.
    The old flouring mill, on account of the destruction of which, will be found in my report of 1865 (page 464), ought to be rebuilt. The burrs and irons are in good condition and can be used again. All the rest of the structure is valueless.
    I recommend an appropriation of $4000 to rebuild the grist mill.
Alsea Agency
    This agency is located on the Yawhutch Prairie, a fertile tract of about two thousand acres, situated on the ocean about eight miles below the Alsea River.
    It is on that part of the Coast Reservation which lies south of the tract recently opened for settlement. The tribes which are nominally located there are the Coos, Umpqua, Alsea and Siuslaw.
    The first three of these live in the vicinity of the agency. The Siuslaws occupy some fertile land near the southern end of the reservation, and they live partly by agriculture and partly by fishing. These tribes were all parties to the unratified treaty of 1855, mentioned under head of Siletz Agency, and the remarks made concerning them apply with equal force to these. I again urge careful attention to the subject. In my special report to Hon. J. P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior, Dec. 12, 1864, I recommended the removal of these Indians to Siletz, or to that vicinity. I now repeat that recommendation, and refer you to the estimate then submitted for the amount of appropriation necessary. I remark, however, that if that course is determined upon, and that appropriation made, the one of $5000 recommended above for the removal of the Indians from Yaquina Bay & vicinity will not be necessary, as the action in relation to the tribes at Alsea can be made to cover these also.
    The arguments in favor of removal are:
    1st Collecting the Indians more compactly together
    2nd Avoiding the expense of one agency (the Alsea)
    3rd Opening for settlement the south part of the reservation, a tract forty miles long by twenty wide, which contains a large amount of fertile land, an immense body of superior timber and some fine fisheries.
    The sales upon this tract of lands would in a few years many times remunerate the expense of removing the Indians. The expense is, so far as I know, the only objection to the removal.
    If it is decided to allow them to remain where they now are, some provision should be made for a school among them, for medical attendance and for the purchase of teams, agricultural implements and seeds, the supply of these articles having been hitherto very meager. I recommend an appropriation (if the removal plan is not adopted) of $2500 for the purchase of seeds, agricultural tools and teams, and the usual amount for the other purposes named.
Warm Springs Reservation
    This reservation is located in the edge of the Cascade Mountains, at the eastern base of Mount Jefferson.
    It contains a small amount of tillable land, but has a vast extent of "bunchgrass," which affords excellent grazing. Timber is abundant on some parts of the reservation, but there is very little within eight miles of the agency. The buildings are altogether the best in the Superintendency, and are ample for the use of the agency, no more being needed unless it be a few more barns and sheds, which can be built by the regular employees without expense to the government.
    Many of the Indians are well advanced in agriculture, raise wheat, corn and vegetables in abundance, and have many horses and cattle. Others prefer to lead a vagabond life about the little towns along the Columbia River, relying upon the prostitution of their squaws, and sometimes a little labor, to provide themselves with whiskey and subsistence.
    The former class are tolerably thrifty and upright, always well behaved, and of determined energy in the prosecuting of an object. The latter class are lazy, thievish and vile. They are distinct as if they were two different races.
    The supplemental treaty made by me with them the [blank] day of [blank] 1865, of which your office has been advised, relinquished on their part the right reserved to them by the original treaty of June 25th 1855, to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and pasture their stock upon lands outside the reservation, has been productive of much good. It now gives the agent enough control over them to confine them to the reservation, and the effect upon the Indians is most salutary in removing them from the demoralizing effects of whiskey and debauchery, while it affords the whites an infinite satisfaction by ridding them of a nuisance which otherwise would be intolerable.
    The affairs of this agency, which had relapsed into some confusion by the long vacancy in the agency caused by the sudden death of Agent William Logan (drowned on the steamer Brother Jonathan, July 30th 1865), are now much improved under the efficient management of Agent John Smith. I refer to his report and those of the subordinate employees for further information.
Umatilla Agency
    This agency is situated in the northeast corner of the state and is a fertile and valuable tract of land.
    I have described it minutely in former reports and need not repeat here what I have said.
    As an instance confirmatory of what I have claimed for it in point of fertility, and also showing the progress in agriculture of the tribes located there, I call your attention to the fact that at the annual fair of the Oregon State Agricultural Society held in 1866, two first premiums and one second were awarded to these Indians for agricultural products, and I may add that I know from personal observation that products of similar or even superior quality ore by no means uncommon among them.
    The superior quality of the land, and its location on a great thoroughfare convenient|to the gold mines of Powder River, Boise Basin, Owyhee and other points, of course make it attractive to whites. There are constant attempts to encroach upon it, constant attempts under various pretexts to locate upon it, and occasional attempts to exasperate the Indians into the commission of some overt act which will justify--or at least palliate--retaliation and thus give an excuse for plunging the country into another Indian war, the end of which, they well know, would be the expulsion of the Indians from the coveted tract. This cupidity is the cause of constant trouble to the agent and apprehension to the Indians.
    If the Indians could be removed to some remote place equally fertile, and there relocated, it would [no] doubt [be] to their advantage and immensely to the advantage of the whites, but where is the remote place to be found? Population is rushing into Idaho, Washington and Montana at the rate of many thousands per month. The only parts now entirely unsettled are barren deserts, quite as incapable of supporting an Indian as a white population. I estimate that the reservation could be sold for $150,000 to $200,000.
    Its perpetual possession has been guaranteed to the Indians by treaty, and it would be the grossest of had faith to take possession of it without their consent. That consent will be obtained with the greatest difficulty, if at all.
    Two roads have been authorized by your office to be opened through that reservation within the past year, one for the use of Thomas and Ruckle--a stage firm--and the other for the use of the citizens of Umatilla County, Oregon.
    The latter could not be built without passing through several Indian farms, much to their damage, and that I strictly forbid. The result is that the road is not built, and probably will not be.
    The other road passes through the east end of the reservation, interferes with no farms, and will do no damage.
    I call your attention to the fact that the title to this reservation is vested in the Indians, and the right of the Department to authorize the opening of any road through without first obtaining the consent of the Indians is, to my mind, very questionable, and [I] further suggest that if such orders are to be given in the future that they be deferred until such local knowledge of the ground is obtained as will ensure that they avoid interfering with the property of the Indians.
    The treaty with the Indians reserved to them the same rights that were reserved to the Indians at Warm Springs by the treaty with them. I refer to the right to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and pasture their stock on land outside the reservation. This privilege is simply equivalent to giving them permission to roam at will over the country, and is demoralizing to them and damaging to the white settlers.
    Their facilities for obtaining whiskey are almost unlimited. Instructing them in schools or teaching them the art of farming and its value are impossible, and the Indians are impoverished, debauched and demoralized. Every tendency they have to vice is cultivated--the possibility of virtue, advance in civilization or material prosperity is abolished.
    I believe that a supplemental treaty, similar to that made with the confederated tribes at Warm Springs last year, could be made with them at similar cost. If accomplished, it would be of incalculable advantage to them and to the surrounding settlements.
    I therefore recommend that an appropriation of $5,000.00 be made for that purpose, and that the attempt be made.
Klamath Agency
    It is improper perhaps to style this place an agency. There are no agency buildings there and no improvements of any sort, except of very small value & very temporary character.
    Sub-Agent Lindsay Applegate has charge of the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin Snake tribes, with whom a treaty was negotiated in October 1864, and he has (without funds) located some farms on the Middle Klamath Lake (sometimes known as Lake Taqua or Tak-qua) fifteen miles below Fort Klamath and made a beginning at farming.
    He reports the Indians zealous to enter into farming, and willing to work. None of the appropriations made by Congress for the benefit of these tribes have yet been remitted, but when they are, I look for the founding of a prosperous Indian colony. There are about two thousand of them, and I consider them as good raw material out of which to make civilized Indians as any on the continent.
    The Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snakes, with whom I made a treaty in 1865, came onto the reservation and remained there last winter, but during the last spring and summer they all left the reservation and are reported to have again joined the hostile bands of Snakes.
    The movement on their part does not involve any loss to the government, nor at all give them protection in their predatory raids, for it was expressly stipulated in the treaty that they should remain upon the reservation, and that failing to do so they should be treated as hostile. Nor were [they] to receive any benefit of appropriations unless they did so remain. But it has been unfortunate that they refused to stay, because that tribe when once established would have been a nucleus around which all the other tribes of Snakes would soon have gathered, and thus they would have been an instrument of pacification for the whole of southeastern Oregon, Idaho and Northern Nevada. I yet am in doubt whether they have joined the hostile tribes. My impression is that they have spent the summer in the region between Crooked River on the north, Harney Lake on the east, Sumner and Upper Klamath lakes on the south, and Mount Paulina and Queah Valley on the west. The tract of country included in these bounds has never been penetrated by white men, is nearly destitute of water and timber, but affords fine grass.
    This hand of Indians have inhabited it heretofore, and in my opinion have done so this past summer.
Indians Not Located Upon Agencies
    Most important among these both in numbers and consequence are the various bands of Snakes. Little is known of them except that they are always determinately hostile. They are a nomadic people, sometimes appearing in Nevada under the lead of Winnemucca, and treating with Governor Nye, sometimes in Utah, holding council with Brigham Young and fighting Col. Connor, sometimes warring upon miners or soldiers in Owyhee and Boise, and often making raids upon the friendly Indians at Warm Springs or the whites on the Cañon City road, but always having their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them.
    What disposition can ultimately be made of them, I do not undertake to say. Now nothing is to be done but fight and exterminate them. Yet I am painfully conscious that extermination will cost the lives of ten whites for every Indian and besides cost many millions of money. The attempt to treat with them now is simply folly--they cannot be even brought to a council, much less a treaty.
    Their ultimate disposition is a matter that must be left to time to determine. Of their numbers I am not well informed, and at different times have made different estimates.
    Roughly, I estimate them at five thousand. They may double that, or fall below it.
    The military forces located in that part of the country have been engaged during the last year in warring upon them with varying success, sometimes gaining an advantage and oftener suffering a defeat, but their operations have really resulted in but little towards subduing the Indians.
    The number of troops has been grossly inadequate to the service to be performed, and they have labored under the disadvantages of unacquaintance with Indian warfare, ignorance of the geography of the country and vast distance from points where necessary supplies can be obtained.
    The Indians scattered along the Columbia River, those on the upper branches of the North Umpqua, a small hand on Clatsop plains, and the Nestuccas, Salmon Rivers and Tillamooks number in all not far from 1200 souls. They are in immediate vicinity of white settlements--in fact intermingled with them--and most of them are as thoroughly debauched and degraded as they well can be. They are not parties to any treaty, and I do not think it necessary that any treaty should be made with them. Indeed, they are scattered over so vast a country that it would be impossible to gather them together for a treaty, but measures ought to be taken to collect them upon some of the reservations. The Nestuccas, Salmon Rivers and Tillamooks (about 300 in all) ought especially to be taken under jurisdiction. The country they inhabit is fertile, has a good harbor, and is filling up with white settlers. They regard the Indians as nuisances, and have more than once asked me to remove them. I have had neither funds nor authority to do so.
    I recommend an appropriation of $2000 for gathering together and establishing upon some reservation the Indians mentioned. The amount named would be sufficient not only to remove them, but to afford them some assistance in opening farms, obtaining farming tools &c. &c. &c.
Education
    I have little to add in respect to education to what I have stated in my former report.
    The "manual labor" schools, that is, schools where the Indian children are separated from their savage parents, housed, fed and taught not only the contents of the spelling book and the Testament, but the elements of agriculture, mechanics and the domestic arts, the boys to plow, plant & hoe, the girls to sew, mend, knit and cook. These schools are the only ones which benefit the Indians. The day schools, at which attendance is optional with the scholars, and often difficult or impossible by reason of the distance at which scholars reside, are of very little value. The scholars attend irregularly, and very often refuse to attend at all, and when they do attend the good influence of a few hours at school is entirely overcome by the far greater time that they are subject to savage association.
    I repeat my recommendation that such legislation as will place all the schools upon the "manual labor" basis be adopted. In default of this, it would be as well to abolish the day school altogether.
    The number of schools in the Superintendency is five: one at Umatilla, one at Warm Springs, one at Siletz and two at Grand Ronde. That at Siletz and one of those at Grand Ronde are upon the manual labor plan and are a credit to the teachers as well as a benefit to the Indians.
    Mr. & Mrs. Clark, who have recently taken charge of the school at Grand Ronde, are the persons who established the school at Siletz and conducted it very successfully for some time. I take this opportunity to pay to them a just tribute to their moral worth, high intelligence, zeal and efficiency in the discharge of their duties. The Indian children are very fortunate in having such instructors.
    Mr. & Mrs. Frazer [at Siletz] are also very worthy and competent. The school there, however, is much embarrassed for want of funds, and the number of scholars consequently much smaller than it should be. Mr. Gillette, the teacher at Warm Springs, is very competent and has accomplished as much as anyone could under the disadvantages of a day school. The school at Umatilla has recently been placed under the charge of Rev. Father Vermeesch, a Roman Catholic priest, and I anticipate much good from it, if it can be placed upon the manual labor basis. The Indians located there were twenty years ago brought (to some extent) under the influence of the Roman Catholic religion by a mission started among them near where the agency now stands. Many of the older ones retain a profound respect for the rites of the church to this day. They hailed the coming of Father Vermeesch among them with much joy.
    The rev. father seems very zealous in the good work he has undertaken and determined to accomplish all he can.
    The teacher of the day school at Grand Ronde was detailed by the agent (under my instructions) to act as farmer since last spring. The appropriation for the pay of farmer has run out, and consequently the agency is without a farmer. It could better dispense with any other employee, and 1 therefore directed Agent Harvey, in view of the fact that Indians needed instruction in agriculture more than anything else, to detail the teacher to act in that capacity.
    I trust my action in this case will meet your approval.
Allotment of Lands
    As Indians advance in knowledge of agricultural arts, the desire to own the land they cultivate seems instinctively to arise. The wild Indian never thinks of owning any particular spot of ground. His tribe own a certain district of country, but [individual Indians] own nothing. But one of the first effects of putting him to work at cultivating the soil is to create a desire to own the land on which he works. This desire is commendable and ought to be encouraged. The best way to do this, in my judgment, is to allot to each adult male or head of family, who is sufficiently advanced to appreciate it, a tract of land not exceeding eight acres, the title which shall descend to his heirs forever. The power of alienation should not be given, because too often the ignorance or weakness of the Indian would be taken advantage of by the more intelligent white man. The object should be to inspire in the Indian a confidence that the particular tract which he is laboring to improve will be the permanent possession of himself and children.
    In order to do this it is necessary to make some surveys. I recommend that an appropriation of five hundred dollars be made for this purpose at each of the reservations at Umatilla, Grand Ronde and Siletz, and four hundred at Warm Springs, the same to be expended under the direction of the Surveyor General and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The sum estimated for Warm Springs is smaller because there is at that reservation less land to survey. The sum named for Siletz will probably be found inadequate and require to be increased next year.
    No estimate is made for Alsea in view of the removal of the Indians which I have recommended, and none for Klamath, because the Indians there are not yet fit for it.
Military Force at Agencies
    By recent action of the War Department all the troops stationed at forts Hoskins and Yamhill, Siletz Blockhouse and Warm Springs Blockhouse have been withdrawn, and the posts abandoned. Thus the Coast Reservation, on which are four thousand Indians, is without a single soldier to enforce police regulations, preserve order or punish offenses. This is not only unwise but it is hazardous in the extreme. The agent is powerless to control the Indians except by moral suasion, and this they oftentimes will not submit to. There is now no way of preventing them from leaving the reservation and obtaining whiskey, and a few drunken Indians may commit outrages which will bring on a war that will cost the lives of many whites and Indians both. There would be no question as to the result of such a war. The settlers of Willamette Valley are strong enough to overpower the weaker Indians, but it is far better to avoid the outbreak altogether. This can be done by keeping a small force (say 25 men) at each of the posts, Fort Yamhill and Siletz Blockhouse, and it ought by all means to be done. I consider it unnecessary to garrison Fort Haskins if Siletz Blockhouse is occupied.
    Warm Springs Agency is situated on the edge of the hostile Snake country, and constantly liable to predatory raids from them.
    They have five different times visited that agency and stolen more or less stock and taken many lives. In 1859 they drove off 700 horses and about 100 cattle, killed a great number of friendly Indians, one white man, and had possession of the agency buildings for several days.
    The last time they appeared there was in 1864, when, although a small force under Lieut. Halloran was stationed there, they got away with over 200 horses. The lieutenant with his command promptly pursued them and recovered a part of the stolen property.
    The Cañon City road (from Dalles to Cañon City) passes within twenty miles of this agency. It has been the scene of constant depredations from the Snakes. Last year there was scarcely a week passed that there were not some depredations committed: pack trains with their cargoes stolen; wagons & teams with their freight, seized; stock driven off; teamsters, packers or travelers killed, in fact, to pass over the road was to peril one's life.
    I mention these facts to show the necessity for military protection there, and the difficulties we labor under for want of it.
Statistics of Farming
    The time when the annual reports of agents in Oregon is required to be made prevents them from giving minute statistics of their crops &c. for the current year, because the crop not being yet harvested, their extent cannot be ascertained.
    The "statistical returns of farming," however, from the several agencies for 1865, which is on file in your office, will afford good information upon this subject, and I ask that they be printed with this report and made a part of it.
    For further information upon the general affairs of the Superintendency, I refer you to the former reports of myself and my predecessors, and the reports of the several agents and employees will afford you very full information of affairs during the current year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
To D. A. Cooley
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 51-63.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency, October 31st 1866.
Sir,
    In regard to affairs in this sub-agency for the present month I have the honor to report as follows.
    At the commencement of the month a few Snake Indians were on the reservation, but doubting their being there from feelings of amity towards the government but rather to be subsisted through the winter, in order to test their good intentions I held a council with them on the 3rd instant and required of them to come down to council grove, so that if I should be authorized to subsist them, they would be near at hand. This they agreed to do, but not liking, I think, to come down where intercourse with hostile parties would have to cease and where an attempt to leave the reservation in the spring could be prevented, they left the Klamath country on the night succeeding the council. There are hence no Snakes proper on the reservation, but an attack by them or a raid by them for the purpose of stealing and plundering is daily and nightly expected by the Klamath and Yahooskins. Some members of the last-named tribes having sent with the soldiers as their allies into the Snake country, they have incurred the ill will of all the Snakes, and this has helped to draw more distinctly the lines between the friendly and unfriendly Indians.
    It being reported that there was a disposition on the part of the Yahooskin Snakes to remain neutral as regards war with the Snakes, and there being pretty good evidence of a design on the part of the last-named Indians to invade the Klamath country, spies having been seen lurking around within a few miles of the agency, I left Ashland on the 26th instant and arrived there on the 29th. I found a growing disaffection on the part of the Indians, on account of the tardiness of the government in fulfilling treaty stipulations and on account of there being no evidence of an intention to provide winter subsistence for them. This feeling I am endeavoring to allay. I however think there is little danger of a division of the friendly Indians on the Snake question, as they all now seem equally fearfully vigilant. Fearing the Snakes the Yahooskins have moved down within a short distance of the agency, where most of the Indians have collected. I shall commence immediately to fortify this place by putting up stockading around the buildings, after which I design making a requisition on the military for a few men to garrison the fortification which be thus constructed. This will make the government property here more safe and will give tangible evidence to the Indians of an intention to continue operations here.
    Farmer Whitmore has busied himself in gathering the crop and in putting up two more log buildings, which will be ready to serve such purposes as the government may require. One of the buildings can be occupied by the soldiers who will garrison the place.
    The Indians on the reservation, owing to a combination of unfortunate circumstances not being as well provided as usual with winter supplies, should certainly be provided with flour through a portion of the winter at least. This would have a good effect. Would give them evidence of an intention to do the best for them. The shorts in my possession should I think be issued to them. There are ten thousand pounds of flour at the fort for sale, which I think should be purchased, and a large part issued to the friendly tribes--a portion being reserved however to stimulate business operations in the spring.

    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Ashland Mills Oregon Nov. 30th 1866.
Sir
    In regard to affairs in this sub-agency for the present month, I have the honor to report as follows.
    In accordance with my plans, as mentioned in my last report, early in the month I commenced to fortify the agency buildings, in order to make safe government property there as well as to give the Indians tangible evidence of an intention to continue operations there. Logs were procured and planted in a ditch surrounding the buildings, and by the 10th inst. they were enclosed by a wooden wall ten feet high. As soon as the wall was completed I made a requisition on Captain Sprague, commanding Fort Klamath, for four men to garrison the fortification thus constructed. He readily responded, and Sergt. G. A. Comstock and three privates were stationed at the agency without delay. The Indians, reassured of a determination to continue operations there by the preparing for defense against the Snakes, were much pleased and encouraged. Captain Sprague also furnished a box of arms and ammunition to be placed in the hands of friendly Indians in case of extremity or necessity.
    The Snakes have not yet made any raids into the Klamath country, although they are yet expected to. They have, however, made two or three raids into the Modoc country, driving off some horses. The will unite the Modocs more firmly with the Klamaths against the Snakes.
    I am pleased to hear that there is a company of U.S. cavalry on its way to Fort Klamath. This will make property there safe, I think.
    On the 10th inst. the plow was started by the farmer, with an Indian to assist, and they have continued to plow whenever the weather has favored.

Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington, Supt. of Indian Affrs.
            Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Dec. 10th 1866
Sir
    On the night of August 11th 1866 I arrested a man by the name of George Salling and a boy by the name of ------ Cate who I found in this agency.
    Salling when arrested had on his horse in a pair of saddlebags two quart bottles and a small demijohn of whiskey. I had them confined until Monday morning and then took them before the county judge at Dallas, who bound Salling over in the sum of $200.00 to appear and answer at the Nov. term of the district court. The boy ------ Cate he discharged, as no liquor was found upon him.
    The grand jury at the Nov. term found a true bill against Salling for giving whiskey to the Indians, but he failed to appear, and his bail was declared forfeited.
    I have the horse he rode together with an old saddle, bridle and the whiskey, which I hold by the instruction of the United States District Attorney, to whom a report of the matter has been made who informs me that he will proceed to levy and have them sold for the benefit of the United States.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 116.



Ashland Mills, Oregon
    December 31st 1866
Sir
    In pursuance of the regulations of the Indian Department I have the honor to submit the following report for the present month.
Condition of the Indians &c.
    No changes of consequence in affairs in this sub-agency have occurred during the present month, and the condition of the Indians is substantially the same as reported last month. The weather has been usually mild and favorable for this season of the year; the Klamath Lake is not yet frozen over, and the Indians are yet able to take fish and kill waterfowl. It is my opinion that with what provisions the Indians have been able to collect, they will be able to subsist themselves until spring, with perhaps the issuing of some of the shorts on hand to the most needy. However, if the winter after this should become severe and be long continued, that want of a sufficient supply of subsistence will probably be severely felt. Sickness is prevailing among the Klamaths, and some of them have died. The Klamaths and Modocs, on account of nothing yet being done toward the carrying out of the treaty of 1864, are much disappointed and dissatisfied, but still act in good faith, yet looking to see all promises carried out. Farmer Whitmore under date of Dec. 26th says, "That they are somewhat disaffected on account of the failure to ratify or act under the treaty of 1864, it would be folly for me to deny."
    They have constructed very comfortable houses for the winter, but are rather poorly supplied with blankets and clothing.
Farming Operations &c.
    The wheat put in last autumn on the farm is up and doing finely. Although now covered four inches deep with snow it still grows, the snow being a protection to it. The plow continued running until early in the month, when the fall put an end to plowing for the present. Farmer Whitmore under date of Dec. 26th writes: "Your experiments on the reservation the past season, in proving the fitness of the soil and climate to produce, do establish the fact that the many cereals, together with various kinds of vegetables, can be produced in quantities more than sufficient to supply the wants of all the Indians included in the treaty. I have no hesitancy in saying that your efforts have been crowned with abundant success."
    The Department animals are at the agency and are doing well on the range, the snow not covering the tall grass, and hence but a small part of the hay has been used. A stable has
been built for them during the month.
    The mountains east now being blocked with snow, but little danger is apprehended from the Snakes, and the fear of a raid into the Klamath country is now scarcely felt by the Indians.
Respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Phoenix, Jackson County
Mr. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        I will make one more effort to see whether I can hear from you. This is the third effort. What I wish to know is whether you have received instructions to pay for the beef that was furnished to the Indians at Fort Klamath by my brother J.M., who has since deceased, and I am appointed to settle the estate. I shall have to place the act in the hands of a lawyer unless there has been something done with it.
    I saw Mr. Nesmith when he was out and he told me that he had the papers instruct you to pay it. Now if you receive this for God's sake answer it.
I am yours truly
    E. K. Anderson
To Mr. Huntington
    Indian Superintendent

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 1. The letter is undated, but was received January 1, 1867.


Cash Accounts 4th Quarter 1866
Abstract A. Disbursements.

Voucher No. 2, Winant & Co., Merchandise.
    Nails were needed for immediate use in repairing Department storehouses, stables &c. to secure crops from fall and winter rains.
    Candles for immediate use in office.
    Powder and lead that the Indians might provide their winter's meat while game was fat and weather pleasant.
    Salt was needed that they might cure their meat and fish for winter use.
    Soap was essential that the Indians' persons and garments should be kept clean, thereby preventing sickness and disease.
   

Voucher No. 4, G. W. Collins, sub-voucher No. 8 (Indn. Bob)
    $6.50. This was paid for packing nails, salt &c., purchased of Winant & Co. as per voucher No. 2 above.
   

    I certify on honor that the above explanations are correct and true.
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frame 926.  Collins' explanations are undated; transcribed from a copy sent to Washington May 4, 1869.





Last revised January 25, 2017

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