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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1869
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    January 1st 1869.
Sir:--
    I have the honor to submit to you my monthly report of the condition of Indians under my charge in the Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Oregon during the month of December 1868.
    Through the above stated time no changes worth relating have taken pace in this agency concerning the Indians, consequently I do not deem a long report necessary. The various tribes are all peaceable and quiet, well provided with food and appear contented.
    No deaths or births have taken place during the past month and but little sickness.
All of which is most respectfully submitted
    By your most obdt. servt.
        G. W. Collins
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
To
    Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



(Telegram)
Salem Jany. 4th 1869
Lindsay Applegate
    Ashland
        Collect the squaws vaccinate them provide quarters and subsistence. Be economical. Letter by mail.       
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 268.



[Telegram]
Ashland Jan. 7 1869
    Rec'd. at Salem Jan. 7 1869 3 p.m.
To J. W. P. Huntington Supt. Ind. Affairs
    A number of squaws of different tribes near Jacksonville afflicted with smallpox and suffering for want of clothing and provisions. County commissioners call on me to care for them. Can I go to any expense of providing for them.
L. Applegate
    U.S. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



OWEN & WILSON,
Counselors-at-Law and Solicitors of Claims,
No. 2 Four-and-a-half Street,
Washington, D.C., Jan. 11, 1869
To the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir,
        On the 10th Sept. 1868 we transmitted to you a claim for compensation for depredations committed in 1855 by the Rogue River Indians & also stated that we had been requested to inquire as to whether there is any law under which claims for spoliations by various tribes of Indians in California & Oregon can be paid.
    We also inquired whether any compensation would be made the Clatsop Indians for their lands taken under treaty made with them in 1850, 1 & 2 by the Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon Ter. & which lands have now, as we understand, been paid for or restored.
    We respectfully ask a reply bond letter of above date.
Your obt. servts.
    Owen & Wilson
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 980-982.



Office Klamath Agency
    Jan. 18, 1869.
Sir,
    I am just in receipt of a communication from Forbes Barclay, Esq., mayor of Oregon City, in relation to the Indian "Dick," now in confinement at Fort Klamath. You will find a copy of the said letter herewith.
    It appears sufficiently certain that "Dick" is not the Indian known as "Pete" who committed crimes at Oregon City or Portland and who afterwards escaped from confinement. You will observe that "Dick's" statement of the causes which led to his leaving Oregon City accords closely with the information given by Dr. Barclay.
    I shall anxiously await your instructions as to whether "Dick" shall be released or continued in confinement.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in
        Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Office Klamath Agency.
    Jan. 20th 1869.
Sir,
    On the first (1st) instant William Stanley Esq. was appointed School Teacher on Klamath Reservation to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of O. C. Applegate on the day previous.
    O. C. Applegate was on the same day (Jan. 1st 1869) appointed Superintendent of Farming Operations.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 188.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    January 31st 1869.
Sir:
    I am pleased to be able to report for the month ending with the above date that the Snake Indians under my charge are peaceable and quiet and manifest unmistakable evidence of a desire to remain so.
    The numbers and names will, in accordance with my instructions, be forwarded to you as soon as practicable.
I have the honor to remain
    Sir your most
        Obdt. servt.
            Ivan D. Applegate
                Commissary of Subsistence for
                    Snake Indians
Hon.
    J. W. Perit Huntington
        Superintendent of Indian
            Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 189.



Klamath Agency Oregon January 31st 1869.
Sir,
    During the month the weather has been unusually favorable for the season. There is scarcely any snow, and the lake is covered with a very thin coat of ice. Nothing of consequence has taken place among the Indians except the tragedy which occurred early in the month, to wit: Sub-chief Kellogg, in a fit of jealousy or temporary insanity, shot his wife, killing her instantly, and then blew his own brains out with his rifle. Much caution is observed in regard to the introduction of the smallpox onto the reservation. Stringent rules and regulations have been ordained, which are rigorously enforced to prevent its coming.
    On the 7th inst. the county authorities informed me that the smallpox was raging furiously among Indians on Kanaka Flat in the vicinity of Jacksonville, that they were suffering for want of proper care, subsistence and clothing, and that as the malady was raging in Jacksonville, the county and town authorities had heavy enough burdens to bear without providing for the Indians. These Indians I learned were squaws (with their children) who originally came from the coast near Crescent City, from Rogue River, from the Shastas in California &c. and had generally been concubines for negroes, Kanakas and of certain low white persons. I immediately telegraphed to you asking that cause to pursue, and you at once responded instructing me to collect the squaws, vaccinate them and "provide quarters and subsistence" and to "be very economical." The smallpox was raging with fearful severity in Jacksonville; travel between Ashland and that place had been interdicted, and I could not go there myself. Such a course, besides being an open violation of established sanitary regulations, would have been extremely hazardous and unwise. I immediately telegraphed from Ashland to prominent men at Jacksonville, and after much trouble succeeded in securing the services of Wm. Turner in acting as my agent in that place. He acted with alacrity, energy and good judgment, being governed by detailed instructions from myself, and in a short time I had the satisfaction of knowing that your order had been carried out to the letter.
    Now there are no cases of smallpox among them; they are carefully kept aloof from other persons. An inconsiderable amount has been expended to keep them from suffering for want of food, and a few blankets have been purchased to prevent them from suffering from cold and exposure, as their infected clothing and bedding has been burned. In every disbursement the most stringent economy has been observed. As soon as there is no longer danger from the contagion I hope to receive instructions from you that will enable me to remove the straggling Indians in the vicinity of Jacksonville to the Klamath Reservation. Submitted as report for January 1869.
I have the honor to remain sir
    Respectfully your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    February 2nd 1869.
Sir:--I have the honor to submit my report of condition and improvement of the Indians under my charge on the Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency, Oregon, for the month of January 1869.
    The four tribes, numbering in all about 500 souls, are of a quiet and well-disposed people. They are of an industrious, willing turn of mind and dutiful and obedient to agent and farmer. Their condition when compared with other Indians is good. Their game is handy and plenty, and their fisheries extensive and productive. Their houses are well and comfortable fixed and they are nicely protected from the winter storms.
    They are at present very comfortably supplied with both food and clothing. Their stock (of horses mostly) look and appear well, and to all intent and purposes they appear to be well satisfied and contented.
    They have long since learned the need of work in order to live comfortable and happy.
All of which is most respectfully submitted
    By your most obdt. servt.
        G. W. Collins
            Indn. Sub-Agent
To
    Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indn. Affairs
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    February 20th 1869.
Sir,
    On the 31st day of January last Orson A. Stearns was relieved from duty as Farmer on Klamath Reservation, and on the 1st inst. L. Colver was appointed in his stead.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 204.



Camp Harney Ogn.
    Feby. 25th 1869
J. W. P. Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Sir--
            Everything pertaining to the Indians here goes on smoothly. The number at present in the vicinity of this post is about the same as at the time of your visit.
    It is understood however from Weahwewa that a large band will shortly arrive from the vicinity of C. F. Smith and Steens Mountain, also a number from about Camp Warner.
    The allowance of flour issued to them has been increased, so that they now fare liberally. Weahwewa demurs slightly--very gently--at not receiving sugar and coffee, in consideration, probably, of his importance as a tyee ["chief"] Indian. A little whiskey, too, would not be objectionable, I suppose, to the same venerable individual.
    During the past month quite a number of them have succumbed to flux & dysentery &c.--which have prevailed extensively among them. Their condition has improved considerably in the last week or ten days. They have run upon me a good deal recently, since discovering the superiority of "soldier man medicine."
Yours truly
    Dr. P. Moffatt
Our winter here has been exceedingly mild compared with last.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Oregon
    February 28th 1869.
Sir
    I have the honor to report for the month ending with the above date:
    That the Snake Indians in my charge are remaining quiet and peaceably in the places where they were located for the winter. They have not been molested or disturbed by white people and manifest no desire to return to their old habits and modes of life. Their destitute condition demands the early attention of the government.

I have the honor to remain
    Your most obdt. servant
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Commissary of Subsistence for
                Snake Indians

J. W. Perit Huntington
     Supt. of Indian
        Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 208.



Office Klamath Agency. Oregon, February 28th 1869.
Sir,
    For the present month I have the honor to report as follows.
    On the reservation health and quiet have prevailed. The winter so far has not been severe, and consequently such of the Indians as are poorly supplied with blankets and clothing have not suffered from cold. Stringent regulations in relation to travel and intercourse have prevented the smallpox from being introduced onto the reservation, and now as there are no late cases in any adjacent part of the country, there is thought to be but little danger.
    In Jacksonville, eleven Indian women and children are being subsisted under my direction, they having been deprived of their means of livelihood by the contagion and the means taken to prevent its progress. The expense of providing for them will amount to but little. As the smallpox has abated and business has been resumed in Jacksonville, there is little doubt but that the Indians mentioned can, in a few days, gain their own subsistence by labor, until such time as they can be taken to the reservation.
    At the agency, labors are vigorously prosecuted, and the prospects for accomplishing much for the welfare of the Indians are fattening.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs in
         Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



United States Senate Chamber,
    Washington, Mar. 3, 1869
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Comr. Indian Affairs
        Will you please inform the chairman of Committee on Indian Affairs as to the importance of the removal of the Indians from Southeastern Oregon, lately conquered by Genl. Crook, and now under guard of the military at the several posts. See Supt. Huntington's report.
H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 818-819.




Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    March 14 1869
Sir:--
    I have the honor to submit my monthly report of the condition of Indians under my charge in the Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Oregon for the month of February 1869.
    Since my last report I can perceive no marked change of affairs in this agency. The Indians are all busily at work at various kinds of labor.
    They have all their land plowed for early oats and spring wheat and are now preparing their land for their general crops. During the month they have made a large number of rails and rebuilt and repaired the fences around their farms.
    They all have comfortable dwellings and a good supply of food to last them all through the spring work.
    They all appear to manifest a willingness to work and are at last convinced that in order to raise a crop they must work.
    The general health of the various tribes is good--bad colds being the principal complaints.
All of which is most respectfully
    Submitted by your most obdt. servt.
        G. W. Collins
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt.
To
    Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
        Supt. of Indn. Affairs
            Salem
                Oreg.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. March 31st 1869
Sir:
    Herewith I transmit a commission from the President of the United States appointing, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,
Alfred B. Meacham
of Oregon, to be Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the state of Oregon, vice J. W. P. Huntington removed.
    You will please cause said commission to be delivered to Mr. Meacham when he shall have filed the proper bond and the oath of office.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. S. H. White
                Chief Clerk
The Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 932-934.




Office Klamath Agency, Oregon, March 31st 1869.
Sir,
    For the month expiring with this day, I respectfully submit the following report. The Indians have generally enjoyed health; on account of the unusual mildness of the weather at this season they have not suffered from cold, and the amount of flour and beef issued to them has been amply sufficient for their wants.
    The snow having disappeared by the middle of the month, operations on the farm in plowing, sowing and harrowing were resumed with vigor. All energies are united in an effort to get in a good crop.
    The idea of separate cultivation is encouraged among the Indians, and as soon as practicable some of the employees will be detailed to assist them in breaking ground for fields and gardens.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent.
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. April 5th 1869
Sir:
    Herewith I transmit a commission from the President of the United States appointing, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, Charles Lafollet, of Oregon, to be agent for the Indians of the Grand Ronde Agency in Oregon, vice Amos Harvey--time expired.
    You will please cause said commission to be delivered to Mr. Lafollet when he shall have filed the proper bond and oath of office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. S. H. White
            Chief Clerk
The Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 935-936.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon Apl. 8th 1869
Sir
    Your letter of 8th ultimo, concerning a letter of B. F. Dowell submitting evidence of a claim of N. B. Clough for pay of fruit trees &c. under supervision of my predecessor in office, W. H. Rector, has been received.
    In reply I state
    1st. The aforesaid W. H. Rector, and his clerk, T. McF. Patton, carefully obliterated all evidence of the fruit tree transaction before they vacated this office. The records and papers of this office do not show anything whatever in regard to the transaction, and do not show that any fruit trees were ever furnished to the Indian Dept. by Mr. Clough.
    2nd. Your letter, to which this is a reply, does not specify what the amount of the claim is, nor what the number of trees claimed to have been furnished by Mr. Clough is, nor when nor where they were furnished. In the total absence of any record or information in this office you will perceive the difficulty under which I labor in properly adjudicating this claim.
    3rd. I have been familiarly and somewhat intimately acquainted with Mr. Clough for ten years. He has never mentioned this claim to me directly nor indirectly, verbally or in writing.
    4th. I know that sundry apple trees--how few or how many I have no means of determining--were furnished to several Indian reservations, to wit, Siletz, Warm Springs and Umatilla. Most of them were subsequently destroyed. A few at Umatilla were sold under my direction by the  agent at Umatilla, and the proceeds properly accounted for.
    5th. Mr. Clough was paid certain money by Mr. Rector (according to common rumor) at the time of the purchase of these trees. I am not advised when, where, nor how much.
    6th (and finally). You have directed me to examine a transaction of which there is not a mark of a pen in this office, of which there is no date in your letter, and of which I have had no personal cognizance whatever. I am unable to determine from any means of information now at hand whether the claim ought to be paid at all, nor whether the amount is five dollars or five hundred thousand, as claimed.
    I think your office could obtain more information from Messrs. Rector, Patton and Clough (if they would impart it) than from me.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                in Oregon
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 907-910.




Portland April 15 1869
Dear Huntington
    As I predicted and as you may see by the papers, the enthusiasm for Logan is intense down here. Old soreheads who have not voted for years will go to the polls and support him and contribute of their means for his election. There are some who feel sore and humiliated, but they say nothing.
    John White writes me that his [Logan's] nomination is very popular in Umatilla and throughout Eastern Oregon. I have said nothing publicly against him since my return, but when conversing with friends I adhere to my determination not to vote for him. Nothing but the importance of success to our party in June for the prestige it will give us in November prevents me from giving my support to defeat him. So far as the simple matter of congressman goes it is little odds which of two lying hypocrites represents Oregon, but our defeat will be a victory to rebels. My hopes are that he will be elected and then get drunk over his success and die in a gutter. So far as his ability to injure us even if he gets to Congress [is concerned] I have very little fears and I have told his friends that I would not vote for him and that I defied him to do his worst against me. From present appearances I think he stands more than an even chance of beating Smith, who I am sure is a great failure on the stump and will, like Kelly two years ago, lose votes by the canvass.
    Elish [L. Applegate] made a speech Thursday night which was a success. He has gained much in Portland esteem during his stay. He did not mention Logan's name or allude in any manner to our candidate, but gave Jo [probably Joseph Lane] the devil.
    Newell left on yesterday in good spirits. O'Neil promised to do everything in his power to favor him. Nesmith's letter to Jim fixed him, and I presume the govt. will pay Doc's expenses.
    I wrote Corbett in reference to the nomination and the manner it was effected and my idea of the object to be attained. I think he will see it, as it is--I also wrote to John Mc [sic], who will feel as we do. Write me.
Yours &c. Crawford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.  The envelope is inscribed "This letter is so characteristic of the writer that I send it for Nesmith's perusal, although intended for my eye alone. Please return it. Huntington."



Department of the Interior,
    Office of Indian Affairs.
        Washington, D.C. April 29, 1869
Sir
    I will thank you for the address of Charles Lafollet, lately appointed to be agent for Indians of the Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon--also the address of the U.S. district judge or attorney nearest to him, to whom can be sent Mr. Lafollet's commission to be delivered to Mr. Lafollet when he shall have filed with such judge or attorney his official bond properly executed.
Very respectfully
    Your obd. servt.
        Charles E. Mix
            Chief Clerk
Hon Henry W. Corbett
    Washington
        D.C.
   

                            Charles Lafollet John C. Cartwright
    Dallas     U.S. Dist. Atty.
        Polk Co.         Portland
            Oregon             Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 825-829.


Office Klamath Agency, Oregon
    April 30th 1869.
Sir,
    For the month expiring with this date I have the honor to submit the following report. The Indians have usually been healthy. One death, the result of an accidental shot in the thigh, occurred during the month.
    Farming has been vigorously prosecuted and already upwards of two hundred acres have been sown in grain on the general farm, and some teams have for some time been engaged in breaking ground in various localities for the Indians. The Indians are generally well disposed and show a growing disposition to emulate the whites in various ways. They take a lively interest in separate cultivation, and are assisted in farming to the full extent of the means at hand. There is no doubt in my mind but that the Indians on this reservation, if given the aid promised by government in the treaties with them, will make rapid advancement in civilization.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. Indian Affairs in
        Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.


SILETZ, OR "LO" RECONSTRUCTED.
    There is, in the range of the problems of the future, no graver one to solve than that involved in the future condition of the Indian races, and the opposing policies of their civilization or extermination.
    Much has been spoken and written on the subject, and it is the extreme divergence of view taken by people, some of whom are and some who are not familiar with the Indian character, that renders it a difficult one to decide on. The hasty conclusion based on "Lo" in a state of nature as he is depicted by the novelists, that the child of the forest and plain should hold the simple virtues in all their purity, and that his passions being natural, and not fostered, were therefore not blamable; and the equally hasty one of others, who conclude that "the best Indian is a dead one," and who would sweep, if they could, the race into oblivion with as much nonchalance as they would crush an anthill, have both served to embarrass the action of those to whom by inheritance this Gordian knot has descended.
    To briefly describe the degree of progress arrived at in the cutting of a portion of this great knot is the object of this article.
    For some time past the general government has pursued the policy of gathering the scattered tribes of Indians conquered by its arms or reduced by paucity of numbers and the encroaching white to a condition of helplessness, into "reservations"--industrial schools of civilization. Some of these have no doubt proved "exploded humbugs"; others have not, and are slowly working, amid all the hindrances of ignorance and officious political management of the general system, toward success in a limited point of view. Of these, one of the largest and most successfully conducted is located on the Oregon coast. In that wild and dreary region, where the few evidences of man and his boasted
powers are swallowed up in a vast ocean of timber, where the elk and bear yet roam in undisturbed freedom, and the sullen moan of the surf on the beach for many a mile the only sound that breaks the virgin solitudes is the savage, learning the lesson of thrift and contentment.
    Seventy miles south of the Columbia River, a small stream called the "Siletz" forces its way through the mountains and meanders toward the sea, emptying across a bar never crossed by even the adventurous fur trader, so wild and fierce are the breakers constantly dashing their crests into foam upon its sands. Twelve miles from the ocean on this stream is located the "Siletz Reservation." Founded in 1856 by the since-renowned Sheridan, it has been the nucleus of Indian experiment on the coast. Here, after the bloody Rogue River war, were sent as prisoners portions of ten tribes captured by General Palmer, and here they have remained ever since; the older and untamable soon dying off, the younger gradually improving. One smoky morning of the past year--the woods had been on fire for a month, and the atmosphere was dense with smoke--I rode down the mountain and first caught a view, limited by the condition of the air, of the plateau hemmed in by lofty mountains, and meandered by the river on which poor Lo was learning the painful lesson of Reconstruction. Fording the river, here a rapid, brawling stream fretting over its stony bed, I was soon riding along a lane lined on each side by an old-fashioned Kentucky rail fence, and having on the left a broad field, yellow with the stubble of a garnered harvest, and on the right a straggling collection of houses, some quite pretentious and neatly finished, being built of hewn logs; others, mere shelters of brush and earth. These were the villages of the different tribes. At the end of the lane I came in sight of the Agent's residence, the factors' houses, stores, etc.
    Situated on a gentle eminence, the buildings command a view of the entire reservation. The Agent's house is built of hewn logs, has broad verandas, and a most hospitable-looking chimney. The whole aspect of the place reminds one forcibly of a plantation in the South before the war, the gloomy pine forests around being the only incongruous element.
    On arriving before the house, I was received and made welcome by the Agent. This gentleman has been in charge now some five or six years, and is a good illustration of "one manpower," for it has been by his indomitable energy and will, and the complete control that he exercises over the Indians, that whatever of success has attended the efforts of the government has been accomplished. A man of medium height, with square shoulders and well-proportioned frame, he does not at first produce any impression beyond the common one of being "a fine-looking man." It is not until you have seen the wonderful influence that he exerts over the savage natures around him that you scan his face with curiosity. You then notice that he has deep-set eyes, with overhanging brows, broad forehead, wrinkled with the lines indicative of power, iron-gray hair, and a mouth close and reticent in its expression, which cannot be disguised by the heavy mustache and beard, and begin to realize that his is one of the few faces met with that have "power of command" stamped plainly.
    Were I an epicure, I might be tempted to linger a little on the description of my keenly relished meal that evening, every portion of which was produced or procured by Indian labor, and cooked by an Indian cook; on the white honey gathered by the industrious toilers who work alike for savage and Christian; on the venison, hot and smoking from the coals, and the delicious mountain trout caught within the hour. But as I well know that a traveler's account of a meal is so often seasoned by the remembrance of the keen zest with which he enjoyed it, served as it usually is in the wilds with the "sauce piquante" of hunger, I will spare the infliction. But to omit the after-dinner scene would be to deprive me of the pleasure of relating a reminiscence that will long linger on my mind, and as a description of how the dull hours pass by in the life of people cut off from all society, may not prove uninteresting.
    We were ushered, after our meal, into a wide room, its sides composed of hewn logs, and ornamented with the branching horns of the elk and deer, and having suspended from pegs every variety of firearms, from the old rusty horse pistols in use by the dragoons years ago, to the latest patent of Colt and Spencer. At the end of the room was a great, wide fireplace, piled high with huge pine logs that snapped and crackled as the flame leaped through them and threw its ruddy glare upon the group gathered around it, consisting of a motley crowd of Indians dressed in all sorts of costume, who had dropped in for a visit to their "Tyee." They were well-behaved and quiet, spoke but seldom, and then only when directly addressed. The Agent and his head man or manager, his wife, and myself then drew around the fire and whiled away several hours in conversation on the present and future prospects of the Indians, who seemed to feel (those present) that they were subjects of our criticism.
    The manager's wife referred to is a self-possessed and courageous woman, qualities very necessary in one who has to live as she does, surrounded by a multitude of savages, or at best but half-civilized creatures. She affirmed, alluding to a recent "scare," that she was not the least alarmed, but had gone to bed as usual, although she knew there was great excitement among the Indians, and that the Agent was absent. It was not until the Indian women came into the house and begged her to get up, for there was mischief brewing, that she consented to do so. When I remembered that the population of Yaquina Bay (the nearest settlement) had gathered together for protection, stood an armed watch for two nights, and wondering in the meanwhile what had been the probable fate of this woman (the only white one on the Reserve), I could not help admiring her bravery and confidence in the friendship of the Indians. These Indian scares are a periodical occurrence in the vicinity of the Reservations, and have an exceedingly bad effect. Generally commencing with a wrong committed by the whites, their guilty consciences take alarm, and there is arming in hot haste. The Indians, in turn, seeing the whites arming, do the same, and it has only been by the greatest tact that the agents have prevented difficulty.
    As an example the scare referred to is a good one, and shows in a strong light one of the many outside hindrances to the civilization and elevation of the Indian tribes.
    An Indian was murdered outside (i.e., in the Willamette Valley)--shot in the back while walking in the road, by a white man, and for no other crime than that of being the unintentional cause of a stampede among a drove of hogs. His body was brought to the Reserve for burial, and, as he belonged to a powerful family among the Indians, his "tillicums" cried for vengeance.
    The situation was rather a critical one. The Agent was absent, eighty miles away, and the sole white inhabitants of the Reserve were the manager, his wife, and one or two employees. One of these, yielding to cowardly fear, at once ran away, and reaching the settlement at Yaquina Bay, twenty-five miles distant, spread the alarm there. Some
 eight or ten courageous men, arming themselves, started at once to the relief, but did not arrive, owing to the severity of the journey over the mountains, until their presence was unnecessary and rather a source of anxiety to the Agent than benefit. The manager, as soon as the body was brought in, fearing trouble, dispatched a "Klamath runner" (the Klamaths are the best-disposed tribe on the Reserve) for the Agent. This Indian runner started at nightfall, and reached Salem, where the Agent was--a distance of eighty miles--by noon the next day. Starting at once and riding all night, the Agent arrived the next morning at the Reserve. The unfriendly Indians in the meantime had gone through the ceremony of burying the dead man, and, becoming more and more excited, gathered in crowds around the Agency buildings, and many dark threats were uttered of summary vengeance on the whites. When it is remembered that many of them had faced the regular troops of the United States in pitched battles, were only conquered after a long and desperate resistance, and were now held as nominal if not actual prisoners of war--that joined to their hereditary hate they now had the present impelling cause, it will be seen that the position was one requiring great tact to prevent an outbreak.
    At this juncture an ally appeared for the whites, in the person of "Tyee Joe," chief of the Klamath tribe, an old and dignified man. A bitter foe once, he had fought as long as his ammunition and men held out: but, on giving in his final adhesion, had also laid aside enmity; and, being intelligent enough to see that resistance was suicidal, has since fostered with all the means in his power the entente cordiale. This old fellow got up and made a long speech, counseling forbearance and patience--especially impressing it upon them that they must wait for the Agent's arrival, and not let their bad passions run away with their sense. So great was his influence that after an excited debate they agreed to defer the matter until the Agent should arrive.
    That night the Klamath tribe, under old Joe, guarded the main buildings, armed and ready to do their best against their compatriots, should they attempt violence.
    With the morning came Agent Simpson. Hastily dismounting from his horse, he at once called a general powwow, in the council room, heard patiently all the complaints and threats made, and then made them a speech--promising them that he would use every means in his power to have justice done "white way," and that the man should be hung, and they should see it.
    They then dispersed, and no symptoms of discontent were afterwards observed, although on the subsequent capture and incarceration of the murderer a band of them visited the jail in the Willamette Valley to see that he was securely fastened up.
    When his trial took place a picked company of the chiefs and headmen accompanied the Agent to court, and remained while the farce called Justice was played through. It was first proposed to liberate the murderer on bonds of one thousand dollars in greenbacks--but so strenuously did the Agent protest that he was refused bail. Oregon justice was finally meted out to the offender thus:
    Although it was proven by the testimony of two white witnesses that he had, without a shadow of justification, shot an unoffending fellow-creature in the back and killed him, he was--because the victim was an Indian--sentenced to the heavy punishment of five years in the penitentiary by an Oregon jury.

    No wonder that General Wool, on being applied to for protection against Indian depredations, assured the Oregonians "that they deserved the fullest measure of vengeance that the Indian could inflict for their culpable disregard of humanity in his treatment."
    The affair finally died out--only being added, in the mind of the aborigine, to the long list of injuries already stored up. For one poetic quality of the historic "Lo" is certainly true of the present aborigine: he never forgets an injury, although his memory is not very good when a benefit is to be recalled.
    At an early hour the Indian visitors took their departure, and soon afterwards I was shown to my room. No fear of visitants here "i' the dead hours." No bolts or locks on the doors--everything tending to produce distrust in the good intentions of the Indian being carefully avoided as part of a well-digested system.
    The next morning, a light breeze having raised the canopy of smoke, we could see some of our surroundings. An amphitheater of hills, covered with fir and pine, a broad plateau, through which the river wound its way in many a sinuous curve; a scattered collection of huts and houses, grain and potato fields--all enlivened by the foreground figures of the Indians at work, many of them clad in brilliant colors--formed a pleasing picture.
    Klamath Joe, the Hyas Tyee of the Klamaths, made his appearance just as we were starting out for a tour of investigation. Saluting the company politely, he asked the Agent in Chinook jargon for permission to accompany us, and also wished to know what my object was in visiting the Agency. When informed that it was merely a pleasure excursion he appeared contented, and was greatly pleased at being asked to sit for his portrait. He watched the progress of the sketch attentively, and, on its conclusion, requested that I should write his name under it, and add: "Tyee Joe will always be good friend to 'Boston man.'" He was quite neatly dressed in a full suit of black, linen duster, and polished boots--altogether as respectable-looking an old man as one could expect to find anywhere among the lower classes of whites, indeed, in many respects far superior to the mass of low-bred men who form a portion of the population of our cities.
    We visited first the guard house, where a number of Indians were confined for breaking their passes, i.e., for staying out beyond the stipulated time. When an Indian wishes to leave the limits of the Reservation to work for the settlers in the valleys, or to hunt or fish, he comes to the Agent and receives from him a pass, with the time of his return stated. Should he overstay this time he is liable to imprisonment, and sometimes, in bad cases, to a whipping.
    The guard house is a small wooden building, with grated windows. It will scarcely be credited, but is nevertheless true, that the Indians confined here are rarely locked up, and could, if they pleased, step out at any time. This is part of the system inaugurated by the present Agent. They are taught to obey promptly, and it is strictly impressed upon their facile minds that punishment is sure to follow infraction of rules. When Simpson first took charge he called the Indians together, and told them that the first that left the Reserve without his permission would on capture receive forty lashes. The next day some four or five of the most desperate ran away. After a time they were caught and marched back. Simpson made them a speech, said that his heart was very sick, that he had promised them a whipping if they ran off, that he did not want to do it, but how could he help it? Yet he would leave it to them. After a little consultation the spokesman of the party said that he thought they had better be whipped, as they would rather bear it than have a tyee lie to them. They got what they wanted, and well laid on too. Had the whipping followed on the fault, without the appeal to their honor, a desperate resistance would have been the consequence.
    The runaways are captured by the employees, who are sent out for the purpose. Last year one of the sub-Agents had a narrow escape. He had taken some ten or a dozen desperate characters, and was conveying them back. For his security he had them handcuffed. At a lonely point on the road they suddenly surrounded him, and by force of numbers succeeded, after a desperate resistance, in taking from him his arms and the key of the irons. These they soon unlocked, and handcuffed the sub-Agent and tied his legs as well. They then scattered for the mountains, leaving their poor victim to die a horrible death from starvation. Being a man of immense physical strength he managed to drag himself a distance of twenty miles to the nearest settlement. After his recovery he started out again, and finally caught every one of his would-be murderers, and gave them a sound whipping.
    Our next visit was to the schoolhouse, where the Indian children are taught the elementary branches, combined with manual labor. In a knowledge of American history, and simple spelling, reading and writing, they were quite proficient. The love of music of monotonous character, instinctive to the Indian, is made use of in teaching the multiplication table. On being requested, the leader of the class, "Abraham Lincoln," a rather stolid-looking boy, struck up: "One time one is--o-n-e," giving the whole table through, the class following him, with perfect accuracy, and in very much the same tone that his father and uncles would use in the How-ah-how-ah chant of the scalp dance.
    The school children all receive names from the Agent, and, after being once baptized thus, retain them tenaciously. Commencing with the head boy, the names were called one by one, each boy or girl holding up his or her hand. One "youth to fortune and to fame unknown" was baptized "Charles Sumner," by the Agent, with the parenthesis that Charles Sumner was a hyas tyee or grand chief of the whites, to which we were forced to mentally exclaim, "Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise." One tiny little girl with a bright black eye, on being asked her name, replied that she had none, but, on being pressed, suddenly brightened up and said, "Jenny Small." This was explained by the fact of her mother's name being "Big Jenny." Being original, it was thought clever. A portion of the building occupied by the school is the residence of what Simpson calls his "model pair"--"Jerry" and "Lilly Cass." Our next visit was to them. "Mrs. Cass" (?) being engaged in ironing, and also entertaining a squaw visitor from one of the wilder tribes, was not quite prepared to receive visitors and made a hasty exit on our entrance, but soon returned neatly dressed. Two boys and two girls were selected by the Agent from the most intelligent children, soon after his assuming charge, as the basis of a thorough experiment.
    The girls were domesticated in his own family, and there taught virtue (first and most essential for an Indian), cleanliness and neat habits--imbibing a taste for civilized life and manners, they were next taught to sew, to perform housework, to read and write, etc.
    The boys were apprenticed, one to a carpenter, the other to a blacksmith, and, in due course of time, became skillful workmen. Being thus isolated and removed from their relatives these children grew up under good influences, and, of course, as they approached man- and womanhood, conceived a mutual liking, followed by a desire for marriage, after the fashion of the whites.
    This was solemnized in great state by the Agent, in order to produce an impression among the savage witnesses. The brides were dressed in the conventional white, and the grooms, not behind in the proprieties, wore black suits and white gloves. Strict orders were issued some time in advance that no Indian would be permitted to witness the ceremony unless neatly dressed, and great was the display of finery at the wedding among the savage belles--every Indian woman with few exceptions working for months to procure what she called "fine ictas" (i.e., fine clothes). Not to be outdone the white ladies of the Agency appeared in their best toilets, and the men sported kids--rather an unknown luxury to them. Simpson married them with great solemnity, using the Episcopal service, and ending with a lecture on the duties of married life, the principal point of which suited to the known faults of his auditory was elaboration of the fact that being now married after the fashion of the white they must live as he (theoretically) does: having one wife, and cleaving solely unto her until death should part.
    The effect was tremendous (for a time), and numerous couples announced themselves as candidates. As time elapsed, however, they cooled off, and finally concluded that the Indian laws were the best. An Indian buys his wife or wives (for he is allowed as many as he can support) of her relatives, paying for her in blankets, venison, horses or money. A comely looking girl is considered quite valuable by her relatives, often bringing as much as three hundred dollars. If after a time the husband tires of his wife he sends her back to her relatives, who, in their turn, are obliged to restore her price. If, on the other hand, she leaves him, alleging that he has ill-treated her, or refused to allow her equal privileges with more favored ones, then the relatives oblige him to pay an additional sum for his bad treatment. Infidelity to the married state is also punished in the same way. If a squaw has reason to suspect that some other "klootchman" (woman) is engrossing more than a legitimate share of attention from her liege lord, she prefers complaint against him, and her relatives enforce a payment of money, sometimes in aggravated cases amounting to a considerable sum. All disputes of this character are settled by a council composed of the respective chiefs of tribes and bands, and the final decision being left to the hyas tyee of all--the Agent.
    "Mrs. Cass" is a comely looking woman of twenty-five, her features regular and expressive, and her skin clear and almost white in color. The only drawback to her appearance is the ugly tattooing practiced by the tribe to which she belonged. This consists in a number of black lines starting from the lower lip and running over the chin, making it look as though a beard was worn. She has one child, a bright-looking little fellow, whom she takes great pride in adorning, and--(a rarity even among white babies)--keeps neat and clean. Indeed, the whole management of her domestic economy is conducted on the most approved principles, and cannot be excelled in neatness by any menage even in New England.
    After exchanging compliments with this "specimen wife" we continued our walk, visiting next the village of the Joshua tribe. The head chief was absent on a fishing excursion for fall salmon. We called at his house and were received by "Mrs. Joshua" No. 5, the other four being with their lord. His dwelling is a substantial log house, chinked and plastered, and the crowded state of his barns with oats, barley and potatoes, showed that he had forethought for the coming winter. He is reputed to be quite rich for an Indian, having in his possession several thousand dollars of Indian and American money. Report also gives him the credit of being a grand rascal and a terror to the household of his tribe. Not content with his patriarchal allowance of five spouses, this "gay Lothario" of fifty years was last month fined, by the council, one hundred and fifty dollars "Boston money" (gold), for his attentions to the dusky fair of other tribes. His mother--an old, withered, dried-up woman--occupied a corner of the porch, engaged in sifting oatmeal through sieves of grass. She has a reputed age of over one hundred years. Nothing can be imagined that more nearly approaches in a living being the mummy of Egypt than one of these old Indians. They are absolute dry skin and bone.
    We examined the meal, and also tasted a cake made from it that was quite sweet and palatable. It has been found by experience that this food is better suited to the Indian taste and far more healthy than flour. Fine crops of oats are produced on the Reserve, but wheat does not seem to prosper.
    Behind the village is the graveyard of the tribe; the graves are surrounded with wooden palings, and covered with miscellaneous articles belonging to the deceased--for it is one of the most deeply engrafted superstitions that everything must be buried with the Indian, or deposited on his grave. When the head of a family dies, his friends and relatives assemble, and, after the ceremony of burial, kill his horses (if he has any) over the grave. They then deposit on it his gun, bow and arrows, fishing implements, etc. His money is buried at his head, and his clothes torn into shreds and festooned around the paling, his furniture, consisting usually of culinary utensils and baskets, with perhaps a stool or bed, is then heaped up in a corner. After all this is accomplished, his house is burnt down and the ashes thrown on the grave. Even his name is then held to be sacred, and is never afterwards mentioned. It is one of the most strenuous Indian laws that whoever mentions the name of a deceased person is liable to a heavy fine--the money being paid to the relatives.
    Not long since one Indian, getting in a rage with another, named all his dead relatives, adding terms of contempt. So grave was this crime considered to be, by the council, that besides being fined to the full extent of his property, he was compelled to become a slave for a year to the relatives of the deceased whose names he had profaned. Some of the graves showed evidences that the Catholic Church had extended its all-pervading influence even among these isolated tribes--being decorated with white and black crosses.
    After leaving the Joshua village we went to that of the Tututnis, passing on the way a large group of Indians engaged in digging potatoes. The potato and oat fields are cultivated in common, each tribe having a distinctive allotment, the lines of separation being marked by furrows. The grain best adapted to the soil and climate has been found to be oats, and a large crop is raised every year. The potatoes raised are principally of the kidney variety, and are very fine.
    The chief of the Tututnis, an old warrior by the name of Shell Drake, was absent when we visited his domicile. His daughter, "Tututni Jenny," is the main reliance of the tribe, though, and its real if not nominal leader. She is quite a character, and deserves to have her history written by an able pen. In the Rogue River war she, it is reported, headed the first outbreak, and, after the murder of the Indian Agent, tore his heart from his quivering body, and to show her contempt and bravado, eat a portion of it. Injustice to Jenny, however, it must be admitted that she strenuously denies the horrible deed of cannibalism. She played a leading part in the events which followed, often leading the tribe into battle, and was among the last that surrendered. Now she is chiefly noted for her shrewdness in a bargain, and her activity and great personal strength. Her house, which we next visited, contained the most heterogeneous collection of articles that it is possible to conceive of. Every variety of domestic utensils: beds, bedding, clothes, furniture--all piled together, never used, and apparently collected only in a miserly desire to possess "ictas"--an idea all the more inexplicable from the fact already alluded to, that all would have to be destroyed, or buried with her. One anecdote of Jenny will show her shrewd character. She appeared one day at the settlement of Elk City with a canoe load of fine potatoes for sale. She prefaced by saying that the crop at the Reservation had proved a failure, and that it was with difficulty that she obtained leave to sell one canoe load, and, in consequence, demanded a good sum for her produce. The settlement placed its principal dependence on the Reservation for its supply of esculents, and she therefore received her price without hesitation. The next day she appeared with another load, saying that some of her "tillicums" had also a few to spare. These she also sold. But when on the third morning old Jenny put in her third appearance with "a few more of the same sort," they began to suspect, and sent over to the Reserve to learn the truth. It then came out that the crop was an unusually heavy one, and, in consequence, potatoes were cheap. It was no consoling reflection for the duped ones to know that they had been out-bargained by an Indian.
    In the village of the Chetcos, the next tribe visited, we were fortunate enough to witness the ceremony of "medicine." In a temporary hut was a middle-aged woman suffering from some real or fancied ailment, and the doctor--or rather doctoress, for the practitioner in this instance was a female--was in the midst of her incantation. For sympathy and assistance a dozen old hags sat around, groaning in chorus and beating drums. The doctoress was attired in fantastic costume, her head being covered with feathers and ornaments of bone depending from her pierced nostrils. She held in her hand a lighted stick, which in the pauses of her incantation she would blow with vigor and hold the burning end under the nose of her patient. The process is a purely superstitious one, no medicine being given. The doctor is chosen by the tribe, the honor being a compulsory one and the position ticklish, for if the patient dies the doctor is killed. Reversing the old saw, it is "cure or be killed" with them. All these superstitious customs the Agent has labored to prevent being carried out, and with great success among the young population, but in the older ones they are too deeply engrafted. The sweathouse is the great sanitary preserver of the Indian, and he resorts to it for all simple diseases. It is a hole dug in the earth and covered over with branches. Into this he gets and, closing up the orifice, builds a fire. Soon, reeking with perspiration, he rushes out and plunges into the river. The principle is the same as that practiced by the Russians in their vapor baths. These sweathouses are in great favor with the older Indians, and are a nuisance to the Agent, for in them all the mischief is planned.
    In one of the Chetco houses we saw a little "Snake," a captive. The little fellow had such a marked physiognomy that he was picked out at once as "not to the manor born." The tribes of the interior (the Snakes are Indians of the plain) have a far finer cast of features than those of the coast.
    Pursuing our wanderings, the next visit was to the settlement of the "Coquelles" and Mikonotunnes. We called on one of the underchiefs of the latter tribe, bearing the name of "Captain Tichenor." He was the most intelligent and the finest-looking Indian that we saw. He was suffering from the effects of an accident, having broken his leg, and therefore was at home, instead of being out hunting, fishing or farming. His features are clear-cut, aquiline and noble, and in all of his gestures and actions he evinced more than an ordinary degree of cultivation.
    During the course of our conversation he explained the value of Indian shell money and its source of supply. In the heart of the far North there is a very deep lake, at the bottom of which the narrow, oblong shell which they use for currency is obtained by diving. All of the older Indians have tattooed on their arms their standard of value. A piece of shell corresponding in length to one of the marks being worth five dollars, "Boston money," the scale gradually increasing until the highest mark is reached. For five perfect shells corresponding in length to this mark they will readily give one hundred dollars in gold or silver.
    Some little time since a clever Jew counterfeited the "wampum" and made an endeavor to pass it off for genuine Siwash money, but the cheat was instantly discovered and as much contempt lavished on its perpetrator as would be for a similar attempt among the whites. Captain Tichenor played several native games of cards for us, the "pasteboards" being bundles of sticks, and also explained many of the Indian superstitions. The Indians are passionately fond of gambling and carry the vice to great excess, generally making a two or three days' or nights' sitting. Among the younger portion of the tribes this is gradually beginning to be looked on with disfavor, owing to the exertions of the Agent. While he encourages their national games and dances that are innocent in themselves, he is known to be so much opposed to the vicious games and superstitions that it has great effect in checking them.
    One of the national games is extremely interesting. It is generally played by rival tribes, and is identical with that in vogue amongst our schoolboys called "hooky." Sides being chosen, each endeavors to drive a hard ball of pine wood around a stake and in different directions.
    Stripped to the buff, they display great activity and strength, whacking away at each others' shins if they are in the way with a refreshing disregard of bruises. The squaws assist in the performance by beating drums and keeping up a monotonous chant. Some of the dances are also not unpleasant to witness when performed with spirit.
    Not long since the Agent, desiring to gratify some friends who were visiting him, sent for the head chiefs and asked them to get up a dance. This they agreed to do, and accordingly made their appearance, dressed in full costume, with all the young squaws and men of the tribes.
    Before commencing, the chief called the Agent to one side and said "that as dancing was very hard work, and they had been to considerable trouble and expense, that the performers would expect a gratuity of fifty dollars."
    The shrewd part of this was, that the Agent's guests were all assembled and the performance ready to commence. This staggered him a little, but not wishing to disappoint his friends, he paid the stipulated sum and the affair came off with great eclat.
    After leaving Captain Tichenor's, we visited several other tribes, and at last made our way back to the Agent's house, and were soon afterward in the saddle for the settlements.
    In summing up the conclusions arrived at from the various sights that we witnessed, I cannot do better than to quote from the annual report of the Agent, a document that is probably now passing through some "circumlocution office" in Washington, and not likely to see print soon. He says, speaking of the marked improvement visible during the past two years:
    "They are gradually discontinuing their barbarous habits and modes of life, and are beginning to appreciate the importance of taking thought for the morrow, and of applying themselves to steady labor during the present, in order to make provision for the future.
    "Heretofore their roving habits and their complete devotion to the pleasures of the present, regardless of that future, have been an insuperable obstacle to any permanent improvement.
    "We have only to foster this dawning spirit amongst them of industry and thrift, and the complete problem of their fate as a race will soon be solved."
    And again, of the extent of cultivation: "During the present year (1868), the Indians have under cultivation 1,000 acres of land, planted in oats, potatoes, peas and garden vegetables of various kinds. Besides this, they have enclosed for pasture 1,000 acres more." The great drawback to permanent improvement seems to be the ever-present fear of dispossession on the part of the whites, and it is to be feared that no successful experiment can be carried out until the fee simple of the land is vested in them as an inalienable right. May we not hope that under an equal system of laws that the original possessors of the soil may be allowed to retain a moiety of their inheritance and by thus acquiring an interest in being good citizens, may eventually become so.
    The Indian, left to himself, has cost the government many millions of treasure and a great deal of bloodshed in the attempt to exterminate him. Is not then the experiment of his "Reconstruction" by peaceful means worth the expenditure of time, patience and money at least equal to that which history has proven to be necessary for his extermination?
A. W. Chase, Overland Monthly, May 1869, pages 424-434



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    May 1st 1869
Sir:--
    I have the honor to submit my report to you of the condition &c. of Indians under my charge for the month of April 1869.
    During the period above named, no important changes have taken place. Peace and quiet reigns all over this agency, and the Indians are all as usual contented.
    They have finished planting and saving their spring crops, which are large and of good variety. All their fences are in complete repair and crops secured from stock.
    Every month seems to improve the condition of the Indians here, and less trouble to govern them is plainly seen.
    I have them now, I think, under as good subjection as Indians can be brought, where so few men are employed over so many.
    They all enjoy good health and at present have a plenty to eat and clothing sufficient to make them comfortable.
    A portion of the best hunters are now in the mountains for game and will return in a few days.
All of which is most respectfully submitted
    By your most obdt. servt.
        G. W. Collins
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon May 15th 1869
Sir
    I have to advise you that in compliance with instructions in your letter of 3rd ultimo that I have this day relieved Mr. J. W. Perit Huntington, Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon, and assumed the duties of that office.
    Mr. Huntington turned over no public funds to me and only office furniture and stationery, for which I gave him proper receipts. List of same will accompany my accounts for fractional part of 4th quarter ending June 30th 1869.
    I have appointed Mr. C. S. Woodworth (former clerk in this office) as chief clerk. His knowledge of the business and efficiency as clerk render his services desirable and is sufficient reason for continuing him in that capacity.
    I have also continued as messenger Mr. James Brown, who has acted in that capacity under my predecessors for many years.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. N. G. Taylor
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 283.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 945-947.




Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C. May 25, 1869
Sir,
    I enclose herewith a paper containing the Senate amendments to the treaty concluded at Klamath Lake Oregon on the 14th October 1864 with the Klamath and Modoc tribes and Yahooskin band of Snake Indians, said paper being in due force for submission to the chiefs and headmen of said tribes and band and for signature by them should they assent to the amendments.
    I also enclose a copy of the treaty with the amendment referred to noted thereon.
    You will transmit these papers to the sub-agent in charge of the Indians parties to said treaty with directions to submit the amendments to them, and you will report the result to this office, and in case the amendments are assented to by the Indians you will return the paper which has been prepared for that purpose after the same has been duly signed in presence of witnesses.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        E. S. Parker
            Commissioner
Alfred B. Meacham Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Office Klamath Agency
    Oregon May 31st 1869.
Sir,
    For the present month I have the honor to report as follows. A long-continued disposition among the Indians to depose head chief Lalakes culminated early in the month in a forcible request by a large majority of the Indians that he be removed at once and another substituted. Having for a long time realized that Lalakes had become weak-minded and imbecile in his old age and that he had almost entirely lost his influence, I acted to their request and Lalakes was deposed. Arrangements were then made to fill the vacancy by election, and a few days after sub-chief Allen David was duly chosen and installed. Scarcely anything could have occurred better calculated to unite the Indians and bring them under a favorable state of discipline than this change. Allen David (signed the treaty as Boos-ki-you) is able and trustworthy and has long had more real influence than the nominal head chief Lalakes.
    The Woll-pah-pe Snakes remain peaceably in Sprague River Valley, coming occasionally to the agency to draw subsistence and to insist on their good intentions.
    A difficulty occurred a short time ago in the Modoc country between a white man and a couple of Modocs, which resulted in the white man's stabbing one of the Modocs and receiving a knife wound in return; however, the trouble went no farther. The Modoc country is rapidly filling up with whites, and there is immediate danger of trouble between them and the Indians, as many of them are disposed to treat the Indians roughly. The only means that could be adopted to prevent such difficulties would be the removal of the Modocs to the reservation where they belong. This cannot be accomplished without military aid, which as you are aware has heretofore been withheld.
    On the farms vigorous efforts have been made to forward agricultural operations. On the general farm two hundred and ten (210) acres have been sown in grain, principally in bald barley, and gardens have been put in for the Indians at various places on the reservation. However as farming for the Indians separately was only commenced this spring, the lateness of the season and the unsubdued condition of the ground will prevent the possibility of raising much on their separate farms this year. The Indians are industriously engaged in fencing their farms, building houses &c. and present unmistakable evidence of a disposition to labor to the extent of the means furnished them in improving their farms and emulating the whites in such [a] way as they can.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.


OREGON.
    Company "K," 23rd Infantry, has arrived at Fort Klamath.
    Says the Jacksonville Sentinel, The bids for flour, bacon and beef were opened at Fort Klamath on Monday. The flour contract was awarded to Jacob Ish, at $3.74 per 100 pounds. Hams to same at $16.48 per 100 lbs. Bacon to Glenn, Drum & Co., at $16.48 per 100 lbs., and beef to George Nurse, at 10½ cts. per pound--all at coin rates.
Oregonian, Portland, June 17, 1869, page 2



N.Y. City June 17th / 69
Mr. Wm. B. Waugh
    Chf. Clerk Indian Bureau
        Dr. Sir
            I have the honor to return the instructions given to me as Superintendent of Arizona [sic] Territory.
    You would oblige me much by sending me a list of the agents under my control in Oregon. Please also state to me where the Superintendency is located.
I am very respty.
    Your obt. servt.
        H. Douglas
            Maj. U.S.A.
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 851-852.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Portland Oregon June 18 1869
P.O. Dept. June 19
    E. S. Parker
        Com. Ind. Affairs
This Superintendency in urgent need of funds. Please forward for third 3rd and fourth 4th quarter year ending June thirtieth 30th eighteen sixty-nine 1869.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 949-950.



Office Klamath Agency Oregon June 30th 1869.
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the month of June. Nothing of special import has occurred: Every branch of business has gone along as usual; the Indians have been quite contented and prosperous and general good health has prevailed.
    During the greater part of the month the Indians have been engaged in digging camas, in which they appear to have been quite successful. Farming has been continued quite vigorously during the month. The Indians, or a large number of them, have been engaged in making rails, fencing, building houses and cultivating their gardens.
    If government could, without too much delay, erect the sawmill, furnish a dozen yokes of cattle or more in addition to those already on hand, and in everything attempt a vigorous compliance with treaty stipulations, a vast deal could be done to promote the sanitary and moral welfare of the Indians, and to advance them in the arts of civilization.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham Supt.
    of Indian Affairs in Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Grinnell Iowa
    July 3rd 1869
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comr. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Sir
    I have the the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication bearing date June 23rd 1869 containing instructions for me to report for duty to Maj. Henry Douglas at Salem Oregon, and in compliance with same shall start for my destination in Monday next, July 5th.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            F. A. Battey
                1 Lt. U.S.A.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 812-813.



Executive Mansion,
    Washington, D.C. July 12th 1869.
Hon. J. D. Cox
    Sec. of the Interior,
        Sir:
            You may suspend issuing commissions to the army officers appointed to the Suptcy. of Indians Oregon and agts. at Siletz & Grand Ronde Oregon until further orders.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        U. S. Grant
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 983-985.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Jacksonville, Oregon July 19, 1869.
P.O. Dept. July 21
    Senator Geo. H. Williams
        or Parker, Commr. of Indian Affairs
Imminent danger of disaffection among Snake & other Indians urgently demands the continuance of Agent Applegate at Klamath Agency.
S. D. Van Dyke
J. C. Tolman
J. M. McCall
C. C. Beekman
Wm. Turner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 998-999.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. July 20, 1869
Sir,
    In answer to your letter of the 17th instant, referring to funds that have, by requisition, been placed to the credit of Major Henry Douglas, who was detailed to act as Supt. of Indian Affairs for Oregon, and whose appointment as such Superintendent has been revoked by order of the President, I have to direct that you take such action in the premises to give Supt. Meacham the control of the moneys referred to, as will be most advantageous to the interests of the Indian Service.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. D. Cox
            Secretary
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commr. of Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 937-939.



Louisville Ky.
    July 22nd 1869.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Com. of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to request that the application made by me in May 1869 for change of assignment be returned to me and not favorably considered. My wife having recovered her health, I would prefer to go to the station originally assigned me--Grand Ronde, Oregon. I have some business of importance which will require my absence from this city for a few days--can I have permission to absent myself or seven days?
I have the honor
    To be very respectfy.
        Your most obt. servt.
            W. R. Maize
                1st Lt. and Bvt. Capt.
                    U.S. Army
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 953-954.




THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Salem Oregon July 23, 1869
Post Office Dept. July 24 2:25
    E. S. Parker
        Comr.
Major Douglas not arrived, probably en route. Lieut. Boyd here waiting orders to relieve agent Umatilla.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Aff.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 951-952.




Office Klamath Agency Oregon July 31st 1869
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the present month. Throughout the month much discontent has prevailed among the Indians from reason of the anticipated change of agents here. Every influence has been exerted to prevent the dissatisfaction from resulting in disaffection. At this time they are usually quiet and orderly and are quite industriously engaged in cultivating and fencing their gardens, as well as in gathering wocus on Klamath Marsh.
    Haying commenced about the 15th instant by all the available farm force, and considerable progress has been made in that branch of farm labor. The grain promises well and will perhaps, by the middle of August, be ready for the scythe.
    The intercourse between myself and the new and efficient commander of Fort Klamath, Bvt. Capt. Goodall 23rd Infantry, has been and continues to be of the most friendly character, and he is anxious to do all he can towards the enforcement of treaty stipulations.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            L. Applegate
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham Supt.
    of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Portland Or. July 31 1869
Washn. D.C. July 31, 4:24 p.m.
    Hon. Comr. Ind. Affairs
Have arrived. Will assume duty tomorrow.
H. Douglas
    Maj. U.S.A.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 853-854.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Salem Or. August 1 1869
Post Office Dept. August 2nd 11:37
    Com. Ind. Affairs
Telegrams of July thirteenth 13th and fourteenth (14th) received. Await orders in Portland, Oregon.
H. Douglas
    Maj. U.S.A.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 855-856.



Portland Aug. 4, 1869
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comr. Indian Affairs
        I desire to call your attention to a matter of the removal and establishment of the Snake Indians upon the reservations of Fort Hall, Klamath or Siletz. In my conversation with yourself and the Secretary of the Interior, he instructed you to write to the Supt. Indian Affairs of Oregon and obtain from him the information as to which is the best location for these Indians. Steps should at once be taken to have these Indians placed upon one or more of these reservations. I have conversed with those who best know about these Indians, and they all agree that steps ought to be taken to place them upon the Klamath or Siletz reservation. I think it would be well for you to give the Supt. instructions about these Indians and send him a portion of the appropriations that he may take such measures as he may deem best to provide against distress for the coming winter, and to place them as soon as possible upon one or both of these reservations.
Yours very truly
    H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 830-832.



Portland, Oregon
    August 5, 1869
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Washington D.C.
        Sir,
            Your telegrams, upon my arriving at Salem, Oregon, informing me that my assignment as Supt. of Indian Affairs for Oregon had been suspended, are received. I beg most respectfully to state that the journey which I have taken was entirely unnecessary, owing perhaps to some clerical mismanagement in the Indian Office. The Indian Bureau had not been notified by me of any change of address, and had these telegrams been addressed according to the direction left by me at the Indian Office and War Dept., the journey that I have taken would have been spared me and the expense incident thereto.
    I desire respectfully to inform the Commissioner that I induced a young man, formerly a clerk in the War Dept., to accompany me, on the faith of permanence of the position to which I had been assigned. He is now destitute, and I consider myself to some extent responsible for this destitution.
    I would most respectfully ask if it is not inconsistent with propriety that some provision be made for this young man. The character of this young man, John L. Rea, can be ascertained by reference to Judge George T. Metcalfe, Chief Clerk, Dept. of the Interior.
    Agreeably to my telegraphic information I will await orders at this place.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            H. Douglas
                Major U.S. Army
                    Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 857-859.



Portland, Oregon
    August 7th 1869
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    In my letter of the 5th inst. I referred to the fact that I had induced Mr. John L. Rea, late a clerk in the War Dept., to accompany me to Oregon as clerk for the Superintendency of Indian Affairs. I desire to know whether it would be proper to take him up on my papers as my clerk from the first of last month so as to compensate him to a slight extent for the losses he incurred by acting on the faith of the representations made to him by Judge Metcalfe and myself.
    Mr. Rea is a poor man and has a family and can ill afford to lose the amount necessarily expended in coming to this country. Since owing to the fact that my assignment as Supt. for Oregon has been suspended, he has no possible way of obtaining sufficient funds to return to his family. I therefore deem it a duty under the circumstances to respectfully ask that I be allowed to take him up as a clerk with the compensation at the rate of $1800 per annum from the first of last month.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            H. Douglas
                Major U.S. Army
                    Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 863-865.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
    Salem Aug. 10th 1869
Sir
    Allow me to call your attention to the necessity of immediate action in behalf of the "Shoshone or Snake Indians" of Southeastern Oregon. For information, I would refer to report of my predecessor, J. W. P. Huntington, bearing date Dec. 22, 1868 and on file in your office. The history and condition of the said bands of "Snakes" is therein set forth more fully therein. I have material & knowledge to write from. From said report and other sources I learn that Mr. Huntington was to have met them again in early spring; he failing to do so, the Indians returned to their old homes, to fish & hunt and gather roots. No fund coming to my hand, I was unable to act to prevent time. The moneys turned over to me by Maj. Henry Douglas are not applicable, as will appear as per tabular statement. I have used every means in my power to obtain information in regard to the present condition of said bands, and I am now of the opinion that they will cheerfully consent to be put on the Klamath Reservation, but will not on any terms agree to go to Siletz Reservation now. I propose to examine in person there two reservations as to the merits & adaptability of each for the purpose indicated, and in the meantime to visit "the Shoshones or Snakes" and arrange with them some plan for their removal. I most respectfully ask that I may be immediately instructed to promise them assistance to remove & subsist, on condition they come in to Klamath Res., or shall I promise them assistance in case they refuse to come in. They must be assisted and controlled, or they will go again on the war path to prevent starvation.
    I propose, as soon as I am assured of your approval, and that the funds appropriated for that purpose will be available so that I can keep faith with the Indians, to go without delay, taking with me six or eight Snake Indians of those now on Klamath Reservation, who belong to some of the bands of Indians in question. I believe they will induce them all to consent to the removal to Klamath Reservation and that the whole thing may be consummated before winter. If Siletz should appear to be the better place for them, I think they may be induced to go next spring in the same way, I mean by taking a few leading men and allowing them to remain at Siletz through the winter, and returning among their people in April or May next. Please instruct me immediately your wishes and as to what I can rely on as to funds. I do not propose to promise these people more than I can perform and sincerely hope that whatever your instructions may be that I may have support to promptly carry out all promises made to a helpless rule.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affr. Oregon
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 955-958.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Augst. 12th 1869
Sir
    I have to advise you that on the 4th instant Major Henry Douglas transferred to me the amount of funds placed to his credit in U.S. Asst. Treasurer's Office, San Francisco, Cal. for the use of the Indian Service in Oregon--viz--$55,337.38, also tabular statement of same.
    Upon examination of said statement I note the following.
    1st. That no funds were transmitted for the pay of the three principal chiefs at Umatilla Agency.
    2nd. That no funds were transmitted for the benefit of the Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snake Indians.
    3rd. That no funds were transmitted for pay of Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon.
    4th. That an error undoubtedly occurred in the transmission of funds for the pay of 4 agents. The tabular statement reads as follows, to wit:
    "For salary of four agents 1st & 2nd qrs. 1869 at $1500 per annum ea., less Int. Rev. tax $2,550.00." Should be $2,950.00.
    5th. That only $5000.00 was transmitted for Removal and Subsistence of Indians in Oregon [is] entirely inadequate for the purpose for which it is designed.
    I would respectfully request that the amount of deficiencies above enumerated be placed to my credit in [the] Sub-Treasury, San Francisco, Cal. or First National Bank, Portland, Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 962-964.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Augt. 14, 1869
Sir
    You were informed by the Commissioner [of] Indian Affairs that Brvt. Lt. Col. Edward Rice had been appointed to supersede you as Indian Sub-Agent at Klamath Sub-Agency. I have now to inform you that said order has been revoked, and that Capt. O. C. Knight [sic] has been assigned to that position.
    I am directed by the Commissioner in letter dated July 26th last to notify you of this change and direct you to turn over to Capt. Knight [sic].
    You will therefore upon his arrival at Klamath Agency turn over all govt. funds and property in your possession, taking his receipt for the same to enable you to settle your accounts.
    You will render your final accounts to this office at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Lindsay Applegate
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 302.



Portland, Oregon
    Aug. 17, 1869.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to request that, if consistent with the laws governing the Indian Bureau, Mr. A. B. Meacham, Supt. of [Indian] Affairs for this state, be allowed to reimburse me the amount of my actual expenses incurred in traveling from Washington D.C. to Salem, Oregon. If not I respectfully ask to be informed to whom the account should be presented for payment.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedt. servant
            H. Douglas
                Major U.S.A.
                    Late Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 867-868.




Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        Aug. 28th 1869.
Sir,
    I transmit herewith for such action as you may deem proper--viz explanations by L. Applegate, sub-Ind. agt., of vouchers sent in his a/cs together with a copy of a letter to him dated Sept. 20, 1867 from Supt. J. W. P. Huntington.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        E. B. French, Aud.
            by C. W. F.
Hon.
    Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
   

Copy.
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Sept. 20th 1867
Sir,
    In view of putting in a good crop at Klamath next year it will be desirable for you to secure a lot of seed grain in time for transportation across the mountains before large quantities of snow fall. If more flour is needed you are authorized to contract with Muller & Brentano for such quantity as may be needed at the same rate as under their former contract this year. If they decline you are authorized to purchase in open market.
    You may also purchase one dozen plows if in your judgment it is necessary. Funds for meeting the obligations there incurred will be furnished upon due requisition.
    A lot of seeds similar to those forwarded to you last year will be sent from the garden of O. Dickinson, and if you desire anything additional from that source you should send notice at once.
    You will observe due economy in any purchases you make, bearing in mind the act of June 2nd 1862 and the instructions of the Department, and of your action in this matter make due report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Lindsay Applegate
    Klamath
   

Reply to Statement of Differences Arising on Settlement of Accounts
of Lindsay Applegate, U.S. Indian Sub-Agent for the years 1866 and 1867.
July 1866 A. Voucher 1. R. B. Hargadine Hardware $59.56
    The above purchase was not preceded by advertising, as specified in the act of March 2nd 1861, the exigencies of the service not admitting of delay. The articles were purchased on the 27th day of April 1966 immediately after it had been decided to commence operations on Klamath Reservation. The articles were absolutely necessary in the commencement of operations and had to be hurried out to the agency immediately. They were started to the reservation on the 1st of May ensuing and were used as soon as they arrived at the reservation.
Aug. A. Voucher No. 1. Same. Agricultural Implements. $11.00
Sept. Voucher No. 3. Same. Supplies. 43.45
Oct. A. Voucher No. 3. Same. 12 Axes &c. 40.00
    The reasons for not advertising for the above articles are substantially the same as given in the first place above. Operations had just commenced, funds were very limited, and only such things were purchased as were absolutely necessary, and were procured and hurried to the reservation when needed for immediate use. If they had been advertised for, the delay would have been disadvantageous to the service.
4th Quarter 1867. A Voucher No. 1. Frank Applegate. Wheat. $53.25
    By reference to the copy of a communication from Supt. Huntington, herewith, it will be seen that he instructed the purchase of seed grain. Heavy snows frequently fall early in October on the Cascade Mountains between Klamath Agency and Rogue River Valley, where the wheat had to be procured, preventing the possibility of teams crossing. As the instructions came late it was unsafe to delay, consequently the grain was purchased in open market at the lowest market price and forwarded immediately.
Voucher No. 3. Glenn, Drum & Co. Plows. $245.82
    By reference to the Supt.'s letter referred to above, it will be seen that he authorized me to purchase a dozen plows. I procured a half dozen, and as the season was late I forwarded them immediately.
Voucher No. 4. T. B. Sprague. Fanning Mill. $60.00
    Harvest was finished, and in order to prepare the grain, which had been tramped out by animals, for seed or other use, it was necessary to have a fanning mill at once. The lateness of the season precluded the possibility of getting one across the mountains, consequently the only one in the Klamath country was purchased, as low in price however as it could have been secured in Rogue River Valley.
E. A. Lane. Services from Oct. 1st to Nov. 20th 1867 at $500 per annum, charged $69.42
    Lane was employed in plowing until Oct. 16th, at which time he was detailed to accompany me to meet Supt. Huntington, then conveying annuity goods to Klamath Reservation from Dalles City, Oregon. After meeting Mr. Huntington Lane drove an ox team to Klamath, where he was engaged in plowing until his discharge on November 20th 1867.
    By reference to a circular from the Treasury Department, dated March 1st 1864, you will find my salary correctly charged for the period between Sept. 17th 1865 and Dec. 31st 1865, also salary of E. A. Lane from Oct. 1st to Nov. 20th 1867 is charged near correctly. Your clerk seems to have computed in both these instances by a table of salaries adopted during the incumbency of Wm. P. Dole, which table has gone out of use since the circular referred to above was issued, as we understand. In your Statement of Differences you charge me with the tax on my salary up to Feb. 28th 1867. This is incorrect, as that tax was withheld by Supt. Huntington on payment of my salary by him.
Sept. 1866 Voucher 4. S. D. Whitmore. For nails. $3.08
    The nails were required for immediate use. Mr. Whitmore had them, and the service was benefited by their purchase. The transaction was not strictly formal, but the demands of the service seemed to justify the informality, under the circumstances, as nails could not have been purchased for as reasonable a price doubtless within a hundred miles of the agency.
    I trust the foregoing explanations may be regarded as satisfactory
I am sir respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. E. B. French
    2nd Auditor
        Treasury Department
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 781-786.  Another copy is of the Huntington letter is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 152.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon, Sept. 9th 1869
Sir
    I am advised by Hon. E. Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in his letter dated July 26th 1869 that you have been assigned to the Sub-Agency for Indians in Oregon upon the Klamath Reservation and to report to this office for duty.
    You will therefore proceed at once to Klamath Agency and relieve the present incumbent Lindsay Applegate and take charge of the same.
    Mr. Applegate has been directed to turn over all money and property belonging to the government to you. You will give him triplicate receipts for the same to enable him to settle his final accts.
    You will report to this office at an early day of the condition of affairs at that agency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.   
    U.S. Indian Sub-Agt.
        Klamath Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 306.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency
    Newport P.O. Oregon
        Sept. 14th 1869
Sir
    I desire to ask your indulgence in submitting this communication direct to your office. My reason for so doing will be apparent in the body of the letter, which I feel assured will justify me.
    I would respectfully state that on the 17th day of August last I submitted a recommendation to your office for the transfer of the Alsea Sub-Agency to the charge of the Siletz agt., and in my annual report I renewed said recommendations, setting forth my reasons for so doing. Subsequently I was informed by Mr. Meacham, Supt. of Indian Affairs, that said recommendation could not be approved by him.
    Therefore as a duty to the government and in the interests of the Indian Service, I urge upon your notice the following facts.
    The sub-agency to which I have been assigned is very limited in its number of Indians, number of employees and amt. of money annually disbursed thereat, as the following will show.
    Number of Indians 500; employees, one supt. of farming and an interpreter. Annual appropriation $3000; of this amt. $1000 is paid as salary of the supt. of farming and $500 for interpreter, leaving a bal. for disbursement for the year $1500.
    Mr. Collins, my predecessor, is retained as supt. of farming; he has controlled the reservation, and the Indians thereon, for the past five years, and in his present capacity he is as competent under the supervision of the Siletz agt. to discharge the duties as heretofore.
    The advantages to be desired from said transfer are not only the saving of the salary of an agt., but the Alsea Reservation having no employees as physician, carpenter, blacksmith &c., those upon the Siletz Reservation could be required to render the necessary services at the Alsea Agency, as might be required, without detriment to the Siletz Agency. From this benefits to be derived might be mentioned, but the above will suffice.
    Mr. Meacham, the Supt., would convey the idea that my anxiety to be relieved from my present assignment outweighs my better discretion, and that I am actuated to make such recommendations more to accomplish that end than for the public good, whilst I admit that the disparaging difference between the Alsea Sub-Agency and that of other agencies to which officers of my grade have been assigned, tends to discourage me and seemingly casts an imputation upon my abilities. Yet for the information of the authorities as to my motives, I wish to set forth that I am confident that any man competent to discharge the duties of either agency in question can perform the duties of both, with all, and more than the above-mentioned benefits derived with no detriment to the other, and the reasons of a non-approval of my recommendations for said transfer result from the facts that such a course would imperil the position of Mr. Simpson, present agt. at Siletz, in the possibility of my assignment to the charge of both agencies.
    I would ask a careful consideration of the matter of said transfer, together with that of my assignment to the Alsea Agency, as compared with other assignments.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
        F. A. Battey
            1 Lt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agt.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comr. Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 814-817.




Grand Ronde Indian Agency, Oregon
    September 20th 1869.
His Excellency U.S. Grant
    President U.S.
        Dear Sir:
            We, the chiefs of all the tribes on the Grand Ronde Reservation, desire to communicate to you, the President, by letter, making known some of our desires, hopes and fears. It is nearly fifteen years since we came on this reservation. Then we were wild, ignorant and savage, but since then we have made great improvements. We now know how to farm, how to build our houses and barns, how to cook and sew, in fact we know how to live like white people. Many of us talk English, which enables us much better to understand the ways of the whites. We have learned to live in peace and respect the laws of the whites, as well as our own, and fewer crimes have been committed by our people than by the same number of whites. We get along much better now than we did when the soldiers were here to drive and beat us around. We obey our agent and have no trouble with him, therefore we do not desire that you should send an officer here to take charge of us. White men have told us that they were going to have us removed from this reservation. This we do not desire. The land produces well, we are out of the way of the white settlements, we have good hunting grounds and fishing near our homes--we have become acquainted with each other and live happily together. If we are moved from here and placed on another reservation with strange Indians the probabilities are that we might not get along well together. We have built houses and barns, and many of us have made rails and fenced our lands, believing that this was to be our home. A long time ago we owned all the lands in the Willamette Valley; we gave it up to the whites for this little Grand Ronde Valley, with the understanding that it was to be ours forever, that here we were to live and die. We feel very bad when we are told that we will be moved from here and sent to a strange place to live with strangers. Many of our fathers and mothers, our brothers and sisters, are buried here; our little boys and girls have grown to be men and women here; we love this land and do not like to leave it. If you intend to move us around and we can have no land of our own, no place we can call home, we might as well be wild and roving through the mountains. We have been here a long time and do not know where our lands are, therefore we cannot improve them. If our lands had been surveyed--that when we were making improvements--we would have known that they were on our own land and that we could not be ordered by our agent to leave them and plow and sow at his pleasure, nor would by this time been able to support ourselves without asking anything from the government. We are like white people; we have no heart to work when we have no right to the land. Whites would not build houses and barns, plant orchards &c. if they had no right or title for the land they improve. We only ask the same privilege and we will soon support ourselves. We therefore ask you that our lands may be surveyed; it was in the treaties as we understood them at the time they were made. We desire that you furnish us a few years longer with blacksmith, farmer and miller. As we are situated at present, we do not know how we can get along without them. In this letter we have told you our fears and made known our desires; twice before since we have been here have we sent letters to the President, but he never paid any attention to them or we never heard anything from them. In conclusion allow us once more to ask you that our lands may be surveyed and we allowed to live here in peace and die, that we may be buried with our fathers.
    This letter was written by J. W. Crawford, Clerk at this agency, by our request and signed here in presence of A. B. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon and United States Senator Geo. H. Williams.
[signed]
Lewis and Peter--Umpquas
Billy and Tom--Calapooias
Frank--Rogue River
Tom--Shasta
Joseph Langareta--Marys River
Jake--Luckiamute
Dave--Wapatos
Quacherty--Molalla
Ki Ki--Molel
Wachanio--Clackamas

Job--Oregon City
Peter--Yamhill
Joe Hudson--Santiam
Jake--Cow Creeks
   
Approved
    September 20th 1869
        Charles Lafollette
            U.S. Indian Agent.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.  Another copy on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 507-512.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 20th 1869
Sir
    I have the honor to submit my first annual report as Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon, also to transmit herewith the reports of the several agents in this Superintendency.
    I relieved my predecessor, late J. W. Perit Huntington, 15th of May last, who, failing to transfer to me any funds or property except office furniture and fixtures, placed me in a position powerless to perform duties devolving on me. Mr. Huntington's subsequent death complicated matters still more, and yet further embarrassment arose from my temporary suspension and consequent delay as to remittance of funds. These several causes have prevented me from obtaining information and data by personal visits to make a full and complete report. Combining, however, such facts as I have learned from observation and gleaned from reports of the several agents, I am candid in saying that, considering so many hindering causes, the affairs are in good condition, Indians on the several reservations prosperous, peaceable and happy, some of them making rapid advancement in civilization.
Umatilla Agency
    I have visited Umatilla Agency twice during my incumbency. At each visit a large majority of the Indians were away from the agency on leave or passes. Owing to a partial failure of the crops, Agent Barnhart had issued them passes to enable them to gather supplies of meat, fish and roots for the coming winter. Those, however, with whom I conversed were very solicitous about who the new agent was to be.  They have on this reservation and, in fact, on every other in this Superintendency, a great fear of being put under military management. Lieut. W. H. Boyle, U.S.A., relieved Agent Barnhart August 6th, and since they have known him they are reconciled, so far as I am aware.
    My predecessor and also late Agent Barnhart have at various times set forth the reasons why these people ought to be removed to some other locality. My own observations convince me that they could be better situated than as now, surrounded by settlements of white people, who constantly encroach on their rights. Occupying, as they do, a large territory of valuable land, they will be constantly harassed by bad men, despite the efforts of the agent to prevent.
    I would recommend that a commission be appointed to act in conjunction with the Superintendent and agent in charge to negotiate some arrangement for their removal, either to a new locality or for the sale of their lands, and their settlement on other reservations.
    The three tribes have friendly relations and intermarriage with the three several agencies in proximity--the Walla Wallas with the Warm Springs, the Cayuse with the Lapwai and the Umatillas with "Simcoe" Indians, and I am of the opinion that they could be induced to locate on these different reservations. If, however, it is the purpose of the government to continue this agency, I would call attention to the condition of the government buildings, as per report of Agent Boyle, and recommend that appropriations be made to meet the emergency.
    The people are many of them rich in horses and cattle and some in money. Some of them have made much real advancement toward civilization; a large proportion, however, still wear the garb of and live in Indian style.
Warm Springs Agency
    Now under the management of Capt. W. W. Mitchell, U.S.A., appears to be in prosperous condition, Indians contented and happy and living almost undisturbed by white neighbors. They are being civilized rapidly and give promise that in a few years they will be self-sustaining.
    I cannot speak from personal observation, but have abundant reason for believing that these Indians are making substantial improvements in agriculture and stock raising.
    For further information in connection with this agency I would respectfully refer you to the report of late agent John Smith and also of acting Agent Mitchell.
Siletz Agency
    I made an official visit to the agency on the 13th and 14th inst. and found a satisfactory condition of affairs. Agent Simpson is doing a good work among the Indians, all of them having laid aside the costume and habit of Indian life and assumed those of civilized people to a very great extent.
    The Indians on this agency are composed of remnants of fourteen different tribes or hands and, as may be expected, have some internal feuds, none, however, so serious as to endanger the life of agent or employees.
    They are clamorous for agricultural implements, such as plows, wagons, harness, horses, &c. and in fact everything that attends a better life.
    This agency, from its isolated [location], seems to be better adapted to the wants of such a people than any other in this Superintendency. My own observation was too limited by the circumstances attending my visit to report correctly its extent, but I have reason for believing it to be of sufficient area for double the number located there at present.
Grand Ronde Agency
    This agency, now under the management of Agent Charles Lafollette, is in a more satisfactory condition than any I have visited, being the oldest established, and composed of remnants of bands or tribes of Indians who have had more knowledge of civilized life by contact with the white people of the Willamette Valley. They have made more progress than any other in this Superintendency.
    They are rapidly assuming the habits and manners of the white race and evince great progress in their anxiety to have their land allotted and set apart to each family, in building good substantial houses and barns, planting orchards; some of them cultivating flower gardens, raising domestic animals and doing things generally in American style.
    This agency demonstrates the practicability of civilizing the Indian race. For further particulars[I] would refer you to Agent Lafollette's report for 1869.
    I think the appropriations asked for in his report are very necessary, especially for the manual labor school, mill fund and repairs of agency buildings. I know from my own observation that the buildings belonging to the government are dilapidated and unfit for occupation.
Alsea Sub-Agency
    I have only the representation of late Agent Collins and report of Acting Agent Lt. F. A. Battey, U.S.A., as to the condition of this agency and people.
    Being difficult of access, I have not visited this agency, but believe everything is going along well with the Indians. Applications have been refused for mining privileges on the ocean beach, thus leaving the agency free from contact with white people to a great extent.
    Sub-Agent Battey earnestly recommends that this sub-agency be transferred to the management of the agent at Siletz. I am not prepared to approve the plan without a better knowledge of the true condition of the affairs in connection therewith, more especially as the agencies are forty miles distant and separated by Yaquina Bay and Alsea Bay, over neither of which is any established ferry, rendering the communication difficult and at some seasons dangerous, requiring at least one day and often two days to make the journey. Sub-Agent Battey's recommendations, otherwise than as to the transfer referred to, are worthy of consideration and representations doubtless reliable.
Klamath Sub-Agency
    This should be made a full agency, as it is at present of more importance than any other in this Superintendency, from the fact that there are more Indians of the wildest bands and warlike tribes; that it is separated from the common line of travel and transportation; that it is of more recent establishment; more to be done for the Indians to put them in a self-supporting condition--farms to open, mills to build, &c. All these things would suggest that the agent should be clothed with full power to manage Indians and the affairs generally.
    Reference to Agent Applegate's report for 1869 will give what I believe to be a fair statement of the present condition of said agency.
    The Indians are peaceable and tractable, with the exception of a part of the Modoc tribe, who still live in their own country and have thus far refused to come upon the reservation.
    Application having been made to the military commander of the district and cooperation promised, I have hopes that they may be induced to locate permanently upon the said reservation without further trouble. The small band of Woll-pah-pe Snake Indians have been contented and show evident willingness to settle permanently upon this reservation. Through this band I expect to effect the settlement of the remaining bands of Snake Indians inhabiting Southeastern Oregon on this reservation or any other that may be selected for them.
    Having no personal knowledge of the Klamath country, I am not as yet prepared to recommend it as a permanent home of the Snake Indians, but for the purpose of gathering them together [it] is very eligible.
    Having mentioned each agency briefly, I would submit that, all things considered, this Superintendency is in a healthy condition and respectfully ask a careful consideration of the several reports herewith transmitted.
    I would further suggest that while much has been done for these people, much more remains to be done; and that to successfully perform this work the representatives of the government should be promptly furnished with funds to carry out treaty stipulations.
    My short experience has convinced me that, without a single exception, every difficulty that has arisen among the Indians in this Superintendency originated directly or indirectly from failure to perform, according to promise, on the part of the Department at Washington, Superintendent, or agents. That many instances have occurred where carelessness or incapacity of officers in charge was alone responsible, I do not doubt. Another source of slight discontent has been that while they are urged to become as other men, their wishes as to how and for what annuity money has been expended have been ignored. This should not be so. On every reservation in my jurisdiction I find Indian men by scores who have put on all the habits and ways of white men and that have capacity to transact business on individual account. Such men are no longer savages, but are men indeed and in truth and have judgment enough to know, as they declare to me, that plows and wagons are better for them than flimsy flannels and trinkets.
    I propose that some new rule, suggested by such a state of facts, shall be adopted during my administration and I expect to inaugurate them soon. If they are men, treat them as such and not as children.
    I would suggest that, on all agencies where both manual labor and day schools are provided for, the two should be combined. This could be done to advantage to Indians, and I will make it a subject for special correspondence hereafter, only remarking that without some reform the whole school fund is money thrown away, so far as the Indians in general are concerned.
    I would earnestly recommend that some action be had in reference to the removal of Indians from Umatilla, above referred to. Also that an appropriation of $1000 be made for surveying and allotting the land to Indians on Grand Ronde Reservation, believing that they have arrived at that status, in a new manner of life, that is for their good, and that entitles them to a faithful fulfillment of treaty stipulations on the part of the government. This is but justice to the Indians and would in my judgment do more to make them honor and respect the authorities than any other one thing practicable, not alone with the Grand Ronde Indians, but would encourage others who visit them. I believe that in one or two years more those at Siletz would be prepared to take homes. Warm Springs Indians are also nearly ready. Umatilla Indians--in part--are already qualified.
    Experience teaches that example is better than mere talk and more effective, especially with Indians. I am very anxious on this subject especially, and while I bear responsibility of office, desire that those under my charge should have proper opportunity to develop. .
    The attention of the Department is called to the necessity of early action on the affairs of the late Supt. Huntington. A large amount of funds belonging to business of 1868 are now in hands of U.S. Asst. Treasurer, San Francisco; $30,000 of the amount belongs to Klamath Agency for various purposes, and when it is understood that this is the newest agency and consists of the wildest and warlike Indians in this country, and that by a late order from the Department a large accession will be made by locating the Snake or Shoshone thereon, it will be seen that this fund should be placed in reach of the Superintendent without delay.
    Farms, houses, barns, sawmills, flouring mills and threshing machines are the greatest civilizers ever introduced among a heathen people. Paints, trinkets and gewgaws are good things for villainous speculation, but if the policy indicated by President Grant in his inaugural is to be regarded, i.e., looking toward the Christianization, civilization and citizenship of the Indians of America, then no more shoddy goods and useless trinkets; but as fast as they are capable of receiving let them be furnished with the implements that will advance them to that higher life.
    I ask a close investigation of my official acts, but will sooner resign than be the "figurehead" to misrepresent my government or become the tool of villainous swindles on a poor, despised and much-defrauded people.
    Acknowledging with sincere pleasure that the several agents in my Superintendency have heretofore heartily cooperated in my effort to bring its affairs into a prosperous condition, and much of the success results from the individual effort to faithfully discharge duty cheerfully, according credit to those who have been relieved and having confidence in those who have succeeded them, also those who have retained position, and believing in the willingness of all subordinates to work faithfully and honestly for the welfare and advancement of this people and sincerely hoping that we may have the prompt support and encouragement of the Department at Washington, we begin a new year with some assurance of success; and trusting that my next annual report may be more definite, ample and satisfactory, made from personal knowledge and observation,
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            A. B. Meacham
                Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 315-320.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 21st 1869
Sir
    You will take charge of the six-mule team from the Dalles on arrival, retaining driver and herder and so much of the cargo including goods as may be necessary and proceed to visit and collect all the bands and families of Snake Indians en route to Camp Harney, reporting there sooner if possible than Oct. 18th inst.
    You will be furnished six (6) men as escort from Fort Klamath. Employ such Snake Indians now under your charge as you believe valuable to the expedition, not exceeding six (6) in number. You will then be strong enough to go with safety.
    The agent at Klamath is instructed to furnish you with supplies of every kind he may have on hand, and whatever further is necessary you will obtain at the most convenient service.
    You will use all possible dispatch. Lose no time in getting started [on the] expedition.
    You will represent to the Indians that I will meet them beginning at Camp Harney from 15th to 20th Oct. at convenient points (which you will indicate) en route to Klamath, prepared to take them to Sprague River or somewhere on Klamath. Make them to understand that I do not intend or expect to take them elsewhere. I am particular about the instructions for the reason that they fear going to Siletz.
    You will further say that they will be assisted with ammunition, clothing, beef and flour, that as soon as they are on the reservation I will have more funds.
    For your own information and guidance I remark that I expect to leave the Dalles early in October with two (2) teams and twelve (12) men and hope to meet you at the time indicated.
    Very much of the success of this expedition depends on your sagacity in preparing these people for removal. Your friends say you are equal to the emergency.
    I think you might send one or two Indians in advance of you to good advantage. Take with you and keep in good condition for emergency such horses as you can obtain at the agency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary &c.
        Klamath Ogn.
Supplemental Instructions
    You will advise with Peter W. Caris about organizing this wagon train, which will consist of four (4) wagons and four (4) yoke of oxen to each wagon. Also select for herders such men as are reliable for guides and that would be faithful in case we have any difficulty with the Snakes. Also about the amount of subsistence say for fifty (50) or sixty (60) days.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 307-308.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 21, 1869
Sir
    You are detailed to take charge of a supply train from Klamath Agency to Fort Harney.
    You will select four (4) wagons and four (4) yoke of oxen to each.
    Take as driver A. J. Brown, John Gotbrod, Jo Hood and Pat Houlack. For herders two (2) good reliable Indians who will [serve] as both guide and herders. Also four (4) good horses, reserve one for emergency, such ones as agent can furnish, together with camp equipage, supplies &c. which will be furnished by acting agent Klamath Reservation and say forty (40) bbls. flour and such other goods as agent and I. D. Applegate may advise, together with four (4) bales blankets.
    I have ordered flour and blankets to be furnished from Ashland.
    You will make your arrangements to start immediately on the arrival of the flour &c., making good use of time without injury to your teams.
    You will leave at Ft. Warner two of your wagons with one herder and driver, half the flour and half the blankets, taking the oxen best fitted for the further trip, and report as early as practicable at Fort Harney.
    At Warner you will put your wagons and goods under the care and protection of commanding officer. And should there be no military at Warner, you will also leave a part of your escort to protect the wagons, goods &c.
    You will [make] application at Fort Klamath [to] be furnished with an escort of six (6) men, mounted.
    Relying on your integrity and business capacity, I will expect you to use every precaution against trouble with the Indians, and trust you may make a successful report at Fort Harney by 15th to 20th Oct. next or sooner if practicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Peter W. Caris Esqr.
    Klamath Agency
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 308-309.



(Telegram)
Salem Ogn. Sept. 21st 1869
Wagner McCall & Co.
    Ashland Oregon
        Forward immediately one hundred bbls. flour to Klamath Agency. Answer.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 310.



(Telegram)
Salem Ogn. Sept. 21st 1869
Wagner McCall & Co.
        Forward with flour one hundred pairs good six lb. blankets.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 310.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    September 30th 1869.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the month of September 1869.
    During the month the employees on this reservation have been busily engaged in harvesting and storing the grain, of which there are 66,000 pounds bald barley, 7,200 pounds oats and 3,000 pounds wheat, total 76,000 pounds; besides this amount it is estimated that the Indians gathered from the field 30,000 pounds. A renegade Spokane Indian called Spokane Ike was on my suggestion arrested and placed in confinement at Fort Klamath for advising the Indians to go beyond the limits of this reservation without permission, and for exercising a demoralizing influence generally among the Indians. The Indian boys constituting the manual labor class did well during harvest, they having bunched the entire crop of grain. The Klamaths for their disposition to imitate the whites are deserving of credit. Many of them with the assistance of the employees have built houses and fenced small pieces of their own.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



    FOR KLAMATH AGENCY.--Capt. O. C. Knapp, the new Sub-Indian agent for the Klamath Agency, passed through here Saturday night, en route for his post. There will probably [be] but little change in the policy towards the Indians on that reservation, as all the old employees are retained. We are glad to hear this, as they are all men of good moral character, and are well liked by the Indians.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 2, 1869, page 2



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Octr. 2nd 1869
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of instructions of August 30th last in reply to my request in regard to removal of Snake or Shoshone Indians.
    In compliance with the authority therein contained I have organized three (3) several expeditions to be consolidated into one company at Fort Harney Octr. 20th.
    1st. I have ordered I. D. Applegate (commissary of subsistence to Snake Indians) with four (4) men, one (1) major, ten (10) horses and mules and subsistence, and instructed him to visit the various Indian camps en route from Klamath via Fort Harney, Christmas Lake to Camp Harney and to notify the Indians that the government will remove, protect and assist them at Sprague River.
    2nd. I have detailed Peter Caris and four (4) other employees as drivers at Klamath Agency with four (4) wagons, four (4) yoke of oxen to each, two (2) Indian guides and herders with four (4) horses, all detailed from and belonging to Indian Dept. at Klamath as a supply train, carrying fifty (50) bbls. flour, one hundred (1) prs. Oregon blankets, fifteen hundred (1500) yds. heavy all-wool blankets, with instruction to leave two (2) wagons and cargo under care of commanding officer at Fort Warner, pushing the other two (2) wagons and teams through to Harney by 20th instant.
    I have made requisition on commanding officer at Fort Klamath for an escort of six (6) men for each train. Also ordered one hundred (100) bbl. flour and one hundred (100) prs. blankets delivered at Klamath without delay.
    I have advertised for 500 prs. seven-lb. Oregon blankets, 4000 yds. heavy all-wool twilled flannel, to be delivered at Klamath Agency Nov. 15th proximo. I can extend on contract if needed, which I doubtless will.
    3rd. I have further arranged for another small train to leave Dalles City by 15th inst. consisting of four men, ten horses, one wagon to carry supplies and goods for presents to Indians, consisting of shirts, blankets, woolen goods, axes, ammunition, fish lines & hooks &c., also to drive twenty head of beef cattle for subsisting Indians while en route to Klamath Reservation.
    I propose to take with me physician, counselor, interpreter and driver in small wagon and six horses with necessary accoutrements &c. leaving Dalles City 10th inst. and going via Canyon City to Camp Harney.
    Gen. Geo. Crook, commanding, has furnished my expedition with orders for necessary escort and other needed supplies, also instructed officer commanding Camp Harney to send runners among all the Indians in vicinity of Harney notifying them of my intended visit.
    Now so far everything looks hopeful, and I am going out with the intention and determination to succeed.
    The funds set to my credit, through small, I think will be sufficient for removal, as I have detailed most all teams and animals from agencies in my Superintendency.
    The subsistence under the circumstances is entirely inadequate, and I most earnestly ask that the remaining sum designed for this purpose be placed to my credit. Indian removal and subsistence making a total of $18,666.66, with which I think I may be enabled to take care of them. Military men and others of experience think the sum too small. However let me have it so that supplies may be laid in before the snows fall on the Cascade Mountains and shut off communication.
    I will advise progress from time to time.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 320-321.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 965-969.



To the Secretary of the
    Interior Washington
        City D.C.
            Dr. Sir
                I wish if possible to obtain a permit to mine for gold on the Alsea Indian Reservation in Benton County, Oregon. The piece of land I wish to mine is on the ocean beach some 15 or 20 miles from where there are any Indians kept, and in mining there we would not be among the Indians. The men I wish to employ are Francis Daniels, John M. Noble, John Perdieu and Edward Cushus. If you will grant me a permit to mine the piece of ground it will injure or interfere with the rights of no person and will be a great benefit to me. Please write to D. L. Watson at Empire City, Coos County, Oregon what you can do for us.
    I wrote to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon about it; he write me he has no power to grant such permit, that it must come from you. Hoping to hear concerning the matter soon
I remain yours truly &c.
    Francis Daniels
Empire City
Coos Co., Oregon
October 14, 1869
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 873-874.  Penciled on the transmittal is the notation "Land will ans.--I do not think the Dept. has any right to grant the permit & should not."




Camp Harney
    Oregon Octr. 29th 1869
Sir
    I arrived at this post 24th inst. for the purpose of removing the bands of Snake and Piute Indians from this vicinity and part of Southeastern Oregon to Klamath Reservation in pursuance of instructions received from Indian Department Washington.
    I find here the chiefs Winnemucca, Weahwewa and Ochi-yu. Having informed them of my intention, they have had long debates and finally have come to the conclusion not to move until ordered by the commander of this district, asserting that Col. Otis gave them permission to remain at camps "McDermit," "Harney" and "Warner," and assuring them that they would be fed at these several points. I learn this fact from Chief Choc-toot, a Snake Indian who resides in Klamath Reservation, and who spent last night in their council. My judgment sustained by opinion of Dr. McKay--who accompanies me as adviser--is that the presence of Col. Otis, commander of the district, would be of great value, and perhaps be indispensable to accomplish the object for which I am here.
    Thankful for your assurance of assistance and cooperation, I would respectfully ask that you furnish Col. Otis a copy of this letter or take such other steps as you may think necessary to secure his presence and cooperation on Monday the 8th, at which time I expect to hold a council with the Indians at this post.
I am
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Maj. M. J. Dallas
    Comdg. Camp Harney, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 336,



Camp Harney
    Oct. 1869
Col. Otis
    Commanding
        I desire the services of Donald McKay at this place to act as interpreter, adviser &c.
    I procured a special order from Genl. Crook while en route from "The Dalles," but have lost or mislaid it so that I cannot produce it here. Please send McKay without delay. The prospect for removal is good.
    Dr. McKay will be here tomorrow. If necessity requires, can you furnish transportation over Warner Mountains for 12,000 lbs. Indian supplies? So that they may be available from Klamath during the winter months.
    Hoping you may forward McKay, and also assure me of assistance in transportation and otherwise as need may indicate,
I am
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 337.



Camp Harney
    Nov. 4th 1869
Sir,
    I wrote you a few days since in regard to removal of Indians. I write you now to say that from all I can learn that I believe they will wait for you to say "go," and that that word from you will be sufficient. I respectfully ask again that if possible you will be present at the council next Monday. I need not said that success in this undertaking is very desirable for the interest of both military and Ind. Dept. of the govt. If impossible for you to be present, allow me to ask you to write a strong letter advising them to go.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Col. E. Otis
    Comdg. Dist of the Lake
        Camp Warner Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 337.



Camp Harney Ogn.
    Nov. 8th 1869
Sir
    I have the honor to respectfully report to you as "Military Commander of the District of the Lakes" that by order of the Indian Dept. at Washington I am here as Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon to receive and take charge of the Indians in this vicinity for the purpose of removing them to Klamath Reservation, and further represent to you that I am assured that while said Indians acknowledge the military authority over them, they do not that of the Indian Dept. and that to ensure success it will be necessary for you, as military commander, to make known to them the order of the govt. and make a formal turnover or transfer to me as Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon and respectfully submit accompanying suggestions to you in regard thereto.
Most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. in Ogn.
Col. Elmer Otis
    Commander of Dist.
        of the Lakes, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 338.



Camp Harney Nov. 8th 1869
    In Council with Snake Indians
Sir
    I would most respectfully suggest that you make the Indians, in council today, understand the difference between the military and Indian Dept. of the government, i.e. military carries on war, [omission?] make peace. The Indian Dept. take care of the Indians, supported by the military. That the time has come when they must be under the control of Supt. Indian Affairs. That A. B. Meacham has been appointed to that duty, is now here, and ready to take charge, care and control of them. And that it is the order of the govt. that they acknowledge him as their chief. That the military commander has ordered them turned over to him. That no order has been issued to the military to supply them at this post. And that unless so ordered they cannot be fed here during the coming winter. That the Supt. has an order for all the Indians' supplies at the post, and that when ordered by the govt. you are ready to compel them to submit to the order of the Supt.
To Col. E. Otis
    Comdg. Dist. of the Lakes
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 338.


Report of Proceedings
of Indian Council Held at Camp Harney, Oregon
Commencing November 8th 1869,
Relative to the Removal of the Piute or Snake Indians
to the Klamath Reservation.
Monday November 8, 1869.
Present at the opening of the council:
A. B. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon.
Bvt. Col. Elmer Otis, 1st Cavalry, Comdg. Dist. of the Lakes.
Maj. A. J. Dallas, 23rd Inf., Comdg. Post, Camp Harney, Ogn.
Bvt. Lt. Col. W. R. Parnell, 1st Cavalry.
Dr. C. C. Byrne, Asst. Surgeon U.S.A., Post Surgeon.
Dr. Wm. C. McKay.
Donald McKay.
Chiefs Weahwewa, Egan, Pon-ee, Owitze, Ocheho, Chocktoot, Tst-ah-ne with twenty-eight males and eight females.
   

Col. Otis. (To Weahwewa and Ocheho) Are all the men here who are coming to talk?
Answer. I do not know.
Col. Otis. Look around and see. (To Weahwewa) Are all the Indians you want here?
Answer. Three are out yet.
Col. Otis. Where is "Big Head"?
Answer. He came in yesterday, and went back.
Col. Otis. Did you not know there was to be a council held today?
Answer. He came in yesterday with "Egan."
Col. Otis. (To Ocheho) Are all the men in you want?
Answer. No. Only one man of my tribe.
Col. Otis. (To Chocktoot) Are all your Indians here?
Answer. None
Col. Otis. (To Tst-ah-ne) Are all your Indians here?
Answer. There are seven here.
Col. Otis. It is important that all should be here to talk. The council is a very important one, and I will wait a little longer.
Col. Otis. Are there any Indians from the south fork of John Day's River?
Answer. (By Weahwewa) There are three lodges there.
Col. O. Are any of them here?
Answer. None.
Col. O. (To Jerry, interpreter) Are all here that will come?
Answer. Yes.
Col. O. I rode from Camp Warner here, very hard, and am very sorry to have been compelled to hunt you up. I came to turn you over to Mr. Meacham, who is appointed by the Governor to take care of you, and to learn you to live like white men. I want you to listen, for what I say is true. I do not talk two ways. Mr. Meacham is appointed by our Great Father at Washington to take care of you, and I want you to do as he tells you when he talks. He will do nothing but what is good for you; he wants you to live like Dr. McKay [and] "Harney" (a Rogue River chief). The Great Father has appointed a Superintendent of all the Indians, an Indian like yourselves. Listen to what Mr. Meacham has to say. When the Indians do wrong, the government punishes them, but when they are at peace, they are taken care of like citizens, men like Mr. Meacham. He will talk. I am done for the present.
Mr. Meacham. The President of the United States has appointed me to feed, clothe and take care of all the Indians in Oregon, and not to fight them. When you are at war, I have nothing to do with you; when you quit fighting and are at peace, another officer, a civil one, looks after you.
    You had a long war, and said you were conquered, that you would obey the government when you surrendered. Gen. Crook wrote to the Great Father that you had agreed to submit to the military.  You surrendered because you were tired of fighting. The soldiers never would have asked for peace, for when they are at war, they always conquer. Whatever the government orders to be done must be done. The government ordered Gen. Crook to fight the Indians, but he said you wanted peace, and had surrendered. The Indian Department wrote to my predecessor Mr. Huntington of this fact. He then came here last winter to see you and talk with you. He saw you. He met Weahwewa and others. Are they here now? I have here a paper in which is a treaty you signed (produced mss. and shows the signs made by Owitze, Weahwewa and Chow-wat-we-woc, Pon-ee, Egan, Tst-ah-ne, which they all recognized and acknowledged). I want to say a little more, and tomorrow I will talk again. All must come by ten o'clock so we can have a long talk. The Great Father says that Col. Otis will help me to enforce what he wants done: He will stay here while the talk lasts. All the little talks I have made are good. I made them with a good heart, and not with a forked tongue. I came to see you with a good heart. Col. Otis came here because it was law; he did not come because I was afraid or had a bad heart. I told you what my business was in all of my little talks. Tomorrow I will answer all the questions you may ask me. Before I came here, the soldiers had gone on all sides of you. Now I come with blankets to clothe and beef to feed you. I want to see your hearts and will show you mine. I want you all to come tomorrow; I will have food for you all. I am done for the present.
Col. Otis. I have come for you to have a talk, and want you all here. Winnemucca is gone, and I am very sorry. I shall advise my friend, Mr. Meacham, if the Indians do not come, to make a chief, and he shall be obeyed. Ocheho speaks well and I have recommended him to Mr. Meacham. I am sorry that Weahwewa has not talked good; I hope he will do better. The chief shall not be made yet. Mr. Meacham will take time and have a good one. The way you act during the next few days may make you chief. If Winnemucca comes in in a few days it will be well; the chief will not be made. Have you anything to say to Mr. Meacham or myself today? We came here for your good, and if you have anything to say, say it. (To Po-nee) I am sorry you are so late. I want you to be here tomorrow to the big talk.
Mr. Meacham. I want you to take time and think well. I want you to look at the Indians like "Harney," Dr. McKay and others, and talk to them. I brought them along for you to talk to. "Harney" is young, only 21 years of age; he has a good home, a nice wife, and is much thought of.
Weahwewa. It is true what Gen. Crook says. We did give up. What I tell is true. This is all truth. We gave up; we got tired of war. We made a treaty and want to stand by a treaty. All my band say so, and will break out no more. All my boys must obey me, and will obey me. I told this to Gen. Crook. I said I would fight no more. I am an old man. I told my warriors to throw their bows and arrows away, and not to have any more. I said, "Throw away your bows and arrows; we want to be friends always." I told Gen. Crook this. All my boys say this. They will not steal horses or anything anymore. They all listen to me; everyone listens to me.
Col. Otis. (To Weahwewa) We want you to move over to Sprague River. We do not want to speak about fighting. Gen. Crook is my chief, and I am doing as he tells me. When I talked to "Tst-ah-ne" a year ago, at Camp Smith, all I said was subject to Gen. Crook's approval.  Have you anything more to say?
Mr. Meacham. (To Weahwewa) I believe that Weahwewa is a great man and that his boys will do what he says. If you do right your men will in a few years look like "Harney"; if you do not they will always be like they are now, and will always live in the sagebrush. Now all come, and have some meat.
   
Nov. 9th
    Council opened at 11 o'clock a.m. Col. Otis, Maj. Dallas, Maj. Trimble, Lt. Col. Parnell and Dr. Byrne of the garrison present.
Col. Otis. I am glad to see you all here, and I want you to listen well to what Mr. Meacham has to say.
Mr. Meacham. I might do very little talking, and not tell you what I have to say. I want to tell you that I do not want to treat you like dogs, but like men. When you were at war, you made a good fight, and had brains. I want you to have brains now, when you are at peace. I want to talk now of what is for your good, and not to talk war. I will begin to talk now where I quit talking yesterday. I talked about the paper you signed, and which Mr. Parker read. He said it made his heart glad. He then wrote to Mr. Huntington which would be the best place for the Piute Indians. Some said Fort Hall, some said Klamath; Mr. Huntington said Siletz. Then Mr. Parker wrote to me asking me what I thought about it. I talked to these men and went to see Siletz, but I thought Klamath to be the best place because it was near your own country. Dr. McKay, who knows all about it, tells me that Klamath is in the borders of your own country, and that it is a very good place for hunting and fishing, and that you can grow something there. Mr. Parker then said, "You will go, and take these people there." Mr. Parker is big chief of Indian Affairs. When Mr. Parker told me to move the Indians, he also told me to go to the big chief (Col. Otis). He wrote to the big chief and told him to help me. When I came here it was also necessary for the big chief of the military to come and say to you, "Now go with this man." The military are here to see that everything is done right, to see that the Indians do no wrong, to see that I do no wrong. If any of my people were to do any harm to you Col. Otis would punish them. If any Indians steal my property it is Col. Otis' business to punish them. He represents one branch of the government, to see that nobody does wrong or is wronged. When there is fighting to be done, Col. Otis and his soldiers do it; when there is peace, they keep it. They are your friends as long as you do well, and my friends as long as I do right. If I cannot do as I am told it is their business to help me. I have fairly told you all now. The government are all the time learning more, and are trying to take care of the Indians in the best manner possible. In this government, it matters not what the color of a man's skin may be; all are alike, if they do right. We have had a big fight to get everybody to agree to this, and to know what their hearts were.
    Thirty years ago a little Indian boy went to school, and because he was good he rose to be a great man, and was made an officer, and he is now at the head of Indian Affairs. This Indian is Mr. Parker of whom I spoke, and who has not one drop of white man's blood in his veins. He is respected by everybody. The soldiers respect him because he is himself a great soldier. He is also chief of the Indians called the Six Nations. After the big war was over the Great Captain who won it gave this Indian, Mr. Parker, charge of the Indians because he was a great man. He did it because before this many bad men were made agents, and he thought that by doing this it would cease. Mr. Parker accepted the position because he wanted to do good to his race. He looks around and sees that there are more whites than stars in the heavens, and that each war lessens the number of the Indians. It made his heart sad to see his people die off, and he says he sees no way for his people to do but to live like the white man lives. When you go on a reservation, you throw away your bows and arrows and live like white men. Mr. Parker has seen this. There are thousands of Indians who were once wild, but who are now living just as we live. On the other hand, he sees Indians who do not go on reservations, are constantly engaged in little wars, and as constantly lose. The only thing I can say to you is to throw away your bows and arrows, and till the soil, and if you are good men you will be liked; if you are bad you will not be respected. Everybody is valued for just what his head and heart are worth. (Refers to Col. Otis and others for illustration.) If they had been bad men and had forked tongues, they could never occupy the positions they do. Because they have done good their government trusts them, and their names will live forever. It is just as with everybody who holds a position: He stands there upon his worth. Now it is the same way with the Indians; he will be valued for what his head and heart are worth. This is the reason I want you to go to the reservation: to learn to be good men and to learn to work. Mr. Parker wants you to go for the same reason, for you are running wild over the country; he can never hear from you; he cannot send letters to you; he cannot get you to hear what he has to say. It is because he is an Indian that he loves you and does this, not because he hates you. When you are on a reservation, he has a man whom he calls an agent and who tells him how you act. To this agent he writes his wishes. If this agent is a bad man, he won't have him there; he will have no man who learns you to drink whiskey, to defile your women, and to do other bad acts. Now I have told you the reason that Mr. Parker wants you to go to Klamath. He expects you to go, and if you do not he will be very sorry. I came here with no other intentions than that you should go with me. I have brought you blankets and shirts, with other things, and will see that what Mr. Parker wishes done shall be done fairly. I came here prepared to take you. I have horses and teams to carry your property. Gen. Crook tells Col. Otis to give me teams, and I am ready to move at any time. I have plenty of beef and flour for you all. It is getting late and we want to start soon, to keep out of the snow. I have finished.
Col. Otis. I have heard all that Mr. Meacham has said, and what he says is true. I am glad you have listened and want you to remember it. I know that there are some Indians that are not here. Winnemucca is not here; the Indians at the south bend of John Day's River are not here. I want you to send good men to these bands to tell them what has been said here, and to come to Camp Harney or to meet Mr. Meacham at Camp Warner. I leave Maj. Dallas, who is chief here while I am away, and who will see that everything is done properly. I shall live at Camp Warner and shall see that everything is done fairly there. The chief at Klamath is Capt. Goodale. Some of you know him. I have a chief at Camp Bidwell to see that everything is done fairly there. The chief at the reservation is also a soldier who will see that you are fairly dealt with when you go there. All these soldier chiefs are around here to see that everybody does right. When you go to Klamath Mr. Meacham will feed you; at present we can feed you at no other place. I want to see that your hearts are all good, and I want you all to go and to behave like good Indians. I have said all; I am done. We want to hear what you have to say, and when you will be ready to go.
Weahwewa. If there was fighting in any other tribes I would go, but as there is peace I do not want to go. We all made a treaty. I am old and think it is better for me to stay. I thought I would have a reservation in my own country. I am old and do not want to travel. If I die in my own country it is all right. If I stay here will you give me food? My boys will not fight with the soldiers if I stay. I understand what I have heard. I understand very well. My advice was good, and I shall trouble nobody. If Winnemucca comes and does not find me here he will think it wrong. Winnemucca is the head chief and looks after all of the Indians. I do not want to go before Winnemucca comes back. All my boys are here; they will not give trouble to anybody. If I die I give advice to my boys not to disturb anybody. This is all the advice I have to give. I would like to stay here. My advice is not the forked tongue, it is all truth. Everybody is quiet and will not fight against each other. We all made a treaty and were promised that we should stay. I will not ask for food; I will not fight for it; I will ask for nothing. I have my own food buried and will not disturb anybody. I think it is better to stay in our own country. I want all to listen to what I say. I want you to tell Mr. Parker what I say. Each side listens to the other, and we will not break out. This is all I have to say. What is done is done. There are plenty of fish in the Malheur River, and I want to know whether a reservation can be made here. I am not going to Klamath. I am old and gray-headed and want to stay. I know that I cannot live long, and if I do die my boys will keep quiet. Do you all understand me? I have nothing more to say.
Egan. When we made a treaty, I said we would stay here as long as we lived. I see all the soldiers. I like the soldiers. I am not going to be like a dead ox--eat and die. I will not fight one side or the other. I want all the Indians to stay here and be at peace. We threw away everything when we made the treaty, and were determined to stay in this country. I tell my boys to hunt around the mountains. If cattle are lost I told my boys to hunt them. This is all I have to say. If my boys do wrong, we will talk about it.
Mr. Meacham. Has anybody told you not to go to Klamath?
Weahwewa. Nobody has said not go.
Mr. Meacham. (To Egan) Has any half-breed or white man told you not to go?
Answer. No man has given me advice.
Mr. Meacham. Has anybody give you presents of tobacco and other things and told you not to go?
Answer (by several). Nobody has said anything. We have heard nothing.
Tst-ah-ne. I have listened to both sides. I have nothing to say. What these two say (Weahwewa & Egan) I follow. Everything that grows around gives us enough to eat. I want to travel around. If I go to Klamath I must stay. If I stay here I can hunt around and make a living. We are not going to Klamath; it is too small. We want to hunt around. We listen to these two; we have nothing to say. When Winnemucca left here, he told us to remain and to disturb nothing and to listen to what he said.
Mr. Meacham. Did Winnemucca say not to go with me?
Answer. No.
Tst-ah-ne. This is our advice (Weahwewa, Egan & speaker).
Mr. Meacham. Does anyone else want to talk?
Tst-ah-ne. I like all. When we meet we shake hands, and I am glad to see you. When we stay together and separate as friends I like to see that I cannot go unless these go (Weahwewa & Egan). If any man hunts ("prospects") through our country, he shall not be disturbed. I will not say that it is my money--that which he finds. It is all right for them to prospect and settle. I will not drive them away. We will trade skins with them. We will not fight about this country. You can have hay. If you want to settle this country it is all right. We will not fight about it; there is no use to fight. I do not think it is right for the officers to advise us to go to another country. When I was at Camp Smith, I listened to Col. Otis when he talked and I remember it. All the Indians and whites are friends and have no bad hearts toward each other. We do not like to talk anymore. We have roots and seeds buried all around. We have relatives who are married in other tribes, and it troubles us that they are far away. Col. Otis told me not to steal and I remember it and have done no wrong since. What I say is true. This is all I have to say.
Mr. Meacham. I have heard all you have said and understand it. I did not expect you would talk as you have done. I thought you would do as you promised to do. You said to Gen. Crook that you would obey the government of the United States. When a good white man says he will do a thing, he will do it. I have gone to a great expense as Mr. Parker told me to do because you said when you surrendered you would obey, and I am sorry that you do not. When we were at war we were two people. We fought to know who should rule. Gen. Crook never asked for peace; you asked for it. There cannot be two governments in a country--one must rule--two cannot. When there was nobody but Indians in the country the greatest warrior would rule. Is it not so? When we fought had we asked for peace you would have told us when we could have come. When you gave up and asked for peace, you gave up the right to rule the country. If we had given up, you would have said when we could have prospected. If you had whipped us and told us not to go into Harney Valley--would we go? No: You would have fought for this country and have whipped [us]. You would have said, "Here is a part you can have; you must not go on another part." If we could have agreed to do this, we would have done so. And if Gen. Crook had said, "We won't do this," what would have said? You would have said, "You agreed to do this, we want you to be men, and not like children, and do it." If not, what would you then have done? You agreed to let us rule this country, and now you won't do it. I do not talk this with a bad heart, but I want to reason with you like a man. If Gen. Crook would agree to do a thing and then not do it, would you call him a brave man? Is such a man fit to be a chief, who will tell men to do what they agreed not to do? If it was a white chief who did this, another chief would be made. If Gen. Crook had agreed to come here and talk, he would not slip away as Winnemucca has done. A man who will mislead his people is not fit to be a chief. If Col. Otis would do this he would be a bad man. It is the same way with other people. If Winnemucca advises you to do wrong, after you had promised to do right, you have no business to obey him. When a white chief does wrong, or talks with a forked tongue, they make a new one. Weahwewa is a brave, strong man, has plenty of sense, and I answer his words as I would Col. Otis. He says he is an old man. I hear him, but because he is old it is no reason he should live in the sagebrush; because he has been wild and without a home it is no reason that he should not have one. When a white man gets old, he lives not for himself, but for the good of his children. If Weahwewa does not go, all his children will live in the sagebrush. If they stay in the sagebrush, they might have a war, and after years had passed would curse Weahwewa for it. Whenever a white man causes wrong, everybody curses him for it. Weahwewa should talk like a good man and say, "I want my children to have a good home." I came here as his friend and want to heed [hear?] him. I have seen wild Indians and tame ones. Wild ones are poorly dressed and have no houses; tame ones like "Harney" have [them]. I want Weahwewa to go with me, not for his sake alone but for the good of his people. I came here for the Indians' good, and Mr. Parker says they must go. They must go sometime. The government which I represent never undertakes to do a thing and fails. I want you to know what the facts are. My talk is from a good heart, and I want you to think of it.
    I am done.
Col. Otis. (Tst-ah-ne) When I came to talk to you one year ago, did I come to make peace? Did you not come to me?
Answer. Nobody gave me advice when I surrendered, but I advised to have to peace.
Col. O. Who got tired of fighting first?
Answer. The scouts told us not to fight.
Col. O. Who gave up, the soldier or the Indian?
Answer. Nobody said they were tired; the scouts told us to stop.
Col. O. You came in to me and said you were tired of war.
Answer. I said so.
Col. O. I asked you how many Indians were killed. You said you did not want to fight anymore, and you asked me where you could stay. I said "around Steens Mountain for the present." This was subject to the approval of a bigger chief than I was. Gen. Crook was in the same situation, for all he said was subject to the approval of a still bigger chief. I told you not to trouble the white man when he came into this country. I also said that when you were hungry you should ask the white man for something to eat. This arrangement is now done with, and we have no orders to feed you. Mr. Meacham has orders. I know that if you stay around the mountain during the winter you will be in after something to eat. As the white man comes in your game will grow less, and you will then starve unless he feeds you. This is the reason the great chief at Washington wants you to go on a reservation and live like white men. I have seen many Indians and have been at many Indian talks. I know them well. The wild Indians come and beg for food. Their papooses cry; they are hungry. Those on reservations have houses, horses and plenty to eat. They do not come to the white man to beg. Mr. Meacham wants to learn them how to build their own houses, make their own clothing, and raise their own food. All you now wear you received from the white man. I want you all to learn to make these things like the white man does. If you will go with Mr. Meacham he will teach you and will give you something to eat until you learn. He has plenty of shirts and blankets for you. What Mr. Meacham has said is for your good, and I want you to go. I am done.
Mr. Meacham. We are waiting to hear all you have to say. We have time. I learned a few moments ago that Winnemucca was coming back. Will he be here soon?
Answer. He will be back in a few days. He left everything here.
Mr. Meacham. Did he go to talk with the Indians about this? If he has gone for this purpose I will have a good heart towards him. I would like to hear Ocheho talk.
Pi-zouk. Winnemucca left word with me that he was a friend to all, and you need not suspect him.
(Considerable talk left out here about peace and not fighting.)
Col. Otis. I do not care what you say about fighting; if you want to fight we are ready at any time. That is not the point in discussion. I think you want to keep quiet. I do not want to hear any more about friendship. I am satisfied that you are friendly. I want to talk about moving. I am ready to stay longer, but I want you to speak. I know you will have to go sooner or later, and you must go when we say. Winnemucca, Weahwewa and all will have to go finally. I want you to go quietly. I have a good heart towards you; all of us have. I do not want to force you to go, and do not want to hear anything more about your being good. Want to hear whether you are going or not. That is all I have to say now.
Mr. Meacham. Does Winnemucca intend coming back? I want to know.
Pi-zouk. He will be back before many days. He has been gone seven days.
Mr. Meacham. How many days will it take him to get to where he is going?
Answer. It will take him three days.
Col. O. Can you send runners to tell him to hurry back? I will give them something to ride.
Answer. Yes. (Indian comes forward.)
Col. O. Do you know where Winnemucca is?
Answer. Yes; I can find him.
Col. O. What is your name?
Answer. I have no name. Soldiers call me "Dick."
Col. O. I will give you a mule, and one for Winnemucca to ride back. Tell him to hurry, for I have been waiting for him three days. (To the Indians) We will wait until Winnemucca comes back before we have any more talk. I do not want you to scatter away, but to be around here so we can find you when you are wanted. When you are hungry come to Mr. Meacham and he will give you something to eat. If you can get word to the Indians on the John Day River, send for them, or for any others. Send for those at Castle Rock. There is another beef killed and ready to divide, and plenty of flour.
   
November 10th 1869.
Special Council.
Col. Otis. At the request of Mr. Meacham, we have come for a small talk with Ocheho and Chocktoot.
Mr. Meacham. I understand that Ocheho and Chocktoot are headmen, or chiefs, in the Piute tribe. (To the Indians) You came here last night and said you had made up your minds what to do. You said you did not want to stay here but wanted to go away. I want Chocktoot to say in earnest what he means, and what he intends to do. He has been on the reservation. What he says will be reported; it will go on paper. You can all know this evening what has been written. We are ready to hear him now.
Chocktoot. I came to Sprague River. I learned everything. I heard much; what I hear I keep. I do not shake my hair to keep it away. I do not hide it under the grass so nobody can see it. I let it be seen. What I say is the truth. I do not hold down my head when I talk. I take off my hat so that everybody can see my eyes. I have lost nothing by going on the Klamath Reservation. It was but for me to go. There are plenty of deer all around.
Mr. Meacham. I am pleased with Chocktoot's talk and so is Col. Otis. It is too late in the day to talk more. I want the Indians to hear what Ocheho has to say.
Ocheho. I came from Warner to hear Weahwewa's advice and to hear what you all had to say. I want both sides to speak the truth. I told all my boys not to go away until I hear what you have to say. I want to find our prisoners at Warm Springs. If you say nothing about them I will not fight for them. I said to my boys, "Make no more trouble; throw away your bows." I lay my gun down and do not look at it, for we are friends now and not at war. There are as many white people as there are blades of grass. I cannot beat them. I do not tell my men to come with feathers. I do not force my men when I want anything done. I will stay at Warner until Chocktoot comes. I am not going away with them. I will have nothing to do with fighting outside. I have told my people so. This is all I have to say.
Mr. Meacham. Are you ready to go with your band to where Chocktoot lives? Did you not tell me you were?
Ocheho. Chocktoot, Ben, Archy and all tell me that it would be better to go. I will go.
Mr. Meacham. Are you ready to go?
Ocheho. Donald and all tell me that they will have a house ready for me.
Mr. Meacham. This is all true. I will have a house ready, for I do not want your family in the cold. I will send the assistant with you tomorrow. I will divide my beef cattle, and you shall have half to feed your people on the way. I have teams at Warner to haul your goods and flour to feed you and will give you plenty of blankets. I will send men to build houses for your people to live in this winter. I am ready for you to start tomorrow. I will stay and see Winnemucca.
Ocheho. I tell these people that they cannot have this country here.
Col. Otis. (To Ocheho) All your people are quiet, and all your provisions are still at Warner. Do you want your provisions taken from Harney Creek to Sprague River?
Ocheho. I want our prisoners at Warm Springs.
Col. O. If the prisoners want to come to you, they shall come.
Mr. Meacham. If the prisoners are married and do not want [to] come back, I am not ordered to compel them. I will give orders for [those] who wish to return to be sent to you from all places under my control. You send a man with the man I send. If they are not in Oregon, but beyond, I will get them for you.
Ocheho. I am satisfied.
Col. Otis. (To Ocheho). I am glad you are going. You have done right. You will have a good home and will not be sorry for what you have done. (To the other Indians) I will be glad when you do as Ocheho has done. I called you together to hear what Ocheho and Chocktoot had to say. I hope you have listened well. We will not talk until we have waited for Winnemucca. This is all.
Mr. Meacham. (To Ocheho) You have talked like a brave man. I will shake hands with you like a white man, and Chocktoot also. I expect all the other Indians will come to the same conclusion that you have. Because I have sent some men away I have not given up. I sent them away because I want to provide a shelter for Ocheho. I am still the friend of the other Indians, and will feed them if they come. Mr. Parker tells me to do this.
   
November 16th

    Council called by request of Mr. Meacham. Weahwewa the chief and other headmen present, with a few men, women and children.
Col. Otis. We have waited for a long time, and are sorry that there are not more here to have a last talk. Why are not more here?
Weahwewa. I do not know. I don't know their hearts. I suppose they are afraid of the snow.
Col. O. Mr. Meacham has a few words to say: Listen well.
Mr. Meacham. At the last big council, when we waited for Winnemucca, you said that Winnemucca was head chief. I was willing to wait until he could come. We have waited seven days, and in the meantime I have learned that Winnemucca said that he would have nothing to do with going to Klamath. If he was here I think he would not advise you in any way. Did he not say that he would not have anything to say about your going?
Answer. When I went to Malheur River Winnemucca had gone, and I do not know what he said.
Mr. Meacham. It makes no difference to me whether he is here or not. If he is your chief he should be here; if he is not it makes no difference. I have nothing new to say in regard to your going. Are your people of the same mind as when they were here last? I have been here 22 days and have talked with one heart to try to accomplish what I was sent to do. I have talked the subject all over at the council. Your memory is good and you know all I have said. I have said nothing I am sorry for.
    I am a citizen and have talked peace. Not because I am afraid, but because it is my duty to do so. When citizens fight they fight as good as anyone. Because I have talked kindly it is no reason that I am a boy. I represent an honorable branch of the government. You have been willing to obey the military. The commander of the post has told you what you should do. Will you do it? I shall report to Mr. Parker the answer you make. I am here ready to do all I promised to do. I am ready now to hear your final answer. I have said my say.
Weahwewa. My heart is not different from what it always has been. It is the same that it was before. I have heard you talk three times. I want to know who is going away (referring to officers). If Col. Otis goes away I want to know what advice he has to give me. I do not know where Winnemucca is, and am waiting for him. Many have said that Winnemucca was not our chief. Some of my Indians do not know whether he or I am the chief. I am waiting for Winnemucca. I cannot give you advice myself. I spoke here once and calculated to stay. This is my heart, and I am not going to change my mind. I want to stay, and the advice you (Col. O.) give me I will take. This is my country and I am going to stay. I have made up my mind. I want either Col. Otis or Mr. Meacham to give me permission to stay. The citizens can hunt here if I have papers to show them that they will not harm me. I want the commanding officer of this post to write to Mr. Parker if the Indians do wrong. I listen to everything that is told me. This is my own country, and I do not want to go to any other. Nobody has given me advice to stay; it is my own mind. I will remember what the commanding officer tells me. I have not much to say, and there is not much use in me talking all the time. I am getting old and do not want to tell a lie. I tell the truth.
Mr. Meacham. Are you willing to obey the advice Col. Otis gives you?
Weahwewa. I want either Col. Otis or Mr. Meacham to give advice.
(Answer to question) I do not know whether I would or not.
Col. Otis. I have given you advice. My advice always has been for you to go to Klamath. That is all the advice I have to give. I do not have control of the Indians. Mr. Meacham has, and you must obey him. I turned you over to Mr. Meacham on the first day that I came here. He is your chief, not I. My advice is to do just what Mr. Meacham says. This is all I have to say.
Mr. Meacham. I want you to say yes or no to a question. I do not want you to evade it. Do you acknowledge my authority? Do you acknowledge me as chief? If you do I am ready to talk to and advise you. If you do not I have nothing more to say. I have but one heart and one tongue--they do not change.
Weahwewa. We do not.
Mr. Meacham. I came here to represent one branch of my govt. upon the command of my superior in office. I have told you what my instructions were. I have given you the reasons why Mr. Parker wanted you to go to Klamath. You refuse to go. You surrender to Gen. Crook; you agreed to obey the government. Col. Otis told you that I was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and turned you over to me. All I can now do is to report to Mr. Parker just what has been said here. My heart has been good towards you. I have advised you for your good and not for mine. After I am gone, if you get in trouble I want you to remember what I have said to you. Mr. Parker will put you on the Klamath Reservation. This is my opinion. You may and may not find a better friend to go with than I am. I have advised you as I would advise my children and my friends. My heart says to me that if any of you want to go where Chocktoot and Ocheho live I will take care of you. I would like some of your people to visit Chocktoot and Ocheho this winter. I will tell them to treat you well if you come. It is best for you to make up your minds to go without being forced to go. One thing more: If any of your young men would like to go, I will take them all over all the reservations in Oregon at my expense and will bring or send you back. If you want to send men with me, send them. My wagons leave here tomorrow. Whoever you send I will take care of. My last words of advice are to obey the government. I have done my duty; I have nothing to be ashamed of. I have told no lies, and have finished.
J. Q. A. Meredith
    Sergt. "H" Troop 1st Cavalry
        Reporter & Clerk.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 295-333.



Camp Warner Novr. 11th 1869
Sir
    You will bear dispatches and letters as per address, reporting to Capt. O. C. Knapp, U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent, Klamath Agency, as early as practicable, performing such service as he may require to fill orders addressed to him of even date.
    Thence report to C. S. Woodworth, clerk Indian Dept., Salem, who will adjust your account and make final settlement with you for services and traveling expenses.
    You will take sub-vouchers in triplicate for all expenses, two of which you will deposit with Woodworth, Salem.
    You will turn over blankets &c. at Klamath to Capt. Knapp, take duplicate receipts therefor, one of which you will leave to my address at Klamath, your horse to L. Applegate at Ashland, taking similar receipts and leave one to my address, Ashland.
Your obt. servt.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indian Affrs. Ogn.
W. Sweeny
    Acting Messenger Ind. Dept.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 338-339.



Camp Harney Novr. 11th 1869
Sir
    The bearer W. Sweeny has been ordered to report to you with dispatch. Whatever order you have to make for flour to fill my order of even date, you will send him with your order on Wagner McCall & Co. If you have not already a supply of tools, it would be well to order a few axes, froes, crosscut saws and nails. If, however, you prefer to go and make the purchase at Jacksonville or Ashland, you have permission to do so. You are doubtless aware that I have contracted for 4000 yds. flannel and 500 prs. blankets to be delivered at agency for which you will receipt and hold the goods for further orders.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.   
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 339.



Camp Harney
    Nov. 11th 1869
Sir
    I have been three days in council with Snake Indians, result thus far Ocheho with 200 Indians has consented to remove immediately, doubtful about Weahwewa and his band.
    I have ordered I. D. Applegate to proceed without delay to take charge of and conduct to Sprague River those now ready to go. Mr. Applegate is instructed to send in advance as many now as he can spare to make preparations to take care of them.
    If consistent with your duty at the agency, I wish you to superintend the erection and construction of such temporary buildings as may be necessary at Sprague River. But if you cannot without damage to business, then you will afford such assistance as Applegate requires as may be in your power. Mr. Applegate and Dr. McKay recommend that the buildings be constructed [at] Yainax, and I have decided to locate Ocheho there.
    Mr. Applegate will make dispatch from Warner and as soon as possible will dispatch a report to you for needed assistance.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Cap. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 340.



Camp Harney Ogn.
    Nov. 11th 1869
Sir
    You will proceed from this place without unnecessary delay to Camp Warner, Oregon, and on your arrival relieve P. W. Caris, wagonmaster in charge, of supply train for Snake Indian expedition, receipting to him for such teams, goods &c. as he may have in charge, and assume command thereof, men included. You will also assume command of [omission] take care of and supply all the Indians that may be under the leadership of Ocheho, enrolling in duplicate said Ocheho as chief or headman (who will be so regarded so far as control and management of his people is concerned) also each head of lodge or family with the members and ages of persons of each sex composing the same. Also of such persons as are not members of any family. You will issue such supplies of beef and flour as may be necessary for their subsistence. Also issue to said chief Ocheho or heads of families fifty (50) prs. blankets which you will find in charge of P. W. Caris. After said muster roll and issue shall have been made you will store with commanding officer at Camp Warner the remainder of blankets, fifty (50) prs., and all the flour not needed for further supplies while en route to Sprague River. You will then make an estimate of the amount of transportation necessary and should you require it you will make requisition on commanding officer at Camp Warner for such further transportation necessary therefor and to be delivered and turned over either at Camp Warner or Fort Klamath.
    And as to the supplies of roots &c. as the Indians may have, you will make an estimate of the amount and value thereof, and should you consider it of any advantage to Indians and Department, you will arrange if possible to sleep there. Otherwise you will advise Ocheho to "cache" or store them, or if possible get them over Warner Mountain so they may be obtained this winter or early spring. And further you will dispatch P. W. Caris and such other men as you can dispense with to Sprague River to make and construct such temporary shanties for Ocheho's band as you may be able to complete with special orders to prepare a cabin with a fireplace, chimney and door for Ocheho's individual use and ownership, said building to be erected at or near Yainax Bluff.
    You will make requisition on Acting Agent O. C. Knapp at Klamath Agency for tools and supplies &c. You will after having completed the foregoing arrangements muster Ocheho's band with this rule always in force. Rule 26 of Regulations reads, "No person except those who are too young or too infirm to travel on foot will be transported in wagons or upon horse."
    Fifteen hundred pounds [is] allowed by law for each fifty (50 ) Indians. However, this must be to some extent a matter of judgment with yourself. When all is ready you will start immediately to Sprague River, bearing regard for the comfort and convenience of the Indians as to distance and camping, keeping a memorandum of each day's travel and such other occurrences as may be of importance.
    And now upon matters on which you have not been instructed. You will exercise your best judgment, always keep in view the great object for which we are laboring, remembering that example has wonderful force with an Indian, and that they are under your immediate care and control and entitled to your protection against any infringement on the public or domestic rights.
    Having great confidence in your integrity and judgment I shall expect you to fulfill your instructions and safely arrive at your destination with your important charge.
I am
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
Capt. Ivan D. Applegate
    2nd Asst. Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Snake Indian Expedition
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 340-341.



Montgomery, Ala.
    Novr. 14th 1869
Comr. Indian Affairs
    Washington, D.C.
        Sir:
            I desire very respectfully to call your attention to the fact that in 1860 I rendered services as physician to the Indians on the Umpqua Reservation, Oregon, for a portion of a month, and received therefor vouchers signed by J. B. Sykes, agent. These vouchers were forwarded to the Supt. for that state and subsequently by him to Washington. In 1866 I was informed that they would be paid at some future time. I have the honor now to request to be informed what disposition has been made of them.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        H. Catley
            1st Lieut. 2nd. Inf.
Address me in the
care of the regimental
adjutant 2nd. Inf.
Huntsville, Ala.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 856-857.




Klamath Agency, Ogn.
    November 14th 1869
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Ogn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to submit the following as my "report of the conditions of this agency" for the month of October 1869.
    On the 1st day of October I relieved Mr. Lindsay Applegate as sub-agent, receipting to him for such property as I found. No funds (except the sum of $400.00 for incidental expenses transferred to me at Salem Ogn. by Mr. O. C. Applegate, Supt. Teaching &c.) nor any records pertaining to the agency have been turned over to me.
    There being nor records here, I am at a loss how to make out the reports &c. required. The property of this agency is of little account, there being an insufficient supply of tools and materials in the carpenter and smith shops, also an insufficient supply of farming implements &c. The cattle are excellent, but the horses are of no account whatever. The quarters are very poor and not large enough for the number of employees. There are no stables or barns for protecting the stock and forage during the winter. No storehouses for storing supplies. I have to take two of the buildings intended for the employees to store the grain and flour on hand and to be received this fall for issue to the Indians.
    The treaty with the Klamath and Modocs stipulates that a "sawmill, grist mill and suitable buildings for a school house and a hospital should be erected as soon as the treaty was ratified." None of the buildings have been erected. The sawmill is absolutely necessary, and nothing can be done towards building quarters &c. until it is erected. There is an excellent water power close to the agency, and the mill can be made a source of revenue, there being plenty of timber close at hand and no mills in the country. I respectfully request that the appropriations for the erection of the mills &c. also for the purchase of tools and farming implements for issue to the Indians be forwarded at the earliest moment compatible with the interests of the Department.
    The Indians are not satisfied with the lack of interest that has been displayed towards this agency. They were promised the mills and other buildings and tools to work with years ago. None of the promises have been carried out. With the change of agents, they look for a new order of things. I have told them that I could not do anything for them this year, but expect to have all the articles of the treaty carried out next year if I can obtain the money due this agency. They are willing to wait and see. They have built some cabins this year and have shown a disposition to work and improve their condition if they can have the necessary instruction and implements. But there being an insufficient supply of tools, nothing could be given them. The only event of importance this month was the fitting out of an expedition to go after the Snake Indians. One wagon of supplies and an escort of six soldiers started on the 7th under charge of I. D. Applegate, Commissary for the Snakes, and four wagons of supplies with a like escort, under charge of wagonmaster P. Caris, started on the 15th. The train was delayed by the non-arrival of the supplies from Ashland and scarcity of provisions at the post.
    On the 25th I received a communication from the office of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to proceed to Jacksonville and meet Mr. Brown, messenger for the Department, and receive from him funds transferred to me by the Superintendent. I left the agency on the 27th and arrived at Jacksonville on the 28th and received five checks amounting to $5,750. I was detained until the Nov. 10th trying to get the checks cashed, but succeeded in raising only $2,750 in currency. I would respectfully recommend that instead of the Superintendent transmitting checks, he forward the funds in currency or else deposit the same with the Assistant Treasurer in San Francisco and the agent be allowed to issue checks. It is an impossibility to obtain currency in this section of the country for checks of large amounts.
    In conclusion I would state that if the funds that have been appropriated for the agency are promptly forwarded, so as to enable the agent to begin operations early next spring, this reservation can be made the most profitable one for all concerned in this Superintendency. The land is excellent for all kinds of grain, and some varieties of vegetables. All that is required is the necessary implements for opening the farms. A great number of the Indians are sufficiently instructed in the use of tools so as to be able to do their own work.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Ogn.
    November 30th 1869.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indn. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to report that the only events of importance occurring at this agency since my "Report for October 1869" are as follows.
    The receipt of five hundred (500) prs.of blankets and four thousand (4000) yards of woolen goods for issue to Indians from the Rogue River Valley Woolen Manufacturing Company. And the arrival of two hundred Snake Indians under the charge of I. D. Applegate, Commissary for Snake Indians.
    The condition of the agency remains the same as last report.
    I would respectfully report that the former agent Mr. Lindsay Applegate has not transferred to me any of the "retained records" pertaining this agency. The only papers he can retain are the "retained copies of his money and property returns with vouchers." A copy of all letters sent, letters received, monthly, annual and other reports, returns of employees, orders from the Commissioner, Superintendent and other sources concerning the Indian Department should be on file at the agency.
    None of these papers are in my possession. There is no record of employees showing when "last paid" to enable me to make up my estimates for funds for their payment. The employees want their pay. Some of them have not been paid for the past year, others have two quarters' pay due, and the only funds that have been transferred to me for payment of employees is the sum of $1500 for pay of Superintendent of Farming and $900 for pay of Physician. I cannot tell what appropriations have been made, received and are due this agency, there being no record.
    I respectfully request that such action be taken to make Mr. Applegate transfer the "records" called for as the Hon. Commissioner and Superintendent of Indian Affairs may deem necessary.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.


Council
at Natural Bridge with Capt. Jack or Steck-at-at
[sic] and the Modoc People
December 19th 1869.
Mr. Meacham. I came here yesterday to talk to these people. I put it off till today for fear of misunderstanding. Capt. Jack promised to furnish an interpreter. I cannot and will not wait on his movements. I am here now, ready to talk to them and tell them what I came for. My heart is good and my mission is peace. I learn by the papers in my office that Capt. Jack and his people made a treaty about five years ago. When I read that paper I found that the headmen of this nation sold all their lands to the United States, and agreed to obey the laws of the government. I know the history of that treaty and of the difficulties coming afterward. I know that Mr. Steele and Rosborough were opposed to that treaty. I heard that Mr. Steele went to Washington to break that treaty, but failed in the mission. There were a great many white men about Yreka that wanted the Indians there, so as to get their trade. I heard that Steele, Rosborough, Berry, Potter, Sherry and Fairchild, Dorris &c. all signed papers to have all these Indians removed to a reservation, that the paper was sent to the military. Gen. Grant, President of the United States, and Ely Parker, Indian Commissioner, have given instructions to have all the Indians in the United States removed onto reservations. The great soldier chief Genl. Sherman has proclaimed that all the Indians running at large and without passes should be looked upon as enemies. I am a citizen, and the only officer the order comes to from the Indian Department in these parts--then to Capt. Knapp. Capt. Knapp is a soldier but is doing a citizen's duty. He is now chief of Klamath Agency. It is the policy of the government to send a citizen first to go and see all the Indians with peace in his mouth. I go to see all the Indians in this country. Those that open their hearts and take my advice will be well treated. I went to the Piutes. Ocheho opened his heart and took my advice, and I have put him on the reservation.
    Weahwewa closed his heart to my advice; consequently I left him in the sagebrush. When the Indians refuse to take my advice all I have to do is to inform Mr. Parker, and he will send the soldiers after them. He will surely do it. Ocheho has a good home and is happy. Weahwewa made my heart sick. Ocheho made it glad. I come next to you with good words and a good heart. You are a part of my children, just as the Klamath, Warm Springs, Grand Ronde and other Indians are. My heart is good towards all, and I treat them all alike. Personally it makes no difference to me. I have nothing to punish them for. I have come to see them at great sacrifice to me. I have brought Capt. Knapp with me, who is agent at Klamath. Also Mr. Applegate, who is in charge of the Indians on Sprague River as you can see. I have brought with me these Klamaths, to whom I supposed you were friendly, so as to produce good impressions. Mr. Nurse and Mr. Horn [sic--Gus Hahn] are your friends, also our friends, and they come to witness what we are saying and doing. I am now ready to state definitely the object of my visit. It is this: to ask you to go onto the reservation where you belong. To say to you to go there on an equal footing with the other Indians. Because the Klamaths live there, that makes no difference. That country belongs to you just as much as it does to Klamaths and Piutes. You have just as much right as them on the Agency. The government, in conformity with the treaty, has sent money for your share every year &c. To the grass that grows there, and the trees on the mountains, and to everything that is there, you have just as much right as the Indians now there. When the sawmill is built a part of the lumber will be yours, and when the flouring mill is built you will have your share of the grinding &c. And in everything that is done for the Indians you will have your share just as much as the others. This paper (the treaty) tells me all this, and I know the paper does not lie. If any wrong is done to the Modocs by the Klamaths, Capt. Knapp will attend to their wrongs and redress them, and if Modocs do wrong to any of the other Indians he will punish them. If he cannot see justice done without [it], he will call upon the military for assistance. Capt. Knapp and myself here made arrangements for beef, flour, blankets, flannels &c. These things are all there. The Klamaths and Piutes have already had their goods. We are ready to give you your goods if you will return to the reservation. You will be on an equal footing with the others. I am aware there have been difficulties between you and the Klamaths. I have lately learned it, and because of those difficulties I propose to put you at Yainax under protection of the government of the United States. I do not know of any difference between the Klamaths, Modocs and Capt. Knapp respecting this. Now I come to you as the Supt. and govt. officer and look upon you as a part of my people.
Capt. Jack. I did not know when you took the old man Schonchin there; that was the reason I did not go. The old man is there. He is the one that did the talking. When he went he just went to be agoing. He did not know what was on the paper. He did not know anything about that paper when the treaty was made. The old man made the treaty. I am willing to go if I can be protected.
Mr. Meacham. You will not be imposed upon. Treaty requires that no Indian shall impose upon another. I will guarantee that protection. Because of the difficulty between you and the Klamaths I propose to put you at Yainax near the Piutes. You are to occupy the same farm and improvements. Ocheho is fixed on the east side of the spring, and you can reside on the west side.
Capt. Jack. I do not wish to go where the Snake Indians are. I am not a bad Indian.
Mr. Meacham. I will let him go where Mosenkosket is.
(At this point a medicine man got power over him [Capt. Jack] and hence the change in tone.)
Capt. Jack. Why do you make all these arrangements? I am a good man. I have not done anything wrong. The Snake Indians are bad people. They are always fighting your soldiers. I am not that way. I don't fight. Why don't you think I am going there? I do not know anything about it. I have not done anything to the white man, and I don't want to go to Klamath. Maybe you are not the chief of the Snakes. Only a short time ago I told my people they were to die here. My people are not to go away from here unless they go after game. You saw these papers from town [transcribed under date of May 18, 1868; see report of January 14, 1870]. I do not talk much. Here is my hands. You see there is no white man's blood on them. They are clean. You do not know me. The chief at Fort Crook knows me. If you know anything wrong of me you may tell me. Maybe you think I am a common man and no-account and that is the reason why I want to stay here in my country. If you know I am guilty of anything and will ask me to go, I will go. I want good men to live with me here. Why do you want to talk about that paper--that is a stolen paper from the Indians. Do you know how little Indians know about papers? I do not know anything about papers. That is the stolen paper (referring to treaty). Maybe you did not understand about that paper--that is, who made it. Perhaps that is the reason you talk so about that paper. I do not understand how it was about my people being killed at Klamath. I do not know why it was that that man was killed. He was a good man. That is the reason why I want a straight talk. Maybe you do not understand the matter and from that reason talk as  you do. We liked the young man, and that is the reason we don't want to go. I may not live long. I want to die here. The Klamath chiefs did not say a word to you about it. If they had I would understand it. Maybe you know something about it. We will know something about it. That is a poor country. I want to remain here. I don't wish to go there and get rich. I suppose you would not have a good feeling toward me &c. I have but a small piece of land here. The white men have taken the balance of it. I am a good man. I don't want to talk much. I do not want anything of yours. Maybe you feel sore because I don't want to go. This is a poor country. You don't need it. It would not be of any account to you. The white men can come when they please and live close by us. I have but a few people and I want to look after them. This is a poor country--all of this--Klamath is a good country.
(Talk by Sliketat [sic] or George, amounting to nothing except a general pitching into the Snakes in general.)
Meacham. My heart is not bad. I came here because I was told to come and give you advice. I come to represent a government that will do just as it says. The reason I want to put you alongside the Snakes is to set an example to show them how to work. I have heard much of your people. They are like the white people. The Snakes are doing exactly as they are told to do. One thing I do know--no medicine man in the world can kill another except with a knife or other such weapon, and if one man kills another he will be punished. I don't care what part of the reservation you want to go [to]. I understood you to say you would go if you would be protected, and that is the reason I talked the way I did. The government of the United States owns all the land from one end of the country to the other, and she gives portions of it to the Indians. She looks upon all the Indians as her children and tells them where to live. The government says they must live on reservations where they can be cared for. It is my duty, as you made a treaty with the government, to see you and ask you to go onto the reservation. If you are ready to go with me I will take care of you and if not I will turn you over to the military. I want you to take my advice, and it will save you trouble. Gen. Crook tells the commanding officer at Fort Klamath to go and gather these Indians. I told the commander of Fort Klamath that Capt. Knapp and myself would go first and see the Indians. The officer said, "All right, if they go with you, all right, and if not the soldiers will come after them." I am your friend. If the soldiers come after you, you will remember what I have said. I have but one heart and am the Indians' friend. Your Yreka friends have petitioned to have you removed. Mr. Riddle says you have always said that if the soldiers came you would go. Your friend Mr. Nurse and Mr. Horn [sic--Gus Hahn] told me that "If you go there and see them yourself they will come with you." I now introduce you to Capt. Knapp, the agent at Klamath.
Capt. Knapp. I am the agent at Klamath. If you go with the Supt. and myself you shall be protected. The government owns all the country. You have agreed to abide by the law of the United States. If you go you will be protected. If you are turned over to the military you will be forced to come.
Mr. Meacham. We have made arrangements to have your goods hauled. I don't care what part of the reservation you go [to]. My last advice is to go while the government is ready to take care of you peaceably. I want you to say whether you will go peaceably or stay and let the soldiers come after you as if you were coyotes. I have 12 soldiers coming. They may be here tomorrow or possibly tonight. If you want to go with me all right, and if not the soldiers will force you.
    (Capt. Jack denies that he understood the soldiers were to come in the night. About midnight soldiers arrived, and Capt. Jack and a portion of his men stampeded.)
   
Special Council Held with Modocs After Capt. Jack Left:
December 20th 1869.
Mr. Meacham. I called you here for your good. I am your friend. Your chief got scared and ran away like a coward. I am your chief today and will tell you what is good. No man, woman or child will be hurt. I told your chief yesterday the same thing but he would not believe me. I have sent one woman and two men to ask him to come back. If he comes back he shall not be hurt. If he goes off and takes the young men I can't help it. I tell your people to take my advice and that of Capt. Knapp. If they follow bad men it will get them into trouble. When they want I will let them have papers so that the soldiers will not hurt them. If any of you have horses or provisions off the reservation I will give you permission to go after them. When you go off with passes you must not go with the Indians that have left the reservation. We want you to get your horses and provisions and start tomorrow for Link River. I think you all have good hearts. You must not try to get away tonight and must not take any guns away. If Capt. Jack comes I will receive him with a good heart. If he comes to Link River he will be all right. We do not want blood. None of you shall be hurt. At Link River beef and flour shall be given to you. At the reservation you will find plenty of goods and provisions. No one will impose on you. You will stand in an equal footing with the Indians already there. We want to ascertain how many of you are here. (On counting found number to be 115.) When you are ready I will send someone with you to Link River.
Reported by Dr. Wm. C. McKay
    Acting Asst. Supt. Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 334-340.


Washington Dec. 26th 1869
Hon. J. D. Cox
    Secretary of the Interior
        Sir
            I am credibly informed & believe that Lieutenant Knapp, the officer detailed to take charge of the Klamath Sub-Indian Agency, is a man of very intemperate habits & utterly neglectful of his duties & indifferent to the welfare of the Indians. I therefore respectfully ask that he may be removed & James F. Gazley recommended for the place by the Oregon delegation be appointed in his place. I am confident that the change would promote the interests of the Indians & the government.
    I enclose a letter from Mr. Dowell, editor of the Oregon Sentinel, upon the subject, & I have other letters corroborative of his statements.
Very respectfully
    Geo. H. Williams
   
Washington D.C.
    Dec. 24th 1869.
Hon. George H. Williams
    Dear Sir:
        I desire to call your attention to the Klamath Indian Agency. Capt. Knapp ought to be removed. We are out of the frying pan into the fire. Applegate was impracticable and full of crotchets. Capt. Knapp is a drunkard and he has been full of liquor almost ever since he arrived at the agency.
    I left home on the 4th instant, and he was in Jacksonville. He had been drinking very hard for several days until he had the delirium tremens. He went to the drug store and bought three doses of morphia. He was so far beside himself that he took them all at once, and it came very near killing him. He was confined to his bed from the effects when I left home.
    A drunken soldier is much better than a drunken Indian agent. Our greatest difficulties are with the Indians when drinking and crazy drunk. We ought to have a good man in his place who has some moral and social standing in the community. Not long ago Umpqua Joe killed a white man down Rogue River while crazy drunk. Joe when sober is one of the best Indians in our county, but when drunk he is a raving maniac.
    I have never had an unkind word with Capt. Knapp, but I think the peace of the community and the good of the service requires his removal. This is the general feeling among Democrats and Republicans. If he remains it will injure the prospects of the success of the Republicans in our county; therefore I hope you will not allow this to be stuck in a pigeonhole and green grass grow over it before it is acted upon. We will have a close race in Oregon to carry the state at the June election. The government should not throw stumbling blocks in our way.
    Hoping to hear of some good man being appointed in his place soon,
I remain your friend,
    B. F. Dowell
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 1002-1006.



"Yainax" Klamath Reservation Ogn.
    December 31st 1869
Sir
    On October 1st 1869 receiving instructions from your office to join you at Camp Harney, I started without delay with such teams, men &c. as directed, and joined you at Camp Harney on the 20th ult., as I continued with you and under your immediate direction up to Dec. 31st 1869, and all my transactions were under your immediate observation during that time, I would ask that this be accepted as sufficient report for the time mentioned.
I have the honor to remain sir
    Your most humble servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Comsr. for Snake Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Last revised December 17, 2016