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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1867
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Centreville [Michigan] Jany. 3rd / 67
Indian Agent &c.
    Oregon
        I wish to know whether the claims for depredations by the Indians in Rogue River Valley during war of 1853 have been paid--whether Congress has made an appropriation for them, also whether a claim for moneys taken from the body of Wm. M. Rose (the Indians having killed him & then took his money 8 to 900.00 dollars).
    Your answer to the above questions will greatly oblige & if paid who rec. the money.
Your servant
    Wm. Sadler
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 151.



Siletz Indian Agency, Oregon.
    January 7th 1867.
Sir,
    In compliance with my instructions from you dated 17th November last, I have the honor to report that I reached this agency (the first of a series of three, the Alsea and Grand Ronde Indian agencies being the other two "nearest my route of travel") on the night of Monday last, 6th instant, greatly improved in health and much pleased with my journey to the mountains of the remote Pacific.
    Accompanied by my eldest son, who designs to settle in Montana, of whose stalwart usefulness and attentions I have personally availed in my otherwise lonely trip in midwinter to the Flathead Agency, we sailed from New York on Wednesday the 21st of November last for San Francisco, Cal. (via Aspinwall and Panama), reaching there on (Thursday) the 13th December following, making a very propitious voyage thither in 22 days.
    Arrived at San Francisco, the weather being apparently mild and favorable on the coast for this season of the year, we sought a steamer (the Montana) advertised to "sail for Portland on or about the 18th Decr." (the Tuesday following), but were detained for 11 days in consequence of the fearful and devastating storm which set in on Saturday the 15th December, the disastrous effects of which you have doubtless seen the account.
    The steamboat agents would not send off their boats for Portland because of the prevalence of the storm, nor because of the inundation of the Sacramento and American rivers could we get through the interior by railroad or stage, and it was not until Monday the 24th of December that we could get a boat for Portland.
    I had meanwhile secured passage on the Montana, which had postponed her day of sailing from Tuesday the 18th to Saturday the 22nd Decr. (the day that the storm began to subside), but in consequence of damages which she sustained by chafing at her wharf I managed to exchange for fare by the Oriflamme my Montana ticket, the former landing us safely in Portland on Thursday the 27th Decr. (the latter not sailing thence I believe until sometime in January).
    At this time the wind ceased blowing but it continued to rain, and during our stay in Portland from Decr. 27th to the first of January (5 days) I conversed with several gentlemen familiar with the agencies in the premises, from whom I obtained much information of a desirable and interesting character.
    On Wednesday the 2nd instant I went over by steamer to Fort Vancouver to seek information from Mr. Healy, a former employee, and Mr. St. Onge, a former missionary at the Grand Ronde, but not finding them there I made an appointment by message to meet them on my return to Portland after visiting these agencies, and I occupied the day in conversing with others about them, from whom I also received much valuable intelligence. Here the rain ceased, the sun shone out beautifully, and from that day (the 2nd Jany.) to the present the weather has been dry and is more like the midst of spring than midwinter.
    I have been thus particular in describing my detention of 16 days en route (at San Francisco and Portland) in order to explain the actual loss of 6 of them by stress of storm from the 18th to 24th Decr. at the former, and my stay of 5 days in the latter place from rain, making an unavoidable detention of 11 days, as prefatory to the remarks which follow in this my first report upon the interesting subjects which embrace my mission to this region.
    On Saturday 29th ult., while in Portland, I met Mr. Huntington (on his way from Salem to San Francisco), who gave me a letter of introduction to his clerk, Mr. Woodworth, and advised that I should go thence to the Grand Ronde, Siletz and Alsea agencies first, working my way thence by the Dalles to the Warm Springs, Yakima, Umatilla and Nez Perces reservations as the most direct line of my journey onward to the Flathead Agency.
    I had intended to go to the Warm Springs Reservation first, from Portland (making the latter my headquarters for the winter), but the roads being almost impassable from the rains and the snows upon the mountains at this season induced me to change to Salem temporarily, where I arrived on Thursday night, the 3rd instant. On the following day I visited the office of the Superintendent, presented my letter to Mr. Woodworth, to whom as also to Mr. Huntington I am greatly indebted for their kind reception and the courteous extension of every facility for the prosecution of my task, called upon Governor Woods at the statehouse and then made arrangements for an early start the following morning (Saturday) 5th instant for this agency.
    Mr. Collins, the efficient sub-agent of Alsea, being at Salem on his return home, piloted us here over the road known as "Sheridan's trail," built in 1856, and now, after the wear and tear of 10 years, is well nigh impassable, being terribly out of repair and in some places perilous to life and limb of man and beast. By hard riding all of Saturday without rest or food we made Kings Valley at night (about halfway) and providing a lunch at early candlelight of Sunday morning after early breakfast we reached the Siletz Agency at nightfall, accomplishing a distance of 72 miles in two days over, I will venture to say, the worst mountain road in the country, which for the sake of the interests of this agency, isolated as it is, needs repair to prevent the inhabitants here from being by direct route cut off from Salem, and which at a period not remote is rendered inevitable.
    Agent Simpson gave us a cordial reception, and upon making known to him my purpose of seeking information as to the "wants and condition of the agencies on my route of travel," making particular reference "to the condition and management of the Indian Service upon them," especially with reference to the important subjects of inquiry embraced in my instructions as to "the number and character of the employees and the services performed by them," looking to what beneficial changes might be made for improvement therein &c., and of making "the subject of education matter of special inquiry," he arranged for an interview with the Indians, which we had today, and after concluding the council we visited the objects of interest on the agency farms.
    Word having been sent to the lower farm (our presence at the upper farm being notified to the chiefs there as we came to the agency by Mr. Collins), the chiefs rode in, early, and the council being organized, I made known through the interpreter the object of my visit. They all severally expressed themselves as highly gratified, giving me a hearty welcome. They were all decently clad in the garments of civilized life; their decorous deportment and manners excited my admiration; many had brought their families, and I saw nothing in the congregation of people before me but their color which indicated the assemblage to be other than that of a meeting of farmers and their households, and in none of their surroundings save their language could be heard the sounds of other than respectful salutation and greeting. These distant wilds were shorn of their loneliness by the presence of a happy people, leaving no room for the existence or even the asperities of complaint, and I contemplated their contentedness with no ordinary emotions when I reflected upon the benefactions of a great government, judiciously directed, which had wrought this triumph of civilization over barbarism.
    I effectually set at rest the apprehensions of the chiefs who stated they had been told some years ago (in General Palmer's time) that they would only be permitted to remain here 5 years, and that then they would be removed from this home, looking upon themselves (after the first 5 years) as only a species of tenants at sufferance since, by telling them that nearly twice 5 years had elapsed since this was told them, and they were still undisturbed.
    This afforded great satisfaction to them; their apprehension of being removed had never been with this particularity before expressed to the agent, and it serves to illustrate the keen though silent sense of wrong cherished by the Indian character.
    The chiefs of the "Coquilles" Indians (who with Whiskers' band of Sixes were removed from the reservation upon which they were settled on Yaquina Bay to the Siletz Reserve here in the month of July last) informed me that "they had to begin the world again on almost nothing here where they are settled now, that all the most of them had left to dig and to plow when removed from their homes was their lives and their health, that they had never been compensated for their land, nor for the losses which they had sustained in stock, houses, farming utensils and other property" and they requested me to bring the subject of this grievance to the notice of the Indian Department at Washington, expressing the hope that something would be done to remunerate them.
    Agent Simpson corroborated their statement of the facts in the case, and telling the chief I would communicate it to you, I informed the agent I would have a conversation with him upon the subject after the council adjourned. I gave notice that our pleasant interview would be brought to a close, when one of the chiefs said all he had to say now, after what had been said was (as he extended both the palms of his hands for me to look at) "We are willing to work, to work hard; look at my hands, they are hard, my hands are not soft, and I like to build my house, to dig and to plow."
    We then shook hands, the Indians retiring to their several homes, and the agent at my request gave me the facts of the grievance complained of by the Coquilles chiefs, in relation to the losses sustained by their removal.
    Agent Simpson informs me that in contradistinction to the statement reported that there were no Indians on the Yaquina Reserve, the facts on the contrary are that he removed 52 members of the "Coquilles" band here himself, and that "Whiskers" band of Sixes, numbering 25, went to Sixes River, their old home in the Rogue River country, remaining there this winter, but when the spring opens he will go for [them] and bring them to this reserve.
    By the agent's assistance I have embodied in the form of an estimate herewith the facts affording a basis for an appropriation to be asked of Congress for their benefit, which he earnestly recommends to the favorable consideration of the Department and suggests (if it should arrive in season) that it may be brought before Congress at its present session, and I hereby respectfully recommend Agent Simpson's suggestion to your favorable consideration and urge the adoption of the measure for their relief and as payment to them for the losses these Indians have sustained as an act of justice and humanity, viz,
Estimate
For compensation to the "Coquilles" and "Whiskers band of Sixes," Indians removed from the reservation upon which they were settled on Yaquina Bay to the Siletz Reservation in the month of July 1866, to extinguish their claim to the same, and as a payment in full to 77 Indians for the losses they sustained thereby in stock, houses, farming utensils and other personal property, to be expended in the purchase of cows and other stock for said Indians by the agent in charge under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, ten thousand (10,000) dollars.
    This would be equal only to a per capita payment to them of the small sum of $129.87 each if paid in money, but the most desirable method is that in the measure proposed whereby their homes may be made the more attractive in having those objects which engross, to lighten and make pleasant the farmer's daily care, and for which small sum is exchanged a land reserve running from a point about 2½ miles south of here, 30 miles to the Alsea River, and about 15 miles in width.
    Accompanied by the agent, I then visited the Indian school presided over by Mr. Wm. R. Dunbar, the teacher of the reservation, a gentleman eminently qualified by nature as well as by practice in his profession. There were eleven children present of ages from 7 to 14: 6 girls and 5 boys, mostly orphans, utterly destitute, taken up by the agent in pure kindness of heart and placed under the care of Mr. Dunbar and his estimable wife as an experiment. The exercises of this school were so interesting that I regretted when they were brought to a close, although I spent three hours in listening to their recitations, and although this is a primary school, their lessons in reading, spelling and repeating the multiplication table were perfect. The boys wrote upon the blackboard, and the exercises of the school were closed by several hymns (not led by the teacher), sung by the children with remarkable precision as to time and cleverness.
    When it is considered that there are 14 remnants of tribes comprising about 2000 souls located at this agency, and that about 250 of the children of the families here, of the ages above mentioned, need not only the tuition which these fortunate unfortunate (as they may rightly be termed) orphans have received under the care of Mr. Dunbar, but also that religious training which will point them to the way of life by and through their Redeemer, the Indian Office will find in the success with which these have been brought forward, and earnest of that which must attend inevitably its most sanguine hopes in the cause of education.
    Its system of civilizing the Indians by generations, giving the children an education temporally and spiritually and having the gospel preached to all, is the only proper one.
    Hence, while the fathers work in the field, or attend their flocks, and the mothers attend to their household duties, they as parents can see that fostering care of the government which provides for the bodies and the souls of their offspring. Here then is a fine field for the education of all the children on this reserve, and for the impartation of that divine intelligence which will teach parents and children and they have a "heaven to gain, or a hell to shun," and the bread of life is not limited to localities; it can be broken to human beings like the manna which came down from heaven, alike on the Pacific and the Atlantic, remote in the far-off wilds of the West, as near at home.
    In addition to the appropriation asked for herein, I find it necessary (as the treaty for this reservation is not yet ratified) to inform you that the means at hand is insufficient to work it, and the agent desires that an appropriation may be asked of Congress for the purpose of farming tools and agricultural implements, to the amount of five thousand dollars, viz,
Estimate
To enable the Indian agent of the Siletz Reservation in Oregon to work the farms thereon while the treaty thereof remains unratified, by purchasing farming tools and agricultural implements, to be expended by the agent in charge under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, five thousand (5,000) dollars.
    I would respectfully recommend the above appropriation, also, to your favorable consideration, as I am convinced from a careful inspection (the best part of two days) of the mills, land and houses under the agent's charge, that he will be unable to carry on the 3 farms, properly and husband-like, without it. The reason why I have worded the estimates in the manner or terms they bear is to avoid the possibility of a stranger being sent out here to expend these appropriations or one who may know nothing of the habits of these Indians, while Col. Benj. Simpson's reputation and integrity, his experience in this region of 20 years and standing in the relation as he does of a father to his people who (during his service here) have evinced every confidence in him, his firm yet mild and judicious management of them, and the mood, aspect and character in his hands of the Siletz farms, all warrant on his part under the direction of the honorable Secretary of the Interior, an economical and proper disposition of the funds in question.
    The aforegoing comprise the "wants and condition" of the Siletz Reservation; the educational and religious interests of this interesting people are "ripe unto the harvest," and while the treaty remains unratified the agent has the employees, though few in number, properly distributed, and with the small help asked for the appointments of the farms would be as perfect as it is possible to make them, while the relief of the "Coquilles &c." in the manner indicated would be a measure of simple justice and humanity.
    We leave tomorrow (Wednesday the 9th) for the Alsea Sub-Agency, a distance of 40 miles via Oysterville, and upon examining that reserve I will promptly advise you, in the meanwhile posting this to you at Salem, the "nearest and speediest route."
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obedt. servt.
            John W. Wells
                U.S. Indn. Agent
Hon. Lewis V. Bogy
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
            Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 471-487.




Taylors Ferry Jan. 11th 1867
Mr. Huntington, Dear Sir
    I had expected to have seen you personally before now but heard that you was away from home and have concluded to write & state my business & if there is a prospect for us to go in together I will come & see you.
    Now I want to know if we can incorporate a company for making a toll road from Ft. Yamhill to the coast at the mouth of Salmon Creek. Say about three of us & it being on the reserve would we be allowed to build & live & keep stock on said reservation. If you say yes I will come and see you and I think I can satisfy you that I will do as I agree to with you. Nevertheless we are strangers at this time, I have not said anything to anybody yet and will not until I see you. I believe it will be a good investment.
Hoping to favorably
    From you soon I am
        Sir yours respectfully
            John A. Taylor
Address, Portland
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 2.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency
    Oregon, January 12th 1867.
Sir,
    I have the honor respectfully to inform you that I left the "Siletz Reservation" on Wednesday 9th inst., on a visit to this sub-agency, which I reached on Thursday the 10th inst. at 6½ p.m
    The travel hither was on horseback from "Siletz" to Bensell's Depot 6 miles by skiff thence via Oysterville to Newport 15 miles, and thence to "Alsea" on horseback 25 miles by the ocean shore, making a total of 46 miles.
    The good weather which we had since the 2nd instant ceased on our arrival at 8 p.m. of the 9th at Newport, when a rain and hail storm set in, which continued during that night and accompanied us on our dismal journey by the sea the next morning and all day up to our arrival at Alsea at 6½ p.m. of the 10th, wetting us to the skin, and the driving rain found its way into my saddlebags, damaging their contents considerably. A good, warm fire and a cheerful welcome soon set us right, and I arose betimes in the morning to see the chiefs, who had gathered at the sub-agent's house to talk with me.
    I found things here in as good condition as the limited means supplied to Superintendent Huntington, in the hands of the efficient sub-agent Mr. George W. Collins, will allow.
    The houses of the Indians on the Alsea River, 9 miles north of the sub-agency, are, like those at Alsea proper, well built, and an air of comfort and good neighborhood is apparent among the families residing there, numbering about 160 souls.
    I much regretted that the prevalence of the storm, which caused a rise in the streams so formidable as to render their passage dangerous, prevented me from extending my visit to the Siuslaws, 40 miles distant from the agency farm, and connected therewith. I hope to do this at a more favorable period the ensuing summer after I shall have arrived at and settled the affairs of my agency.
    The number of souls at this sub-agency consisting of the Coos and Umpqua, the Siuslaw and the Alsea tribe was, about 18 months since (when they were enumerated), 530.
    From the best information I could get after freely conversing with the sub-agent and farmer, and the farmers in the neighborhood, their number has advanced with that natural increment which attends a healthful and contented domestic status to about 600, the number of children from 6 to 13 being about 60.
    This sub-agency lies a little west of south of "Siletz" 41 miles, and the average area of the reserve is 18 miles wide by 40 in length. The Indians are industrious, and in the talk I had with them, of a few hours, at the sub-agent's house, they manifested a desire that I should so understand them that they were willing to work and to make themselves good farmers. They need farming tools, cows and other stock such as horses and oxen, which if given sheep they would learn the additional art of raising wool. The sub-agent informs me that with 20 cows and an appropriation of 1800 or 2000 dollars, to be expended by him under a suitable bond, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, in the purchase of such other of the above objects as they need, a want they have severely felt would be judiciously supplied. He also needs an appropriation of $150 annually for medicines and medical attendance on the farms once in three months by Dr. Bensell, who at each of four visits per annum would put up and label the medicines with written directions to be administered by the sub-agent during the doctor's absence, the diseases being of a mild type, easily yielding to simple treatment, and peculiar only to the seacoast where they are all located.
    Wheat here is in its infancy, will grow, and promises well. Potatoes and all the other vegetables grow in abundance, and amply supply the Indians.
    The sub-agent needs 400 dollars to build a comfortable house to live in; he and the farmer occupy one here of the rudest kind for shelter, with beds on the ground floor on the line of, and in front of, the fireplace, the warmth of which alone in the winter renders the house in a measure tenantable. The Indians told me they had suffered much this winter from the want of warm clothing, and Sub-Agent Collins informed me he had just returned from a trip to Salem whither he had gone to represent this fact to the Superintendent. I inquired at the Superintendency how this was and was informed the Indian goods were bought East, and the supplies from the Indian Department for the season had not yet arrived. The Superintendent, I understand, has no funds applicable to this exigency, and I fear the "Indian will want blanket, his squaw want shawl, and his child want woolen clothing to keep them warm" (as the chief of the Lower Umpquas touchingly expressed it) until the goods reached the Superintendent's hands.
    I would therefore recommend that the Alsea Sub-Agency be constituted into a full agency with the present sub-agent as "U.S. Indian Agent for the Alsea Indians," to give the required sureties, and that an appropriation be made annually for his salary as such agent, and that the present system of the sub-agency be done away with.
    By this change the suffering now experienced and to which they are liable in every rigorous winter will be avoided, and by making a treaty with these Indians an act of simple justice will be meted out to them in the resulting extinguishment thereby of their right to the soil, from which since the removal of the "Coquilles" and "Whiskers band of Sixes" from their homes on Yaquina Bay they are in constant dread of being extruded [sic].
    Allied to this feeling is that which arises from their knowledge of the people around them, who desire and are now making the effort to induce the Department to remove them from their homes at Alsea, the necessity for which is not apparent to me, although I have freely canvassed the subject with those who are so anxious to have it accomplished. Nor can I see that this necessity will arise for many years to come, if it ever arises at all.
    These Indians are on no public thoroughfare, are in no man's way; the routes of travel are distant from them; there cannot under any state of circumstances be a collision with them by miners or travelers, and as far as I can judge they will not be intruded upon by bona fide settlers who in good faith would seek the lands on their reserve, for settlement, with the view to cultivate and develop their resources.
    A reason urged for their removal is supposed to exist in the demand for lands, which the Yaquina Bay if surveyed would elicit, but even if this were done, it has yet to be demonstrated that a safe harbor would be found, that the avoidance of the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River [sic] is practicable; the draft of vessels must be ascertained; no railroad is yet built from the head of tide or Elk City to Corvallis, and even if all these improvements were accomplished, many years must elapse before Portland would consent to the existence of a rival city in Newport to despoil her of her trade.
    Admit however for the sake of the argument (as it has been presented to me), but not for that of the fact that all this were done, it would still be unjust to remove this peaceful and otherwise contented people from their homes at "Alsea" without first making a treaty with them and buying out their right to the land; thus, when the time came, affording them a little capital to go thence with them, to whatever new home may be assigned them.
    In the meanwhile, the educational provisions in such treaty would be advantaged by the present generation of their youth, who when called to meet the stern and rough changes incident to such removal, would bring educated minds to the task, and, taking the places of the old ones who in the interim would naturally retire from a world of apprehension and terror to them, would make this dreaded transition in their habitude a comparatively light affair.
    Hence, I think a safe middle ground may be assumed, in view of the above facts, by constituting the "Sub-Alsea" a full agency and by making a treaty with the "Alsea and other confederated bands" named in the premises, and I respectfully present the subject to the favorable consideration of the Department.
    I therefore recommend meanwhile that an estimate for the following appropriations, to be asked of Congress at its present session, be made, viz,
Estimate
For supplying the present wants of the "Alsea Sub-Indian Agency in Oregon," to be expended by the sub-agent under a suitable bond with approved sureties by and under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, in the purchase of farming tools, cows and other stock, blankets and other woolen clothing, medicines and to procure medical attendance, and to build an agent's house at said sub-agency, as follows,
viz,
For the purchase of farming tools, cows and other stock, two thousand four hundred dollars $2,400
For the purchase of blankets and other woolen clothing, four hundred dollars 400
For the purchase of medicines and to procure medical attendance, one hundred and fifty dollars 150
For the purchase of materials to build a house for the agent      400
Total     $3,350
    I have thus presented the whole subject of the "Alsea Sub-Indian Agency," complicated as it is, in the light in which after mature consideration my deliberate judgment has viewed it, and the means for its extrication from the difficulties which surround it, and respectfully present them to the favorable consideration of the Department.
    The number of children of that tender youth of the ages I have named, needing education, is about 60, and as Genl. Palmer's treaty with the Lower Umpquas (as the sub-agent informs me) is not ratified, a stronger reason is furnished hereby that a new one adapted to their present wants and condition should be made with them, to confer also its blessings upon these susceptible hearts, which, without them, must grow up wild and hardened into their native stoicism.
    Upon the conclusion of my report for the Grand Ronde Agency (which I will mail) in a few days, I will send you a plan or system by which the children of the "Siletz," "Alsea" and "Grand Ronde" may be brought into the educational benefactions of the Department to the extent it may be your pleasure to adopt.
I have the honor to be
    Very truly
        and respectfully
            Your obedt. servant
                John W. Wells
Hon. Lewis V. Bogy
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 511-522.



"Grand Ronde Reservation"
    Oregon, January 21st 1867.
Sir,
    I have the honor respectfully to inform you that on Thursday last (17th inst.) I started from Salem for the Grand Ronde Reserve, at early candlelight that morning, and rode 41 miles, reaching there at 7:20 p.m., the rain pouring down without intermission during our entire ride.
    It is considered 38 miles from Salem to Grand Ronde by the way of the ford at Mill Creek, but the ford being impassable by reason of the overflowing water, we had to make a detour of 3 miles in order to cross Mill Creek bridge, going and returning.
    My trip from Alsea on Friday the 11th inst. not being without interest, I will mention it as showing the extreme difficulty under which one labors in traveling in midwinter through the rains and snows of Oregon, the peril consisting not so much in the danger of being "frozen in" on a reserve after reaching it, but in the swelling of the mountain streams which renders their passage eminently dangerous.
    Piloted by 2 Indian guides whom Sub-Agent Collins had kindly sent with his horses to take us from Newport to "Alsea," we returned back to Newport by the ocean shore on Friday the 11th, riding 25 miles in the rain, and arriving at Newport at 7 p.m., my audience with the chiefs at "Alsea" being limited to about 5 hours on that day, and my stay there necessarily short, in consequence of the streams through the settlements being overflowed.
    A river steamer came down the Yaquina to Newport on Saturday the 12th and took us thence, via Oysterville, to Elk City (near the head of tide), a distance of 24 miles, where we arrived that evening about 7 o'clock, the steamer nearly foundering in the storm off Coquille Point on her way down. At Elk City we found our horses, which we had left the previous Wednesday at "Siletz," Agent Simpson having kindly sent them there by 2 Indian guides, it being impossible for us to return from "Siletz" by the "Sheridan trail" to Salem, in consequence of the rainy weather and swollen streams.
    On Sunday morning of the 13th we started from Elk City for Corvallis, a ride of 43 miles, forgetting to engage the guides to pilot us, and after riding from ½ past 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. in alternate rain and snow, we lost our way at the end of 26 miles when near Blodgett's Valley, by reason of the entire obscuration of the road by the snow on the level places.
    Here, bewildered, and at a loss what to do, we wandered about on a large level for nearly an hour, when I paid a man living on the road to
pilot us two miles to it, and (a short distance on our way) to a farm house where we got shelter at 8 o'clock for the night, but I could not prevail on him by any consideration to show us 5 miles farther to Somers' Farmer's House, where we could have obtained all the comforts our distressing situation required. On Monday (the 14th) we rode to Corvallis (17 miles from our shelter overnight) which we reached at 4 p.m. On Tuesday (the 15th) we took a Willamette River steamer for Salem 50 miles, which we reached at 6 p.m., having left Corvallis at 9 a.m.
    On Wednesday (16th) we rested at Salem, where I mailed to you my report on the "Siletz Reservation," and the next day Mr. Brown of the Superintendency there piloted us to the Grand Ronde Reserve, as stated in the premises.
    On Friday, the morning after our arrival at Grand Ronde, I visited the school of 4 boys and 3 girls under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Clark, in the meanwhile sending my son to visit the Indian houses within an area of 8 or ten miles, it being impossible for me to ford the streams with my horse, while he walked around the heads of them and made the circuit of the settlements within this distance of the neighborhoods of the agency office by nightfall, starting about 9 a.m.
    I found the school located in a small room, unventilated, dark and humid, a stove in it without fire, which the closeness of the room rendered unnecessary. A desk of the capacity in length to seat the scholars stood at the end of a line or row of bunks like those used in barracks, opposite to which stood another row of bunks of like kind, with room to pass between. This was all the accommodation for sleeping which I saw, and if it be all I should judge it an unfit place for the male sex alone, and if the girls have sleeping apartments elsewhere the eye rests nowhere upon these, or partitions to convey the idea of an observance of the rule for the separation of the sexes, at least, in the daytime before and after school hours. The narrow school room (with its bunks) appears located at the back of the sitting room of the family; these are at the side of a room of the length of both devoted to washing and cooking; this long room and the school room have the same damp, cheerless air, and from the location of these three rooms it is impossible for the long room and the school room to receive that healthful ventilation and warmth from the sun so desirable in a sanitary point of view.
    The repellent tone of the school room was brought forcibly to my mind on Saturday during the council I held with the chiefs. They told me that apart from their repugnance to the school which they had on account of their religion (they being Catholics) they, that is, those of them who had children, would not send them to this school, because they sickened and died after being there a few months. The reason for this mortality was patent to my mind while the chiefs were speaking, and I felt that what otherwise might be deemed their superstition was alas a truth which physiological causes demonstrated!
    The children did well in their exercises in spelling, reading and the first four rules of arithmetic, or, I should say, the arithmetical branch of the exercises was engrossed by a smart boy about 13 years of age, a son of the chief of the Oregon City tribe, named Homer [Homer Hoffer]. They were not so proficient in singing as the scholars of "Siletz"; they sang no hymns at all, but, on the contrary, a rude song called "Johnny," of low metrical character indeed, the terms of which were not indelicate, but rather unrefined for youth.
    These children evince remarkable aptitude to learn, but, as a whole, they are not I should think so proficient as those at "Siletz," while I believe Homer to be the aptest and best scholar of all in both schools. To show you their susceptibility to learn, and the progress which they have made, I herewith enclose the copy books of
Homer, after two years;
Hooker, after odd spells of a year;
Lincoln, the same;
Susan Clarke, after 5 months tuition;
George Washington, after 3 ditto;
Geslie, the same;
which afford a practical test of the sufficiency of the system of the education of the Indian youth so happily founded by your Department, and which you and your efficient coadjutors Mr. Mix and Mr. Watson have so much at heart.
    The houses of the Indians are well built, and they are kept in a style highly creditable to this race (so recently reclaimed from a warlike and savage habitude) in point of domestic comfort and cleanliness. Many of the families have turned bedsteads, with good beds and bedding, clean linen, warm comforts and blankets made of "Oregon wool" (than which when manufactured into "goods" there is not a more honest fabric extant), kitchen and culinary wares; these assimilate them in habit to our race in a manner the most gratifying indeed. The sawmill and flouring mill are in good order; the backwater from the floods prevented me from witnessing the operation of the machinery, which I regretted. The flouring mill during the quarter ending 31st December 1866 ground 2500 bushels of wheat. The Indians have had their wheat ground into flour ever since the mill was put up and in running order. I saw the new granary erected by the agent, and its compartments amply supplied with wheat, oats and other grain, potatoes, carrots and other vegetables, devoted to the eleemosynary aid and for the support of the old and infirm adults and helpless orphans. The sawmill cut for the same quarter 15,000 feet of lumber for the Indians to use in building their houses and for repairs &c.
    On Saturday (the 19th) I held a council with the chiefs at the office of the agent, all of whom spoke except four, who expressed themselves as "gratified at what had been said and would not detain the council, or me, as it was growing late."
    There were present (and spoke)
Tom--chief of the Rogue River band;
John--chief of the Oregon City tribe;
Jake--chief of the Cow Creek band;
Lewis--chief of the Umpquas & Calapooias;
Billy--chief of the Calapooias;
Peter--chief of the Umpquas;
Joseph Hutchins--chief of the Saint Aums;
Joseph Sangareto--chief of the Marysvilles;
Quackety--chief of the Molels;
Tom--subchief of the Calapooias; and
Peter--the Yamhill chief (the exceptions being Dave, Jake, Kilkie and Wacheno)
    They all bore testimony to the kindness and fatherly care over them of Agent Harvey.
    They said he had done everything for them he could or they wished, and that while he bore the mildness and patient character of a father to them all, he nevertheless punished every infraction of the laws and regulations of the agency.
    The principal wants which they said they had were harness, cows, wagons, plows and oxen.
    There are only a few cows on the farms.
    They needed these articles in preference to annuity goods (such as blankets, clothing or calicoes), and they desire if it can be done to receive the value of what they draw as annuities in money through the hands of their agent to purchase such of these articles as they may need themselves, each one of the beneficiaries designating their names to the agent, who might wish to avail themselves of the benefits proposed by this change. Or, if not allowed to draw the money and make the purchases of what they prefer on annuity day, then to place the money in the hands of the agent, and they get him to purchase such of these articles for them as they may desire and request him to do.
    They say this change would be for their benefit, and Agent Harvey approves it, which I cheerfully recommend to the favorable attention of the Commissioner.
    They also desire that their little homes may be surveyed and set off, so that each man may know the size and lines of his farm from those of his neighbors. There are at present only rude stakes and primitive modes of measurement, which create discontent, and is, to the Indians and their families, a source of infinite vexation. It is not supposed collisions in dispute will ensue when questions as to ownership arise, but they beseech this measure of the Department to assure to their community good neighborhood and contentment.
    They say the school is repugnant to them for the reasons heretofore stated, and they wish their daughters placed in the charge of the Sisters, and their sons in that of a teacher or priest of their persuasion, being Catholic converts, and that this is a reason insuperable to them why they have never acknowledged the school.
    They say they have no objection, nor have they ever raised any, to the children of the Protestant Indians being educated there, but protest against the system to which they have been subjected as Catholics in not having the benefit of the religious ministration and culture to which they are attached.
    This subject is so easily solved under the 1st Article of the Amendments to the Constitution that it does not need the school and its paucity of numbers (with an education fund of 2200 dollars a year, assigned to the Grand Ronde Agency, productive of so trifling an amount of good with so much harm) to elucidate it.
    The agent says that the sub-heads of appropriation in the treaties are insufficient to carry on the farms even with the aid which has been allowed him from the "General Incidental" fund. There is no provision made, he says, for a farmer, and yet he cannot get along without one as is well known, the $1000.00 out of the education fund allowed for a teacher being appropriated to pay a farmer by detail.
    He also says no provision is made for a blacksmith (though one is on the list of employees at $1,000.00 per annum, and if not paid out of a "Treaty Fund" is, I presume, furnished from the "Genl. Incidental") and requests that an appropriation be asked of Congress for this employee, at an annual salary of $1,000.00. The agent also wants $400.00 per annum for the support of the blacksmith's shop, which objects he said must be appropriated for, as it will be impracticable for him to get along further without them.
    It is so manifestly proper to hold the education funds sacred to the purposes of their creation that I cheerfully recommend the appropriation for a farmer, and having examined the blacksmith's shop with care that also for a blacksmith, and for the support of the shop likewise.
    I therefore embody these wants in an
Estimate, viz,
For the salary of a farmer to direct the Indians in farming, and to supervise the farming operations on the Grand Ronde Reserve in Oregon, one thousand dollars $1,000
For the salary of a blacksmith on the Grand Ronde Reserve in Oregon, one thousand dollars 1,000
For the support of a blacksmith's shop on the Grand Ronde Reserve in Oregon, four hundred dollars     400
Total     $2,400
and, at the agent's request, I respectfully recommend that an appropriation be asked of Congress at its present session (if practicable) for the same.
    With reference to the survey of the Indian farms on this reserve, I have the honor to refer you to the Agent's Report in the Annual Report of your predecessor for 1865, 4th paragraph, page 475, and recommend his suggestions therein for adoption.
    With reference to the school system for Indian children as applicable to the Grand Ronde Reserve, I would respectfully recommend that a contract be entered into with the Rev. F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of Oregon, similar to those of that portion of the Missouri River reserves, entered into and so successfully carried on for many years, with Father De Smet (as principal), and that the agent be instructed to furnish the usual facilities for the erection of a mission and school houses, and buildings for the accommodation of the Sisters & teachers (common to those accorded to or enjoyed by Protestant societies) for the religious and mental training of the children of Catholic Indian converts.
    This done, apart from their unquestioned right under the Constitution to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences, the Indians will no longer complain that in a few months after entering the school at Grand Ronde their children die, or have to leave with broken constitutions occasioned by maladies contracted there, a terrible truth unhesitatingly imparted to me by Mr. Clark the present teacher of the Grand Ronde school, and new, plain but commodious and well-ventilated buildings will prevent it.
    To vindicate the truth of history, I add that in contradistinction to what the chiefs stated in council, that "Agent Harvey punished all infractions of the laws and regulations of the agency," I am informed that this is not so (upon what may be deemed credible authority) and that he does not administer punishment. I give the facts to the Department as I received them (without comment), and as I conceive it to be my duty so to do, in compliance with my instructions, leaving the question of veracity to be explained by Agent Harvey, to reconcile which I conceive not to be my province. There were, I should judge, on the day of the council, about 300 (though the day was rainy) Indians congregated about the agent's office; they looked healthy, well clad, and to all appearance comfortable and contented, the indications of its opposite being apparent in two or three with sties, occasioned by black eyes got in fighting, as I am informed, the night before. I say they looked healthy, because it is due to the agent I should say that I didn't observe the tokens of diseased constitutions among them [that] Mr. Scott's letter speaks of.
    The agent received us kindly, and he and the employees treated us well and extended to us every hospitality and courtesy.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obedt. servt.
            John W. Wells
                U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Lewis V. Bogy
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 488-506.



Portland, Oregon
    January 26th 1867.
Hon. L. V. Bogy
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
                Sir,
                    I have the honor to inform you that I mailed my report to you on the "Siletz Reservation" at Salem on Wednesday 16th instant, on the "Alsea Sub-Indian Agency" from here on Thursday 24th instant, and today (Saturday) I send you my report on the "Grand Ronde Reservation," all of which I hope may safely reach you.
    I have been deterred from visiting the "Warm Springs" and "Yakima Reserve," in consequence of a heavy fall of snow which set in here on Tuesday last (22nd), and find that I can only take the "Umatilla" and "Lapwai" reserves preparatory to starting for Montana from Walla Walla (as I purpose) on the 15th of next month.
    I have not seen anyone from Montana since my return to Portland on Monday last, hence I do not know what sort of travel there is overland between Walla Walla and the Flathead Agency, but I shall push on after fitting out at Walla Walla guided by an old mountaineer and former employee at [sic] Jocko (whom I have engaged here upon the recommendation of an old friend, Col. A. T. Dennison, former agent at the Warm Springs Reserve), and who is to meet me at Walla Walla on the 12th proximo.
    I left Portland for Salem on the 2nd instant, and on the 5th commenced operations, visiting the Siletz, Alsea and Grand Ronde reserves, getting through on the 20th. I occupied 16 days in the tour, 5 only of which were in dry weather, the rest (11 days) being accomplished over indescribable roads and through rain, hail and storms and swollen mountain streams which expended their copious powers upon us in a style descriptive of a condition every day defined by the precious old Anglo-Saxon phrase known as "a sound ducking." And yet, for all this, I have not taken any colds; on the contrary, my appetite is restored; I am a stranger to rheumatism; my liver disorder is banished; I sleep soundly and feel that delicious gratification which returning health inspires.
    My reports will have made you acquainted with the length of my rides, and their attendant temporary discomforts.
    On Monday last (21st) after riding all day on Sunday from Grand Ronde to Salem, 41 miles, and sleeping on board the steamer Sunday night, we were hove out 4½ miles above Oregon City like so much loose trumpery, to walk a portage for this distance on account of the high water, and you may imagine the deliciousness of our pedestrian exploit (after such a ride through a rain storm all the day before that soused us like wet clothes in a washtub), tired, and hardly try, our road cut through the woods, the condition of which the word ditch would faintly describe. Humanitarian and benevolent steamboat company, that couldn't provide a team or conveyance of some kind to take us 4½ little miles; they perhaps thought such a luxury might spoil their passengers! We had to leave our baggage and did not get it until the evening of a Tuesday, since when I have been occupied in finishing my Alsea report, and in writing out that on the Grand Ronde, and my correspondence.
    I leave on Monday (28th) for the Dalles to try if I can get through to the Warm Springs. If I cannot on account of the snow (which is ten inches deep here now) I will push on on Friday the 1st Feby. for the Umatilla Reserve, the arrangements for which we have sent word to Mr. Barnhart about.
    We reach Walla Walla on the 5th (Feb), getting to Lapwai on the 7th or 8th, and after spending 2 or 3 days there return to Walla Walla by the 12th, & starting on the 15th for Jocko, my guide. Major Blake will meet me at Walla Walla and in the meanwhile have our horses with a pack mule all ready. Our trunks will remain in Walla Walla until navigation spent on the Columbia, when they will be sent up to us by steamer, about the 1st of June.
Yours very truly
    John W. Wells
        U.S. Indn. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 507-510.



Ashland Mills, Oregon Jan. 26th 1867.
Sir,
    In my report for December, I gave it as my opinion that if the winter should not be a very severe or a long one, the Indians, with perhaps a few exceptions, have provisions sufficient to subsist them till spring. Captain Sprague writes that he has authority to issue rations to destitute
Indians, on my recommendation. If he could provide for the destitute at the expense of his Department, I think it would be a good arrangement. The Ind. Department shorts could then be saved to stimulate agricultural operations in the spring.
    I desire your recommendation or instructions in this matter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Sub-In. Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 147.



Ashland Mills, Orgn. Jan. 26th 1867.
Sir,
    I would be pleased to have you send on some few quires of paper for accounts current, as my supply of such paper is nearly exhausted, and I cannot procure it here.

Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Lindsay Applegate
            U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Ind. Affrs.
            Salem, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 148.



    The Bulletin of the 16th has the following notice of an old Oregonian and the enterprise in which he is now engaged:
    It is not a little singular that the pioneer cotton manufacturer of California is an Oregonian of 20 years standing. William H. Rector emigrated with his family to Oregon in 1845, and settled at Salem. He was always distinguished for energy, public spirit and sound judgment. He projected the woolen mill at Salem--the first on the Pacific coast--planned the building and purchased the machinery for the same. The mill went into operation in 1857, and has proved entirely successful. Having disposed of his interest in that mill, Mr. Rector in 1865 removed to California, and, being convinced that cotton might be profitably cultivated in many portions of this state, and further believing that it would be grown extensively, he selected a site for a mill at Oakland--or, more properly speaking, at Clinton, across the arroyo from Oakland--caused its erection without delay, procured his machinery from the East, set it up, and had it in operation on the 1st day of December, 1865, since which time it has been running pretty constantly.
Oregonian, Portland, January 29, 1867, page 3



Ashland Mills, Oregon Jan. 31st 1867.
Sir,
    In pursuance of the regulations of the Indian Department I submit the following as my report for the present month.
    The greater part of the month has been cold and stormy; the lake has been frozen over, and the Indians have complained much, as it has been impossible for them to get fish. They evidently suffer much on account of their being poorly provided with clothing and blankets. I do not think they have suffered much yet on account of scarcity of provisions
, although they clamor loudly for flour. From present indications I think it will be necessary to issue some of the shorts to them during the ensuing month. The eight thousand pounds of shorts on hand now I think will be sufficient to feed the remainder of the destitute through the remainder of the winter, and also to provision working parties in the spring.
    There has been considerable excitement occasioned by an attempt on the part of Mo-shen-koska, chief of the Yahooskins, and his followers to depose high chief Lalakes and become high chief himself. But the attempt resulted in little more than a great deal of talk and excitement, and the revolution has been stayed.
    On the farm, aside from caring for the stock, the farmer has been engaged in chopping fencing timber. The soldiers who are stationed at the agency were ordered to Fort Klamath a short time ago when there was a prospect of their being mustered out of the service, but they returned to the agency on the 27th inst.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    January 31st 1867
Dear Sir, I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of January 1867. As to the condition of those Indians under my control, they are all in a prosperous condition, and their general health at present is very good, and they all have plenty of food to subsist on. There is four different tribes of Indians in all, numbering about 530, viz: Umpqua tribe, Coos tribe, Siuslaw tribe and Alsea tribe. Among the Umpqua tribe of Indians there has been 2 births, but no deaths during this month. Among the Coos tribe there has been one birth and no deaths during the month. Among the Siuslaw tribe there has been 2 births and one death during present month. Amongst the Alsea tribe there has been 2 deaths and no births during this month.
    All of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant.
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



O. A. Stearns
Fort Klamath, Oregon
February 5th, 1867
Kind and Esteemed Friend.
    Although I have not as yet received an answer to my last letter to you, I shall undertake another, for I know the answer will come sometime.
    You will see by the heading that I am not yet among the citizens. Although all the volunteers on the coast were ordered to be mustered out, we alone remain. There are now but sixty of us, ten of the enlisted men, and one 2nd lieut. having been mustered out last July at Vancouver.
    We have been expecting to be mustered out many times, but it was delayed until the winter closed in upon us, and precluded the moving of other troops to take our places.
    The weather has not been very cold here, nor the snow very deep, but there has been a great deal of rain and snow both, the latter being two and one half feet deep at the present time. We have had some skating on the lake about eight miles from here; the Captain, who is very fond of the sport, furnishing horses and saddles for a party of us, whenever we wished to go down with him. But now, as the snow has covered the ice, there is no kind of amusement here.
    Soldiering has degenerated into a farce. Our Captain being in command here, and not liking the pomp and display generally displayed, has reduced the duty to a simple observance of guard duty. There is no one required to walk post, and the members of the guard merely take their turns keeping up a fire and observing that nothing goes wrong about the garrison. Sometimes the guard stays on for a week or more without being relieved, and when the next guard goes on there is no ceremony of guard mounting.
    The Captain does not ask, nor will he allow anyone to salute him excepting such times as he has muster.
    There is not a man in the company but respects him because he endeavors to make the soldiers' duty as light and agreeable as possible.
    We have a literary society here and publish a paper. There are not more than five contributors, and I do all the copying and act both in the capacity of editor and reader. This serves to occupy some of my time, and amuses those who do nothing to contribute to the general amusement fund.
    In consequence of there being so many stories of our being relieved last fall, winter found me with but few books or other reading matter, consequently I am not very well prepared to do much in the way of editing a paper.
    We have some curious specimens of composition; some of them exceed any of Artemus Ward's, Josh Billings', Mrs. Partington's, or any of the noted oddities of the present day. I shall send some of them to Harper's Drawer [the humorous anecdote column of Harper's Magazine].
    I was out on an Indian hunt last fall, and after coming back I got twelve days' furlough and went home. Had an excellent time, and enjoyed my short-lived freedom to the utmost extent. Found all the people well, and glad to see me. My sister had just finished a three months' term of school teaching. Father was busy at work, finishing his new dwelling house, and has moved out of the old log house which has sheltered them since coming to this country, and now they occupy the new one.
    They have a "Good Templar" lodge at Phoenix, and nearly all the young and many of the old people in the vicinity are members. I believe there are four lodges of that order in the county. I never belonged to a temperance organization, as there was none in the county until after I enlisted. Expect to join the Templars when mustered out. Not because I ever was addicted to drinking, for I never drank anything stronger than homemade wine, except in one instance, when I took some brandy while undergoing a little surgical operation, but because I might prevail upon others who were addicted to drinking to follow my example. Example makes half the drunkards, and it should save many if it was for good instead of evil.
    One time when I was down on the lake skating, the ice was thin and clear, out some distance from the shore, and the Indians were out, barefooted, spearing fish. The water was not very deep, and they could see the fish through the ice. The Indian would carry his spear in one hand, and a short, heavy club in the other; when he saw a fish he would run above it on the ice, and by thumping with his club would scare it, when he would follow it until it run its head under some of the moss on the bottom of the lake. He then would break a round hole through the ice with the end of the club, and running his spear within a few inches of the exposed portion of the fish, by a sudden thrust he would impale him and pull the spear, with the fish at the point, through the ice. I saw them catch a great many that way while there. They catch many during the night by building fires upon the ice near a large hole, when the fish, coming under, would be secured with their spears. The fish were of the sucker species, and some of them would weigh ten pounds or more.
    The Indians are rather short of food this winter, they having laid in less than usual under the promise of government that they should have the flour and beef promised them in the treaty and the failure on the part of the government to fulfill its part of the stipulations.
    Uncle Samuel is getting more slow in his movements every day, and very forgetful of his promises to others after having his wishes complied with. I fear many of the broken treaties are on account of his dilatory habit of not immediately fulfilling his promises. The Indians certainly have often just grounds for breaking their word when the government sets them such pernicious examples.
    Nearly every mail brings us some news of some fight with the Snake Indians, indicating that the troops who are stationed all through the wilderness they inhabit are hunting them to some purpose. Those Indians can come nearer subsisting upon air than any race of beings in the world. They are seldom very long in any one place, and can travel for days without succumbing to fatigue. They have never been, and I think never will be, friendly to the whites. To conquer them is to exterminate them.
    As my letter is growing long without becoming interesting, and as I am nearly sick with a cold, I will close.
    My regards to all, and wish to hear from you as often as convenient.
    I remain as ever you sincere friend and pupil.
Typed transcription, University of Oregon Special Collections. Addressee not recorded.



Corvallis, Oregon,
    Feb. 5th 1867
Hon. Geo. H. Williams,
    Dr. Sir,
        Yours, containing the reply of Com. of Indian Affairs touching my claim upon the Dept. for unpaid salary as Indian agt. at the Siletz Agency, was recd. in due time--to which I returned a reply, with copies of certain vouchers, which I had forwd. [to] the 2nd Auditor of the Treasury, which I deemed satisfactory, thereby settling my a/cs with the Dept. Laboring under this impression I wrote to you as I did that I owed the govt. upon settlement with its authorized agents one dollar, which I would pay at any time to a legal agt. A short time after this I recd. another statement of my a/cs containing the same facts and figures of the first, which I had answered, and complied with every demand made upon me, leaving me in their debt one dollar--this result had been arrived at when I wrote you upon the subject. Your reply and the Com's. statement, that my a/cs appeared to be unsettled with the govt., caused me to forward to you a copy of the vouchers I forwarded to the 2nd Auditor of the Treasury to the end I might stand justified with you in making any demand for near a half year's salary. Since this I have not heard from you. In the meantime I have transmitted to the proper officer a second set of papers, the same that I forwarded to you; I take it for granted that the first never came to hand--or I should not have received the second, of the same purport. I am afraid I have put you to some trouble. I did not anticipate any difficulty to grow out of it. I supposed my agency business was all settled on my part, and that I had only to make the demand and their own record would convince them of its justice and correctness. I would not insist upon your bestowing any considerable amount of your valuable time to this matter, but would be pleased to have the attention of the Dept. directed to my case, and from the papers & record in their possession they will promptly discharge the small obligation I hold against the govt. for services legitimately rendered.
    I presume you to be well posted upon Oregon affairs through the various mediums at your command--nevertheless I will venture to fill my sheet with a few items. The winter has been a very mild one; the rain has predominated as usual, causing high water, but not so high as to do any great amount of damage; business is very dull in every department; the products of the country is not in demand. Wheat is a drug--there were no sales for pork--bacon is low--cattle is in fair demand--the floods and losses in California has added to this. The farmers are a little discouraged, but it will not prevent them from putting in another large crop--some part of the world will want it. The health of the country is unusually good; the doctors are the poorest men we have and the most idle.
    I could say something on politics in this particular locality--but not in this letter--it's interesting--but more anon.
Yours very truly
    B. R. Biddle
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 541-543.




Port Orford Curry County
    Oregon February 15th 67.
P. J. [sic] Huntington Esqr.
    Dear Sir
        As there are quite a number of Indians in Curry County that belongs on the reservation, and as their presence amongst us is creating a hostile feeling towards them, I have been requested by several citizens of the county to write to you and inform you of their presence in our neighborhood. The people heretofore have suffered by these same Indians, and they say that unless they are taken away that they will be dealt harshly with, and some go as far as to say that they will shoot them. Now this is what many of us are opposed to, but as there are some in our midst who have not forgot the suffering that was
caused by these same Indians, [who] threatens unless they are taken away that they will shoot them. It is not supposed that the Indians can be guarded so close as to prevent them from escaping in small numbers and secreting themselves in the mountains for a short time. This is unavoidable, but when they come amongst us in numbers and settle down in our settlements where families are settled, committing petty thefts and making their brags that they will not leave the country, this we are all opposed to, and we wish you would remove them back to the reservation. There are about thirty or forty Indians here now who I could take if I had the authority so to do, and I do suggest that is the best plan, to appoint someone here to deliver them at whatever reservation you would designate. This is the best plan, as they are all the time on the lookout for the military coming for them from the reservation.
    I believe that the Indians could be removed at a less expense to the government by adopting my plan.
    I had a talk with the Indian agent Mr. Simpson and yourself about eighteen months ago in Eugene. I was then acting sheriff of this county, and I understood from the conversation I had with you that if any of the Indians left the reservation for me to bring them back and I would be remunerated for my services, but the best way is to send some written authority to do so.
Respectfully yours
    Richard Pendergast
        Late Sheriff of Curry County
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 165.



Ashland Mills Oregon February 28th 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the present month.
    The month has been almost one continuous storm, and as a consequence the Indians have clamored loudly for flour. The lake is frozen so that they cannot fish, and they are in real want. Such issues of coarse flour have been made to them as considered expedient. As a long while may be expected
to elapse before good weather, greater extremities are expected to arise, and hence the shorts are being only issued in small quantities.
    Except as regards the matter of supplies the Indians are quiet, but they are evidently growing more and more dissatisfied daily, and it will require vigorous operations on the reservation the coming season to inspire them with due confidence in the government. If no new plans are proposed for operations on the reservation commencing with spring or further funds furnished I think most of the colonization fund at my disposal should be employed in putting in a spring crop on the reservation.
    It has not been possible to do much on the farm. The stock look well, and the hay will undoubtedly subsist them till spring.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    February 28th 1867
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of February 1867. As to the condition of those Indians under my control, they are all in a prosperous condition, and their general health at present is very good. They have all got plenty of food to subsist on, and those that are here appear to be very well satisfied. They sent off for their people, some of which had run away from the reserve 3 or 4 years ago. There has been 30 Indians returned to this agency during this month. There is four different tribes of Indians under my jurisdiction numbering about 530, viz: Umpqua, Coos, Siuslaw and Alsea tribes of
Indians. They are now and always have been peaceably inclined towards the whites, all of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant.
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Superintendent Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 30, 1867
Sir
    I have on hand certain Indian Department freight designed for Fort Klamath, or for the agency in that vicinity. There are four routes by which the freight can be transported, to wit: via Red Bluffs, via Crescent City, via Dalles and also via Eugene and the Ogn. Central Military Road.
    I am unacquainted with the probable cost of transportation from Eugene to the Klamath Reservation and therefore will thank you for information.
    1st. At what cost can I get transportation from Eugene to Klamath?
    2nd. How early can wagons make the trip?
    Please answer soon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
J. B. Underwood
    Eugene
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 79.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 30, 1867
Sir
    This office is not in possession of any information concerning the cost of transportation from Crescent City to Fort Klamath.
    Your location, it is presumed, will enable you to obtain the usual prices, and you will therefore state as soon as practicable
    1st. At what price are goods usually transported between these points.
    2nd. How early can wagons cross the mountains between Crescent City & Jacksonville or those between Jacksonville and the Klamath Reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 80.



Ashland Mills, Oregon March 31st 1867.
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the present month.
    The Klamaths and Yahooskins being in real
want, an issue of shorts was made to them on the 1st inst. and a similar issue on the 10th. About the 15th inst. fish commenced running in Lost River in immense numbers, and most of the Indians went there immediately. But those not having horses, the old men and women and quite a number of children, in all about 200 Williamson River Indians, could not go, and they being in a state of suffering for want of provisions, I gave most of the shorts remaining on hand to them. Fish are now commencing to run in the upper stream; dried fish are being brought up from Lost River, and there is plenty.
    The Indians seem hopeful and look anxiously for something to be done in pursuance to the stipulations of the treaty of 1864. They are eager to do what they can in advancing operations on the farm and will be of much advantage during the cropping season. The Modocs, I am very well satisfied, would willingly come onto the reservation if operations should be commenced under the treaty.
    The farmer has employed what little favorable time he has had during the month in preparing fencing timber, so as to strengthen the fence before the cropping season. The Department animals are very fat, the hay put up on the farm having proven to be a splendid article.
    The snow is now about off at the agency, although at Fort Klamath it is near 4 feet deep.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    March 31st 1867
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of March 1867. As to the condition of those Indians under my control, they are all in a prosperous condition. They have plenty of food to subsist on. Their general health at present is very good. And all of them that are here appear to be very well satisfied. Each family have private gardens, in all of which they have planted early potatoes and some garden seeds in the forepart of this month, and also all their spring wheat, oats and turnips were sown in the forepart of this month. They are now all over ground and look very well. And up to this date we have nearly finished plowing the ground for late potatoes, and I think we can finish putting in all their crop at this agency by the 15th or 20th of next month. There has been no births nor deaths amongst those Indians since my last monthly report.
    All of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant,
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon April 2nd 1867
Sir
    I enclose herewith receipt in triplicate for articles forwarded to your address this day from Wells Fargo & Co. express.
    You will sign the receipts and return them to this office without delay.
    You will pay express charges out of general incidental fund, taking vouchers for the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
L. Applegate Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Ashland
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 80.



Ashland Mills April 10th 1867
Sir I received your note of March 30th this morning and have to say that the rates of hauling from Crescent City to Jacksonville have been heretofore four cents per pound coin rates, and from Jacksonville to Fort Klamath from three to four cents.
    The Crescent City mountains can be crossed with teams commonly by the first of June, or if an early spring by the middle of May, and the road to Fort Klamath by way of Ashland just as soon.
    The road up Rogue River cannot be traveled with teams for a month later than the road by way of Ashland.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    Lindsay Applegate
        U.S. Sub-Indian Agent
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian
        Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 190.



Ashland Mills Oregon, April 16th 1867.
Sir,
    Please find herewith receipt in triplicate of stationery and garden seeds, transmitted by Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express. I am gratified that there is so fine a variety of seeds sent, particularly that there is such a great
proportion of carrot and turnip seed.
    I have demonstrated that the rich lake bottoms will produce carrots and turnips in immense quantities, and nothing in my estimation can be raised to cheaply and at the same time so plentifully that will go so far towards subsisting the Indians as carrots and turnips.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indn. Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 192.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C. April 16th 1867
Sir
    In the month of December last, Mr. J. W. Wells, long a clerk in the Interior Department, was appointed agent for the Flatheads in Montana, and directed en route to his agency via Oregon, to make visits to such of the agencies in that state as should be found practicable and report to this office,
particularly in reference to the condition and wants of the schools.
    An abstract of his recommendations here follows, so far as they refer to appropriations to be made by Congress, with remarks appended thereto for your consideration.
    For Siletz Agency, Mr. Wells recommends the sum of $10,000 for compensation to the Coquilles and Whiskers band, removed from near Yaquina Bay, and $5000 for farming tools, stock &c.
    Remarks. These Indians are now provided for from the funds for Indians with whom there is no treaty. You have recommended, and this office has urged, that a new treaty should be made and a permanent reserve be set apart for them. You will now report whether the lapse of time has changed your views in this matter, and if so in what respect, also how far the funds at your disposal will supply the wants of these Indians until new arrangements can be made, and what deficiency, if any, you estimate in their behalf.
    For Siletz Agency, Mr. Wells recommends that this be made a full agency, and that the sum of $3350 be appropriated for farming tools, stock, blankets and clothing, medicine and material for [a] new house for [the] agent, and besides this the establishment of a school.
    Remarks. If a new treaty or other arrangement is made with these Indians, you have heretofore recommended, and this office agrees with you, that the Siletz Agency and Alsea Sub-Agency should be consolidated. Under a recent act of Congress, no treaties can be made by the Department without previous authority therefor by Congress. As to the aid recommended for these Indians, are not the funds at your disposal sufficient? If not, what is the deficiency?
    Grand Ronde Agency. Mr. Wells reports very fine scholars in attendance, the school building small, poorly constructed and ill-ventilated, and the Indians greatly desiring the establishment of a school under the charge of the Catholics. The school fund is $2200. For this, as is represented by Rev. Mr. Brouillet in behalf of the R.C. Archbishop of Oregon, a priest and two or more sisters will be furnished for the school if arrangement can be made for a proper building and the support of the children. You will put yourself in communication with the Archbishop, and if he will undertake the work, prepare a form of contract and submit it to this office for approval, bearing in view the necessity of the utmost economy. You will estimate for any deficiency which may need to be supplied by appropriation for this school. Mr. Wells also represents the necessity for a farmer and a blacksmith at this reservation, and that the additional sum of $2400 per year is necessary for their support and for the shop.
    It appears that the appropriation for teacher has been used for a farmer. This is prohibited by recent act of Congress; hereafter funds appropriated under treaties can only be used for the uses specially set forth in the treaty. You will report as to any changes in the use of any appropriation for Indians of your Superintendency, in order that specific legislation may if possible be obtained from Congress.
    Umatilla Agency. Mr. Wells' recommendations as to school matters here had been anticipated by the action of the Department in the contract with the Revd. Mr. Brouillet, a copy of which is herewith. You will take care that this contract is carried into effect by the agent on behalf of the govt. Mr. Wells also represented that new buildings for this agency are needed at a cost of $5,000, and that an additional appropriation of $3,211 is necessary for an assistant at the mill and subsistence of employees. You will report fully upon this point.
    As Congress has adjourned to meet early in July, there will be barely time, if a close connection of mails is made, to obtain a reply from you by that time. You will endeavor, however, to forward your reply so as to have it here by the first of July, if possible. In order to do this you may be obliged to report upon only a portion of the matters referred to.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        N. G. Taylor
            Commissioner
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 222.



Ashland Mills, Oregon April 17th 1867.
Sir
    I will leave this place for the agency about May 1st, unless I can advance the interests of the service, under your instructions, by starting sooner or delaying longer. It is so arranged that the farmer will have the help of the Indians in anything that can be done on the farm prior to my coming.
    Interpreter O. C. Applegate will go to Salem soon if he can advance the interests of the service by so doing. Perhaps it could be arranged so that any funds for immediate use in this agency could be sent by him. He could I suppose receive what is now due on salaries.
    Perhaps he could be of more service by waiting until about the close of the present quarter.
    Please let me know your opinion.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
         Salem Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 194.



April 20 -7-
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt from your office of a box of seeds of various sorts sent at the request of Hon. J. W. Nesmith. They have been distributed among the various Indians tribes of this Superintendency, and as the Indians are now taking great interest in agriculture the seeds will be very valuable to them. I respectfully ask that in future distribution of seeds, a portion be sent to this office for the benefit of the Indians.
Very resptly.
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. &c.
Hon. Isaac Newton
    Com. of Agriculture
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 86.



Umatilla House Dalles Oregon
    April 22, 1867.
Sir:
    I have the honor to inform you that a band of Snake Indians to the number of thirty or forty warriors are now in the neighborhood of the Warm Springs Reservation and that they have been committing depredations in that vicinity; also that we expect they will try and make a raid on the reserve should they get an opportunity. Under present circumstances the Indian scouts, now under your command, are not willing to leave their families to the mercy of the Snake Indians and come to the Dalles as per previous orders. The Indians are ready and willing to take the field again should they receive orders to that effect.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Smith
            Indian Agent
Commanding Office
    Fort Dalles, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon April 23, 1867
Sir
    Your letters of April 16 & 17 are received. I do not see how the service can be benefited by your interpreter coming to Salem.
    In view of the importance of getting in as large crops as possible at the agency you are authorized to employ three men in addition to those you now have, taking them up as laborers, and paying them $60.00 per month without subsistence. If more seeds are needed you may order them from this office by telegraph, or buy in Jackson County as in your judgment is most expedient.
    Some animals will be sent to you from Warm Springs as soon as practicable.
    I design to visit Klamath Agency soon & shall notify you in advance of my coming.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 87.



Dalles Oregon April 26th 1867
Maj. Gen. F. Steele
    Commanding Department of Columbia
Sir
    The Indian Department has a quantity of freight to transport from Portland to Fort Klamath. The most feasible and desirable route is that via Dalles, Deschutes & Crooked River. I also intend to make an expedition among the hostile tribes south and east of our present Indian reservations, say a circuit from Ft. Klamath easterly up Sprague River to the vicinity of Goose Lake, thence northeasterly & northerly to Harney Lake and the head of Crooked River, returning to the Dalles by such route as may be expedient. Of course an expedition of this sort cannot be undertaken without adequate military protection, and it is with reference to this that I now write you.
    If not compatible with the interests of the Indian Department I respectfully ask that Lieut. Wm. C. McKay, with his body of Indian scouts--say 50 men--be detailed to accompany and escort me upon that expedition, to start from Dalles about 20th of May next.
    I name Lieut. McKay and his body of scouts specifically because they are intimately--both officers and men--acquainted with the country through which I design to pass, and with the hostile Indians whom it is desirable to communicate with. I am very confident that with an expedition of this sort I can do much towards ending the deplorable condition of affairs in that country, inducing the few scattering Indians who inhabit it to locate upon the already established reservations & establish a practicable peace upon a permanent basis.
    I trust you will concur with me in this opinion and be able to spare the body of scouts named from the other service.
    Please address your reply to this letter to Salem--& not to the Dalles.    
Very respectfully general
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. of Ind. Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 88-89.



Ashland Mills Oregon
    April 30th 1867.
Sir
    Yours of the 23rd inst. is at hand. I realize with yourself the importance of getting in as large crops at the agency this summer as possible and will employ the additional laborers immediately and leave for the agency at once.
    I am pleased to hear that you design visiting the agency yourself.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Salem, Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 198.



Ashland Mills Oregon April 30th 1867.
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the present month.
    No difficulties worthy of note have occurred among the Indians. Fish are now running in great numbers in Williamson River and other streams on the reservation, and there is no longer a scarcity of subsistence.
    The season being late it has not been possible to do much plowing yet, but enough has been done for the putting in of some early vegetables and for the sowing of 15 bushels of pearl barley. Eight acres of wheat have been sown in ground broken last summer. Also some Indians have been employed building fence during
a greater part of the month.
    The grass is springing up beautifully on the reservation, and the Department animals are thriving.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    April 30th 1867
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of April 1867. As to the condition of those Indians under my control, they have plenty of food to subsist on. They are all in a prosperous condition, and their general
health at present is very good. And all of them that are here appear to be very well satisfied. At present they have all their spring crop planted and sown including late potatoes, turnips, carrots, rutabagas &c. &c. Their wheat and oats look very well, and all their early potatoes are over ground and look very well. They are now preparing to go out hunting and fishing. No births nor deaths among them since my last monthly report. All of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant,
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Corvallis May 10th 1867
To Hon. Supt. Indian Affairs of U.S.
    Sir
        In October of 1865 two checks in the Sub-Treasury of the United States, #316 and 318, for the sums of $440 and $200, in all $640, were signed by Supt. Huntington of Oregon and by him issued to me, A. D. Barnard, as attorney for others.
    The said checks were by me signed over to D. W. Cheesman, Treasurer of the Mint, stating on the check the purpose of the assignment--to wit--to be by him collected and in place of money 7 3/10 notes to be forwarded to myself or E. S. Barnard and my notarial seal was impressed thereon. All of which I had before time done with other checks and in one instance only a few days.
    After waiting a reasonable time for a return, I wrote to the Sub-Treasurer, and in answer I was informed that no such check had come to hand--and at divers times from then till now I am informed they have not arrived, nor any other party than me applied for payment thereof
also
that the fund left there by Supt. Huntington still remains to pay said checks #316 & #138 for $640.
    Now--I have proffered to give Supt. Huntington a bond of indemnity, and I have the reputation of having and actually have the property to secure the bond, if he would issue new checks.
    And I am constrained to believe he has a fixed purpose to keep me from obtaining my dues.
    And I ask as a reasonable request that justice may be done me in this matter and without delay.
    That said J. W. P. Huntington be instructed to collect himself at San Francisco and pay me at Salem or mail to me at my risk the said sum of $640.00.
    Or that the said J. W. P. Huntington be removed from his office and a better man put in.
    I have once before called upon the higher authorities in this matter, and I now urge my claim as a simple matter of justice, and I expect that due consideration will be given so reasonable a request. I know that somewhere lies the power "over our fiscal agents" and I demand simply my rights as a citizen. I ask no favor--I am able to give bond.
Very respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
P.S. I have no doubt but that Supt. H. would draw a check if I would give him ½, but it is all mine, and my right to have your assistance and orders on the matter.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 374-377.




Portland on the Willamette
    May 13th 1867
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Dear Sir
        Patrick Hughes of Cape Blanco, Curry Co., Oregon, writes me that there are a number of Indians in that neighborhood that belong to the Coast Reservation under your charge, that these Indians are troublesome and dangerous to the settlers there, and that he is afraid to have his family on his farm and go to work on his mining claim some miles distant. Mr. Hughes I have known a long time, and I think his statements can be relied on. He has written me (and I have shown you the letter) asking me to lay the matter before the proper authorities.
    I hope you will take measures to remove these Indians to the reservation.
Yours truly
    M. P. Deady
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, No. 206.



Dalles City May 14th 1867
Hon. J. W. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        Capt. Jno. Smith requests me to write to you that at present date the Snake Indians are threatening the Warm Springs Reservation, and the expectation is that the attack will commence tomorrow night. The news was brought by an Indian and Mr. Smith left immediately. He says he will be in with horses to bring you out to the reservation on the 22nd of the present month.
Yours respectfully
    Wm. Taylor
        Depty. Postmaster
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 13.



San Francisco May 17th 1867
Sir,
    My letter of Febry. 16th, inquiring about a claim against the United States government by August Richard, who died here in 1864, has been returned to me with a note appended by F. Andrews, Chief Clerk, of March 20th stating that in order to ascertain whether the said claim is in your office and, if so, to enable you to refer to the papers the character of the claim, should be definitely stated.
    The only information I have in regard to the said claim is contained in a letter written by said August Richard on the 24th of May 1864 to his father, I. Rickard [sic], in Osnabruck, Germany, of which I hand enclosed a translated copy. This letter states that said August Richard went from here to the mines near Port Orford, Oregon in August 1855. In spring 1856 he joined a volunteer force called out by the U.S. government to fight the Indians. After the Indians had been subdued and brought on a reservation, he in company with another man took up 640 acres of government land and settled on it. He bought 200 cows and made butter & cheese, which he sold at very profitable prices. He lived on his ranch till March 1859, when the Indians broke loose again from the reservation, spread over the whole surrounding country and killed and destroyed everything. His partner was killed by the Indians and he, said August Richard, lost all that he possessed. After quiet was restored and the Indians returned to the reservation, the U.S. government had the loss of all the inhabitants occasioned by said Indian outbreak estimated and his, the said August Richard's, loss was appraised at $9500, which amount has never been paid.
    This is all the information which I possess and which I communicated to the honorable the Third Auditor, who in his answer to me said that such a claim really existed, but that it should properly be made to you, the honorable 2nd Auditor of the Treasury, to whom he had referred my letter.
    I then addressed you, believing that you were in possession of all the necessary information.
    Will you now please inform me, as attorney of the heirs of the decd. August Richard, at your earliest convenience, of the exact amount of the claim and which proofs and documents are requisite and necessary and which are the proper steps to be taken to collect said claim.
    Awaiting your answer, I remain
Most respectfully
    C. F. Mebius
        Royal Bavarian Consul
To the Honble.
    the 2nd Auditor
        of the Treasury
            Washington
                D.C.
   

Extract from a letter of Capt. August F. Richard dated San Francisco May 24, 1864 to his father I. Richard, Osnabruck
    In August 1855 I went to Port Orford, Oregon and worked in the mines, but did not find them as rich as those in California. This southern part of Oregon was pretty thickly settled with Indians, who first behaved friendly, but in spring 1856 they began hostilities against the whites, destroyed everything belonging to the latter, and killed many of them, so that I was compelled, in common with about 600 inhabitants of Port Orford, and the neighborhood, to build a fort, where we all lived, till the government sent us troops to quiet the Indians. A steamer arrived once a week from San Francisco, but the U.S. army in California & Oregon was but small, and the government could only send us about 1000 men infantry, 400 men cavalry & 60 artillerymen, whereas the Indians had a force of about 10,000 men. The small U.S. army could not effect anything. The Indians stayed in the forests and made night attacks on the whites. The government then called out 1000 volunteers, and of course everyone who owned mines or who had any other property joined them. I did the same, as our mines were of no value if we could not work them. After several bloody fights with the Indians, wherein they lost about half their number in prisoners, killed and wounded, we succeeded in December in concluding a peace with them. The government gave the Indians an island as a reservation where they should live, providing them yearly contributions and clothing and provisions. The Indians then left our neighborhood.
    After this the government issued a proclamation to the effect that every American citizen had a right to take up 320 acres of land. Myself and another, a native American, then claimed and took 640 acres of land suitable for cattle raising, for the grass and clover grow here in winter and summer. We bought 200 cows. Cattle raising paid well at that time; the prices for butter & cheese were high, and a good cow brought from 70 to $100, whereas at present they are not worth more than from 15 to $20. The cattle increase very rapidly here. We lived happy and content, made good profits from the sale of our butter & cheese, and the value of the land increased steadily.
    But this state of affairs did not last long. In the month of March 1859, the Indians becoming dissatisfied on account of the failure to furnish them the promised provisions and clothing in sufficient quantities, broke away from the reservation and spread over the whole surrounding country, destroyed and killed everything and everybody that came before them. My partner was killed, and I lost everything I possessed. I then went to San Francisco with hardly $200 in my pockets. As long as I had money I had friends, but after that nobody seemed to know me, and I was compelled to go to sea as a sailor. I soon succeeded in being appointed to the command of a ship, wherein I made a voyage of about 8 months duration. After my return to San Francisco, the Indians had been subdued again, and brought back to the reservation. The government then had the loss of all the inhabitants, occasioned by the said Indian outbreak, estimated. My loss was appraised at $9500, which amount the government owes me yet, but at what time this will be paid is impossible to foresee.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 350-358.  Richard's story is highly suspect.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon May 20th 1867
Sirs
    Your bill dated May 15th 1867 in response to my advertisement to furnish twenty thousand pounds of flour at Fort Klamath has been examined, and being the lowest offered, the same is accepted.
    A contract, signed on my part, is herewith enclosed. You will execute the same, apply the proper stamp, see that your signature is witnessed by two householders of your county, and return the same to this office forthwith.
    The pay for the flour as per contract will be made upon delivery of the flour.
    The date of the contract is left blank in order that you may insert the date on which you sign.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Messrs. Müller & Brentano
    Jacksonville
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 96.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    May 31st 1867
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of May 1867 as to the condition of those Indians under my control. There is four different tribes in all, viz., the Umpqua tribe, Coos tribe, Alsea tribe and Siuslaw tribe. They number in all about 525. They are progressing and are all in a prosperous condition. They have plenty of food to subsist on, and their general health at present is very good. During the present month amongst the Umpqua tribe of Indians there has been no deaths nor births. Among the Coos tribe there has been no deaths, but one birth during this month. Among the Alsea tribe there has been one death and three births during present month. Among the Siuslaw tribe there has been one death and two births during present month.
    All of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant,
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Ashland, Oregon May 31st 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of the Indian tribes under my charge for the present month, I have the honor to report as follows.
    The weather during the present month having been much milder than during the preceding one, there has been no suffering from the cold
; winter houses have been replaced by light summer structures, and the Indians are scattered over the different parts of the country collecting roots, which now abound. Hence they have something else at present besides fish to subsist upon, and will succeed in providing something of a surplus for the future.
    Fearing the Snakes, the Yahooskins until very lately refrained from going into their own country (Sprague River Valley) to collect roots, which are now found there in great quantities, but I have lately organized a force of Klamaths and Yahooskins consisting of about fifty men armed and about as many women. This force, which is now in the lower part of Sprague River Valley digging roots, is strong enough to defend itself I think against any straggling party of Snakes.
    The Modocs are also engaged in digging roots in their own country. They are generally disposed to remain faithful to the treaty, and I presume will come onto the reservation willingly when ordered to do so. Their old chief Schonchin lately visited me at the agency to vindicate his loyalty.
    The Klamaths, Yahooskin Snakes and Modocs are hopeful, and although somewhat dissatisfied because they do not see everything promised them at the treaty being done at once, are disposed to remain peaceable and quietly await action. The operations on the farm are a great source of encouragement to them. Some persons have predicted an outbreak, but I do not anticipate the least trouble with them. Their hope is strong that they will receive all supplies promised them, and then care will be to run no risk of losing them.
    Their country, particularly the southern portion of it, is much coveted by whites, and many persons have been traveling over it of late in search of locations. Of course this does not please the Indians. With such land hunters I have expostulated, telling them that as soon as the Indians are collected onto the reservation under the treaty, and any part of the amount due them for their country be paid, they will relinquish all claims and the purchase can then be thrown open to settlement. So far no permanent improvements have been made except the putting in of a ferry on Link River, which is now being used, I believe, by the Military Department. There is quite an excitement among the people of the country in regard to the Klamath region, the old emigrant road leading to it is being improved, and I do not know that expostulations will avail much longer. I hope however that operations may be commenced now before long under the treaty, that the Indians may be collected and their country be thrown open to settlement.
    Jo Hood, a Klamath Indian, has for some time been employed on the farm, for a portion of the time at $20 per month, and has rendered good service, and I learn that when a bargain is made with laboring Indians beforehand so that they may know just what to expect they are generally industrious and apparently trustworthy. The best of them can be had for $20 or $30 per month, subsisting themselves, while it is now almost impossible to find good white laborers who will work for $60 per month and furnish subsistence. At times when much labor is necessary I think it would be a great saving to the government to employ a few of them, of course always keeping good white laborers to lead in the work.
    Upon the farm the month has been spent in plowing and planting, and there are now about 40 acres in. Of this number ten acres are in vegetables and the remainder in grain.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
     J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Office Siletz Indian Agency
    Oregon June 1st 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to submit my report of the affairs of this agency for the month of May.
    The Indians under my charge are generally quiet and well disposed towards the whites. Their sanitary condition is improving, and with the exception of a few cases of syphilis there is but little sickness among them. They are all busily engaged in the care of their crops, which promise a fair yield this year.
    The Coquille band of Indians that have lately been removed from the Yaquina Bay are an exception to this rule and are greatly dissatisfied, and many of them, including their chief, have left the reservation and have returned to their old homes in Southern Oregon.
    I fear that unless the government will give them some compensation for the homes of which they have been deprived by the opening for settlement of the Yaquina Bay, it will be difficult to return them on the agency.
    The Indian school is doing well--average attendance in [the] past month seventeen scholars, all that can be accommodated with comfort in the building.
    I have nine white employees in the service--all of whom are industrious and faithful in the performance of their duties, and to their energy the Indians are much indebted for their improved condition.
Respectfully submitted
    Ben Simpson
        U.S. Indian Agent
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 23; Letters Received, 1866-1867, no number.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, June 16th 1867
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th April last concerning recommendation of Mr. J. W. Wells, who visited this Superintendency last winter, as to appropriations necessary for various objects, education &c. &c.
    Your letter being so long upon the way--reaching here the same day as your letter of May 7--it is impossible to cause my reply to reach Washington by the time indicated, but I report briefly at this time upon a part of your queries, leaving to a future day a more extended reply, in the hope that this may reach you in time to be of use at the July session of Congress.
    1st. Siletz Agency. Mr. Wells recommends the sum of $10,000 to Coquille and Whisker band and $5,000 for farming tools &c.
    In regard to this matter I do not see any reason to change the recommendations I have heretofore made. The conduct of the government towards all the coast tribes of Indians has been tardy and unjust and calculated to drive them into exactly the opposite course of life which is for their advantage--to make them vicious instead of moral--lazy instead of industrious--hostile instead of peaceable. The sooner this is changed the better, and this can only be done by putting the Indians upon land which they can recognize as a permanent home, the possession of which they may rely upon, and then encouraging them to cultivate the soil and abandon their fishing and hunting. The recommendations in my last annual report (1866) are what I would now urge in this regard.
    2nd. Alsea Agency is in a very unsatisfactory condition. It should be abandoned and its Indians removed to Siletz or else more employees should be provided, tools and teams purchased and above all the assurance should be given that the possession of the lands shall be perpetual.
    It is idle to expect an Indian to open a farm and erect dwellings &c. while in daily expectation of being dispossessed. The funds at the disposal of the two agencies are and have been deplorably deficient. I have set this forth repeatedly in my letters and reports, and again repeat what is on record on that subject. I recommend an immediate appropriation of $14,000, to be expended in the purchase of agricultural implements, teams, domestic animals, medicine &c. &c. for the use of these two agencies, one fourth to be expended for the tribes at Alsea and three fourths for the tribes at Siletz. If Alsea Agency is not abandoned, provision should be made for an additional farmer and a blacksmith at once, and agency buildings erected. The salaries of employees should be same as at Siletz--$400 per annum for material for blacksmith shop, and $1000 for agency buildings should be appropriated.
    The matter of a school at Alsea depends--like all other affairs of these Indians--upon the decision reached as to the abandonment of the agency. It is folly to establish a school if a removal is contemplated within a year or two. It is essential that a school should be established if the Indians are to remain there.
    The subject of education at Grand Ronde Agency I shall not refer to in this letter except to say that it will have careful consideration in this office and be made the subject of a future communication.
    The appropriation for farmer at that place having expired I directed that the teacher there be detailed to instruct the Indians in agriculture, believing that to be the primary want of people in their condition. I believe a teacher can be employed with more profit to the Indians in that branch of education than any other, if we are limited to one. I regret that my course has not had the approval of your office, and will obey your peremptory instructions to discharge the present teacher (practically farmer) and employ one more adapted to literacy teaching.
    The affairs of education at Umatilla will have due attention also, bearing in mind your instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 111-112.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 424-429.




Ashland Mills Oregon June 17th 1867
Sir
    I have thought well to inform you that the Emigrant Road has been open since the 1st of May, while the snow is yet 8 or 10 feet deep on the Rogue River Valley and John Day road. The 20,000 lbs. of flour is going, I am informed, on the latter road. If this be true in all probability it will not all reach its destination before the middle of July or perhaps not until the 1st of August.
    The Emigrant Road is being improved, and I think if any other freight is coming for the agency it would be best to have it taken over this road. Goods could be taken from Link River around the lake on the other side or could be boated up the lake easily and expeditiously.
    If it is considered admissible I should like very much to know if any freight designed for the agency such as blankets, clothing &c. may be expected this summer. Such a statement made to the Indians would be a source of encouragement and satisfaction to them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 6.



Grand Ronde Agency
    June 27th 1867
Sir
    I write to let you know about some matters connected with the Indian affairs of this agency. Having learned that a number of absconding Indians were at Oregon City, I made a raid on them Tuesday morning and captured twenty-nine that belonged to my agency, but so many people both whites and Indians gathered around while we were getting their "ictas" ["things"] that two of them escaped unnoticed
at the time we got the balance of them out of town about a mile. One of them escaped next morning into the brush and we failed to find him.
    Many applications were made to me for the privilege of keeping the Indians--mostly squaws--but I invariably refused.
    We started next day and got within six miles of Dayton and camped a little before sundown. Soon after stopping the deputy sheriff of Clackamas Co. came up with a warrant for five of these Indians, setting forth that I had them in durance contrary to law, and commanding him to take them back to be tried at the next term of the court of Clackamas Co.
    The papers was badly written; neither the deputy nor the man with him--the city marshal--could make out quite a number of the words. I had no glasses with me.
    I protested against his taking them on the ground that he had no jurisdiction of the case, that I would not give them up, but that if he took them I would prosecute for taking them from their agent. I also forbid the Indians to go, but he found four of them and took them back.
    We had enough to do to keep some of the rest from running away, but we did and have twenty-three safe on the agency.
    I respectfully report this matter to you and await your instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 15.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, June 22nd 1867
Sir
    There are a great number of Indians from your agency in this town--fifty or more--and many others in other parts of the country. Upon investigation I find that most of them are furnished with written passes from you. Their presence in the white settlements is a source of constant complaint, and in the towns where they obtain plenty of whiskey is an especial nuisance. The design of the government to educate, elevate and improve them is wholly thwarted, and they are debauched, degraded and contaminated with disease.
    You will take measures immediately to secure the return of the absentees to the reservation, and avoid the issuance of papers in future unless there appears to be an urgent necessity therefor, and then only for brief periods, observing in this particular to circulars of July 23rd 1864 and June 1st 1863, to which your attention is again directed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Amos Harvey Esq.
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 109.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, June 22nd 1867
Sir,
    Contracts were entered into by Muller and Brentano of Jacksonville on the 28th day of May last to deliver twenty thousand pounds of good merchantable flour in fifty pound sacks in good order at Klamath Agency (or Fort Klamath) for the use of the Indians under your charge. You are directed to inspect such flour as the parties may offer to deliver at the contract time--July 1st, 1867--and see that it accords with the above specifications, and upon your certificate that they have delivered flour of the quality named in good condition at the time specified, payment will be made to them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
To
    Lindsay Applegate
        U.S. Indian Agent
            Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 109-110.



Office Siletz Indian
    Agency Oregon
        June 29th 1867
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs Salem Oregon
        Dear Sir
Owing to the dissatisfaction growing out of the opening for settlement by the whites of the Yaquina Bay and the occupation of the lands formerly held and occupied by the Whiskers band of the Coquell Indians, the greater portion of this band have left the reserve and have escaped to their old homes in Southern Oregon. Others of the same tribe are joining them daily, and I fear unless some decisive steps are taken in the matter at once that a greater portion of the whole tribe will follow. I would respectfully ask that I be instructed at once in regard to this matter, as from the limited number of employees on the service here it is impossible for me to go in pursuit of them at this time without injury to the service.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 14.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Coast Reservation Oregon
    June 30th 1867.
Dear Sir, I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of June. As to the condition of those Indians under my control there is four different tribes in all, viz: Coos, Umpqua, Alsea and Siuslaw tribes. They number in all about 525 (five hundred and twenty-five) souls; they are progressing in every way and are all in a prosperous condition as far as health and food is concerned. They have more than enough of last year's potatoes to subsist on until their growing crop comes to maturity; that, with the fish, mussels and clams they take from the ocean and wild meat they kill on the mountains, gives them an abundance of food as good as they ever want. At present their health is very good. During the present month the Umpquas have had no deaths nor births among them. Among the Cooses there has been no deaths nor births during the month. Among the Alseas during this month no deaths nor births. Among the Siuslaws one birth & one death.
    All
of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant,
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Ashland Mills Oregon June 30th 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of the Indian tribes under my charge I have to report as follows. The Klamaths, Yahooskin Snakes and Modocs have during the greater part of the month been engaged in collecting and cooking for winter use the camas
root, which abounds throughout the country. For this purpose they have been disposed in large parties so as to be able to resist an onslaught of the Snakes. The camas season is now about at an end, and soon their attention will be directed to the collection of wocus in the great marsh and in several little lakes adjacent to Middle Klamath Lake.
    They have been peaceably disposed towards each other generally and also towards the whites excepting such as here essayed to take up claims on the old reservation. This they do not think should be done prior to the treaty being in force, as the old reservation is on the purchase contemplated in the treaty. This certainly appears just and reasonable, and it is to be hoped that the using of their country can be prevented until they receive an installment of the amount promised them for it, when they will be satisfied to relinquish all claims.
    Lately the Snakes made a raid into the valley of Sprague River, where some Klamaths and Yahooskins were engaged in digging roots, and drove off nine horses belonging to them. About the same time a detachment of soldiers from Ft. Klamath, in the same district of country, lost three horses. In both cases the Snakes were pursued, but no horses recovered.
    Upon the farm the employees have been busily engaged in fencing, plowing and in cultivating the crop. A pasture for the animals including a piece of splendid meadow land on the lake shore has been completed. Also since the commencement of the month fifteen acres of new land have been broken on the farm. The fall grain is looking very well and will make a fine yield, but owing to the drought the spring wheat is not looking very well. The pearl barley promises an abundant yield. Small squirrels are preying on it, but strychnine has been secured, and I think they can be prevented from destroying much of it. Of the garden vegetables, with the exception of the potatoes I cannot make favorable report. The nature of the Klamath soil is peculiar: lying down almost on the lake level, the moisture is always but a little below the surface, and when plants start sufficiently to send down their roots a few inches and pierce the moist ground they grow as if by magic. Owing to the continued drought, and the consequent dryness of the surface, most of the vegetables failed to start and hence may be regarded as almost a failure. The potatoes, however, which could not be destroyed by two or three inches of dry soil on the surface, look thrifty and flourishing. Those who have seen them affirm that they never before saw such rank and sudden growth in potatoes.
    The Department animals are all at the agency, are in fine condition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
        Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



    The size of Siletz Reservation is estimated from the best information at hand. It is believed to be nearly correct. The same remarks apply to Alsea and Klamath reservations. No surveys have been made of any of the reservations. The crops raised by the Indians are consumed by them mainly, but small portions are sold. The crops raised by the gov. are issued to sick, decrepit and destitute Indians, used for seed, and for forage for Dept. animals.

"Consolidated Statistical Return of Farming &c. in the Oregon Superintendency for the Year Ending June 30th 1867,"
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Klamath Agency July 1st 1867.
Sir
    I would respectfully report that I have this day appointed Samuel D. Whitmore as farmer on this reservation, under the Treaty of October 15th 1864.
    Mr. Whitmore has had considerable experience on the reservation as farmer under the colonization plan and will make an efficient employee.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 168.



Office Siletz Agency
    Oregon July 1 1867
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit my report of the affairs of this agency for the month of June.
    The Indians on this agency are generally quiet and well disposed. The general health of the tribes is good--few deaths have occurred during the past month.
    They are now busily engaged in cultivating their crops of potatoes and garden vegetables, all of which look well and promise an ample yield.
    In my last report I referred to the condition of the Coquell band of Indians, lately removed to this agency from the Yaquina Bay. A portion of this band have remained quietly on the farms provided for them and have put in a fair crop for their winter subsistence, but a large number of them under the lead of their chief Whiskers have succeeded in escaping from the reservation and have returned to Southern Oregon. In view of the great dissatisfaction existing amongst these Indians on account of the nonperformance of promises made them by the government, in refusing to ratify their treaty made in 1855, and in summarily
depriving them of their lands on the Yaquina, I would respectfully urge that speedy action be taken in making them some compensation or in the ratification of their treaties.
    The Indian school is doing well. The number of scholars remains unchanged. They are attentive to their studies.
    The employees are all industrious and efficient in the performance of their duties.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, July 1st 1867
Sir,
    Your letter of 27th ultimo concerning your proceedings in collecting and returning Indians to the reservation has been received, and that portion of the same concerning the arrest of a part of the Indians (squaws) upon writ of habeas corpus and their forcible return to Oregon City considered.
    I understand that these squaws had been guilty of no crime, and were not accused of any, but the parties who procured their arrest were simply desirous of securing their services as servants or prostitutes or both.
    They were under your control lawfully. You were entitled to restrain and confine them, and they were amenable (no crime having been committed by them) in any way to state authorities or law.
    Conducting them to the reservation and detaining them there was a part of your duty, and you were authorized to use so much force as was necessary to effect that end. No person has any authority to interfere with you, and you should have resisted any proceeding of interference.
    You are instructed to proceed forthwith to arrest and return the squaws aforesaid to their husbands or other relatives, and endeavor to enforce the laws of the United States and of the state against such persons as endeavor to interfere with your proceeding.
    You will also collect such other Indians as you may find in that or other localities belonging to your reservation, and return them to it.
    If you are harassed by whites who attempt to conceal or entice away the Indians or otherwise to defeat the purposes of the government, you are authorized to employ legal counsel, with a view to enforcing the law, especially the act of Oregon approved Oct. 21st 1861 and the act of the United States approved June 30th 1834 and subsequently to regulate intercourse with Indian tribes.
    The compensation of such counsel you will pay out of such monies for general and incidental expenses as may come into your hands.
    Of your proceedings under the instructions you will make due report as soon as practicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Amos Harvey
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 113-114.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, July 1st 1867
Sir
    Your letter of 29th ultimo relative to the escape of a part of the Coquille Indians from the Coast Reservation has been received. Complaints have been received at this office from white settlers in Coos and Curry counties of the presence of these Indians, and I have therefore determined to send Sub-Agent Collins after them, and if the work of this office will permit Mr. C. S. Woodworth--my chief clerk--will be detailed to accompany him.
    You will also detail two of the employees from your reservation to accompany the expedition with so many of your most trusty friendly Indians as Sub-Agent Collins may think necessary to afford the necessary assistance.
    Sub-Agent Collins will notify you when he is ready to proceed. You will report to this office the number of Indians now absent and the number which return.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Ben Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 115.



    The amount of produce that will be raised at this [Alsea] agency and at the Alsea and Siuslaw rivers at present I can only estimate. The value of everything I estimate according to market price. At present at Yaquina Bay there certainly will be a large surplus of potatoes raised by those Indians this year, far more than they will want, but I think there will be no market for them at Yaquina Bay this coming winter as there was last, as most of the white settlers there have this season made gardens and will have enough of potatoes of their own without buying any from those Indians. The land cultivated by the Indians is done by them with the assistance and direction of [the] Supt. of Farming, the product of which the Indians get to subsist on. The land cultivated by government, the product of which is timothy hay and oats, is to be fed to Department animals during the coming winter.
J. W. Collins, Sub-Agent, "Statistical Return of Farming &c. at the Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency, July 1st 1867,"
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, July 1st 1867
Sir
    Agent Ben Simpson reports to this office that a portion of the Coquille tribe of Indians known as "Whisker's" band and some others have left the Coast Reservation and gone down to their old haunts in Coos and Curry counties. Complaints have also been received from white settlers in that neighborhood of the presence of said Indians. Your official duties it is presumed are now not pressing, and you are therefore directed to report in person to this office without delay to consult upon the best means of recovering the fugitives and the route to be taken in the pursuit. You are also directed to bring with you such information as you can collect relative to the number of the Indians which have gone down the coast and their present whereabouts.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Geo. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 116.



Klamath Agency
    July 5th 1867.
Sir
    The flour contracted for May 25th
of Muller & Brentano has not all reached its destination. Only 8000 lbs. are at hand. The balance of 12000 is on the John Day & Rogue River road and snowbound. The contractors think it may not reach here before the 15th inst., possibly not so soon.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 25.



Ashland Mills, Oregon July 8th 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the settlement of the Lower Klamath country I have to communicate as follows.
    The whites are very desirous to commence making improvements on the Klamath Purchase, the general impression se
eming to be that that portion of it belonging to the state may be occupied at once. At the treaty of October 15th 1864 the Klamath and Modoc Indians agreed to dispose of a portion of their country at a stipulated sum, and until they receive a portion of the amount due them for their country they cannot be expected to submit quietly to its being taken up by the whites. Although I do not apprehend that such a course would lead to open hostilities, yet it would certainly look to the Indians like a breach of faith on the part of the whites, all of whom through their authorities, as they understand it, agreed to pay them for it, and the occupying of it prior to operations being commenced under the treaty is bound to create a spirit of opposition that will operate greatly against an easy management of the Indians. They are already dissatisfied with the tardiness of the government in carrying out treaty stipulations, and this would be a new cause of dissatisfaction or disaffection.
    Nothing has been done under the treaty. Rumor only says it has been ratified. I have received no official notification of its ratification, nor of the abandonment of the old reservation, hence the Indians are still scattered over the different parts of the purchase, and I have never considered myself authorized to order them onto the reservation set apart by treaty. If it were admissible to order them onto the reservation prior to the commencement of operations in pursuance of the treaty, the means that could be furnished for their support would probably be too limited. From these considerations I deem the settling of the purchase, at this time, as premature, and for the good of both whites and Indians it should, if possible, be stayed.
    Communications appear in the public journals portraying in high colors the beauty and fertility of the lake valleys, and stating in what manner state land may be secured, only calculated to urge on an emigration to the lakes in direct opposition to the wishes of the Indians, and the promises of the government, while nothing appears to inform the people that the purchase is yet to be considered Indian territory. Is the fact of a portion of the purchase being state land sufficient to justify its being taken up though acknowledged by the government to be Indian territory? I think if the condition of affairs were explained in some public journal, the premature settling of the old reservation would be stayed. The Indians after receiving a portion of the amount due them would be satisfied to relinquish all claims to the purchase, and then all would be well. In spite of the promises of the government and the clamors of the Indians a large herd of cattle is now grazing on the Link River plains.
    There is a clash of policy between the Military and Indian departments, apparently. The commander of Ft. Klamath last autumn received orders to execute all Indians found off the reservation without permission, before they have even been ordered onto it, and he now states that he has received orders to protect settlers in the lake country, before, as I understand it, any person can rightfully settle there. Here is need of amendment surely. I shall anxiously await such information and instructions as  you can give in the premises.
Very respectfully your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indn. Affairs in Oregon, Salem.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 28.



Oregon City, July 17, 1867.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            Enclosed please find the petition of Thomas Como for the release of his wife and certain affidavits in support thereof. Thomas is a hard-working and peaceable fellow and can take good care of his wife.
    I have no sympathy with the efforts made to embarrass the Indian agent in the discharge of his duty while here some days since, but I cannot see why this woman should not be permitted to come and live with her husband. When she was married was not her existence, by legal fiction, merged in that of her husband? And was she not thus made dead to the jurisdiction of your department?
    At any rate, I believe this to be a deserving case. Tom feels badly over the unwilling absence of his wife, and pays to have this application made to you. No white man has anything to do with it except at the request of Como.
    If you permit this woman to return, please send the order to my address and Tom will then go up and get his wife, taking the authority with him.
Yours respectfully
    W. C. Johnson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 33.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    July 15 1867
    Sir, on my return from your office I found your letter of June 22nd in relation to Indians out on passes, and you call my attention to the bad effects of their absence from the agency that thwarted the designs of government in placing them on an agency to learn the rudiments of civilized life. No man could be more anxious than I to keep them all on the agency, if they could be profitably employed, clothed and fed there. But while they can and do raise and supply themselves with food, they have no means of raising or making their clothing on the agency, and you know they have had no clothing or money of the government to buy it for the last year. So their only chance has been to work for it outside, and as the men are excellent farmhands we have when their own work does not require their attention at home given them passes to work, mostly in Yamhill & Polk counties and some in Salem and some to sell berries there, always acquiring them to return when the pass expires, and that if they misbehave or get into any trouble it will bar them from getting another.
    Now I have rarely known of any trouble or mischief done by those out on a pass, and where I have been creditably informed of any have punished them. I think it likely that a part of the fifty or more Indians you saw in Salem belonged to some other than the Grand Ronde Agency. I saw a number of Indians from this agency when I was there, mostly squaws selling berries, who said their men were at work cutting wood and making rails. I also saw a number in the streets that did not belong here. I will be careful not to give passes to any more to go to Salem unless with your permission.
    Of the thirty-one we arrested at Oregon City only four had been on this agency since I took charge of it. I left word with the people at Oregon City that those Indians that belonged here had better come up before I got after them again, and five who have not been on the agency since I took charge of it and say more will come. I intend to go to Portland in [a] few days to see more about those Oregon City authorities and will report to you on my return.
    Now I have rarely known of any trouble or mischief done by those out on passes, and where I have been creditably informed I have punished them. We have given more Indian passes this spring than common since they got in their crops, and so far they have returned, some with clothing, some with good work horses and with various articles that show they have been industriously employed. Many of [them] bring letters from their employers certifying to their industry and good behavior and asking that they be permitted to return, and I have so far failed to hear of drunkenness, theft or other misconduct committed by one out with a pass. A number who are out without leave are charged with bad conduct, and I would like to collect them all in and keep them on the agency, but to collect and bring them in is [as] you know attended both with trouble and expense, and as there is no money on hand to meet it I feel like moving slowly. That raid on Oregon City has cost me over thirty dollars, for which I have taken no sub-vouchers, as we have already a number with no money to pay. But that Oregon City matter I will follow up, cost me what it may.
    Of the thirty-one we arrested in Oregon City only four had been on the agency since I took charge of it, and of the twelve or fifteen who are still near those only one has been here, and he left without permission.
    I have mentioned this to show that it is not those to whom we have given passes that have caused us trouble or expense, but mostly those that were absent when I came here and a few that have run away since.
I am very respectfully
    Yours Amos Harvey
        U.S. Indian Agent
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 34.



Ashland, Oregon July 20th 1867.
Sir
    Having acknowledged the receipt of a draft on the National Bank of Portland amounting to $4775.00 I write to ask instructions and suggestions in regard to the use of so much of it as pertains to operations under the treaty. So far my endeavors to have it changed into a useful shape have failed, and I fear the interests of the service may suffer on account of this fact.
    Please inform me whether or no the colonization fund is all to be employed before the other can be used, and if the said funds can both be returned as remaining on hand at the same time. But little of the colonization fund is now on hand--less than $100. This is not sufficient even to pay the quarterly salary of S. D. Whitmore, the only employee now on the farm. Another hand is very much required by the condition of things, as also the purchase of a fanning mill. I shall anxiously await your reply.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indn. Affairs
            in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 36.



Ashland Oregon July 31st 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of the Indian tribes under my charge for the present month, I have the honor to report as follows.
    During the month harmony to a great extent has prevailed among the Indians. They have been industriously engaged in providing supplies of provisions for present and future use, and difficulties have been more rare than usual. The Klamaths are at present on the upper lake or marsh gathering wocus, and the Modocs in their own country are laying up a winter supply of roots and seeds.
    The Indians are not allowed, at present, to go onto the military reservation without special permission, and as little chance is given by thus for a licentious intercourse between the Indians and soldiers, a fertile source of trouble is cut off.
    Locations in the Lower Klamath country are yet being selected, and many persons state it to be their intention to remove them soon. Having cautioned the Indians against remonstrating with persons settling in the Klamath country, and having counseled them to leave a settlement of present difficulties to the proper authorities, no trouble has yet been occasioned between them and the whites, and they are anxiously and quietly awaiting operations to be commenced under the treaty.
    Upon the farm the month has been spent in plowing, in cultivating the crop, and in looking after the animals, and now haying has been commenced.
    The Snakes have made no incursions into the Klamath country during the month, although the general supposition is that raids will be made during the summer. Word comes through the Modocs that Snakes have been into the Pit River country lately, trying to induce the Piutes and Pit Rivers to join them against the whites, Klamaths and Modocs, stating it to be their intention to invade the Klamath and Modoc country this summer. The Pit Rivers refused, but the Piutes agreed to unite with the Snakes for a part of the spoils. There is a probability of this being true, for the Snakes, now being opposed by such a large force of troops as well as by the friendly Indians, need all the aid they can possibly secure.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Siletz Agency
    Oregon Aug. 1st 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to submit my report of the condition of this agency for the month of July 1867.
    The Indians are generally quiet and busily occupied in the cultivation of their gardens and the care of their crops.
    The past month has been unusually dry, and rain is very much needed--particularly for the vegetable crop.
    Complaints are still made by the Coquells, and the desire to return to their homes in Southern Oregon is giving me much annoyance and is a serious interruption to the discipline of the agency. Their uneasiness is becoming contagious. Other tribes are sympathizing with them, and I feel that I cannot urge too strongly upon the Department the necessity of immediate action in the matter of their treaties. If too long neglected it may yet be the cause of serious difficulty with not only the Coquell band but all the coast tribes not under treaty stipulations. The treaty Indians--the Shasta Scotans and Umpqua and Rogue River tribes--are quiet, well disposed, industrious and are making rapid progress in civilization.
    The Indian school is making all the progress the limited means provided for it will allow. The students are prompt, attentive and learning very well.
    The sanitary condition of the several [tribes] is good--very little sickness prevails.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Olympia, W.T., Aug. 1st 1867
Sir
    The proposition before Congress at its last session, which came near being passed into a law, viz., to turn the Indian Bureau over to the War Department, and which in all probability will be again introduced at a future session, is a measure so very consequential in its probable results that I have deemed it advisable to correspond with the various superintendents now in the service with a view to some concert of action and unanimity of expression on our part in relation to the subject.
    Some months ago, while the measure was pending in Congress, I forwarded a strong remonstrance to the Commissioner, endorsed by most of the federal officers and many other leading citizens of our Territory, the sentiments of which remonstrance I have more recently embodied in my annual report just transmitted to the Department. The ground of this remonstrance lies in the opinion that the proposed measure would bring no good materially to the Indians and could bring great evils morally, that it would augment instead of retrench the expense of the service, and that it would tend to embarrass and defeat the well-begun work of improvement on many of our reservations. In my report I appealed to the experiment of bringing the soldiery in contact with Indian tribes, and to the fact universally admitted of the demoralizing effect of such contact both upon the Indians and the soldier. I also remonstrated against the wholesale aspersions of Gen. Pope directed toward Indian superintendents and agents in his late labored report on the subject of turning the service over to the military. And I think it becomes every officer in the Indian service to lose no time in hurling back the sweeping declarations of that report, by which the honesty & good faith of men in the civil service are called in question, implying that in the hands of the disbursing officers of the army the appropriations for the Indian service would be more honestly dispensed. The idea of sending Indian agents to army contractors, quartermasters or commissioners to learn lessons either of honesty or economy is simply absurd.
    My object in addressing yourself and other superintendents at this time is in order that if you coincide with me in opinion, I may ask you to utter your opinions distinctly to the Dept. in your own official correspondence (as well as in personal letters to influential friends in Washington) and that a united voice of remonstrance may go up to the seat of government from every civil officer in the Indian service.
    Such a remonstrance I verily believe will be heeded by the Dept. and will command the respect of Congress.
I have the honor sir to be
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
        T. J. McKenny
            Supt. Ind. Affairs W.T.
J. P. W. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 40.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Aug. 1st. 1867
Sir,
    Your letter of 17th ultimo, arriving here in my absence, was not seen by me until today. My answer is therefore delayed.
    No Indian Agent has any authority to separate a wife from the husband who resides outside the reservation. It matters not whether the woman is white or Indian. In the case of Thomas Coms--of which your letter is the first report I have--Agent Harvey has no right to take the woman from him, unless Coms is one of those half-breeds who belong upon a reservation and are subject to the control of the agent. Your letter does not state whether he is or not, but my inference is that he is not, and with that understanding I will direct Mr. Harvey to release the squaw if he has her in confinement.
    I presume that Agent Harvey arrested the squaw as a fugitive from the reservation and was not aware that any person claimed her as a wife.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
W. C. Johnson Esq.
    Oregon City Ogn.
(Copy to Agent Harvey)
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 120.



Ashland Oregon August 12th 1867.
Sir
    I think a change will have to be made as soon as possible in this agency from the use of the colonization fund to that of the treaty funds, or new supply of the former be furnished, otherwise the service will suffer.
    Hay is now being put up for winter, and after haying harvest will come on at the agency, and the two employees at the agency if continued cannot do more than is absolutely necessary. The colonization fund is about exhausted, and Samuel D. Whitmore at a salary of $400 per annum and J. Wright at $60 per month are yet employed on the reservation. Please let me know what to do in the premises.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indn. Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 53.



Ashland, Oregon August 12th 1867.
Sir
    The flour contracted for May 28th to subsist the Indians under my charge has all been delivered at the Klamath Agency--the remainder on the 7th inst. having been delayed by unavoidable circumstances in the Cascade Mountains.
    According to your instructions I have inspected the said flour and find twenty thousand lbs. of good merchantable quality, in fifty-pound sacks and in good order.
Your obt. servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 52.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    August 12th 1867
J. W. P. Huntington Supt. Indian Affairs
    Sir, Thomas Como called on me today with a letter from Johnson and McCown informing me that you had written to me commanding me to release to him his wife, but as I had received no such letter from you (though Mr. Shurtleff thinks there is one on the way), nor had he any evidence to show that she was his wife, I declined to give her up. In a conversation with you you told me I had no right to separate man and wife. But in a conversation with Judge Deady since that time, he told me I had a right to take and keep on the agency any Indian that by treaty belonged to it, no difference whether married or not. But he advised if I found an Indian woman married and living and doing well to let them alone, but if not he would remove them. Now in relation to this woman when we found her [she] was in a little house up on the rocks above Oregon City, as destitute of anything like even the common necessaries of life as any house I saw.
    Her husband (if he was one) was then in jail for selling whiskey to Indians. He had been fined forty-nine dollars and in default of payment was put in jail and had then twenty or thirty days to stay. This we learned from a number of men. They all spoke of him as a bad man to furnish whiskey to Indians.
    Jane is a Molalla Indian; has lived on this agency, the chief says, but not since I have been here. She lived with Como a year or two; she then left him for some time and then took up with him and was with him until he was taken to jail. I have now given you all I have learned about the affair and ask your instruction in the case and will carry it out either by giving her up or keeping her as you may instruct. She has been cooking in the school, but we can easily supply her place with another.
Very respectfully yours\
    Amos Harvey
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 55.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 12th 1867
Sir,
    In reply to your letter of inquiry concerning the part of the Coast Reservation vacated by executive order and now open to settlement, I have to say that the boundaries thereof are as follows, to wit;
    Commencing at a point two miles south of the Siletz Agency, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, thence south along said ocean to the Alsea River, thence up said river to the eastern boundary of the reservation, thence north along said eastern boundary to a point due east of the place of beginning, thence west to the place of beginning.
    The north boundary strikes the ocean between the Yaquina Bay and the mouth of Siletz River nearer the latter. All the land within the limits above described are open to settlement as other public lands of the United States.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Abram Sharples M.D.
    Corvallis
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 125.



Smith River P.O.
    August 16th 1867
Mr. Simpson
    Dear Sir
        Collins has succeeded in arresting 30 Indians in this vicinity, all Siletz tillicums. There is some 8 or 10 more, Jim's friends, which we hope to get. Collins' money was entirely insufficient for the trip. This naturally makes slow work, and is to be regretted. There will be a general breaking up of old associates between Smith Rivers and the Chetcos, and hereafter discontinued, which will materially lessen the Chetcos' interest in this section. Old Tyee John and family, Napoleon, Cultus Jack, Frank, Charley, [illegible] Aleck and family, Whiskers' entire band and many more old friends are with us.
Yours in haste
    R. A. Bensell
We will return by the coast.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Oregon City Aug. 17th 1867.
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Sir
        Enclosed please find a letter from Mr. Harvey in relation to Tom Como's wife. We know nothing of the contents. Tom was furnished with your letter to our Mr. Johnson, and he went to Mr. Harvey and he, "H," declines to allow the squaw to leave the reservation without being furnished with sufficient proof of the marriage. We suppose that Mr. Harvey did not understand that you had been furnished with the required proof, or he would have complied with your request to release the squaw from custody. Hoping to hear from you as soon as convenient, we are
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    Johnson & McCown
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 54.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon, Aug. 17th 1867
Sir,
    Your letter of 12th instant, per hand of Thomas Coms, was forwarded to me from Oregon City by Johnson and McCown, they being of course ignorant of its contents.
    There is no law authorizing an Indian agent to restrain the wife of any citizen of the United States, or of any foreigner, against her will or the will of her husband, except it may be for misconduct upon the Indian reservation. The opinion of Judge Deady upon the point is quite as erroneous as that of Judge Matlock that under the civil rights bill an Indian agent has no right to restrain an Indian without the bounds of the reservation.
    If Coms is lawfully residing in Oregon City he is entitled to the society of his wife, and the fact that he is accused of selling liquor to Indians and convicted does not deprive him of that right. My former letter to you upon the subject was written under the supposition that Combs was a white man. It now appears that he is a half-breed Indian. Of these as you are aware there are two sorts--one belonging upon reservations, and as properly under the supervision of agents as Indians themselves--and the other habitually residing outside the reservation, paying taxes state and municipal, voting and exercising other rights of citizenship. If Coms belongs to the former, he ought to be upon the reservation. If he belongs to the latter, you have nothing to do with him, but wherever he may properly belong his wife belongs with him.
    You will therefore ascertain to which class Coms belongs, and if it appears to be the former you will remove him to the reservation--if to the latter you will permit his wife to go with him. But if in view of his alleged bad character she declines to reside with him you will not permit any force to be used but protect the woman the reservation [sic].
    I presume that the alleged bad character of Coms and of the woman herself ought to be considered with some degree of allowance, as very respectable citizens of Oregon City are very anxious to have them reside among them.
    I ought to state in this communication that Messrs. Johnson and McCown, attorneys for Coms, have furnished me with affidavits which leave no doubt of the actual marriage by a lawful magistrate of the woman in question to Coms.
    Of any action you may take in the matter you will make due report to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Amos Harvey Esq.
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
(Copy to Johnson & McCown)
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 129-130.     A web search of the Oregon City Enterprise for 1867 turns up no mention of his name.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Aug. 17th 1867
Sir,
    I enclose herewith a copy of a letter I have written to Agent Harvey in reply to his letter which you forwarded to me. A copy of his letter is also enclosed.
    It is alleged that Coms and his wife are both bad characters--the former notorious for supplying Indians with whiskey and the latter using her prostitution as the means of obtaining the whiskey and acting as the medium through which the whiskey is clandestinely sold.
    If I were convinced that these statements are all true, I would detain the woman upon the reservation, whether she was the wife of Coms or a white man, but from the respectability of the parties who are interested in her release I doubt the statements.
    The policy of the government is the segregation of the Indians upon reservations, and not their distribution among white communities. This policy Indian agents and Superintendents are not at liberty to depart from, however much they may be so inclined. I shall in no case undertake to restrain the lawful wife of a citizen merely because she is an Indian, but if I can catch any woman, white, red or black, upon a reservation who has been a party to the sale of whiskey to Indians, I will endeavor to use such summary powers to confine and punish her as are at hand.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Nelson, Johnson & McCown
    Oregon City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 130-131.



Annual Report
Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 20th 1867
Sir:
    In making my annual report for the current year I shall, as heretofore, refer you to the reports of the agents and their subordinates for the details of operations upon the agencies, and confine myself to suggestions and remarks of a general nature, or to those affairs which, being out of the usual routine, appear to require special comment.
    The agencies in this state, their agents, the tribes located thereon, their numbers &c. are enumerated as follows:
Agency Agent Tribes No. by Last Census Date of Treaty
Umatilla Wm. H. Barnhart Walla Walla 160 June 9th 1855
Cayuse 364 "
Umatilla 235 "
Warm Springs John Smith Wasco 317 June 25th 1855
Deschutes 249 "
Tyghs 347 "
John Day   13 "
Absentees from  all the above tribes 200 "
Grand Ronde Amos Harvey Molalla   61 Jany. 22nd 1855
Tualatin   75 "
Yamhill   44 "
Clackamas   59 "
Tumwater   44 "
Luckiamute   35 "
Santiam 102 "
Marysville   45 "
Umpqua & Calapooia 283 Nov. 29th 1854
Umpqua (Cow Creek band)   38 Sept. 19th 1853
Rogue River 142 Sept. 10th 1853
Molel 179 Dec. 21st 1855
Nestucca                   )
Salmon River            ) 300 No Treaty
Tillamook                 )
Siletz Benj. Simpson Tututni 227 "
Mac-en-oot-en-ay 248 "
Nolt-nal-nah 161 "
Euchre 157 "
Joshua 260 "
Chetco 211 "
Coquell 142 "
Port Orford 126 "
Shasta Costa 162 "
Rogue River   94 Sept. 10th 1853
Shasta Scotan, Umpqua 123 Nov. 18th 1854
Delmash   85 No Treaty
Sixes 125 "
Flores Creek   70 "
Alsea Geo. W. Collins Coos 140 "
    Sub-Agent Umpqua 102 "
Siuslaw 133 "
Alsea 150 "
Klamath L. Applegate Klamath 1,200   Oct. 15th 1864
    Sub-Agent Modoc 700 "
Yahooskin Snakes     100     "
Total   8005  
    These tribes are all friendly and peaceable and, with the exceptions noted, are parties to treaties with the United States. They live partly or wholly by agriculture, and their progress in this and other useful arts will be noted in subsequent parts of this report. There are no other tribes within the state over whom control is now exercised by the Department, and none with whom treaties have ever been made who are now hostile, except the small tribe of Woll-pah-pe Snakes, to whom no annuities or other benefits under the treaty have ever been paid.
    The tribes not under the supervision of agents are estimated, probably inaccurately, at 5100 souls. They consist of scattered bands along the Columbia River, many of whom are renegades from Washington, Idaho and perhaps Montana territories, whose number I have before estimated at nine hundred; a small band on Clatsop Plains and in that vicinity numbering, say, one hundred; a band upon the Upper Umpqua of about equal size with the last named, and the hostile Snakes, estimated at four thousand, making a total of 5100 Indians not controlled by the Department, and the total number of Indians in the Superintendency is 13,005.
    A few remarks concerning each agency are necessary.
Grand Ronde Agency
    This agency is situated in the western edge of the Willamette Valley upon a small tract (3888 acres) which was added to the Coast Reservation for the purpose of locating the tribes of Willamette and Umpqua valleys. A portion of the Rogue Rivers were afterwards removed there when it was found dangerous to keep them in one body at Siletz. The soil is well adapted to grain raising, though much of it is rough and heavily timbered. The Indians are not materially different in character or condition from the accounts given in my previous reports. I notice in them a gradual, steady improvement in their intelligence, clothing, behavior and industry. Their cultivated lands are most of them well worked, and their crops are nearly up to the average of the white farmers of the vicinity. They accumulate property very slowly, but in the production of subsistence and of agricultural products for sale they show very fair results. The report of Agent Harvey and of farmer Sands show with some particularity the operations of this year and also point out some of the difficulties under which the operations of this agency are prosecuted and their remedies.
    The stipulations in the treaty of Nov. 29th 1854, for a "farmer" for the Umpqua and Calapooia tribes (located at this agency) has expired, and the appropriations under it have ceased. The farmer is the most necessary employee upon a reservation, and his services cannot be dispensed with. He not only exercises supervision over the Indians in their agricultural operations, instructing, advising and aiding them, but he necessarily has the care of the agricultural implements, domestic animals, farm buildings and farm products of the agency. It is impossible to carry on this or any other agency without the services of a man in this capacity. In view of these facts, when the appropriation for pay of farmer was exhausted, I directed Agent Harvey to detail the teacher of the Umpqua day school to act as farmer. The most necessary part of an Indian's education is agriculture. It should precede everything else, because until the cravings of hunger are supplied it is idle to try to instill learning into their minds. I therefore thought that it was better that the Indians should be taught agriculture than books, if both were impossible. This action, however, did not deprive the Indians of opportunity to learn the usual branches of knowledge taught in their schools, for the Molel school, though strictly intended for that tribe alone, was made free to all the tribes upon the reservation, and they had the same or better opportunities there than in the Umpqua school. To my regret, my action was disapproved by your office, and I was directed to cause the teacher to return to the school house. Agent Harvey was therefore instructed accordingly; but in my judgment the interest of the Indians suffered. As I said before, the services of a farmer are absolutely indispensable. The property of the government, the property of the Indians, and the welfare of the latter, imperatively demand that an intelligent man should act in that capacity. I therefore recommend hereafter an appropriation of $1000 per year be made for the salary of a Superintendent of Farming for all the tribes upon the Grand Ronde Reservation.
    The stipulation in the treaty of Nov. 29th 1854, with the Umpquas and Calapooias for furnishing a blacksmith has also expired. A blacksmith is scarcely less essential than a farmer. The one who has been hitherto employed has found constant employment and has had the assistance from time to time of Indian assistants, who not only are valuable help in the shop, but are themselves benefited by learning the rudiments of a valuable trade and acquiring habits of industry. The cost of keeping in repair the plows, wagons &c. of an agency will be more in a year if done by blacksmiths outside than the salary of a blacksmith. I recommend therefore that an appropriation be made for the salary. This may properly be done as a general appropriation for all tribes or as a compliance with the clause in the 2nd article of the treaty of Dec. 21st 1855, which binds the United States to "furnish iron, steel and other material for supplying the smith shops and tin shop stipulated in the treaty of Nov. 29th 1854 and pay for the services of the necessary mechanics for that service for five years in addition to the time specified by that treaty."
    This stipulation has never been complied with, and is still binding upon the United States. I therefore recommend that an appropriation of one thousand ($1000) dollars per annum be made for salary of blacksmith, and one of four hundred per annum for furnishing material for smith and tin shops.
    The buildings at Grand Ronde were the first erected in the Superintendency, and were not substantially built. No money has since been expended upon them, and consequently they are deplorably out of repair and unfit for the uses for which they were designed. The dwellings of employees, the warehouses, the barns, the school houses and the mills are all alike in this respect.
    I respectfully recommend that appropriations be made of $1500 for the repair and enlargement of the agency buildings, and one of $800 for the repair of the flouring and saw mills. The products of these last are not only very essential to the Indians for their own consumption, but they are also a source of revenue to both government and Indians by their sale. Those of the Indians who are thrifty enough to have a surplus of wheat for market are dependent upon the mills to make their grain marketable, and in their present condition they cannot produce a merchantable article of flour.
    The school buildings should be abandoned altogether, and a new [one] or new ones built, but I shall refer to this matter in another part of this report. For further information I refer you to the "consolidated statistical return of farming" and the reports of Agent Harvey and his subordinates.
Siletz Agency
    My annual report for 1866 gave a very full description of this reservation, and some parts of that report will be repeated in this, for as there are located at this point the largest number of Indians in the Superintendency, and they have received up to this time by far the least attention from the government and have been treated with injustice and bad faith in some respects, the subject is of sufficient importance to occupy considerable space and time.
    The "Coast Reservation" was originally a tract about one hundred miles in length north and south, bordering on the Pacific Ocean, and of an average width of about twenty miles. The land is all fertile, much of it exceedingly so, and mainly free from rock, but it is nearly all covered with an extraordinary growth of timber, mostly evergreen, fir, pine, hemlock and spruce, with dense undergrowth, and generally broken and mountainous. The few small prairies contained within its limits do not comprise more than one hundredth part of its area. It has a cool and remarkably healthy climate, is well watered with the purest springs and streams, and its numerous creeks, bays and inlets are bountifully stocked with fish. The climate is damp, and therefore not well adapted to the production of cereals, although moderate crops of all grains except wheat can be raised with extra care, but for esculent roots--carrots, potatoes, turnips, all plants of the brassica tribe, and for nutritious grasses--I doubt if any soil in the temperate zone can excel it.
    In 1864 application was made to the Secy. of the Interior for the vacation of a part of the Coast Reservation. Inquiry having been made of that office, I submitted a report upon the subject, which was printed in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865 (page 105), and I again ask attention to that report in view of what has followed.
    In that report I urged the importance of providing for a removal of the Indians located upon and about the bay before the land was thrown open to settlement. My suggestions in this report were totally disregarded, and a district about twenty-five miles north and south by twenty miles east and west, beginning two miles south of Siletz Agency and including the whole of the Yaquina Bay, was thrown open to settlement by an executive order.
    Upon this tract were located some Indians who had been encouraged to open farms, erect dwellings and establish themselves permanently. The effect upon them and upon the other Indians was most disastrous. They had all been promised protection in the possession of their lands, and that protection had hitherto been afforded them, but now the agent was powerless, and whites occupied the lands as they pleased. There were also some public buildings upon the reservation and some boats belonging to the Indian Department, but these were of comparatively small consequence. Common justice required, still does require, that some compensation be made these Indians, and that provision be made for their removal to lands not occupied by whites.
    After the promulgation of the order by which the tract was thrown open to settlement (which I may remark was very sudden, and gave no time for preparation on the part of the government or the Indians) the whites rushed in upon the tract, seized upon the Indian farms, occupied their houses, in several instances ejecting the Indians who had built the houses by force, and immediately commenced the settlement of the country. The effect was deplorable. The Indians were dispossessed of their homes and property, and at the same time were afforded facilities for obtaining whiskey.
    They were discouraged because they could not feel any assurance that they would be protected in any other settlement they might make. They had no incentive to labor. A part were induced by Agent Simpson to remove above (north of) the vacated tract, and are now opening farms near the Siletz Agency, but they are doing so timidly and haltingly, and during a late visit to them I was constantly met with the inquiry "when the whites were coming there to settle." It is idle to expect any improvement in a people so harassed and discouraged. But a large part of them did not choose to trust again to the Punic faith of the whites. They scattered out among the white settlements or returned to their old country down the coast. Sub-Agent Collins is now down there with a few assistants endeavoring to secure their return; with what success I am not yet informed.
    The whole treatment of the government towards these Indians has been full of bad faith.
    In 1855 Joel Palmer, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs, made a treaty with nearly all the tribes along the coast from Columbia River to the California line. By the terms of the treaty the Indians ceded all their lands and agreed to remove to the Coast Reservation; in consideration the government promised to pay certain annuities, to build mills, provide schools, physicians, open farms, erect buildings &c. &c. This treaty the Senate refused to ratify, and it has therefore not been held to be binding upon the United States, but the Indians fully complied with the terms on their side of the treaty, abandoned their lands, removed to the reservation designated for them and have remained there since. White settlers occupied their lands and still occupy them. The Indians complain, and justly I think, that having complied with their side of the treaty, we ought to comply with ours. This discontent is much aggravated by seeing that other Indians draw annuities and are so much better provided for. It is also often aggravated by the machinations of malicious whites, who foster their discontent and encourage them to leave the reservation and, seeking their own country, endeavor by retaliation to recover just compensation. They had concluded, however, that at least they were secure in the possession of the lands they occupy, but they are again now doubly alarmed by having a part of their reservation taken from them and apprehensive that taking of a part is only preliminary to the taking of the whole.
    I repeat the recommendation I have formerly made, that the treaty of 1855 be ratified or that another be made. I do this with earnestness and beg that the matter be considered. The number of Indians is large, and if it is designed to improve or elevate them at all, the effort must be made at once or it will be too late. White settlements are encroaching upon them, whiskey and its attendant ruin are being placed nearer within their reach, and the belief that they are again and again to be thrust aside and despoiled of their possessions to make room for white settlers deprives them of any ambition to acquire property or learn the arts of civilization. The remedy for this is obvious. They should be made to understand that some tract of land is theirs in perpetuity; that they are to receive some compensation for what has been taken from them and with a little aid, encouragement and protection they may become tolerably prosperous.
    This is necessary for the white population as well as for the Indians. The country, which is rapidly filling up with settlers, is for that very reason becoming less suitable for the haunt of Indians, and their presence is a great and growing nuisance. I am now frequently in receipt of complaints of straggling Indians, to recover and return whom is expensive and troublesome and very often beyond my power. Any measure which will tend to keep them on the reservation will be of great benefit to them, of great benefit to the whites, and economical to the government.
    The north of the tract thrown open to settlement is an imaginary line running only two miles north of Siletz Agency. Settlements are being made along it, and it is often uncertain whether they are on the reservation or the open land outside. Indeed, some settlers, without much doubt, are on the reservation, but it is impossible to remove them until the line is fixed. I therefore urge an appropriation of three hundred and fifty dollars be made to survey and mark this line (about thirty miles) to be expended under the joint direction of the Surveyor General and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
    The teams at this agency are old, worn out and unfit for service, and the same is true of the larger part of the agricultural implements and mechanical tools. I recommend an appropriation of five thousand dollars ($5000) to be expended in the purchase of tools, teams and seed for this agency.
    The old flouring mill erected in 1858 and 1859 has never been of any value. It was located on such a site that it was soon damaged past repair by floods, and has never been used since. The burrs and irons are of good quality and have been taken care of under my direction. A small iron portable mill has been purchased, but it is inadequate to the wants of the colony, and the old mill ought to be rebuilt on a more suitable site.
    There are several excellent mill sites upon the reservation, and I recommend that four thousand dollars be appropriated for rebuilding the mill. The sawmill is in good condition. The agency buildings are old and out of repair. There should be an expenditure of six hundred dollars upon them, and I recommend that that amount be appropriated.
Alsea Sub-Agency
    The tribes located at this agency are the Coos, Umpqua, Siuslaw and Alsea. Their number is five hundred & twenty-five, of whom all but the Siuslaws reside near the agency. The reservation is about twenty by thirty-one [miles] in extent; is mainly heavily timbered, and the soil very fertile. There is at the estuary of the Alsea River (the northern boundary of the reservation) a small bay which affords an excellent harbor for small vessels, but the entrance to the Siuslaw River--a much larger stream--is so obstructed with rocks and shoals as to be inaccessible. There is a very large amount of land upon the tract susceptible of settlement, and ultimately it will support a large population. The small number of Indians located here do not seem to justify the keeping up of an agency, and I therefore have recommended the removal of these tribes to Siletz, where there is ample room for them and every facility for their support: abundant game, fish and good soil, which exists where they now are. Their removal would do away with the expense of one agency and place the Indians where they could [be] better controlled and have better advantages of schools, medical treatment &c. &c. I refer you to the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865, page 105, for a detailed statement of my views concerning these Indians, and I respectfully recommend that the suggestions there made be carried out.
    But if this is not done it is essential that appropriations should be made for the usual objects at this agency. They have never had any benefit of any school, medical attendance or medicines, nor have they of late years had any instruction in aid from mechanics. The farmer and interpreter are the only employees in the service at this place. There should be, in addition to these, a manual labor school, a physician and supply of medicines, a blacksmith and material for his shop, a wagon maker and a carpenter. The two last might be combined in the same individual.
    I recommend appropriations of the usual amounts for these purposes.
Umatilla Agency
    This agency is the home of the Walla Walla, Cayuse and Umatilla tribes and is situated near the northeast corner of the state. A large part of the Indians originally belonged to Washington Territory, and the agency itself was under the Washington Superintendency until 1862. Three mission stations--one Protestant and two Catholic--were located among these tribes more than twenty-five years ago, and some little effect of the instructions then given them is now apparent.
    The Protestant mission, Waiilatpu, was the scene of a terrible massacre in 1846, Rev. Dr. Whitman, his family and some thirteen other white persons being brutally killed and a few retained as prisoners by the savages. The few individuals who retain any traces of the religion or literary instruction which was given them adhere to the Catholic faith, but the greater part show no evidences that there were ever missionaries or teachers among them. They show in knowledge of agriculture, a desire to cultivate the soil and some rude skill in mechanic arts, which they have retained, that they are not incapable of receiving instruction and that (like all savages) they are easiest and best improved with material things rather than abstract ideas.
    The reservation contains about eight hundred square miles and is a superior tract of country for agricultural and grazing purposes. It is about forty miles from the Columbia River, and the great thoroughfare from all Oregon, Washington Territory and San Francisco to the mining regions of Idaho and Montana passes through it. The amount of travel and of freight transportation is immense, and the Indians are, of course, thrown into contact with many whites. Immense quantities of ardent spirits are daily hauled through the Indian settlement, and there are always men who will furnish it to the Indians in spite of the vigilance of the agent.
    The Indians there come into contact with many of the lowest and most corrupting sort of whites. They are also surrounded by white settlements, and the idea of keeping them apart from association with whites is altogether impracticable.
    The part of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains is all a fine grazing country, with only here and there a small tract of tillable land--oases, so to speak, of fertile soil in a desert of grass.
    The Umatilla Reservation is the largest and best of these oases; being well supplied with pure water, good timber, a healthful climate, situated on a great thoroughfare and near to the great Columbia River and the gold fields of Idaho, it is very desirable for settlement, and if opened the influx of whites would be very large and the settlement a very valuable one. Of course it is coveted by the whites, who see the advantages of it and also see to how little use those advantages are put by the Indians.
    The Indians--who are superior to most tribes in intellect and energy--are very much attached to their home and are very reluctant to abandon it. Some thoughtless whites have talked quite freely about driving the Indians off and taking possession by force. During a visit last spring to that agency and vicinity I heard threats of that sort repeated many times.
    Public meetings of citizens have been held to devise means to have the tract opened to settlement, and petitions for the same object to Congress and to the state legislature have been circulated and numerously signed. The Indians are hence very uneasy and much alarmed.
    There are here, as on probably every frontier, a few reckless villains who desire to provoke a war. They are small in number and are by no means sustained or countenanced by any considerable number of the people, but one or two of them can easily commit some depredation or outrage upon the Indians, which will be resented or retaliated and a war result.
    The Indians are peaceable and quiet and wish to remain so, and if any outbreak should occur the fault will be with the whites originally, and as these tribes are among the most warlike, intelligent and best provided with horses and arms, a war with them will be no trifling matter. As they are connected by intermarriage and otherwise with the powerful Nes Perce and Spokane tribes of Washington and Idaho, these tribes would probably join them, and [the] magnitude of the expenditure of life and money necessary to close the contest would be enormous.
    The question then arises, how can it best be avoided? The answer undoubtedly is--by a removal of the Indians to some other reservation. But this cannot be done justly without their consent. They are located upon the tract in question under a solemn treaty, by ratifying which the United States guaranteed to them the perpetual ownership of the land. So long as they remain peaceable and carry out the terms of the treaty they must be protected in the ownership. The trouble is not one which time alone will remedy; on the contrary it will continue and increase; so long as there are Indians upon that tract, so long will there be imminent danger of disorder and bloodshed.
    Whether the consent of the Indians can be obtained is doubtful. They are, as I said before, very much attached to their home and will consent only very reluctantly, if at all, to remove. That it will be for their interest--that is, their education, morals and material prosperity will be improved by a change which will remove them from whiskey facilities and the other vices and debaucheries to which they are now exposed--is undoubtedly true, but they are not yet conscious of this.
    If they do agree to remove, then where shall they be taken?
    There is no suitable tract of sufficient extent to locate them which is now entirely unoccupied by whites. The most feasible plan now appears to me to be to purchase the farms of the few settlers in that part of the Yakima Valley adjoining the Yakama Indian Reservation in Washington Territory and set apart a reservation for them enough of land to afford them a good permanent home.
    The tract is very suitable for their use, affording abundant grazing and sufficient tillable land. They are well acquainted with it, having often in former years visited it for their summer races and games with other tribes and for hunting. They would probably consent more readily to go there than anywhere else, and the expense would be slight except the purchase of the farms referred to. These I estimate at twenty-five in number, and an average value of two thousand dollars--say fifty thousand dollars. But my information on this point is very meager and this estimate may be inaccurate, but I think it more likely to fall below than above this sum. The reservation which they now occupy can be sold for at least two hundred thousand dollars, and the mills thereon, which [being] new and valuable, would bring fifteen thousand more. The other buildings are of no value.
    Once removed to the proposed tract the tribes would be under the supervision of the agent at Yakama, thus doing away with the expense of one agency. They would be located away from the corrupting influences to which they are now subject, a great impediment to the settlement of the country would be removed, and the cost to this government need be but very trifling.
    I recommend that a commission, to consist of the agent at Umatilla, the agent at Yakama and one other suitable person to be selected by the President, be appointed to treat with these Indians with reference to the proposed removal, and that the sum of three thousand dollars be appropriated to defray the expense of the same.
    The buildings at this agency were at first of the most temporary character and are now quite rotten and unsuitable for occupation. I concur in the recommendation of Agent Barnhart (see his report) that seven thousand dollars be appropriated to erect others. The present ones are so dilapidated that to repair them would be folly, and they are badly located.
    One school is in operation on this reservation, under the supervision of the Catholic archbishop of Oregon; to it I will refer in another part of this report. In agriculture these tribes have been very successful and are rapidly improving. I have, in 1865, 1866 and 1867, inspected crops there which would be a credit to any white farmer in the state.
    In 1865 the Indians sent down to the annual fair of the State Agricultural Society a selection of superior vegetables, for which the two first and one second premiums were offered. The articles were of uncommon size and quality and attracted much notice. The Indians were very much flattered and encouraged, and I therefore have directed Agent Barnhart to forward such a selection this year as may prove worthy of exhibition.
Warm Springs Agency
    The Warm Springs Reservation (so named from some large springs which throw out large quantities of water impregnated with sulfur and various salts at a temperature of about 210° Fahrenheit) contains about 1,024,000 acres, of which only 3000 or 4000 are susceptible of cultivation. The remainder is either rocky barrens, or heavy timber, but affords a fair supply of nutritious grass. The climate, in consequence of the great elevation, is more rigorous than at Umatilla, but is like all the country east of the Cascade Mountains dry and healthful. Animals in ordinary seasons subsist all winter on the native grasses and in summer fatten rapidly. Mount Jefferson, which is covered with perpetual snow, is enclosed within its bounds, and within twenty-five miles of its summit are valleys whose climate is warm enough to ripen corn, watermelons and vegetables of like character.
    The tribes located here are the Wasco, Des Chutes, Tygh and John Day, numbering 1126. The Indians are moderately industrious and prosperous and are improving rapidly. They yet depend very largely upon game and fish and roots for their subsistence, but they increase each year the amount of their agricultural products.
    A large number of the able-bodied men--about 100 in all--enlisted in the military service of the United States in the summer of 1866 and are still in the service. They have been employed against the hostile Snakes, have proved very efficient warriors and have doubtless rendered more actual service than the same number of white soldiers would have done. But whatever benefit to the whites may have accrued, it is unquestionable the effect upon these Indians is and will be deplorable.
    It is difficult always to redeem an Indian from his savage habits and mode of life, but it is easy to make him relapse after a partial regeneration. These Indians had made a beginning at agriculture &c., but two years of campaigning in savage warfare, stimulated by plunder and blood, the blood of women and infants as well as that of men, has effectually undone all, and more than all, the good that had been attained.
    Application was made to me in April 1866 by Maj. Marshall, U.S.A., then in command of troops in Idaho and eastern Oregon, for a body of Indian scouts from this reservation to assist him in operations against the hostile Snakes, they to be compensated by the horses, mules and other property captured from the Snakes. I called upon Maj. Gen. Steele at Vancouver, then in command of the district, and had a conference with him upon the subject. I protested against offering plunder as an incentive for the service, first, because of its palpably bad effect upon the friendly Indians; and secondly, because the property to be captured had all of it been recently stolen from whites and was subject to reclamation, and its possession would bring the Indians into trouble with the white owners. I also proposed, if he would employ the Indians as scouts at such rate of pay by the government as he and they might agree, that I would assist him in selecting and raising such number as would be efficient. Afterwards, in my absence from the state, the Indians to the number of nearly one hundred were enlisted into the military service, under pay as privates of cavalry, and in addition promised all the property they could capture and urged to make the war one of extermination.
    A copy of the order of Gen. Steele is hereto appended (marked "A"), and I am informed that Lieut. Wm. Burrows, in a speech to the Indians at the time of enlistment, enjoined upon them that they should take no prisoners, regardless of age or sex. Under these orders the scouts, under command of Lieuts.  McKay and Darragh, surprised a camp of Snakes in a narrow canyon, on a small fork of Crooked River, killed all the men, seven in number, and took fourteen women and children prisoners. Their officers directed them to carry out the orders. They remonstrated; but, finally, reluctantly killed and scalped all the women and children, they offering no resistance. I shudder when I recall the fact that this is the first instance on record in which soldiers in the service and wearing the uniform of the United States have, by express orders, butchered in cold blood unresisting women and children.
   
There have been several other instances more recently in which women and children have been killed, but I am not advised as to the particulars. It may be said that these Indians were savages, waging relentless war upon the white race, and that this was only a retaliation in kind, but even this is not true, as their habit has been to make prisoners and slaves of women and children captured. These they often maltreated and abused horribly, but rarely or never killed. It will require a long time if such education is applied to our friendly Indians to make farmers, scholars and Christians of them.
    This agency has, from its first establishment, been subject to the predatory attacks of the Snakes. Their depredations have been continued from year to year, and in some instances the amount of plunder taken was very large. In 1859 they besieged the white employees and such of the Indians as did not escape in the agency buildings, kept them there until their water and provisions were exhausted, when they managed to steal out in the night unobserved and reach the white settlements. The Snakes killed several Indians, took some prisoners and drove off a large amount of cattle and horses. These raids have been repeated every year, although never so extensive as the one described above, and the agency is in constant dread of them. Military protection has sometimes been afforded and at other times been withheld.
    If the operations against the Snakes are successful the chief obstacle in the way of this agency will be removed.
    The buildings at this agency are commodious, substantially built and in good repair. No expenditure is needed upon them beyond what can be done by the regular employees. The mills are of good quality and ample for the demands upon them. A day school is kept at the agency, of which the teacher, Mr. Gillette, gives full report. I shall refer to it before closing this report.
Klamath Agency
    This agency is located on the reservation of the same name and includes the whole of the upper and borders on the Lower Klamath lakes. It is a high region, subject to frosts in summer, intense cold and sometimes deep snows in winter. Parts of the land included (which, in the aggregate, is 1,200,000 acres) are utterly barren, entirely incapable of producing anything of value, while other parts have rich soil and produce well such crops as the cold and dry climate will allow. Timber of good quality is abundant. The lakes and the small streams putting into them abound in fish of the finest quality, while the swamps about their borders produce a number of varieties of edible roots. The lakes also produce abundantly an aquatic plant called wocus, belonging to the natural order Nymphaeaceae, the pericarp of which is about the size of a pint cup and filled with seed, which are very nutritious.
    These articles--mainly the fish and wocus--formed the chief articles of food for the Indians until the advent of the whites. They have begun, under the direction of Sub-Agent Lindsay Applegate, the cultivation of the soil, and preparations are now making to enlarge the operations under the treaty of 1864, ratified in 1866. If the crops are as successful as Sub-Agt. Applegate thinks they will be, we will be able to report next year a handsome amount of agricultural products. I must say, however, that some very limited experiments, made by the military officers at Fort Klamath, which I had opportunity to examine, do not warrant quite so sanguine a view of the future production as that gentleman has taken. But there is no doubt of an ample supply for the use of the tribes located there.
    The tribes located at Klamath Reservation are the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin Snakes. They number about 2500 souls. They are peaceable and not disposed to be vicious, very desirous of engaging in agriculture &c. and under good management will become prosperous. A few who have lived near the mining towns in California and Southern Oregon, or near the military post at Fort Klamath, are debauched and diseased, perhaps past redemption, but of a majority of them I can repeat the remark I made once before, that "they are as good raw material out of which to make civilized Indians as any on the continent." I might with propriety add that they will acquire the vices of white society quite as readily as any other.
Indians Not Located at Agencies
    There are two classes of Indians not located at agencies, to wit: First. The Indians scattered along the Columbia River, those on the upper branches of the North Umpqua, a small band on Clatsop Plains, and the Nestuccas, Salmon River and Tillamooks, numbering in all not far from 1200 souls. They are in immediate vicinity of white settlements, in fact intermingled with them, and most of them are as thoroughly debauched and degraded as they well can be.
    They are not parties to any treaty, and I do not think it necessary that any treaty should be made with them. Indeed, they are scattered over so vast a country that it would be impossible to gather them together for a treaty. But measures ought to be taken to collect them upon some of the reservations. The Nestuccas, Salmon Rivers and Tillamooks (about 300 in all) ought especially to be taken under jurisdiction.
    The country they inhabit is fertile, has a good harbor and is filling up with white settlers. They regard the Indians as nuisances and have more than once asked me to remove them. I have had neither funds nor authority so to do. I recommend an appropriation of $2000 for gathering together and establishing upon some reservation the Indians mentioned. The amount named would be sufficient not only to remove them, but to afford them some assistance in opening farms, obtaining farming tools &c.
    Second. The hostile tribes, or Shoshones. These are a numerous race, divided into various sub-tribes or bands and extending over a very large extent of country, but their general characteristics are the same. Their language differs in its dialects, but its groundwork is the same. They are a nomadic people, ranging from Nevada and Utah to Oregon, Idaho, Washington and Montana, often under different names. When in Utah they often find it convenient to call themselves Pi-utes. In parts of Idaho they are Bannocks. They treat with Gove. Nye in Nevada, or they fight with Gen. Crook in Oregon and Idaho. They are determinedly and persistently hostile, treating for peace sometimes, but never abiding by their agreements.
    They were formerly friendly. The early emigrants to this coast traveled through their country with friendly intercourse, but of late years their hand is against every man.
    They were on friendly terms with the. Wasco and Des Chutes (Tenino) Indians until 1856. It was their custom to meet those tribes at the Tygh Valley (40 miles north of Warm Springs Reservation) every summer and spend several weeks in a festival of horse racing and gambling, returning each to their own country in autumn. In 1855 two of the Tenino tribe with their families returned with the Snakes to the territory of the latter and were murdered for their plunder, their wives and children being sold to tribes further south as slaves. Retaliation of course occurred, and since that time the conflicts between the Warm Springs Indians and the Snakes have been as frequent as their friendly gatherings formerly were. In my annual report for 1865 I submitted a compilation of the depredations committed by the Snake Indians from 1862 to 1865. Accompanying this report is a paper (marked "B") which is a similar compilation, extending from the close of the last one to the date of this report. Much labor has been expended to make this compilation complete, and much care taken to have it accurate. I believe very few errors will be found in it.
    It is a fearful record of loss of life and destruction of property. These Indians are now beyond the reach of the Indian Bureau, and probably will never come under its control. The long-continued hostility existing between them and the whites has bitterly exasperated both, and there is no likelihood that they can ever live in peace.
    The military operations against them (under Maj. Marshall and Genl. Crook in the field, Maj. Genl. Steele commanding the district) have been prosecuted for the last year with great vigor and with much more efficient force than heretofore, and their numbers much reduced.
    They have been so harassed for a year past that they can have laid up very little supply of food, and doubtless many of them will perish the ensuing winter from starvation.
    I said of them in 1866: "What disposition can ultimately be made of them I do not undertake to say. Now, nothing is to be done but fight and exterminate them. Yet I am painfully conscious that extermination will cost the lives of ten whites for every Indian and besides cost many millions of money.
    "To attempt to treat with them now is simple folly; they cannot be even brought to a council, much less to a treaty." Their ultimate disposition is a matter that must be left to time to determine--and what I then said is most true now. It is utterly impossible to treat with them, and it is fearfully expensive (saying nothing of the loss of life) to fight them. The government would probably have saved many dollars if it could have fifteen years ago taken every Snake Indian to a first-class hotel and boarded them for life.
    The Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snakes, with whom I made a treaty in 1865, remained for a few months upon the Klamath Reservation and then rejoined the hostile tribes. It is reported--on rather doubtful authority--that Pau-li-ne, the most celebrated war chief of the Snakes, was killed in one of the conflicts of last year. If this is true, they have lost their most efficient leader.
Indians of Washington Territory
    A considerable number of the Indians of Washington Territory are frequently found in Oregon. The Klickitats, before the Indian title was extinguished, were in the habit of paying annual visits to the Willamette and Umpqua valleys for the purpose of trading with and stealing from other tribes and the whites. This practice has been discontinued of late years, but a few of them have remained in Willamette Valley who, being quiet and peaceable, were not complained of by settlers, and for the last few years their number has been constantly increasing by accessions from Washington Territory. A part of them have harbored in the Coast Mountains in Benton County, hunting and driving a sort of intermediate trade between the Indians at Siletz and the towns of Corvallis and Albany. Others have lived in Washington and Yamhill counties, and others still are found at Oregon City and Portland, living by a little work and much vice. Much complaint has been made of them lately, and I have taken steps for their removal. Their number is probably one hundred or thereabouts.
    There are also at Portland and other towns in that vicinity many Spokane, Flathead, Palouse and other Indians from the extreme eastern portion of Washington Territory and a few from Idaho. They are of tribes not located on reservations, are wanderers and vagabonds, far from their own country and people. Their chief support is the prostitution of their squaws, and they are often a sort of go-between from the white man who sells liquor to other Indians who want to buy it. A more thoroughly corrupt and degraded set of beings never existed. They ought to be removed from the white settlements, but it would be a calamity to any tribe to have them located among them.
Allotment of Lands
    I have repeatedly urged the importance of assigning to individual Indians small tracts of land in perpetuity to descend to the heirs of the original possessors. In my report for 1866 I said: "As Indians advance in knowledge of agricultural arts the desire to own the lands they cultivate seems instinctively to arise. The 'wild' Indian never thinks of owning any particular spot of ground. His tribe own a certain district of country, but individual Indians own nothing. But one of the first effects of putting him to work at cultivating the soil is to create a desire to own the land on which he works. This desire is commendable and ought to be encouraged. The best way to do this, in my judgment, is to allot to each adult male or head of family, who is sufficiently advanced to appreciate it, a tract of land not exceeding eight acres, the title which shall descend to his heirs forever.
    "The power of alienation should not be given, because too often the ignorance or weakness of the Indian would be taken advantage of by the more intelligent white man. The object should be to inspire in the Indian a confidence that the particular tract which he is laboring to improve will be the permanent possession of himself and children. In order to do this it is necessary to make some surveys. I recommend that an appropriation of five hundred dollars be made for this purpose at each of the reservations at Umatilla, Grand Ronde and Siletz, and four hundred at Warm Springs, the same to be expended under the direction of the Surveyor General and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The sum estimated for Warm Springs is smaller because there is at that reservation less land to survey. The sum named for Siletz will probably be found inadequate and require to be increased next year. No estimate is made for Alsea in view of the removal of the Indians which I have recommended, and none for Klamath, because the Indians there are not yet fit for it."
    I have nothing to add to what was then said, except to repeat the recommendation and add to the force of it. In my judgment, no one thing can be done which will encourage and help them so much as this.
    I have, since writing what I quote above, visited all the agencies in this Superintendency, except Klamath and Alsea. I conversed with the Indians on this subject and found them universally anxious that it should be carried into effect. I beg that attention be given to the subject and that appropriation be made as follows:
    For Umatilla and Grand Ronde, each five hundred dollars; for Warm Springs and Alsea, each four hundred dollars; for Siletz, seven hundred dollars. No surveys are yet necessary at Klamath, and the appropriation for Alsea should be omitted if the removal of the Indians, which I have recommended, is carried out.
    The amount named for Siletz is increased, because the sum formerly named was quite inadequate.
Education
    The number of schools in this Superintendency is five, same as reported last year. There are two at Grand Ronde, one at Siletz, one at Warm Springs and one at Umatilla. Reports are herewith submitted from the teachers of each, showing their condition and the extent and results of their operations.
    The schools at Grand Ronde are the oldest in the Superintendency. The manual labor school is under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Clark, the same teacher who had charge of it last year. It has been so far successful in its object as any Indian school on the coast, notwithstanding that it has labored under some disadvantages. The building is very insufficient, being out of repair, not well lighted, and the superstitions of the Indians prejudicing against it.
    The report of the teacher, which accompanies this paper, shows the condition of the school in detail. The day school is not and never has been, of much advantage to the Indians, for the same reasons that apply to all the day schools. School has been kept up in it with some intermissions since the establishment of the agency, but the other school has offered the most attractions and had the greater number of scholars. As has been stated, the teacher of the day school was at one time detailed to act as farmer, but that has been discontinued.
    These two schools ought to be united and a new building erected for them. There are no good reasons for keeping up the two at the same time, and no reason why they ought not to be united. One school having two teachers is ample for all the scholars on the reservation.
    There is an unexpended balance of appropriation for these schools on hand amounting to several thousand dollars, and I recommend that twenty-five hundred dollars be used for the purpose of erecting a suitable school house and furnishing the same. The funds cannot be diverted in this way from the objects for which they were originally appropriated without the authority of Congress, and I respectfully ask that such authority be given.
    The school at Siletz was established in 1863 by the Mr. and Mrs. Clark above referred to. It is now under the conduct of Mr. and Mrs. Dunbar. It has been from the first conducted upon the manual labor plan, or as near an approach to that plan as the very limited appropriations for its support will allow--and is a decided success.
    I visited recently and examined the scholars in various branches. The older ones, those who have been in the school more than two years, surprised me much with their progress. They read and spell well, some of them write very well, and they have a fair knowledge of the rudiments of geography and arithmetic They were cleanly, tolerably clothed, well behaved and altogether a credit to themselves and their teachers. The grounds attached to the building were well cultivated and tastefully arranged; the labor, except plowing, being all performed by the pupils. Their crops were excellent and will furnish a considerable part of the food required for their subsistence. This, it should be remembered, has been accomplished without appropriations designed specially for the manual labor school and with every disadvantage. The building is very uncomfortable and quite inadequate for the large number of scholars who might be induced to attend. I recommend that fifteen hundred dollars be appropriated to erect suitable school buildings at Siletz and that three thousand dollars per year be appropriated for the purchase of books, stationery, fixtures and pay of the necessary teachers.
    The day school at Warm Springs is under the charge of Mr. Gillette, the same teacher who has been there for the past three years. It labors under greater disadvantages than most of the day schools in some respects, but has a commodious and comfortable building for its use. Very few of the children live near enough to the school house to be able to attend, and the few who do attend come more for the comfort of the warm [room] in the winter than anything else. When spring opens, they almost invariably accompany their parents to the fisheries and in summer and autumn to the mountains for hunting purposes, returning at the approach of cold weather to enjoy the comfort of the schoolhouse fire, but having forgotten nearly or quite everything they had previously learned. They can read a little, and a few can write, but on the whole their progress is very unsatisfactory. If my reports for 1865 and 1866 are referred to, they will be found to make similar statements and give the reasons for them. I see no reason to change the record there made. Mr. Gillette has been and is a very faithful and competent teacher, but he is laboring under insurmountable difficulties.
    The school will never do the Indians any good until it [is] converted into a manual labor one. I recommend that this be done, and that fifteen hundred dollars per year, in addition to the usual appropriation for "pay of teacher," be applied to carrying on the school upon the manual labor basis.
    The day school at Umatilla is under the charge of Rev. Father Vermeesch, a Catholic clergyman. He is very much devoted to his work and has been quite successful in his labors, considering the short time he has been engaged there. The Roman Catholic affinities of a part of these Indians make them willing subjects for his labor. The scholars read, spell and sing under his tuition with much interest and bid fair to improve in the future satisfactorily.
    The school houses are, like all the other buildings at Umatilla, of the most worthless character, being small, badly ventilated and lighted and built several years ago of cottonwood logs, which are now far advanced towards decay.
    A contract was made by late Commissioner Lewis V. Bogy during his incumbency, with the Jesuit order in this archbishopric, represented by Archbishop Blanchet and Rev. Father Brouillet, providing that the order would take charge of the school on Umatilla Reservation for twenty years, to be paid a compensation of thirty-six hundred dollars per annum by the government and that the agent should cultivate sufficient land for the use of the scholars and teachers, provide certain buildings and feed and clothe all the scholars taught.
    Father Vermeesch, as agent of the archbishop, called upon me to learn the terms of the contract, and they were complied with by the agent, so far as they could be.
    They having possession of the school before the contract was made, were continued in possession, but no land was cultivated, children fed and clothed, or buildings erected, because he had no appropriations applicable to that purpose.
    The archbishop has not yet furnished any other teacher than Father Vermeesch, and he is quite sufficient for the school until more conveniences are supplied. In order to more fully carry out the contract it is necessary to provide suitable buildings, enclose sufficient land and provide teams and men to work it, and these cannot be done without money. I recommend, therefore, that three thousand five hundred dollars be appropriated for these purposes. The buildings ought not to be erected near the present agency, because the land in that immediate vicinity is totally unfit for cultivation, and the distance from the sawmills--six miles--is so great as to make the hauling of lumber very expensive. An excellent location within two miles of the mills affords the required amount of unoccupied fertile land, good water, convenient timber and a retired location, none of which are to be had at the agency.
    I make these suggestions after a full consultation with Father Vermeesch, as the agent of the archbishop and with his full concurrence. His familiarity with the Indians and the ground and his earnest zeal in the business render his opinions of value. Of course the removal of the Indians from the reservation would forbid the carrying out of this contract altogether, and if removal is contemplated (as I suggested in the former part of this report) this matter should be held in abeyance until the other is decided.
    I cannot too earnestly repeat what I have said in my former reports, as well as in this, that it is from manual labor schools alone that any good to the Indians may be expected. Schools where the Indian children are separated from their savage parents, housed, clad and taught not only the contents of the spelling book and the Testament, but the elements of agriculture, mechanics and domestic arts--the boys to plow, plant and hoe, to saw, cut and frame--the girls to sew, knit, mend and cook--these schools are the only ones which benefit the Indians. The day schools, at which the attendance is optional with the scholars, and often difficult or impossible by reason of the distance at which scholars reside, are of very little value. The scholars attend irregularly and very often refuse to attend at all, and when they do attend the good influence of a few hours in school is entirely overcome by the far greater time that they are subjected to savage association. I repeat my former recommendation, that such legislation as will place all the schools upon the "manual labor" basis be adopted.
Statistics
    The "statistics of education" &c., and the "Statistical Return of Farming" have been filled up by each of the agents and accompany this report. I have also compiled a "Consolidated Statistical Return of Farming," which shows the amount of all the crops, the value thereof, the amount and value of livestock, buildings and other property at all the reservations. It will show, in a concise and convenient form, about the actual agricultural condition of the tribes, with some brief comments. I trust it will be printed with this report.
Uniting Agencies
    There are several considerations in favor of uniting or consolidating two or more agencies into one, where the circumstances permit it. The Indians will be under better control, less liable to scatter and requiring less vigilance to keep depraved whites away from them, superior advantages of schools, mills &c. and economy to the government.
    Siletz might [be] the nucleus around which the tribes at Alsea and Grand Ronde could be gathered, and the scattering vagabonds of various parts of this Superintendency to which I have before alluded. This would place over five thousand Indians at the one agency, and do away with two others. The economy and advantages are manifest. The objections are the expense of removal and the difficulty of breaking up tribes already located under treaty stipulations. Another very desirable change would be to place the tribes at Warm Springs, and those at Umatilla at the Yakama Reservation. The confederated "tribes and bands" are very intimate with those at Yakama and would probably go there willingly and affiliate with them readily.
    The arguments for and against this proposed change are similar to those mentioned in the case of Siletz. If these changes were carried into effect, the number of agencies in the Superintendency would be reduced to two (Klamath and Siletz) instead of six as now, the expense lessened and the whites and Indians benefited.
    I have not attempted to elaborate any plan by which these ideas may be carried out, nor am I prepared to do so now, but I think the matter worthy of more consideration than it has hitherto had.
Stringent Laws Needed
    I call your attention to the necessity of more stringent laws punishing the vending of whiskey to Indians and tampering and interfering with Indians upon a reservation, or enticing them to leave the same without the consent of the agent or Superintendent in charge.
    It is notorious that our present laws do not prevent the vending of liquor to them, and it is equally notorious that nearly all the Indian troubles we ever have had have either originated directly in this traffic or in the aggressions of whites. Indians generally (if sober) do not desire to provoke hostility. There are among them, as among us, thieves and other criminals. There is not that abhorrence of crime in them that there is among enlightened whites. But there is not, according to my experience with them--which extends back eighteen years--that universal proneness to crime and wrong that is usually attributed to them. I have employed them, have traveled with them and fought with them every year since 1849, and I find that, according to the light which is vouchsafed to them, that the instincts of their nature are in the main good rather than bad. They resent an injury, but they are always faithful to their friends. They are barbarous and cruel to enemies, but no people are more affectionate among themselves. They are ignorant, credulous and full of animal appetites and passions. These qualities make them an easy prey to a class of unscrupulous villains and vagabonds who flock to an Indian agency like buzzards to a carcass, and by ministering to their depraved tastes and habits acquire advantages which the innate vindictiveness of the savage prompts him to resent. Retaliation follows and then, perhaps, war.
    The obvious remedy for this is to restrict whites from reservations as much as possible. Make it penal to intrude upon reservations and give the agent summary power to eject or imprison trespassers. If agents could have the power of the justices of the peace in all cases arising under the laws of the United States upon reservations, the effect would be salutary. Now it is often a ride of a day or two to the nearest magistrate. If an offense is committed--whiskey selling, theft or something worse--the offender can always make his escape before a process for his arrest can issue. The agents have no means of prosecuting these cases, and they are often necessarily left to go by default.
    I repeat that more stringent laws should be enacted in regard to whiskey selling, trespass on reservations and enticing Indians away or harboring them when clandestinely absent.
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 200-220.




Port Orford
    Aug. 24th 1867
J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        I am this far on my return, have to this date captured fifty (53) three Indians old and young. I was compelled to hurry my time owing to want of sufficient funds and help, leaving some Indians at Chetco, Rogue River and on Pistol River. Probably 21 Indians remain in that country. I will go up the coast. As my means is short, [I] can subsist them on mussels &c. I will give Coos and Umpqua as thorough [a] search as my means will admit. My force is entirely sufficient.
Very resp'y. your
    Obt. servt.
        Geo. W. Collins
To
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 95.



Port Orford
    August 25th 1867
Dear Sir
    I am wore out, Sy is almost dead with exhaustion and Collins was given up for dead until 9 o'clock this morning. Yesterday Collins told me to go ahead to this place and write a letter to Huntington, which I did, embodying the substance of Collins' instructions therein. Little did I dream then how soon his wants would be realized. Sy Copeland and Collins started in the morning with 30 Indians; 9 bucks shackled and two lone ones were with Collins behind. Copeland was just ahead with 3 squaws and small boys. Copeland took a wrong track over the mountain while Collins continued along the beach with the twelve prisoners. He was behind them and, dismounted, was leading his horse up the hill. When he was about halfway up the hill on a small flat the Indians had stopped while he was pulling off his coat the whole pack swung around him, knocking him down, and before he could get his pistol leveled they bound him hand and foot, took the shackle keys from him, unlocked themselves, took everything they could and started after Copeland. They would kill him and return and finish Collins. Before leaving him they tied ropes above his elbows and above his knees, put his hands behind him with shackles then left for Copeland. While they were away Collins managed to work the thigh rope off and then started up over the mountain, supposing they would kill Copeland, as they had his revolver. They came to Copeland, and Old John threatened to shoot him. Copeland had no pistol. The squaws all ran off but five. They called Copeland all the names they could think of and ran into the woods.
    Old John came into this place and I went back, meeting Copeland, who had got the remainder of the party and pack train together and had searched in vain for Collins. He was nearly gone in. I went back to the place and searched for some clue but failed. This morning I commenced again and found a track leading over some awful mountain which I followed into camp, where I found Collins, as near dead as I want to see any man. So there are twenty-five Indians gone. We had worked night and day to take these Indians and were on guard every other night and had taken every precaution to make them safe. I am sick at heart after laboring so hard to make it a success and then to lose them.
Yours truly
    R. A. Bensell
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.  Edited copy on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 441-443.




Port Orford
    Aug. 26th 1867
J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        I have to herewith report the loss of 25 Indian prisoners, 15 miles south of Humbug Mountain. The circumstances are these. I had ordered Bensell & Maury (guide) to go ahead to P. Orford and look after some Indians reported to have been seen near mouth of Brush Creek and to purchase supplies. By time pack train arrived Mr. Copeland, who had the Indian women in charge usually, went ahead, and I followed with 2 loose and 9 shackled prisoners. By mistake Copeland took the mountain trail, while I kept the back some distance and then turned up the side of the hill, supposing Copeland would meet me soon, but we became separated some ½ mile or more. As I was leading my horse and walking behind the Indians up the side of the hill (very steep and rocky) the prisoners suddenly turned on me and pushed me backwards and down. I struggled to find my pistol (which came under me in my fall). They soon got shackle keys from my pockets and freed themselves, after which they tied me strongly with shackles and ropes, my hands behind my back [and] left me, promising to return & kill me after they killed Mr. Copeland. I managed to free myself, legs, and with my hands behind my back I started over Humbug Mountain to P. Orford, up hills and through brush, which took 10 hours hard work. I expected to hear of Copeland's death, but he had managed to get the pack train and what Indians there were left and come on to camp. I here desire to thank Mr. Copeland, Bensell & Maury for the care and vigilance they have exercised throughout the trip and to entirely exonerate them from any blame whatever.
    The fault is, or was, in not having force enough to catch and guard (we were on guard every other night) Indians at the same time. I shall bring what Indians I have left by way of Camas Valley. I am unable to write as the Indians kicked me after I was tied and bruised me badly, and I am worn out. Mr. Bensell has written this as I dictate.
Your very obt. servt.
    Geo. W. Collins
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 73.



Ashland, Oregon August 31st 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of affairs in this agency, I have the honor to report as follows for the month of August.
    Harmony to a great extent has prevailed among the Indians during the month. The Klamaths during the earlier part of the month were engaged in gathering wocus in the Klamath Marsh, but fear of the Snakes drove them away from there, since which time they have been but little employed.
    The Modocs remain in their own country. They have not been molested by the Snakes. A Snake squaw held as a prisoner by them has escaped.
    The Snakes have made one or two raids into the country near the agency, taking away a few Indian horses. In one case a pursuing party of Klamaths recovered some horses near the marsh and killed one of the Snakes. There being a considerable force of troops in the Klamath country now, and a company preparing to invade the Snake country from Ft. Klamath, Snake raids will likely be prevented during the remainder of the season.
    No permanent improvements have been made on the old reservation as yet, I believe, but some persons are preparing to build there soon, and some sheep & horses have been driven into the Link River country.
    On the agency farm the month has been mainly spent in putting up hay. The crop, with the exception of some of the wheat on the higher land, looks well and promises a good yield. Harvest will commence in a couple of weeks.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indn. Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Siletz Indian Agency
    Oregon Sept. 1st 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to submit to you my report for the month of August 1867.
    The Indians under my charge are generally quiet, well disposed and industrious--a large proportion of them are now engaged in harvesting their grain.
    The growing months being very dry, the grain crop will fall short of an average yield. Our wheat from this cause will not average over eight bushels per acre. The potatoes promise well; estimating from the few that have been taken up, the crop will produce at least forty-five thousand bushels--nearly the same as last year.
    The Indian school is in successful operation, having twelve regular boarding pupils--all that can be accommodated with comfort in the building.
    The sanitary condition of the several tribes is, I think, improving--several deaths have occurred, but their number is much less than usual.
    The several employees of this agency have been prompt and faithful in the discharge of their duties.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.




Grand Ronde Agency
    Sept. 5th 1867
Sir
    On the 28th of last month I was handed a letter from Johnson & McCown, to Como, directing him to come here and make a demand for his wife.
    Having in the meantime found that Como did not belong here, I under your instructions of Aug. 17, 1867 informed Jane that she was at liberty to go or stay. After considering the matter for a short time she concluded to go and left the agency the next day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 76.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Sept. 5th 1867
Sir
    On Friday last the Umpquas came to the office with complaints against Alex Day, charging him with stealing horses and killing cattle.
    All of this he stoutly denied, but upon examination it was proven that he stole a horse from an old squaw in January 1864, and he finally admitted he had done so, had taken it out and sold it and had given two dollars and a shawl to an Indian not to tell on him. There was much circumstantial evidence that he had stolen two other horses and killed a cow, but no positive proof.
    As the first case could not be reached by law--being over three years--and the others not positively proven, I told him that it was only by the permission of the Indians and former agents that he had any rights here and that he must now leave the reservation entirely. I gave him time to settle up his affairs and told him if after that he had any business on the reservation to come to the office and not go to the Umpqua settlement. This he promised to do.
    On Monday morning Louis, the chief of the Umpquas, came and informed me that about midnight Alex came there and said that he was after his squaw, that he had been to see you about it, and that you said that if he was not married he could not get her, but advised him to "kapsualla" ["steal"] her and get married and then he could keep her, but he must not tell that you advised him to do so. I am unwilling to believe this, but if you did he followed your advice to the letter. As soon as Louis told me I started after them, but when I reached Dallas I found they were married. As he had been married by the priest to another squaw who was still living I concluded to prosecute him for bigamy and had him up before Judge Lovelady, who decided that the priest had no license to marry, therefore the former marriage was not valid and he had committed no crime and so the matter rests.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 89.



A. SCHÜCKING,
WASHINGTON, D.C.
VICE CONSULATE OF THE NETHERLANDS,
AND
GERMAN CONSULAR AGENCY,
FOR THE CONSULATES OF
Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Oldenburg, &c.
Washington, Sept. 6 / 67
The Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir:
        A certain August T. Richard, now deceased, represented to his parents in Europe that he was possessed of a farm of 320 acres (640 acres in partnership) in Southern Oregon, well stocked, when in March 1859, the Indians breaking out, his place & property was destroyed and partner killed, and he saved himself by getting to San Francisco with $200--was finally drowned as captain of an oyster schooner. He further stated that his loss was assessed at $9,500, which is the amount of his claim on the government.
    Will you be pleased to advise me whether there is any substance in such a claim?
I have the honor
    To be, sir
        Very respty.
            A. Schücking &c.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 469-470.



Elk City Sept. 7th [1867]
Benj. Simpson
    Dear Sir
        I send you the mail by the bearer. Whisky has not arrived yet, consequently cannot fill your orders as yet but hope to soon.
    Mr. Wicks, who went with Collins, Bensell & others, is here. He arrived last night with Collins' team. He says the Indians nearly killed Collins, tied him hand & foot and beat him almost to death. He will be home today. They have about 40 Indians. They are coming up the coast.
Yours truly
    C. P. Blair
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Siletz Agency
    Sept. 8th 1867
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        I have just received a letter from Bensell of Collins' party dated Port Orford August 25th in which it appears they have had serious trouble with the Indians. They have almost killed Collins. I send you a copy of Bensell's letter. Something should be done immediately or there will be more serious trouble. If you can send me means I will go after them at once. I think it would be well to send about five good men with me and I will bring them or leave them dead. From Bensell's letter there is only about ten bucks gone with about twenty squaws. Let me know what to do. I enclose another letter just received.
Yours hastily
    Ben Simpson
        Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 78.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Salem Oregon Sept. 9th 1867
Washington Sept. 9
    N. G. Taylor
        Comr. Indian Affairs
Sub-Agent Collins pursued runaway Indians to Chetco, captured eighty 80. On return Indians nearly killed Collins, half escaped. Shall I send Agent Simpson after them. Will cost twelve or fifteen hundred 1500 dollars funds for arrest. Half year eighteen sixty-seven 1867 very much needed, please remit.
J. W. Perit Huntington
    

Telegram
Washington, Sept. 13th 1867.
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Telegram not sufficiently definite to warrant a decision. Arrangements will be made to remit regular funds.
Chas. E. Mix
    Actg. Comr.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 433-445.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 9th 1867
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 5th instant concerning the exploits of Alex Day, the Mexican half-breed.
    I gave Day no advice whatever and entirely refused to entertain his case, but told him that if you wished me to consider it, you would doubtless write me about it, and until you did so I should pay no attention to it.
    Squire Lovelady's decision that the Catholic priest had no right to marry is too absurd for consideration comment. The attention of the grand jury should be called to the matter, and in the meantime the Mexican ought not to be permitted to come upon the reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Amos Harvey Esq.
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 140.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 9th 1867
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your several letters dated respectively at Port Orford Aug. 16th, Aug. 20th and Aug. 26th. The last named was received several days before the other two. I have also received from Agt. Ben Simpson a copy of a letter from Mr. Bensell giving an account of the assault upon you and the escape of the Indians. I assure you of my sincere sympathy with you in your personal injuries, and trust they may not prove so serious as Mr. Bensell apprehends.
    I have directed agent Ben Simpson to proceed down the coast to endeavor to recapture such as he can of the escaping Indians and to gather up the others whom you did not arrest.
    You will turn over to Agent Simpson any horses or other articles of Department property which you may have on hand useful for the expedition which you can spare without disturbing the operation of your agency or interfering with the security of the Indians you now have in custody.
    As soon as your physical condition will admit you will be expected to submit a detailed report of your expedition, its incidents and results.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
G. W. Collins Esq.
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
        Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 140-141.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 9, 1867
Sir
    Your letter of the 8th reached me yesterday (Sunday) evening. I had previous accounts of the disaster to Sub-Agent Collins and the escape of his prisoners, but did not suppose the affair was so serious.
    It is very important that these Indians should be captured without delay, not only because they deserve punishment, but for the moral effect upon the other tribes. You will therefore proceed at once down the coast, employing such force as appears absolutely necessary, and endeavor to capture all the straggling Indians in Coos and Curry counties. Sub-Agent Collins will turn over to you all the Department horses, mules and other property now in his hands which can be spared from his agency, and which is suitable and requisite for your expedition. This property or so much of it as is not consumed or destroyed you will return to Sub-Agent Collins after you have returned from the expedition. I also send you by hand of Mr. Orton (who also brings this letter) the following articles of property to wit: three horses, one saddle, one pack saddle, two halters, two pairs blankets, six pairs handcuffs, one Colt's revolver.
    Triplicate receipts for this property are herewith forwarded for your signature, and you will sign and return them to me. You will also give to Sub-Agent Collins suitable receipts for such articles he may turn over to you.
    Funds to the amount of six hundred and thirty dollars ($630) are herewith transmitted, with vouchers for your signature. You will return these also properly signed and account for the money under the head of Removal and Subsistence.
    Such other expenditure as you may find absolutely necessary will be paid out of the same fund when the next remittance (that for 1st & 2nd qtrs. 1867) shall arrive. You will observe the strictest economy, however, and incur no expense which can be avoided.
    Due report of your proceedings under this letter of instructions will be made on your return.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Benj. Simpson Esq.
    Siletz Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 141-142.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Oregon Sept. 9th 1867
Dear Sir
    I submit my report of the expedition in Southern Oregon after Indians belonging to the Siletz Agency. I commenced collecting Indians at Corvallis. We caught four Indians there. We then went to Eugene and caught seven there and went from there to Ten Mile Prairie, and there we heard of some Indians that had been stealing wheat out of a man's field. Just before sunset we encamped, procured a guide and went in search of them and found where they had threshed the wheat, but the Indians had gone from there and had left no trace that we could follow them by. Then we went on to Camas Valley. We left the wagon and some of the team there, got all the information we could in regard to those wild Indians that has been troubling white settlers for several years in that vicinity but found they had been routed a short time previous by some men working a road on the north fork of Coquille River and had fled to the mountains, and no one knew where they would be likely to stop, so I concluded it would be useless to hunt for them, and being informed there was but three Indians on Rogue River I then pushed on to Sixes River, and I procured a guide. I then went in search of Whiskers' band and caught all of them, thirteen in number. Then leaving Mr. Wix (a man that I employed at Corvallis) in charge of them, I then started with Mr. Bensell, Mr. Copeland and a guide for Chetco, where I succeeded in capturing on Chetco, Winchuck and at the lagoon near Crescent City thirty-three Indians, which was all done in less than twenty-four hours from the time I commenced. There was then only six Oregon Indians remaining in that part of the country that I could hear of. They fled to the mountains. I remained there three days and searched but did not succeed in capturing them. I then started for Sixes River, where I left Whiskers' band in charge of Mr. Wix. But when I came to Rogue River, there learning there was Indians in that vicinity, we encamped and started two men that night in search of them and continued the search until the next night.
    Then ascertaining that the whites had concealed them somewhere in the mountains I then gave up the search. Traveled next day to Euchre Creek, there hearing of Indians that had been seen on the beach between that place and Port Orford, I sent Mr. Bensell and Will, my guide, on ahead in search of them. That left Mr. Copeland and myself with those thirty-three Indians. We traveled on very well until we came to the Humbug Mountain. There Mr. Copeland, who had the woman and children ahead, he and they took the wrong trail, the foot trail. He had turned his mule loose, and it was following behind my horse when he took the foot trail, as we supposed it to be. I called and told him he had better turn back, but some of the old lame squaws was some distance ahead. He said he would come down on the beach the next gulch ahead, which was some two or three hundred yards ahead, and it looked from where he and I was that he could come down there very well, but going to the place he found he could not get down, so that separated us for a mile and a half or two miles, his trail on the mountain and mine on the beach. All went right until I came to where I left the beach to go on the mountain. There we had to go up a steep rocky bank. There had been a slide from the mountain which caused a high narrow ridge at the top of the bank. The Indians going up ahead of me stopped when they got over the ridge. I had got down to walk and led my horse up the steep [omission]. The Indians were all out of my sight until I came to the top of the ridge, then they all rushed onto me with such force that they knocked me down before I had time to draw my pistol. They piled onto me to hold me down while some of them got the keys from my pocket and loosed themselves. Then they handled me fast and rough. They took my pistol from me, tied my arms behind my back with a rope above my elbows, put shackles on me, tied my feet together, kicked, stamped and bruised me up considerable. They then told me I could not get away from that place with my feet tied, and they would return and kill me as soon as they got Copeland. They wanted to kill us both, but they did not find Copeland where they expected to find him. He had got out in open ground. They stampeded all their women that would go with them and then left for the mountains except three Indians. When they failed to get Copeland they then returned to kill me as they had promised where they had left me tied, but while they were gone I had untied my feet and got away from there. They followed my track for some distance but failed to find me. They then left for the mountains. Twenty-five Indians in all made their escape from me at that place. Our horses were all worn out and no chance to get any help to follow them without paying two prices. I knew it was useless for me to follow them, as the force I had was not sufficient to keep them after I had caught them. If Agent Simpson had furnished the help he was to from the Siletz, I would have been all right. But he told me positively that he knew there was not more than twenty Indians down there, for he knew every Indian that had gone without a pass. And now up to this time we had caught fifty-seven Indians from the Siletz Agency without a pass, and heard of some thirty more from Siletz. If I had sufficient force I could have caught some if not all of them.
    I had to furnish Indians from my place to do the packing, and they complain very much of having to go off to work for nothing gathering up Siletz Indians, and at the same time Siletz Indians remaining at home to hunt and fish during the hunting season. With the Indians I had left I came on to Coos Bay; there I caught three. We then came on to Umpqua, and there caught five more, making forty-one Indians returned to the reservation. And twenty-five escaped, making a total of sixty-six that we caught in all.
    All of which is respectfully submitted by your obt. servant,
        G. W. Collins
            U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Ashland Mills Oregon Sept. 10th 1867.
Sir
    There are now on the agency farm a farmer and a laborer. These I presume should be paid out of the fund provided for "Pay of Supt. of Farming &c."
    Shall I appoint at the commencement of the 4th quarter a Supt. of Farming and a Physician? What compensation should these several employees receive? I have never received a copy of the treaty.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs in
        Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 87.



Ashland Mills Oregon Sept. 10th 1867.
Sir
    I will leave this place for the agency on the 20th inst. unless instructions from your office make it necessary to change the decision. I desire to ascertain the condition of affairs there and superintend the harvesting of the crop.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 88.



[Telegram]
Toll House Sept. 11 1867
Salem Sept. 11 1867 12-20 p.m.
To J. W. P. Huntington
    No currency checks can now be converted in Jacksonville even at discount. In rare instances merchants to accommodate might convert small San Francisco check at par, but could not without loss.
Lindsay Applegate
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 89.



Siletz Agency
    Sept. 12th 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 9th inst. instructing me to proceed immediately to Southern Oregon after Indians that have strayed from this and other agencies and also the receipt of funds and property by Mr. Orton as designated in your letter and set forth in receipts signed and forwarded by mail to you.
    On receipt of your letter I examined the animals proposed for the expedition and found them unfit owing to the hard trip they had just had, Sub-Agent Collins having just returned with them, except those three horses delivered to me by Mr. Orton and referred to in your letter of instruction.
    Under the circumstances I have thought it best to employ a schooner to proceed immediately to Crescent City and other intermediate points between here and there for the purpose of conveying to this agency all the Indians I may capture. This I find can be done with much less expense and with much more certainty, as there will be no danger of their escaping after being captured. I shall send four trusty Indians on the schooner in charge of one white man, myself and Mr. Copeland going by land along the coast so as to meet the schooner at the mouth of Chetco or Crescent City. In this way I can obtain all the information desired before joining the party on the schooner. I will then proceed with the whole party to scour the country for Indians as directed in your letter. I have contracted with Capt. Hoxie, master of the schooner Mist, to make the expedition and to be out thirty days and to convey to the Yaquina Bay all the Indians I capture for three hundred dollars in coin or its equivalent in legal tender. He is also to give board and passage to the four Indians and white man referred to so that all that I will be out on the schooner will be the three hundred dollars and feed for the captured Indians on their way to this place.
    Sub-Agent Collins brought to this agency eighteen Indians including men, women and children, mostly of Whiskers' band of Coquells.
    I will report to you the result [of] my expedition as often on the way as opportunity offers.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Ogn.
P.S. It is now noon. I will start in one hour. The schooner will start tomorrow evening.
B.S.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 92.



Col. Day, of the Indian Department
    Dear Sir
        The monstrous and disgraceful purpose indicated in the resolves contained in the enclosed printed slip is my apology for writing to you.
    It is precisely a similar case to that which started the Indian wars of Southern Oregon in 53-4-5 and which resulted in a long period of mutual massacre of both races and finally in a claim upon the government for six million one hundred thousand dollars. It has been my lot again and again to warn public officials of impending evil, and in every case where the warning has not been heeded the evil has come with a sorrow greater than was anticipated.
    Now is it not possible for the Indian Department to stop these murderous propositions by a telegraphic proffer to investigate and punish the guilty but protect the innocent.
    The frequent occurrence of suchlike scenes suggests the necessity of a radical change in existing conditions which shall make it impossible for them to occur, an outline of which I think I proposed to you in a former letter and need not now be repeated.
    I am glad to be informed that some earnest measures in a right direction is being carried out on the Cherokee Reservation. How suchlike domains in suitable locations with a well-managed manual labor school and a community of interests with personal responsibility established upon them and such other aids as time and circumstances may indicate would doubtless be incalculably better than the present suicidal and disgraceful system.
    The slip is cut from the Sacramento Union of August 31 [sic--actually August 24, 1867, page 2]. It suggested to me the propriety of writing a plea for the Indians, which I did, and carried the same to the editor of the Oregon Sentinel with an offer of ten dollars for its insertion, about a column and a half of matter. He answered, "No I have been denounced enough already for what I have published for Indians. I hate them; damn them; I wish that they were all dead, and I don't believe that there is ten men in the two counties (Jackson & Josephine) but what have the same feeling." I have reason to believe that this editor spoke as a representative for the great majority of people west of the Mississippi River. Well, this seems discouraging. But I believe notwithstanding there will be a better state of things as soon as the right plan is proposed and enforced by the proper authorities.
    These difficulties do not arrive so much because the Indians are savages but because they are helpless and unprotected. Only secure thorough protection from insult and robbing, and at the same time provide them with means of self-sustainment thoroughly apart from the power of speculators, and I think the difficulty will end. It is my purpose to be in Washington early the coming winter, and if there is any business private or public in the service of the Indian Department on the Pacific Coast or more particularly in Oregon and Washington Territory I shall be happy to do it.
Respectfully
    John Beeson
Phoenix Jackson Co. Oregon
    Sep. 17th 1867
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 378-381  The clipping referred to quotes a resolution by residents of Humboldt County, Nevada threatening extermination of local Indians in retaliation for the murder of James A. Banks.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 18th 1867
Sir
    On the 9th instant I sent you a dispatch by telegraph, a copy of which I send herewith, and yesterday received your answer dated 13th inst., copy of which I also send in order that any mistakes the telegraph may have committed may be corrected.
    The circumstances to which I referred in my dispatch are these:
    A considerable number of Indians from the Siletz and Alsea and those from the tract opened to settlement at Yaquina Bay have run away from the reservation, gone down the coast to their old haunts in the vicinity of Empire City, Port Orford, Crescent City and other points along the coast. On the 30th of last July I dispatched Sub-Agent Collins, with Messrs. Bensell and Copeland (employees at Siletz) and a party of friendly and trusty Indians from Siletz and Alsea after the fugitives. They followed them down the coast to the California line, and with the assistance of some settlers captured more than half of them. On the return they were by some accident divided into two parties, and Collins was attacked and left for dead. He has since returned to the agency but is unable from his wounds to write, and I have therefore no report from him, but I send you enclosed a copy of a letter from Mr. Bensell (farmer at Siletz) to Agent Simpson upon the matter which is the best account I have, although I have several other accounts from other sources less complete.
    The Indians are a source of terror to the whites along the coast all the way from Coos Bay to the California line. There have been many loud complaints made of them, and I have repeatedly been solicited to send for them. They are now emboldened by the successful raid [omission?] on Sub-Agent Collins, and their presence unrestrained far away from any military force or agency cannot fail to lead to serious trouble.
    Their escape and absence will have a very disastrous effect upon the Indians remaining upon the reservation and increase the desire--already too prevalent--to leave the agency. I should here remark that the desire exists chiefly among the Indians most likely to give trouble--the thievish, the indolent and the malicious--while the quiet and orderly industrious ones are usually content to remain.
    I was therefore very anxious that they should be pursued and brought back, but did not proceed without first referring the matter to your office.
    I have dispatched Agent Benj. Simpson down the coast after them, he probably leaving his agency today or tomorrow. The expense of the trip will probably [be] somewhat less than the amount I warned in my dispatch of the 9th inst. I trust it can be brought within one thousand dollars. Agent Simpson takes with him only two white men, relying upon the assistance of citizens interested to assist in the capture.
    Due report will be made of the result of his expedition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Commissioner
Or Hon. W. E. Mix
    Acting Comssr.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 144-145.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 436-440.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 19, 1867
Sir—
    In reply to several of your inquiries I have to say:
    1st. All of your expenditures should be paid out of the funds for payment under the treaty. The colonizing fund is longer applicable, and the balance of this fund now in your hands should be returned to this office.
    2nd. Your employees should be paid out of the money appropriated under their respective heads. Laborers must be paid out of the funds for opening farms &c.
    3rd. The salary of farmers should be $800 per year, and the blacksmith, carpenter and physician each $1000. It will not be necessary to appoint more than these until I visit your place.
    4th. I have no copies of the "Revised Regulations," and there are none to be had at Washington. The book is out of print.
    5th. A large shipment of annuity goods designed for your Indians (and others) has just arrived by last steamer at Portland. They must have been a year on the way from New York. I am not informed exactly what they are, but presume they are of the usual character of eastern goods shipped for such purposes. I go tomorrow to Portland to make arrangements to have them forwarded somehow before winter.
    6th. I cannot obtain greenbacks except in small quantities here at all. When I telegraphed you that I would send $1000 I fully expected to raise that amount here, but failed. I go to Portland tomorrow and will send you that amount by express. The government will not allow any express charges for transportation of money.
    7th. I expect to see you within the next month visiting the agency and selecting sites for buildings &c.
    8th. You should take measures to get such seeds across the mountains as are wanted early in the spring. If you desire any of the [Obed] Dickinson seeds such as you had last year I will purchase and send them upon your requisitions.
    9th. The change in your affairs by reason of the adoption of the treaty is the basis of your operations will involve many changes in your accounts. You will therefore suspend your September accounts--both money & property--until I can see and confer with you.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 148.



Big Bend of Rogue River
    Sept. 20th 1867
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        We arrived here day before yesterday. We captured three Indians here, two of which ran off from Siletz and one other that left the agency about one year ago, a notorious scoundrel. I understand here that the others that escaped from Collins are on the head of Pistol River. I shall leave here for the place today, send my horse by land and go down myself and one man with the prisoners by water some thirty miles then strike across the mountains to Pistol River. I am aiming to keep off of the beach altogether, as I presume the Indians are watching for me there. I calculate to work my way through the mountains to Smith River then return by way of the coast. I left the coast at Coos Bay and came by way of Coquille and Johnson's Diggins. I taken [sic] two of those scoundrels here completely by surprise. When I arrived at Fosters at Big Bend I got there a little after daylight, learned from him that three Indians were at Scotties, where I am now writing on Rogue River eight miles below Fosters. While we were eating breakfast a squaw that stops at Foster's belonging to another man broke for the place to let the Indians know that we were coming. Myself and Copeland took after her and here we had a grand chase for eight miles. We however succeeded in getting to the house first where we found one Indian. He told us that the other two were gone down the river and that he was looking for them back. While we were waiting here for Clark (the man I brought for Collins' place) the squaw started down the river to meet the canoe. As we feared by the tracks in the sand, Clark having to carry our blankets he was some time getting here; however, when he arrived and took charge of the one we had caught, Copeland and I started down the river again after the squaw and to meet the canoe. We ran about four miles along the water's edge to where the rocks could not be passed. We arrived to this point before the squaw and concealed ourselves in the rocks until three o'clock in the night when the canoe arrived. We called them ashore. We found they had a little meat. We made them build up a fire and broil us some, it being the first we had had after leaving Foster's. We then got into the canoe with our prisoners and arrived here a little after sunrise. One of those men has [a] woman here somewhere. My men are out now looking for her while I write and guard the prisoners.
    Please say to my family that I am in good health and hope to get back soon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Excuse mistakes; I am on guard.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 116.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 20th 1867
Sir
    In view of putting in a good crop at Klamath next year it will be desirable for you to secure a lot of seed grain in time for transportation across the mountains before large quantities of snow falls. If more flour is needed, you are authorized to contract with Muller & Brentano for such quantity as may be needed at the same rate as under their former contract this year. If they decline you are authorized to purchase in open market.
    You may also purchase one dozen plows if in your judgment it is necessary.
    Funds for meeting the obligations there incurred will be furnished upon due requisition.
    A lot of seeds similar to those forwarded to you last year will be sent from the garden of O. Dickinson, and if you desire anything additional from that source you should send notice at once.
    You will observe due economy in any purchases you make, bearing in mind the act of June 2nd 1862 and the instructions of the Department, and of your action in this matter make due report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 152.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 781-786.




Siletz Indian Agency Ogn.
    Sept. 27th 1867
Dear Sir
    Yours of the 24th inst. has just been handed me, and in reply I would state that I will deliver the instructions therein contained to R. A. Bensell Esq., who is Supt. of Farming on this reservation and who has the direction of the affairs here during the absence of Agt. Simpson.
    I would further state that I have not since the departure of Agt. Simpson given any passes to Indians.
    Agt. Simpson took but one employee (Mr. Copeland) from this reservation with him. The others are all at their posts with the exception of Mr. Thorn, the carpenter, who is absent for a few days.
    Everything is moving along here in the usual manner. We have heard nothing from Agt. Simpson since he left here on the 12th inst.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        W. R. Dunbar
            Teacher Siletz Ind. School
To
    Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem
                Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 111.



Siletz Agency Ogn.
    Sept. 28th 1867
J. W. P. Huntington
    Sir
        Your "circular" recd.; instructions will be obeyed from this date. I gave passes since Agt. Simpson's absence, as had been customary in most cases where parties desired their (Indian) services. I send Tututni Jack and Joshua Lewis with grey horses. Mr. Simpson has not been heard from since leaving Alsea Agency. He had Mr. Copeland and Clark (farmer at Alsea), 4 Indians, went on board the schr. Mist. The schr. sailed several days after Mr. S., departing for Crescent City. If as I think Mr. S. gets the Indians at Big Bend (where last heard from) he will then have to guard them nearly 100 miles to C. City, but he said he would have men and make them safe. The country is very rough. Everything quiet out here.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        R. A. Bensell
To J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs Ogn.
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 112.



Klamath Agency Oct. 1st 1867.
Sir
    I would respectfully represent the necessity of appointing a Snake interpreter at an early day, in accordance with Article 8 of the Snake Treaty.
    Beside the Yahooskin Snakes there is a division of the Woll-pah-pe tribe on the reservation. These last-mentioned Snakes are parties to the Snake Treaty and are residing quietly and harmoniously on the reservation in pursuance to the provisions of that compact.
    Infinitely less trouble and difficulty in conferring with them would be occasioned by the appointment of someone as interpreter who is thoroughly conversant with their language.
    I hope you will instruct me in this matter without delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 169.



Klamath Agency Oct. 1st 1867.
Sir
    The good being of the Indian service demands the appointment of an additional farmer on this reservation. The duties devolving upon the present farmer are altogether too arduous for one such employee to perform.
    In the commencement of operations under the treaties, in obedience to your instructions a large district of country is to be broken up for cultivation. The Indians, with very few exceptions, are entirely unskilled in the management of oxen or the plow, and there is more attention required on the part of skillful men in directing, controlling and performing than can be bestowed by the present employees alone.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 170.



Klamath Agency Oct. 1st 1867.
Sir
    I have this day appointed O. C. Applegate, late interpreter on this reservation, as Superintendent of Farming under the Klamath and Modoc Treaty. He has had experience as a farmer, has been an employee on this reservation since the commencement of operations here and will make a good officer.
    I have also appointed this day Jo Hood as interpreter. He is well qualified for the place, speaking fluently not only the Chinook but also the Klamath and the Modoc language.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
         in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 171.



Ashland Oregon Oct. 3rd 1867.
Sir
    Arriving here yesterday from the agency I found yours of Sept. 20th awaiting me. Your previous communication was forwarded during my absence to Ft. Klamath, and it has not yet come to hand.
    I am rejoiced that operations are to be commenced at once under the treaty. It is now so late that vigorous efforts will have to be made to accomplish much before winter.
    I will attend to making the purchases mentioned. The interests of the service would be greatly advanced by your coming, and I hope you will be here soon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in
         Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 124.



Ashland Mills Oregon Oct. 3rd 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of affairs in this agency for the month of Sept. I have the honor to report as follows.
The Indians.
    The Indians, having finished the gathering of supplies, have returned to their villages on the lakes. They have been generally quiet. Ten of the Klamaths accompanied Lieut. Small on an expedition against the Snakes and rendered good service. On the 28th of September I collected the Indians to inform them of the ratification of the treaty and to remove all feelings of distrust in regard to the future course of the government, and to instruct them of their duties in respect to the new order of things. I succeeded in removing their fears and produced a feeling of satisfaction among them. Some of the Modocs were not present, having been held away I think by the influence of certain white men on the border, but I apprehend no difficulty in collecting them when provisions are furnished for the winter. I learned through some Snake prisoners at the council that two Modocs have been guilty of furnishing the Snakes with arms and ammunition, and I arranged to have high chief Lalakes with Modoc chief Schonchin and some of their people to go into the Modoc country to arrest these men, knowing that under the circumstances this would be safer policy than to send troops. Through the Snake prisoners I learned that En-kal-to-ak, a Snake chief, is disposed to be friendly, that he has been so disposed ever since the Snake Treaty, but has been kept away by hostile parties. A plan has been laid to have word sent to him to come in and also to ensure protection to him while coming. The collection of the Indians at the council involved the outlay of some funds for beef, as Indians [coming] from a distance required some subsistence.
The Farm.
    The employees succeeded in putting up about forty tons of excellent hay, completing this labor early in the month, after which their attention was turned towards harvesting the crop. The blackbirds from the marshes destroyed a great part of the wheat, but did not injure the barley. The amount of grain remaining is not ascertained, as it has not been threshed. The turnips, carrots, parsnips &c. look well and will yield abundantly. The potatoes were injured by an unusually early frost, but I think will yield very well.
    The good being of the service I think requires the purchase of another team and a breaking plow in order that ground may be broken for a large crop next year. This done, and small plows and a few horse teams furnished, I think the reservation can be made self-supporting after this year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
             in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency
    Coast Reservation Oregon Oct. 3rd 1867
Dear Sir: I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of September, 1867 as to the condition of the Indians under my control.
    There are four different tribes in all (viz.) Coos, Umpqua, Alsea and Siuslaw, numbering in all about five hundred and twenty-five.
    They are all contented and comfortable and in a prosperous condition. The general health is good, with very little sickness during the month and no deaths.
    There has been no births in the Siuslaw tribe and one in the Alsea tribe during the month.
    They have an abundance of dried meat and tallow in store for winter, and are now engaged in catching and curing salmon for their winter's use, of which there is an abundance in the Alsea Bay. Their supply of meat and fish already stored away for winter will be ample for their use.
    They have a better supply than ever before.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted by your most obedient servant,
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Portland Oregon Oct. 7th 1867
Sir
    I design to leave the Dalles on the 14th instant with a train of government (Indian Department) wagons en route for Fort Klamath. This train will consist of four wagons and a small number of loose cattle and horses.
    In passing through the Indian country south of Tygh Bridge on the Deschutes I will necessarily be in danger of depredations by the hostile Snakes and I therefore ask for a detachment of men as an escort from the Deschutes Bridge to Fort Klamath. I will reach the bridge by the 15th instant.
    If the Indian scouts under Capts. Darragh and McKay are not required elsewhere they are well adapted to the service indicated, and I respectfully ask that they be detailed for the service.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Headqtrs. Dept. Columbia
    Portland
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 160-161.




Portland Oregon Oct. 7, 1867
Sir
    I have ordered the annuity goods for the Shasta Scotan tribe shipped to Agt. Ben Simpson, Corvallis. You will see that he is furnished with copy of the invoices and sign proper receipts for the cases as per invoices.
    The goods marked "Indians in Oregon" have been shipped to Salem. When they arrive you will cause the packages to be opened, the contents compared with the invoices by disinterested witnesses, noting the discrepancies if any, and then divide the goods in the proportion of one-fifth to Sub-Agent Collins and four-fifths to Sub-Agent Simpson. These you will reship to Corvallis to address of these agents, giving them due notice and causing them to sign proper receipts.
    Samples of every sort of goods in the package will be retained in the office for future use.
    To such men as you may find it proper to employ, you will promise compensation upon my return.
    My design is to have the goods handled by competent disinterested persons and take their testimony as to the quantity, quality and condition. I desire that it be done wholly under your personal supervision, taking such precautions as you may think necessary to prevent depredations upon the goods.
    If you think necessary you may rent a room for the purpose where they can be safely guarded and handled.
    The shipment should not be made to Corvallis until the river rises enough to admit of boats passing to Corvallis.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
C. S. Woodworth
    Chief Clerk
        Supt's. Office
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 161.



[Telegram]
Ellensburg Oct. 7th 1867
    via Jacksonville
        Rec'd. at Salem Oct. 13th 1867 10-55 a.m.
To J. W. P. Huntington Supt. Ind. Affairs
    I have captured about all the Indians I come after and shall return soon.
Ben Simpson
    U.S. Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 132.



Dalles Oregon Oct. 8, 1867
Sir
    I will leave this place for Klamath on the 12th or 15th instant with four wagons loaded with annuity goods for the tribes parties to the treaty of 1864 and some loose stock.
    I apprehend some danger from the hostile Indians on the route and some difficulty on that part of the road near Klamath from fallen timber &c. &c. I therefore desire you to come forward to the lower valley of the Deschutes--say to Crooked River--with fifteen or twenty of your most active and trusty Indians, well armed and provided with axes &c. &c. The lateness of the season renders it necessary that promptness should be exercised. I will bring plenty of ammunition but no surplus of arms. You will also bring all the employees of the agency. If you can, arrange the property of the government so as to be safe in your absence.
    The road from Klamath to Crooked River is probably known to some of your Indians, whom you can procure as guide, but if not I will say that it is a plain trail, leaving the old Fremont trail at the lower end of "Queah Valley" in the Deschutes, and keeping down on the east side of that river all the way.
    The bearer is instructed to hie forthwith with your written answer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
        Klamath
Original sent by Indian express to Fort Klamath.
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 161-162.



Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, O., Oct. 12, 1867
J. W. P. Huntington Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            I have this day ordered a detachment of twenty men, under suitable officer, to start out from Fort Klamath Ogn. to meet your train at Tygh Bridge on the Deschutes River and escort it as far as Fort Klamath.
    The Indian scouts will not be in soon enough to act as escort.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Richard P. Long
            1st Lt. 7th Inf. A.D.C.
                A.A.A.G.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 135.



Dalles Oregon Oct. 12th 1867
General,
    I have to inform you that the expedition of which I informed you on the 7th instant will leave this town today at 12 o'clock m. [i.e., noon] en route for Klamath. It consists of four wagons, eight men (including myself) and two Indians, the wagons loaded with Indian Department freight and a small drove of loose stock accompanying.
    I will require no escort until after leaving Trout Creek (which is about twenty miles east of Warm Springs Agency and forty miles north of Crooked River) and I design reaching that point on the 18th or at the utmost the 19th instant. Beyond Trout Creek is the country of Paulina and his band, the most dangerous of any on the route. I shall be very reluctant to go into it without escort.
    My wagons are not very heavily loaded, and I hope to make an average of twenty miles daily.
    I ask that you inform me of your action in reference to this matter by letter care of French & Gilman, Dalles. I have made arrangements to have letters forwarded through them by Indian express.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Maj. Genl. F. Steele
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 164.



Siletz Indian Agency
    Oregon Oct. 24th 1867
Dear Sir
    I desire to inform you of the following facts in relation to the recent troubles at the Alsea Sub-Agency. This unpleasant affair originated a few days ago between Mr. Clark, an employee under Sub-Agent Collins, and a part of the Umpqua tribe of Indians on that agency.
    It appears that Sub-Agent Collins and Clark went to the temporary camps of the above tribe on the Alsea River and directed them to proceed to their farms and commence the harvesting of their crops; they refused to obey this direction and declared their intention of leaving the reserve and returning to their old homes and manner of living--referring to the non-fulfillment of promises made to them by the government on the surrender of their lands &c. &c.
    Mr. Collins endeavored to reason with them and convince them that their "Great Father" would yet do their claims justice, but they refused to listen, saying that their bellies were already full of lies of this kind, and moving toward their canoes, prepared to leave at once. Mr. Clark--the employee above referred to--here interfered, and getting between them and their canoes endeavored to keep them back. He was at once attacked by one of the party, who was soon joined by several others, notwithstanding the efforts of Agent Collins to keep them in check. One of the assaulting party held in his hand a small ax or tomahawk with which he was endeavoring to strike Clark, whom they had by this time thrown to the ground. Feeling that his life was in danger the employee at this junction fired his pistol and mortally wounded the Indian who held the ax--the Indians then fell back and enabled Messrs. Collins and Clark to escape. The wounded Indian dying soon after, they surrounded the buildings--it was then that Agent Collins sent Mr. Clark to this agency for assistance. He arrived here about two o'clock in the morning of the 20th inst. Taking one employee, Mr. Copeland, and two citizens who kindly volunteered their services, I started for the scene of difficulty at once and arrived there in the evening of the same day. We found Agent Collins in a very critical position, though he had procured the assistance of several citizens. The Indians were much excited and demanded the life of Clark for that of the Indian he had killed and were threatening Collins for allowing him, Clark, to escape. I directed them to retire at once to their camps and to assemble early next morning, when Agent Collins and myself would talk to them. They dispersed immediately, and on the following morning assembled in council at the agency, when the foregoing facts as to the origin of the trouble were substantiated. The Indian rules requiring life for life under all circumstances, they still demanded that of employee Clark. I showed them the folly of their course and pointed out the consequences of such action on their part, and counseling good behavior in future assured them that while the Great Father would see that they received just dues, he would severely punish any act of disobedience or insubordinate conduct--that Mr. Clark would not be given up and plainly explained to them our laws in regard to the taking of life in self-defense.
    After much further conference with them, they expressed themselves to Agent Collins and myself as satisfied and dispersed to their farms and houses, their chiefs assuring me that in future they would guard against any similar occurrence.
    For the better preservation of peace and good feeling it was deemed best to accept of the resignation of Mr. Clark, and that Mr. Copeland, one of my employees, be transferred to Alsea in his stead. Mr. Clark is an old employee of the Department here, and it is but just to say that in his conduct toward the Indians he has been universally kind and attentive to their wants, and has heretofore been much respected by them.
    I regard him as an excellent man and one who will keenly regret this, his first act of violence, though plainly done in the defense of his life. Sub-Agent Collins has acted nobly in the settlement of this difficulty, and it is also proper to say that many of the chiefs of Indians under his charge quickly saw the folly of their hasty and excited action of the Umpqua tribe, and much is due them for their valuable assistance in quelling the disturbance.
    In conclusion I desire to say that my action in this matter has been from a sense of duty and a wish to preserve the peace which has hitherto existed on that agency, as well as to prevent any precedent that would tend to further disturb the already much discontented Coos tribes (non-treaty Indians) on this agency.
    Hoping that my action in this matter will meet with your approval,
I am very truly
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 141.



Salem Oct. 27th 1867
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear Sir
        I arrived here day before yesterday. I have had quite a protracted trip--I had unusual success considering the circumstances. I brought home thirty Indians, including those that escaped from Collins. I found them scattered all over the country from the Big Bend of Rogue River to fifty miles below Crescent City on the Klamath River. I brought them home and inflicted just as severe punishment as I thought they could stand, and I am happy to say that the whole thing seems to be a complete victory after so unfortunate a defeat as happened to Collins. I here wish to give you an idea of another unfortunate affair that happened at the Alsea Agency two days after I arrived at Siletz. It seems that Clark, the man who went with me south, after returning to Alsea went out with Collins to order some Indians to dig potatoes, and they refused to go and of course a row ensued and Clark shot one of them and killed him, which of course created tremendous excitement. Clark came to Siletz to inform me of what had occurred, arrived there about 2 o'clock in the morning. I of course started immediately, taking with me Mr. Copeland and two other men. When I arrived there the next night after dark I found them in bad shape, the Indians demanding Clark's life for the one he had killed. (Clark, however, did not return with me, as it was thought best to not.) Early on the next morning after my arrival I sent out and had all the Indians brought in. I talked with them and let them know what they might depend on if they did not behave themselves. They readily submitted and promised in the future to behave themselves and work whenever ordered to do so. I left Mr. Copeland with Collins in place of Clark. Mr. Collins acted well in the matter, but the Indians refused to obey him. Copeland and Clark were with me out south. They are both valuable men after Indians. Everything is now quiet, and no doubt will remain so. I will enclose in this a letter from Collins to me which will explain the matter fully. I will also make a report in detail to your office. I shall return to the agency in a few days and look after matters.
    I am glad to learn from the Mountaineer that you were confirmed Supt. in July. This is just as it should be.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Ind. Agent.
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 145.



Klamath Agency, Oct. 31st 1867.
Sir,
    During this month the following appointments have been made for the Klamath Agency, viz.
    1st. inst. O. C. Applegate, Supt. of Farming
1st " Jo Hood, Interpreter
10th " F. M. Vanderpool, Wagon and Plow Maker
8th " George Northy Tucker, Blacksmith
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indians in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 124.



Office Siletz Indian
    Agency Oregon Nov. 1 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to report to you the condition of affairs on this agency for the past two months--September and October, 1867.
    The treaty Indians under my charge remain quiet, are industrious and attentive to their farms. Among the coast tribes, not provided for by treaty, much dissatisfaction still exists, and they are very uneasy about their land, fearing from the reports among the adjoining white settlers that they will soon be removed, their lands taken from them and given to the whites.
    A treaty with these tribes, securing them their land and making them some compensation for the lands surrendered by them in 1855, would be of great advantage to these Indians and make them contented and satisfied. Every effort is made to mollify them and allay their district, with but partial success: many are satisfied to wait, but a majority of them are unsettled, and while in this condition it is very difficult to interest them in the culture of their farms. Though the harvest has been bountiful they lack that interest in agricultural success shown by the treaty Indians.
    In obedience to your instructions I left this agency for Southern Oregon for the purpose of collecting fugitive Indians from this and Alsea agencies--a detailed report of my success was made to you on my return.
    On the 10th of Sept. Sub-Agent Collins, who had been on a similar expedition, returned to this agency a portion of the Yaquina band of the Coquell tribe--eighteen in number. These Indians had escaped from the agency a short time after the occupation by the whites of their lands on the Yaquina Bay.
    We are now engaged in securing our grain crop and in digging potatoes. The Indian school is making fair progress--as much indeed as can be expected from the limited means at my disposal for its support.
    The several employees are industrious and attentive to their duties.
    The sanitary condition of the Indians is not so good as during the summer months, yet their ailments are of a local nature, readily cured. But two deaths have occurred.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency
    Nov. 10th 1867
Sir
    Your letter of 27th ultimo covering Sub-Agent Collins' letter of 20th same month was this day received.
    At this distance I can in the emergency give only general instructions, leaving to the discretion of Sub-Agent Collins and yourself the management of detail.
    It is of course important above all things to maintain the peace. To this end you will render Mr. Collins all the assistance in your power, detailing all of your employees if necessary. The citizens of Elk and Pioneer cities would doubtless render assistance if necessary, but they ought not to be called upon if the authority of Sub-Agent Collins can be maintained otherwise. If Sub-Agent Collins and yourself think after consultation that it is necessary you may arrest and iron such of the turbulent Indians as require confinement--but I trust that such severe measures may not be required.
    Mr. Clarke, who killed the Indian, must not be allowed to return to Alsea upon any pretext.
    Upon my return I shall proceed to investigate the affair, and you may assure the Indians that I will see that justice is done in the premises.
    Sub-Agent Collins is furnished with a copy of this letter and is directed to call upon you for aid and consult with you in any new emergency that may arise.
    Detailed report of your action will be expected in due time at my office at Salem.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 169.



Klamath Indian Agency
    Nov. 10th 1867
Sir,
    I have received a letter from Agent Ben Simpson covering your letter to him of 20th ultimo concerning the killing of the Indian at your place by Clarke and the excitement in consequence thereof.
    I have directed Agent Simpson to assist you when called upon, to the extent of his ability, and trust that further trouble will be avoided.
    The man Clarke must not be permitted to return to the agency under any circumstances, and if he attempts to do so you will immediately arrest him and remove him from the reservation.
    You are directed to inform the Indians that they must maintain the peace and that upon my return I will visit the agency and investigate the affair.
    A copy of my letter to Agt. Simpson is herewith enclosed for your examination and guidance.
    Your report of occurrences and your action is expected from you. I have not yet any information of the origin of the affray, nor upon what pretext Clarke shot the Indian. Of this and other circumstances connected with the affair you will supply a full statement forthwith.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Sub-Agent Geo. Collins
    Alsea
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 170.



Office Grand Ronde Agency
    November 13th 1867
Sir
    In the month of Sept. last I received a communication from Mr. Woodworth, president of the Yamhill and Ocean Beach Wagon Road Company, informing me of the organization of that company and that they desired the right of way to construct a road through a part of this reservation to the Pacific Ocean beyond and that they wished to obtain the consent of the Indians to the same.
    Upon examination of the treaties with these Indians I find that they provide for the construction of thoroughfares through the reservation, a just compensation being made therefor.
    I decided to call a council of the Indians, which was accordingly done on the 11th inst., and after having the objects of the company fully explained to them by the president & secretary and compensation for the privilege guaranteed, they freely and voluntarily granted the co. perpetual right to construct the road through their lands.
    I would say in regard to this matter that the road as projected will run through no cultivated grounds but through a heavy timbered mountainous country which is of no value to the Indians at present, but with a good road through the mountains might be made a source of revenue to the Indians by the sale of rails, wood &c. It would also furnish them with a thoroughfare to good fishing grounds on the ocean, which would be of great value to them, they being guaranteed the right to travel the road free of toll--as you will see by the enclosed papers.
    As the Indians wish to have the road built, and having full confidence in the parties who desire to construct the same, I would recommend that their petition be granted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 145½.  A copy, along with a map, is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 455-457.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency
    Nov. 16th 1867
Sir
    I herewith transmit to you a pamphlet issued from the Smithsonian Institute calling for information concerning the language spoken by the various Indian tribes and for collection of skulls and other relics of them.
    The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has directed that all the agents and sub-agents in this Superintendency supply the desired information so far as relates to the tribes under their jurisdiction.
    You are therefore directed to collate the Klamath, Modoc and Snake languages in conformity to the schedules furnished and report the same to my office at Salem at as early a day as possible. You will take care to make the compilation as thorough as possible, and to this end the employees of the agency now under your charge are directed to lend their assistance when called upon. They are required to assist in the collection of skulls &c. when they can do so without detriment to the branches of the service to which they are respectively appointed.
Very respectfully &c.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 170.



Office Klamath Agency Nov. 18th 1867.
Sir
    In regard to the condition of affairs in this agency for the month of October I have the honor to report as follows.
    The Indians have been healthy and prosperous during the month. Being informed early in the month of your having started from the Dalles with annuity goods for the parties to the treaty of 1864, I notified the Indians of the fact, and in obedience to your instructions organized an escort and working part of the most active young men under Allen David, one of our most trusty headmen, and on Oct. 16 left the agency to meet your train. Great excitement and enthusiasm existed among the Indians, in anticipation of better times coming, and I experienced no difficulty in securing volunteers for this expedition. As you are aware, we had to pass through a section of the country lately occupied by hostile Snakes, and in which danger was yet feared, and the Indians deserve much credit for their care and vigilance both day and night. Passing down along the east side of the Cascade Mountains, across the ridge dividing the waters of Klamath from those of Deschutes, on the Old Fremont Trail, thence down the last-named stream to a point opposite the Warm Springs Agency, I met you with your wagon train on Oct. 26. The remaining days of the month, as you know, brought us to Queah Valley on the Fremont trail about 100 miles from the Klamath Agency.
    On the farm the month was mainly spent in plowing and in building a log stable.
Your obedient servant
    L. Applegate
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency
    Nov. 18th 1867
Sir
    The management of the Indians under your jurisdiction, and of the affairs of the government upon the Klamath Reservation, [omission] much is necessarily left to your discretion, limited only by the laws of the United States and such regulations of the Interior Department as apply to all Indian agencies and reservations. A few instructions upon minor points are herewith given.
    1. The buildings erected by the government upon the Klamath Reservation will be located on the edge of the bluff south of the ford of "Fountain Creek" or "Big Spring" at the point pointed out by me to you today. Those most immediately needed are an office and guard house, the dwellings for employees following next, but until the farms are opened and the sawmill erected it will be best to defer the major part of the buildings, only erecting such as are indispensably necessary for the business of the agency or the comfort of the employees.
    2. The most urgent want of the reservation at present is the opening of farms &c.; all other improvements should be secondary to this. At least thirty thousand rails should be made and hauled out by next spring and five hundred acres of prairie broken. By running a fence from the rear of the present field to the point selected for the agency buildings and thence west to Wood River, a very large extent of land can be enclosed with that number and enough hay ground secured for your next year's crop.
    3. The Indians ought to be required to cultivate each his own tract of ground so far as that can be done, but their ignorance and indolence will render that in many instances quite impossible. The crops raised upon the agency farm will be kept under your control, and issued by you to the most meritorious and the most destitute.
    4. The time has not yet arrived when it is proper to allot the lands as provided in the treaty of 14th Oct. 1864 (Art. VI) but the idea of separate cultivation ought to be encouraged, and to this end you may make temporary allotments of small tracts and afford such encouragement and aid to the Indians in the cultivation thereof as you are able.
    5. You are expected to be vigilant in guarding the reservation from the encroachments of white intruders. The stipulations of the treaty aforesaid (Art. n) must be rigidly enforced in this respect, and no violation of the pledges of the government therein made to the Indians will be tolerated. To this end you will use such force as is necessary if you have it at command, and if you have it not you will call upon the military or employ citizens to aid you. All interlopers upon the reservation--whether persons attempting permanent occupation of lands or vagabonds who are seeking congenial companions in the lowest class of squaws--must be promptly expelled.
    6. No white person who cohabits with a squaw will be tolerated upon the reservation under any pretense or pretext. Any employee who is detected in such cohabitation will be forthwith discharged, expelled from the reservation and the fact reported to the Superintendent's office. If whites residing without the reservation are lawfully married to squaws your jurisdiction over such squaws has ceased, but no such white man or squaw will be tolerated within the limits of the reservation. Indians who are known to have prostituted their squaws to white men must be summarily and severely punished.
    7. The treaty guarantees to the Indians the possession undisturbed of the reservation lands. It also alienates the Indian title to the lands without the designated boundaries [i.e., transfers land outside the boundaries]. The Indians have no more right to trespass upon the ceded lands than whites have to intrude upon the reserved. You will endeavor to impress this upon them, and suffer none to go outside the boundary of the designated tract except without your written permission, and this will be given only when it is palpable that the interest of the Indian or the service of the government will be promoted thereby. If white persons outside the reservation entice Indians to absent themselves without your written permission to harbor, employ or conceal them after they have so absented themselves, you will proceed to enforce the laws of the state of Oregon against them, and to this end you are authorized to employ legal counsel to aid you in the prosecution.
    8. The utmost vigilance should be used to prevent the introduction or use of ardent spirits among the Indians. The laws of the United States upon this subject (of which copies have been furnished you) give you summary and plenary powers. These you are required to put into active use. The right of search and seizure extends to all parts of the reservation. No location near a fort or garrison affords protection in this respect, and no license or authority given by any military officer will permit or authorize the holding or sale of any wine or spirituous liquors within the limits of the reservation, unless the same comes within the exceptions mentioned in the act of June 30th 1834 and the acts subsequently passed relative to the traffic in liquors among Indians. Copies of all these acts have been furnished you. Of any search or seizure made by you under these laws you are required to make ample report to the Superintendent's office.
    The design of the government is to segregate the Indians upon lands set apart for them, separate them from the pernicious influence which association with whites entails upon them, and to cultivate the good moral and intellectual qualities they may possess. The ends are not attained by promiscuous intercourse of whites with them, by impregnating them with the frailties, vices and diseases of the superior race, but they are to be sought in cultivating industry, encouraging morality and stimulating the acquisition of property. Your duty is to endeavor to make the Indian colony which is under your charge strictly an Indian settlement, carefully guarding it against the contamination of white associations, and at the same time imparting to it so much of the intelligence, enterprise and stability of the Anglo-Saxon race as possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 171-172.



Office Klamath Agency Nov. 30th 1867.
Sir
    On the 20th inst. Jo Hood, interpreter, was removed and Charley Doctor (Indian) was substituted. Jo Hood manifested a rebellious spirit and became careless and inattentive to duty, hence I considered his removal necessary to the good being of the service. Preston is fully as well qualified and is in every respect better disposed.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 184.



Office Klamath Agency Oregon
    Nov. 30th 1867.

Sir,
    During the month the following appointments have been made for the Klamath Agency, viz.:
    15th inst. John Gotbrod, farmer, under appropriations for opening farms.
    21st inst. Charley Preston (Indian), interpreter, vice Jo Hood discharged.

Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 185.



Office Klamath Agency Nov. 30th 1867.
Sir,
    In regard to the condition of affairs in this agency for the present month, I have the honor to report as follows.
    (Vide last report.) We left Queah Valley on the 2nd June, and passing through a country heavily timbered (in making a wagon road through which the Indians displayed much energy and industry), we arrived at the Klamath Agency on the 10th inst.
    The distribution of annuity goods occurred on the 17th inst. All the parties to the Klamath and Modoc treaty were present, excepting a division of the latter tribe yet in their old country. The distribution of goods and your explanation of the principles and requirements of the treaty had a splendid influence on the minds of the Indians. No chance being left to doubt the ultimate purpose of the government touching them, universal good feeling prevailed among them. All though the month harmony has prevailed, and the Indians have done with alacrity all things required of them.
    About the 1st inst. two Modocs convicted of furnishing arms and ammunition to hostile Snakes last spring were arrested and lodged in the guardhouse at Fort Klamath.
    Harmony and quiet continue among those of the Woll-pah-pe Snakes who are on the reservation.
    On the farm the plows have been kept running and considerable prairie has been broken, the weather having favored.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 184.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    Coast Reservation Oregon
        November 30th 1867.
Dear Sir,   
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for the month of November 1867 as to the condition of the Indians under my charge.
    The number of tribes on this agency are four (viz.) the Coos, Umpqua, Alsea and Siuslaws. They number in all about five hundred and twenty-five. Their general health is very good, and scarcely any sickness during the month.
    There has been no births nor deaths in either of the tribes during November.
    They are well supplied with food for the winter, and there is nothing to prevent them from being comfortable. They are, generally speaking, contented and express a willingness to labor and improve their condition.
    They appear encouraged from the fact that their crops proved good and turned out well this fall. There are a few of the Indians who have always been dissatisfied, and are watching for a good opportunity to return to their former homes.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted.
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Siletz Indian
    Agency Oregon Dec. 1st 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to report to you the condition of affairs on this agency for the past month.
    There has been no particular change on the reservation since my last monthly report.
    The Indians under my charge are generally quiet and industrious and well disposed towards the whites, except however some dissatisfaction that has always existed among that portion of them with whom the government has made no treaty. This I assure you can only be obviated by some action upon the part of the government.
    The past month has been employed in securing our crop, preparing for winter &c.
    Our school is doing well, the attendance being about the same of formerly. The sanitary condition of the Indians I think has somewhat improved in the last month.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 11th 1867
Sir
    Application has been made by the "Yamhill and Ocean Beach Wagon Road Company" to Agent Amos Harvey at Grand Ronde for permission to construct a wagon road from Polk County in this state by way of the former site of Fort Yamhill and the Grand Ronde Agency, across the Coast Range of mountains to the ocean south of the mouth of Salmon River. The proposed road will pass over the road now in use, connecting the agency with the white settlements and thence westwardly through a heavily timbered and mountainous country to the coast, the distance being about twenty-five miles. There are no settlements of either whites or Indians upon the route except a small band of "Salmon Rivers" (not parties to any treaty) on the coast. There is now a very rough and imperfect road which is used much by Indians (and some little by whites in summer) passing over the route. It is indicated by a red dotted line on the map forwarded to your office March 14th 1864, and upon the tracing herewith enclosed. It passes through the entire width of the Grand Ronde and Coast Reservations.
    The "Wagon Road Company" is a corporation under the laws of this state. They propose to construct the road in the expectation that travel of whites across the mountains in that direction will rapidly increase and from tolls collected of them they expect remuneration. They propose to make it open perpetually to the Indians.
    If constructed it will be used by the Indians to obtain timber from along the route (both for sale and for use), to travel to and from the fisheries upon the coast, which are extensive, productive and valuable. Its use by whites will not be in any way detrimental to the Indians in my judgment. They are very anxious that the road should be built, having called upon me in relation to it more than once.
    Copy of the report of Agent Amos Harvey (dated Nov. 13th 1867) upon the subject is enclosed for your further information.
    I recommend that authority shall be given to the corporation referred to to construct such road, and collect such tolls thereon as the laws of the state authorize upon the lands to which the Indians' title [is] extinguished, provided that they first obtain the consent of the Indians, and enter into stipulations to be witnessed by the agent or Superintendent in charge, that the road shall be free to all Indians perpetually, and that the corporation and all of its employees will in all respects obey the laws and regulations governing intercourse with Indian tribes.
    I should state that roads are provided for in the treaties with the tribes at Grand Ronde, but the greater part of the proposed road passes through the Coast Reservation, in respect to which there is no ratified treaty, and I am not in my judgment warranted in authorizing roads thereon. It is also questionable whether a Superintendent can authorize a toll road at all.
    I ask your early attention to this matter, and trust that you will upon examination authorize me to carry out the recommendation herein made.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 175-176.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 450-454.



Siletz Agency Dec. 16th 1867
Hon. J. W. P. Huntington
    Dear sir allow me to congratulate you on your safe return from the snowy country. Our Indians that went with you look fine. I guess you had plenty to eat. Everything moves on here quietly indeed, never more so. I am somewhat detained by high water in getting my goods in. Just as soon as I can get them and issue them I shall return to Salem. I have instructed Mr. Earhart to make out a statement of our indebtedness under [the] former agent and present it to you and ask you to give me instruction to pay it as soon as funds can be placed in my hands for that purpose. This I hope will suit your convenience.
Very respectfully
    Yours Ben Simpson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 157.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Dec. 22nd 1867
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that under the instructions contained in your letter of July 1st 1867 I employed A. C. Gibbs U.S. District Attorney and at once tried to obtain a hearing of the case of taking the squaw by writ of habeas corpus from under my control at Oregon City in June last, but Judge Shattuck declined hearing the case in chambers and put it off until the October term of court, to be held at Oregon City, at which time I with counsel and witness were in attendance.
    Upon arriving in Oregon City I found a Clackamas Indian by the name of Bill to whom a man by the name of ----- Rinearson had just before court sold for a horse a piece of worthless land (40 by 100 feet) and had given him a deed for life to the same. I had Bill arrested and placed in confinement until I was ready to return to the agency.
    The habeas corpus case came up Tuesday, the second day of the term, and the judge decided that the writ was of no effect and gave them until Thursday to amend it, remarking at the time that his opinion was that "if Indians had come there and adopted the civilized habits of the whites the agent had no right to drag them off to the reservation." In consequence of this ex-parte opinion of the law the next morning I was served with a writ of habeas corpus (at the instance of Johnson & McCown) ordering me to bring Bill before Judge Shattuck and show cause why he should not be released from my custody.
    By the advice of Gov. Gibbs I decided to try and have both cases removed to the U.S. District Court, fearing that Shattuck had already prejudged the cases, but Judge Shattuck refused to allow a transcript of the papers to be made, and I was therefore obliged to bring the cases before him, and late Saturday evening we got a decision in our favor, the court directing the sheriff to turn the squaw over to me and remanded Bill back under my custody, all of whom I brought back to the agency.
    This was a case that all the Indians on this agency were well posted in. Thanks to their friends in Oregon City, who had told those that I brought back in June that they could leave the agency at any time, and the agent could not bring them back and that they would show them that this was the case when court met, and had the decision been adverse to us it would have had a bad effect upon these Indians.
    I was obliged to incur considerable expense in this trial, for which I have no funds on hand to meet at present.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amos Harvey
            U.S. Indian Agent
J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 165.



Washington City D.C.
    Dec. 25th 1867
Hon. B. J. Simpson
    Dear Sir
        I received a letter from you just before leaving home that on account of want of time I have not answered until now. Brother William states in a letter received from him that in looking over my letters as I requested of him he finds one from you, and that you ask me to write you from here.
    I am under obligation to you for your friendly desire expressed for my success in the enterprise I have come here to forward, as well as your flattering assurances of your belief in my qualifications to make it a success and the beneficial results arising to our state therefrom.
    There has been times in my life when I have given credence to the assurances of men, to my injury, and sometimes to the injury of others, and of principles which I know to be vital to the advancement of human affairs. I will not stop to inquire or count the results growing out of such faithlessness, but only to say that as it is my earnest wish to deserve the confidence of those with whom I am called to act, I earnestly hope the future will furnish fewer, if ever, causes to regret the confidence I give to others.
    I have always made it a principle through life not to attempt anything of a public nature which my judgment did not approve as being necessary and just. So with the enterprise which has brought me to Washington.
    Looking at the necessities of our young state from what I conceive to be the correct standpoint, I cannot avoid feeling the necessity of harmony of action among our citizens of every shade of political faith for their accomplishment.
    I can see no injurious results which can possibly arise to any interest or local section of our state by what we propose to accomplish. And yet either from narrow-minded jealousies, or want of a thorough knowledge of what is proposed, it has many enemies in and outside of the state. I will not take time to discuss at length the benefits to be derived, and the necessity to the state for its future development to engage at once in connecting itself with the greater leading railroad arteries which are about to pass it on the south and on the north. If there be, now, near the close of the nineteenth century, a necessity for such discussion, leave it to more patient minds. To my mind it would be admitting the prevalence of a degree of ignorance among us to an extent too hateful and painful to contemplate. There are many things in the laws and constitution of Oregon that to a certain extent convey the impression to the outside world that we are behind the present age. I would not be understood by this as saying that the convention which formed our constitution was made up of men without capacity--quite to the contrary. May of them were gentlemen, then and now, possessing the best minds among us, but unfortunately without experience. They found us upon the footlog and chained us there. These embarrassments are such that it may yet become necessary to revise them and bridge the way to civilization before we can accomplish the good we need.
    I hope, and believe, we shall succeed in obtaining the required aid from government to make our enterprise a success. I think so from accumulating evidences I have not time now, nor the desire, to make public to the fullest extent.
    It is this belief, and the great necessity for success, which stimulates me now and has done in the past, to labor as though I knew no word for failure. Necessity, faith and industry seldom fail to bear fruit. Without them, reasoning intelligence cannot work. Still I am not blind to the uncertainty of human affairs and am prepared for whatever may come.
    I have about determined since getting here, and after consultation with those most interested, to modify the program so as to leave it an open question as to whether we will pass through the mountains by the middle fork of the Willow River and by way of Sprague River and Goose Lake valleys to the Humboldt River or keep on to Jackson County from the Upper Willamette Valley and thence cross the Cascade Mountains by some eligible pass to Sprague River and thence as above described. I think best to do this, and leave that portion of the line to be determined upon and fixed by future engineering and ownership of stock, for the following reason.
    It gives better satisfaction and assures a higher degree of energy in Congress from certain sources.
    It must certainly satisfy the southern portion of our state that there is no disposition to leave their local interests out of sight but opens the way for free competition, and no outside injurious influences will have to be met here from that source.
    It gives, or opens, an opportunity for a provision in the bill permitting and inviting any company which may now have existence in the state to join with it as branches, or by being merged into it become one with it in interests of location and construction, the same as though they had never begun any separate organization. It will by this means concentrate all our efforts--mainly--upon one line so that we shall be the better able to sustain ourselves and avoid a possibility of failure.
    To do this we shall have to get up an entire new organization here, looking to ours, and the legislature of Nevada, for their consent to its existence, which I trust will not be hard to obtain.
    In doing this we shall retain all the names included in the first corporation articles and be able to add to them others of our state whose names will add strength and connect with us prominent men in California, Nevada and here, all of which will be directly beneficial to success.
    With this accomplished, we may soon be connected by railway line from Portland, through the best portion of the state, with the Central P.C.R.R. at the north bend of the Humboldt, at a distance but little greater to the point of connection above the distance from there to San Francisco.
    When that is finished, and the great northern road to Puget Sound is near completion, as it soon will be, we can continue the line of ours from Portland to connect with it in Washington Territory. By this means we shall at once develop every interest of our state.
    I have frequently heard the view expressed that the establishment of such lines of trade would seriously and detrimentally affect the navigation trade now going on along our coast and inland waters. This view don't harmonize with experience, and I may safely say is not correct. What is desired by ultimate connection with Puget Sound is facilities for direct intercourse and commerce with the world--I mean by this intercourse by heavy lines of clipper ships and ocean steamers which we are utterly destitute of and must be connected with to fully develop our resources. The facilities of commerce we now enjoy are only a river and coast trade with a small class of vessels only adapted to that service. But this trade bears the same relation to the other that the arm does to the body. When the great northern railroad is completed, it at once shortens the line of travel and commerce from N.Y. to China and all Asia several hundred miles. It will cross the continent amidst centers of inland commerce and facilities of agriculture, mining and manufacturing second to none of its great competitors. Soon it will become a scene of busy life from end to end. Its travel and trade will meet and mingle with that of the Pacific Ocean at a point where harbor facilities are unequaled on the American continent. These lines for such great development of wealth and the advance of civilization should be located with such clearness of perception and judgment as is fully adequate to their magnitude. And as they will add greatly to the wealth, resources, life and grandeur of the nation, it should help them to the needed extent of its power to bring them into life.
    When this entire subject is viewed as a whole, what mind fit to engage in commercial pursuits will for a moment dream that our present existing lines of river and coast trade would be injured by their completing?
    Rather let us ask how manyfold greater demands will there be upon them?
    Give us a connection by railway from the Humboldt through the length of Oregon, traversing her great fertile regions on to the Sound, and her future will take care of itself.
    For this she only asks of Congress what is justly due her. Whether of the great leading arteries touch her border, with it she is at once and forever connected with all the surrounding advantages necessary to the development of her immense resources of agricultural, mineral, manufacturing, horticultural and timbered wealth, which in whole is second to no state in the Union.
    The national revenue which will be derived from the development of these resources would soon return the interest on the credit we ask her to lend us. If she refuses, the refusal will be a staggering blow to Oregon. And if we thus return, defeated, what hopes do you and all others of deserved influence in our state hold out for her future?
    Are we again to meet face to face upon the footlog, without room to pass, and not daring to turn back? Or shall we tear it away and build a structure that will give us life worth of the age?
Respectfully yours
    B. J. Pengra
    P.S. Mr. H. Kincaid & Mr. Dowell, to whom I have shown this letter, have urged me to permit them to take a copy to send home to their papers for publication, which on reflection I have done, as it will save me the necessity of many letters of explanation to parties who by this means will understand my movements here. Knowing your interests and mine are the same in these matters, I think you will not regret my having done so.
B.J.P.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Senate Chamber
    Washington Dec. 27th 1867
Sir
    Allow me to call your attention to the accounts of Mr. B. R. Biddle, late Indian agent in Oregon, I believe at the Siletz Agency. I enclose a part of a letter to me from him, in which he refers to the subject. He claims that his accounts have been adjusted & something remains due him for salary.
    It has been some time since he ceased to be agent & he has not been able to obtain any satisfactory statements as to the reasons why the residue of his salary has not been paid.
    Will you be good enough to have this matter looked into as soon as practicable & advise me of the result.
Yours truly
    Geo. H. Williams
Comr. Taylor
    Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 564-566.




Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    Coast Reservation Oregon
        December 31st 1867.
Dear Sir:--
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report for December 31st 1867, as to the condition of the Indians under my charge.
    The number of tribes on this agency is four (viz.) the Coos, Umpqua, Alsea and Siuslaws, numbering about five hundred and twenty-five.
    The health and condition of these tribes is good. No births have taken place during the month and but one death, which occurred in the Coos tribe.
    They are generally speaking satisfied and contented, except a few who have always expressed a desire to return to their former homes and those who have made the most of the trouble on this agency. Ten of them left the agency and I expect returned to Coos Bay while I was absent at the Yaquina Bay attending to getting their goods to the agency.
    The weather has been very severe the last fifteen days, with heavy gales and rain. It done considerable damage here. Several Indians' houses were blown down and many more removed.
    The government stable was removed also. I have never experienced so severe a gale on the coast.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted.
G. W. Collins
    U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Klamath Agency Dec. 31st 1867.
Sir
    For the month of December I have the honor to report as follows. The quiet and harmony here have only [been] disturbed by slight difficulties among the Indians not worth reporting. The Indians are generally disposed to conduct themselves properly and prefer to have their offenses tried by the "white man's law."
    A number of Modocs have not yet come onto the reservation, but as their country is less snowy than this and the season so far advanced, I am disposed to think it would be an advantage to both government and Indians to allow them to remain where they are till spring. Where they now are they can support themselves and their animals without expense to the government, and besides if brought onto the reservation, having no winter houses, they would suffer. Where they now are they are out of white influence and white intercourse, and hence I think no ill could come of their remaining off till spring.
    The month commenced with favorable weather, and so continued up to about the 10th inst., when cold, snowy weather put an end to plowing. Since that time the employees have been engaged principally in making rails and in taking care of the stock, most of which have been taken down to the Link River country, where the winter will be less severe.
    A number of Indians are employed in rail making.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, no number.



Office Siletz Ind. Agency
    Oregon Dec. 31st 1867
Sir,
    I desire to inform your office of the following changes in the employees upon this agency.
    Nov. 14th W. R. Dunbar, teacher, resigned.
    Dec. 1st T. J. Dodge employed as teacher of Shasta Scotan and Umpqua school at a salary of $1000.00 per annum.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 24; Letters Received, 1867-1868, No. 213.






Last revised January 24, 2017