HOME


The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1870
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.

State of Oregon      )
Jackson County      )  ss.
    I, Richard H. Moore, make oath that I am a resident of Jacksonville in said county and state and that I saw Capt. O. C. Knapp, the Indian agent for the Fort Klamath Reservation, almost every day during his stay in Jacksonville aforesaid, in the month of November 1869, and that during said period, which was about a month, said Knapp drank spirituous liquors in excess nearly the whole time. I saw him drinking spirituous liquors almost every day and often many times a day. For about two weeks of said time he was constantly drunk or in bed from excessive drinking intoxicating liquors. During the spell of drunkenness he showed at several times alarming symptoms of delirium tremors and so excitable he became at times that large doses of morphine had to be given to him. I do not think Capt. Knapp was entirely free from the influence of intoxicating drinks for one day during his entire stay in Jacksonville and was most of the time more or less intoxicated. Capt. Knapp left Jacksonville for Fort Klamath about the first of Dec. 1869, since which time I have not seen him or been near him.
    I make this affidavit that he may be removed from a position his drunkenness disqualifies him fulfilling and that some worthy and reliable man may be appointed in his stead, and I have no interest or prejudice in having him removed.
Richard H. Moore
    The foregoing affidavit was sworn to and subscribed before me on the 3rd day of January 1870, and I certify that the affiant is well known to me to be a credible person, that he is the identical person he represents himself to be and that I have no interest whatever in the matter.
E. B. Watson
    Notary Public
   
Messrs. Williams & Corbett:
    I have just received the foregoing from the editor of my paper with an urgent request that Capt. Knapp be removed as early as possible.
    I have no doubt if he remains at Fort Klamath he will materially injure our party. Press his removal immediately. The June election will soon be on hand, and now is the time for action.
Yours truly
    B. F. Dowell
Washington D.C.
    Jan. 19th 1870
   

    I beg of you to allow James F. Gazley to be appointed in place of Capt. Knapp. It is of great consequence to me. Reply to me personally.
Geo. H. Williams
Genl. Parker
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 526-531.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    January 6th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commsr. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor to submit the following as my "Report of the Conditions of Klamath Agency" for the month of December 1869.
    On the 8th the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, Mr. A. B. Meacham, arrived at the agency and investigated the condition &c. All the Klamaths and part of the Modoc tribes were present to hear what the Superintendent had to say for their benefit, also to inquire what new laws, if any, were to be adopted.
    I having stated to them, on my assuming charge of the reservation, that no changes would be made until the Superintendent arrived, the Klamaths wished to have the "white man's law" enforced in their tribe. The laws of Oregon were explained to them, and they have concluded to adopt them, as far as compatible with their present condition.
    They have abolished the old Indian law of buying and selling their women for wives--and no Indian is to be permitted to have more than [one] wife, except those who have more than that number on the 1st of January 1870.
    They have become convinced that the cause of so much prostitution among their women is the practice of selling their young women to the man who could give the most and not allowing the women to choose their husbands.
    The other Indians on the Reservation have not adopted all the changes made by the Klamaths but they will gradually come into the "new order."
    On the 11th the Superintendent issued blankets and woolen goods to the Klamaths and Modocs. The issue made was the best in all respects ever received by these Indians, the goods being of good quality--and every man, women and child received the articles that was decided should be given them, viz., to each man a blanket and shirt, or woolen goods enough to make a shirt, to each woman five yards of goods for a dress, thread, buttons &c. and a blanket, to each half-grown boy or girl half a blanket and goods for shirts or dresses, to each small child and infant goods for shirts or dresses.
    Not one was overlooked in the distribution; all went to their homes satisfied with the laws adopted, the goods given and the rations furnished during the time they were at the agency.
    On the 14th the Superintendent decided on visiting the Modocs under Captain Jack, one of the chiefs who had left the reservation shortly after the first issue of goods to them in 1864. The citizens in the vicinity of the Modoc camp on Lost River, having requested the military authorities to remove the Modocs to the reservation, complaining that property was unsafe while these Indians were off their reservation. The commandant of Fort Klamath had received instructions to remove the Modocs to the Klamath Reservation when he was assured that the agent was prepared to subsist them. The Superintendent and myself visited the commander of Fort Klamath (Bvt. Captain G. A. Goodall, 23rd Infantry) and informed him that I was prepared to subsist the Modocs and all Indians belonging to the Klamath Reservation, and also informed him that we were going after the Modocs and requested to be informed what force he could send to assist us, if it became necessary to use troops. He replied that he could furnish six men and a non-commissioned officer. He afterwards decided that he could furnish twelve men, mounted. The Superintendent decided that he would go with myself and "talk" with the Modocs and see if we could not induce them to return to the reservation without the assistance of the troops, but that the detachment should follow and report to me at Lost River, and if the Indians would not go with the Superintendent I was to inform them why the troops were sent, and that if they would not go with these soldiers the troops would return to Fort Klamath and report the fact and a sufficient force would be sent and compel them to go on the reservation.
    On the 17th the Superintendent and party, consisting of myself, Dr. W. C. McKay, Physician on Klamath Reservation, and Mr. I. D. Applegate, Commissary for the Snake Indians, started from this agency and arrived at Link River that evening, but found no Indians awaiting us, notice having been sent to Captain Jack that the Superintendent would be at Link River on the 17th and for the Indians to meet him there. The invitation to meet us was not heeded. On the 18th went to their camp on Lost River, near the California and Oregon state line, and met their chiefs. Capt. Jack postponed the council until the next day, when the chiefs and people were sent for and informed what our business was. The chief did not want to go on the reservation, nor did the want to fight; all he wanted was to be "left alone." Some of the people wanted to return. No conclusion was arrived at, and council adjourned until the 20th. The Indians were informed that troops were coming, and not be alarmed. That night Jack and some of his men ran when they heard the troops ride into camp. He would listen to no advice from his people not to run, but to stay. On the 20th the people were called together and informed that they would have to move to Link River the next day to meet transportation for their food and old and sick. One hundred and twenty persons reported at Link River. Messengers were sent after Jack and his party to induce them to return. He finally consented and reported at Link River bridge on the 28th with his people.
     On the 29th started for the reservation and arrived there on the 30th with 248 Modoc Indians. On the 31st issued blankets &c. to them in the same manner as to the Klamaths. They now appear contented and declare that they will remain on the reservation. They see that they done wrong in leaving and that they had been badly advised by white men (copies of letters given to Jack by parties in Yreka, Cal. in possession of the Supdt.).
    I have given them such tools as I had to cut wood and build houses, and have commenced issuing rations of flour and beef, issues made to the Klamaths twice each month and to Modocs three times per month, the Modocs requiring the most subsistence, they having but a small amount of fish, roots &c. on hand. I have begun issuing as follows to the Klamaths: Ten (1) lbs. of flour and five (5) lbs. of beef. To the Modocs fifteen (15) lbs. of flour and seven lbs. of beef per month to each person. The plan adopted for supply of beef by the Superintendent in his instructions to me is to reduce the number of working cattle at this agency to twenty-six (26), leaving nineteen (19) cattle for issue as beef, which number will be sufficient, provided the issue will not have to be continued after the tenth of April next. The cattle issued for beef are to be replaced by the Superintendent in the spring, when he forwards the supplies required by me. This arrangement is the most economical for the Department, as it will enable me to get my supplies nearly two months sooner than by purchasing elsewhere, and I will also be able to obtain a greater quantity of material for less money, and articles that cannot be had in this section of the country. This agency is very poorly supplied with farming implements, tools &c. for carpenter, wagon & plow maker and smith shops, and such tools as the Indians actually need to work with such as axes, saws, augers, hatchets, froes &c. A number of the Indians are capable of using such tools and can erect very good cabins whenever they can get the opportunity of borrowing tools to work with.
    The great want of this agency is a sawmill, which should be erected without delay. The Indians have been promised for the past five years that the mills and tools would be forthcoming the next year, but they have not seen them. They are not to blame if they begin to doubt the promises made in the treaty. The promises made must be carried out if the Indians are to be civilized. Allen David, head chief on this reservation, says, "Let a white man down in a forest, without money, tools or anything to work with, and ask him 'Why do you not work?' When you build the mills and houses for the agency, for the schools &c. and lay down tools before me, and I do not take and use them, you may then call me lazy. I want a good house, am willing to work, and my young men shall learn how to build houses and to farm."
    Heretofore the employees have been doing the labor, and very little attention given to the instruction of the Indians in mechanical or agricultural pursuits. My policy is for the Indians to do the labor and the employee to give the instruction and see that the work is properly performed. Very little can be done this winter, the season having set in, with heavy snow storms and communication almost cut off. Mail communication three times per month via Yreka, Cal.
    I would respectfully recommend, in view of the fact that this reservation contains as many if not more Indians as any reservation in this Superintendency, and that the number will be increased this year, that this sub-agency be constituted an agency.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    Salem, Oregon
Hon. E. S. Parker, Commissioner
    Sir
        Accompanying you will find two letters from gentlemen of character and good standing, residing in Jackson County of this state and about seventy-five miles from Klamath Agency. I have just returned from said agency and have some personal knowledge of the subject matter of said letters. I do not believe that the complaints made against Capt. Knapp, sub-agent at Klamath, are unfounded, but are perhaps exaggerated. However I am compelled to the belief that Capt. Knapp has not at all times deported himself as he should have done, and under other circumstances would have felt justified in suspending him and asking his removal. The circumstances to which I refer: the fact that he is a soldier & an officer of the army that had served the country faithfully, was still young and without experience in Indian matters, and I had faith in the hope that when the importance of his actions was brought to his mind he would cease to do those things that are so dangerous to the peace of Indian communities. I advised him in kindness to abstain from whiskey, to constantly exhibit before his people (Indians) such an example as would have good influence with them. To all my orders and advice he seemed to pay respect and honor, but I know that he has no heart in the business, and that morally he is totally unfit for to lead a people who are eager to learn and thirsty for knowledge of "white man's laws." Personally Capt. Knapp and I are friends, and I sincerely hope that without charges being preferred he may be relieved and someone of good moral Christian character whose heart is large and charitable and with business capacity [be] assigned to his place.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Aff. Oregon
Jan. 14th 1870
   

Jany. 8, 1870.
My dear sir:
    Enclosed I send a hasty note to Mr. Meacham, which you will please have mailed. I have simply given Mr. M. to understand that I was ignorant of the character and conduct of Capt. Knapp when I urged forbearance, and supposed that by surrounding him with good influences all might go well. My acquaintance with Mr. Meacham will hardly permit my offering any advice in the matter, but you it seems might and should do so.
    If Capt. Knapp has been guilty of all or even a tithe of the irregularities alleged he should be instantly removed, and certainly would be if the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington were made cognizant of them, and it is clearly the duty of the Supt. to so inform him; his neglect to do so is not only a neglect of duty, but renders him open to the accusation of particeps criminis. Mr. M. should not only state all of the facts to the Commissioner, but in cases when it is necessary and the evidence be at hand, should set forth the evidence with the names of the witnesses. Why, the charges, if they be true, are astounding, and the results may be too serious for contemplation. Drunkenness, neglect of duty, incompetency, cohabiting with squaws and general libidinous conduct. Can these things be and lead to but one result? A general demoralization of Indians; presently a white man will be shot for the pollution of a squaw, then away goes the cry "Death to the Indian," "Let slip the dogs of war," "Extermination," and we all know, too well, how gladly these shouts are echoed by a goodly portion of our population.
    Another view of this subject has occurred to me: How can an officer of the army be on duty on an Indian reservation? The act of Congress of '52 authorized the President to place the Indians under the control of the military in districts where there were no "reservations," but here there is a reservation. Not having a full copy of the acts of Congress on this subject, I approach it with a great deal of diffidence, as Congress may have passed some act upon the subject of which I am ignorant, but the matter may be worth looking into.
    In relation to the present subject, Capt. Knapp, he is clearly triable by a court martial for "conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman," for "drunkenness," for "neglect of duty," for "incompetency" &c., all of which are serious charges and must lead to his immediate displacement. My opinion, however, is that the Commissioner will only require a statement of facts to suspend this officer, and that he will then proceed to investigate the matter in such manner as his judgment may dictate, but I fancy Capt. K. would gladly waive all investigation if the govt. would let him off thus easily.
    I have written at greater length than I intended, but this subject has annoyed me greatly, since I have heard the reports which have been brought in from the "reservation." I beg you will communicate with Mr. Meacham and urge him, by all means in your power, not to compromise himself with the Department and the country in concealing the errors of another. I very much fear lest the thing has already gone so far that we will soon hear the well-known yell of "Indian aggressions."
    These crude ideas, hastily submitted, may or may not be acceptable to you, but your intimacy in making suggestions to him which on my part would be presumptuous, and though I doubt not of his knowing his duty, and his nerve to do it, yet he might be glad to know that those most interested (as we in the part of the state certainly are) are prepared to stand by and sustain him in his every effort for the general welfare, and this sentiment I trust you will express to him.
Yours &c.
    J. A. [this is apparently the "note" referred to in the next letter]
John M. McCall Esq.
         
Ashland Mills Jan. 8th 1870
A. B. Meacham Esq.
    Salem, Oregon
        Dr. Sir,
            After duly considering the shameful conduct of the sub-agt. as related by parties who saw the transactions, I have concluded with Judges Tolman and Alexander that he is a "bad egg," and any attempt to influence him for good would only involve those attempting it in the same category with himself. Am afraid we would all be disgraced.
    I have received today from Judge Alexander a note which states the case so clearly, and expresses my views so much better than I can do that I have concluded to take the responsibility and send it to you. I hope you will not think me impertinent in doing so and endorsing what he says.
    I have read the enclosed to Mr. Wagner & Tolman, and they are of the same opinion and are pledged to stand by you, if necessary, in any emergency.
    I feel the greatest liberty to write what I have, and in sending the enclosed letters, from knowing that it really coincides with your own convictions and impulses.
    Hoping that you may pardon anything in the premises that may seem impertinent or meddling,    
I remain
    sincerely yours
        J. M. McCall
     
"Tolman's" January 8, 1870
A. B. Meacham Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            Referring to our conversation on Tuesday last, I wish to state that I was entirely ignorant at that time of what I have since learned in relation to the conduct of Capt. Knapp, else I should not have taken the interest in his behalf that I then did.
    I write you this note for the sole purpose of setting myself right in the premises, as otherwise you might suppose I was desirous of having retained a highly improper person in a position of great official responsibility.    
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        J. Alexander
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 279-288. Copies of some of the letters are on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 348-349.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jany. 14th 1870
Sir
    I have the honor to report that I left Salem Oct. 8th for Camp Harney, for the purpose of removing Shoshone or Snake Indians from Southeastern Oregon to Klamath Reservation, taking with me as first assistant superintendent Dr. Wm. C. McKay, a gentleman of Indian blood, fine educational accomplishment and lifelong experience among Indians, and who has been for twenty years the counselor and advisor of almost every Superintendent and Commissioner in all the various treaties with the tribes west of the Rocky Mountains and north of California. Arrived at Camp Harney Oct. 24th; at my request Genl. Crook, commander of the Dept. of Columbia, had previously issued an order to the post commanders of camps Harney and Warner to have the Indians collected Oct. 20th for the purpose of holding "a council." Capt. I. D. Applegate, who I had ordered to leave Klamath, with instruction to notify all the Indians en route, had arrived previously, that is to say, on the 20th Octr., at Camp Harney. On his arrival he called on the post commander, as I also subsequently did, and notified him that I was ready to receive and remove the Indians from thereabouts to Klamath. After a conference with Maj. Dallas, commander of [the] post, and also with the few Indians there, I deemed the presence of Col. Elmer Otis, commander District of the Lakes, essentially necessary, and accordingly requested Maj. Dallas to send an express for him, which he did promptly, and Col. Otis came immediately to Camp Harney. But few Indians were present at the time appointed, although there were perhaps three or four hundred within a few miles. Those, however, who were present were representative men, chiefs and head men of the Snake tribe.
    I think the accompanying report of "the proceedings of the council" [below] will better convey to your mind the nature and results of the "talks" than I could do by recapitulation. They were reported by Sgt. Meredith of Camp Harney, also by Dr. McKay and Capt. I. D. Applegate of my command. A comparison of the three several reports disclosed no material difference therein, hence I send you Sgt. Meredith's report for reasons apparent. Weahwewa, chief of the Harney Indians, finally refused to go to Klamath, but insisted on the establishment of a reservation on the Malheur River in that country. It is my opinion and also the opinion of those who were with me that had Col. Otis "ordered" them, they would have submitted to [be] removed without trouble. I did not see his instruction, but learned from him that he was "not authorized to employ military force but only to advise them to go." This he did very earnestly, but without success.
    Ocheho, chief of the Snakes known as "Warner Indians," after Weahwewa had refused to go, arose in open council and announced that he was ready and willing to go with his people upon the Klamath Reservation, at Sprague River; I accordingly dispatched Capt. I. D. Applegate with instructions to remove Ocheho's band to Yainax immediately. I remained still another week at Camp Harney, hoping that I might induce the "Harney Indians" to go with me. Finally on the 16th of Novbr. [I] broke up the council at Harney and started for Klamath via Camp Warner and arrived at Yainax, Sprague River, Klamath Reservation, 30th Novbr. I found there Ocheho's people, put in by Capt. Applegate, numbering all told 97 men, 122 women, 169 children = 388. I issued to them one 7-pt. blanket, Oregon made, to each adult, and ½ blanket to each of the children, also three to five yards of woolen goods to each person, sample of which I send for your inspection. Built winter quarters, good, substantial log houses for chiefs and headmen, and prepared material for the remainder. I finally left them well satisfied, happy and contented, comfortably quartered and provided for, on Decbr. 8th in charge of Capt. I. D. Applegate, as "special commissary" for Snake Indians.
    Now the reasons why I did not succeed in removing the Harney band of Indians were obvious to every man connected with my expedition, although it may be difficult to make my superiors in office understand them by written statement, nevertheless I will ask you read Sgt. Meredith's report of proceedings wherefrom you may learn something of the apparent causes.
    But the real, telling causes are not yet on paper. They are in this. To begin with, that these Indians have only known officers, soldiers and such white persons as hang around military posts, and of course their acquaintance and knowledge of the Indian language together with association gave them wonderful influence over the Indians. Col. Otis said all he felt authorized to say, but his advice added to my own was still insufficient to overcome the influences working against us. Sutlers and attaches were interested in keeping the Indians at Harney for the Indian trade, and also because at a glance they saw if the Indians were removed it would obviate the necessity of continuing the post at Harney.
    The same motive operated with contractors for hay and grain, mill men for flour and teamsters on account of freighting &c.
    In fact, the business created by Camp Harney is felt from the starting point in Portland three hundred miles from Harney with steamboat men, hotel keepers, toll roads and bridge owners, producers of hay and grain, and in fact on all kinds of business; now all those people were and in this way are interested in defeating any expedition or efforts for the removal of these Indians from Harney, because it reaches their pockets. I say that whether all these men exerted any influence or not, some of them undoubtedly did, but in such a manner that it might be difficult to prove, however plainly seen.
    All the way from the Columbia River we were met with the assertion that the Snake Indians could not be peaceably removed, "and perhaps" this popular clamor may have had weight with Genl. Crook when giving instructions to district and post commanders. I do not know whether that is the case or not; more may be learned from the "little talks" around campfires than by "public councils," as for instance a friendly Indian says to one of my men "We know that there is plenty of provisions at the post for us" (referring to 80,000 lbs. of flour and 60 head of beef cattle that is said to have been provided by the commander of the Department for Indian subsistence, reported to them by bad white men to induce them to refuse to go).
    "We know the soldiers will not fight us to make us go." Now I do not think or intimate that Genl. Crook or Col. Otis were unwilling for the said Indians to be removed; on the contrary, they were and are anxious it should be done.
    But Genl. Crook was not present and perhaps did not understand the case exactly, and had instructed Col. Otis "to be careful to make no demonstration that could produce a conflict."
    Col. Otis did everything but say "You must go or I will compel you," and it is my opinion, and that of Dr. McKay, also Capt. I. D. Applegate, that had Col. Otis felt justified in so saying, that every Indian in that country would have been safely established at Yainax six weeks ago, without blood being spilled. In vindication of Genl. Crook and Col. Otis, I say, and also to repel and discountenance assertions made unauthorized by me, by some of my partisan friends that "the military would prevent the removal of these people, until the large amount of subsistence stores now on hand at Camp Harney should be disposed of." Such is not the case, and I cheerfully say that I believe Genl. Crook and Col. Otis acted in good faith, whether the subordinate officers or the army did or not; as to the latter I have no reliable evidence that even the subordinate officers endeavored to prevent the removal. That no such motive actuated Genl. Crook is evinced in the order to the commissary of subsistence at Camp Harney to "turn over to me supplies in case of my success," not otherwise, you can readily discover that had Genl. Crook been anxious to dispose of those supplies he would have given me an unconditional order for said supplies, and I rather regret that he did not give me such an order, for had he done so, I might have taken charge of the Indians and thereby controlled them and prepared them for removal. And I say again that I do not believe that that order was given conditionally with the view to frustrate the designs of the government.
    I have not met Genl. Crook since my return, but intend to have a conference with him at the earliest moment as to the best plan to finally carry out your orders.
    My own opinion--and it is supported by the judgment of Col. Otis, Dr. McKay and Capt. Applegate that whenever the military are ordered to gather these Indians for removal it can be done without any conflict whatever. Klamath is near their own country and of similar resources and climate better adapted to their physical wants than any other part of this state. The only question is whether they could be as easily controlled and kept on Klamath as Siletz. My short but prolific experience with Indians has taught me that when a white man's power is once acknowledged by Indians that he may, by a straight tongue and single heart, perpetuate that power to any extent.
    I mean this, every word of it. I also mean thereby that if these Indians were placed on a reservation, under the management of an honest, straightforward white man, who has good sense and a charitable, patient heart, that no serious trouble need ever be apprehended. I confidently assert that there is not an instance remembered, when thoroughly sifted, where Oregon Indians have rebelled or broken faith, unless through the influence of bad white men, [such] as agents, employees or deadhead bummers and squaw men and discharged soldiers. I have no fear or dread of danger from these Indians whenever they are once on the reservation, in charge of such a man as I have indicated.
    I shall defer making recommendations or suggestions as to what ought to be done to further your orders in regard to the removal of the Harney band of Snake Indians until I can consult Genl. Crook.
    I refer to my monthly report of accounts as to the financial part of this late expedition to removal [of the] Snake Indians. I think a posting up will show between three and four thousand dollars as the total amount of the expedition of the removal funds.
    Abstracts will exhibit status of subsistence fund expended during the expedition.
Removal of the Modoc Indians
    The history of these people is simply that they are a part of the treaty made by my predecessor, Mt. Huntington, with Klamath and Modocs, concluded 15th of October 1864. Subsequently ratified by Congress, about 250 of the Modocs were at one time on the reservation but shortly after, that is to say, the same year of 1864, the Modocs left the reservation, leaving about 40 persons including their then chief Schonchin, and returned to the Modoc country proper. Since that time several attempts have been made, both by Superintendent Huntington and Sub-Agent Lindsay Applegate, to bring them again onto the reservation, but from various causes have hitherto failed. Allow me to refer to some of the reasons why these efforts have been fruitless. The most telling one perhaps was that some prominent white men around Yreka, California were anxious to secure these Indians on a reservation in California, because thereby more of the public funds would be expended in that state. Another class of men at Yreka were profited by the Indian trade in furs, skins, feathers &c., and still another, baser reason was operating on the meaner white men for the purposes of prostituting Modoc women, and to such an extent was this thing done that the Modocs are today a nation of prostitutes.
    I am aware that this is strong talk, but it is nevertheless true.
    The Modocs had been for many years at variance with the Klamaths; this feeling was perpetuated by villainous white men constantly provoking each tribe by lying and repeating to each such sayings of the other party as would irritate most.
    Now one other reason, and I will proceed with my report. It is that unfortunately the commander at Fort Klamath and Sub-Agent Lindsay Applegate of Klamath Agency were at serious variance arising from misunderstanding about the relative position each held to the other, one a military and the other a civil officer.
    Capt. McGregor, to whom I refer, being of quick and impulsive temperament, Agent Applegate perhaps a little too exacting and very radical. At all events these two officers could not, and did not, work in harmony together about this particular thing of reestablishing the Modocs on the reservation and other things, especially on questions of civil law and moral rules among the Indians.
    Now you may have some idea of the state of affairs at the time of my arrival at Klamath. Capt. McGregor had been relieved by Capt. Goodale, while Agent Applegate had been superseded by Capt. Knapp, U.S.A. I met these two officers in conference and decided at once to make the effort, even in midwinter, for the purpose of reestablishing Modocs on the reservation. Genl. Crook had previously instructed Capt. Goodale to render assistance to Supt. or agent whenever assured that the Indians could be subsisted on reservation. I made a satisfactory showing to Capt. Goodale and proposed that he should return these people. He declined doing so; I then asked for twenty-five soldiers to accompany my expedition as escort. He first said he could "furnish but six men." To this absurd proposition I replied that "Six soldiers would be but a mockery and a farce." I preferred to go without any. Afterwards Capt. Goodale proposed that he would send a noncommissioned officer and twelve men, provided I would furnish the men to manage the pack animals, necessary to carry rations, bedding and forage for this detachment. I began to think that I certainly misapprehended the intention of the government in keeping up a military post in an Indian country at enormous expense. This post alone is perhaps more expensive annually than the whole Superintendency of Oregon.
    Capt. Goodale had previously furnished on requisition twelve men to accompany the expedition for removal of Snake Indians.
    However, knowing that there is existing jealousy between the military and civil "powers that be," and being fully determined that no act of mine should manifest the same spirit, I accepted the twelve mounted escort. I had the horses for three men to ride, furnished men to pack the mules &c., then made arrangement to start with employees of Indian Department, interpreters, special messengers and Department teamsters &c., leaving the detachment to come afterwards. I sent forward two Klamath men who had Modoc wives and were on friendly terms with the Modocs to induce the chiefs and headmen to meet me at Link River bridge, thirty miles north of the Modoc country.
    The message returned was "If Meacham wants to see me he must come to me; I am as big a man as he is." Realizing fully the imminent danger of a catastrophe unless carefully manipulated, I determined even against the advice of some of my own command and others disconnected therewith to go in person, without soldiers, to the Modoc camp. Leaving soldiers, men and team, taking with me Capt. Knapp, Dr. McKay and Capt. Applegate, I accordingly left Link River bridge in the morning of the 18th December and arrived at Modoc camp, situated near Natural Bridge on Lost River, east of Little Klamath 20 miles, and two miles north of Tule Lake, half a mile north of post No. 184, boundary line between California and Oregon; arrived about 5 p.m. same day.
    The Modoc chief "Capt. Jack" refused to come out of his house (a structure built of timber and earth about five feet above and two feet below the surface of the ground, and entered only by an opening in the top that answered as door, window and chimney by steps on outside and then descending heels foremost down a primitive ladder with rawhide rounds). Again Capt. Jack says, "I am as big a chief as Meacham; let him come to me." Smothering my indignation, I went up the steps and looked down into his den, filled with the heroes of "Bloody Point." I was told in good American language to "come alone." Understanding the necessity for steady, bold action, I went down the ladder (without feeling bullets) [and] asked for the chief. He refused to shake hands, refused to smoke, refused to talk. But silently motioned for me to sit down on a blanket unoccupied and with a great amount of style produced a large bundle of papers. I then called in Capt. Knapp, Dr. McKay and Capt. Applegate. Some of the papers I had copied [transcribed under date of May 18, 1868], and forward with proceedings marked "B," spent a few minutes "breaking the ice," and then requested the chief to furnish us a house and some supplies, as we had neither. These arrangements complete, we appointed the next day for a general talk [and] shook hands, though the chief and his men still refused presents of even tobacco.
    The report of proceedings will disclose the substance of the council talk, but does not tell the after talks, to wit, you will observe that at the close of the first day's council I announced that soldiers were coming to assist me if necessary. About midnight, unexpected to the Indians, the detachment of soldiers arrived, and the ground being hard frozen, the horses' feet, rattling of sabers and muskets, made a terrific noise at such an hour, and Capt. Jack and about fifty others "stampeded into the sagebrush." Every effort was made to induce their return the remainder of the night and all the next day, but unavailing. Ordered the remaining Indians to move for Link River bridge on the morning of the second day after my arrival at the Modoc camp. I then sent out two other messengers to hunt up the fugitives, and found them in the mountains west of Tule Lake. After several days spent in this kind of maneuvering I finally succeeded in bringing into camp all the Modoc men, women and children, notwithstanding the prophecy of some [omission?] wish, and aim of others, avoided conflict.
    On the 28th December left Link River for the reservation with the whole band and on the 29th arrived without accident at "Modoc Point," Klamath Reservation; on the 30th issued blankets and woolen goods to all these Indians, made arrangements for building houses for Modocs, perfectly reconciled the Modocs, Klamaths and Snakes to each other. All satisfied with the goods issued to them, all pledged to keep the peace. And on the 1st January 1870 started for home office at Salem well satisfied and very proud of the results of this long campaign.
    From all parts of Northern California and Southern Oregon I am receiving the thanks of the good people to the Indian Department for ridding the Modoc country of these annoying Indians. Those who understand the nature of the case are profuse in expression of commendation. The Copperhead papers abuse and slander. I have endeavored to execute your order and faithfully represent the government. While I failed in part it was no fault of the Indian Department. The aggregate results are very satisfactory.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Ind. Commissioner
        Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 301-316.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 20th 1870
Sir
    After the completion of the Snake expedition and previous to starting on the Modoc expedition, I held a series of meetings and talks with the Klamaths. I hope you will appreciate my intention in giving you a short history of said meetings.  I understand, and so represented on every occasion, that President Grant meant what he said in his inaugural address (have been expecting a circular requiring Supt. and agts. to work accordingly), that his policy in regard to Indians would be to prepare them by civilization for citizenship. Acting from this principle, so perfectly in accordance with my own judgment, I stepped out of the track of all my predecessors, and said to them that "my first business is to settle the financial affairs of this agency, then to issue such goods as I had provided, then to deliver a message from Mr. Parker to you, that the government "owned" me, all I have belongs to you, that I am ready to hear any and all complaints, settle any and all difficulties, decide any and all vexed questions, to tell you about the white people's laws, customs, habits, religion &c., and in a word, I propose to remove the barrier that a condition has held between the different stations of life, and said, civilization may be yours; manhood is the American standard of worth. The course is clear and open to you Indian people, and for the whole family of man.
    For nearly twenty-five years I have been in my way a public speaker, addressed nearly every condition and kind of people on various subjects from temperance to political economy, but I have never stood until now before a people just emerging from the chrysalis of savage life, struggling earnestly and manfully to leave behind the traditions and customs of an ancestry known only to mankind by the history of bloody acts and deeds of savage heroism and barbarity.
    I would that I could portray on paper the scenes: these dark forms with long hair, women naturally good-looking--but so sadly debauched that virtue makes no pretensions among them--children of every shade all gathered around a huge fire of pine logs in a forest of tall trees in midwinter, with the little camp fires here and there, all combined was photographed on my mind and memory so deeply that time cannot efface, and notwithstanding the ground was covered with snow, the thermometer sometimes to zero. These people would sit and stand for hours, with eyes, ears and hearts all open to hear, catching with great eagerness the story of my superior in office, that I made all my reports to him, received instructions from him--that by his innate energy had elevated [himself] to a level with the greatest men of the age, and that this same Mr. Parker, was of their own race. They gave one long wild Indian shout that startled all the sleeping blood and sent almost a paralytic shock over every man present.
    And when the Klamath chief, "Allen David," arose to reply amid surroundings so characteristic of Indian life, a perfect solemn silence broken only by his voice. I then heard the notes of natural oratory coming in wild but well-measured words. I recognized for the first time fully that nature does sometimes produce noble men without the lines of civilized life; then I discovered that mind is colorless, and that logic is not confined to "classic halls." If I did not fear that you would feel bored, I would send you a verbatim report of his speech as taken by Dr. McKay, and I will take the risk of sending you some extracts, because I understand we are all trying to solve the problem of civilization for Indians. I am not myself longer skeptical on that subject, but I know that a large proportion of our public men are, and you would not wonder, either, could you visit some reservations and see for yourself the inside workings of moral law. But I assert that the Indians are not to blame; let censure fall where it belongs, i.e., on the men who are entrusted with the care and responsibility of leading and protecting these people, yet wink at and tolerate in subordinates the most demoralizing habits and may be, in some cases, taking  a part themselves.
    Pardon and I will copy a few sentences from one or two speeches of these much abused men:
    Allen David: "I see you. All my people see you. I saw you at Sprague River. I watched your mouth. I have seen but one tongue. I have looked into your eyes. I have seen your heart. You have given me another heart. All my people will have white hearts. I have a white heart. When I was a little boy I lived here. I have always lived here. A long time ago a white man told me I could be like him. I said my skin is red, it cannot change; it must be my heart, my brain, that is to be like a white man's. * * * You think we are low people. Maybe we are in your eyes. Who made us so? We do not know much, we can learn. Some of the officers at the fort (referring to Fort Klamath, six miles from the agency) have been good men--some of them have been bad men. Do you think a good white man will take an Indian wife? A white man that will take an Indian wife is worse blood than Indian. These things make our hearts sad. We want you to stop it. * * * Your ears are larger. Your heart is large. You see us. Do not let your heart get sick. We can learn to work. * * * Take a white man into the woods, away from a store, set him down with nothing in his hands, in the woods, and without a store to get tools from, and what could he do? When you lay down before us the axes, the saws, the iron wedges and mauls you have promised us, and we do not take them up, then you can say we are 'cultus' (lazy). * * * You say that your chief is like me, that he is an Indian. I am glad. What can I say that is worth writing down? Mr. Parker does not know me. When you do all Mr. Huntington promised in the treaty we can go to work like white men. Our hearts are tired waiting for the sawmill. When will it be built. Then we can have houses like white men. We want the flour mill, then we will not live on fish and roots. We will help to make the mills. We made the fences on the big farm. We did not get tired. * * * Give us strong law, we will do what your law says. We want strong law. We want to be like white men. You say that Mr. Parker does not want bad men among our people. Is Barkley a good man? He took Frank's wife. Is that good? We do not want such men. Is ---- a good man? He took C. from her husband, Flit-to-chota. Is that right? Applegate gave us good laws. He is a good man. Applegate told us not to gamble. ---- won 37 horses from us. He says there is no law about gambling. Applegate said there was. Which was right, ---- or Applegate? * * *
    Mr. Meacham said, "You need not be afraid to talk. Keep nothing back. Your people are under a cloud. I see by their eyes that their hearts are sick, they look sorrowful. Open your hearts and I will hear you. Tell me all, that I may know what to do to make your hearts glad."
    Allen David said, "Yes, I will keep nothing back. I have eyes. I can see that white men have white hands. Some white men take our women. They have children. They are not Indian, they are not white, they are shamed. Some white men take off their children. It makes my heart sick. I do not want these things. Indians are Indians. We do not want any more shame children. A white man that would take an Indian squaw is no better than we are. Our women go to the fort. They make us feel sick. They get goods, sometimes greenbacks. We do not want them to go there. They have no store here. We want the store here at the agency, then our women will not go to the fort. * * * Last Sunday four soldiers went to Pompeys (Indians). They talked bad to the women. We do not want soldiers among our women. Can you stop this? Our women make us ashamed. We may have done wrong. Give us strong law."
    Jo Hood (Indian), at a talk 7 days after, said: "Meacham came here. Parker told him to come. He brought a strong law. It is a new soap; it washed my heart all clean but a little place about as big as my thumbnail. Caroline's (his wife) heart may not all be white, yet if it was, mine would be white like snow. Parker's law has made us just like we were new married. I tell these Indians that this law is like strong soap, it makes all clean. I do not want but one wife anymore."
    Allen David (same time) said: "We are looking into a camp fire, that we can find moonlight. You say there is a road that goes toward sunrise. Show me that stone road. I am now on the stone road. I will follow you to the top of the mountain. You tell me come on. I can see you now. My feet are on the road. I will not leave it. I tell my people follow me, and I will stay in the stone road."
    At Modoc Point the Klamaths and Modocs met in peace for the first time since the treaty in 1864. I arranged the Klamaths in a line, the Modocs in a line opposite and about eight feet distant.
    Supt. Meacham: "You are now of one race; all of your skins are red. You have been enemies; blood is on your hands. Here I will dig a deep hole for you to bury all the past bad blood, and everything, so deep that it never can be dug up." I then took an ax, laid it down between them, gave each chief .and headman a twig of pine, taking one myself, said: "I will show you how to bury the hatchet. You will help me, and as you cover the ax you will shake hands and be friends."
    I have seldom witnessed a more serious, solemn and earnest spectacle, these warrior enemies making friends.
    Allen David said: "We are no longer bad men; we wash each other's hands. This pine tree, may ever stand as a witness that we are friends. May no man ever cut a piece of wood from that tree. May it stand there forever.
    "Captain Jack" said: "I do not want to talk much. My heart is warm like fire. I have driven a stick into the ground and tied myself to it. I will not fight anymore; we are friends."
    I have given you a few extracts, that you may judge from their own mouths whether they can be civilized. If Lindsay Applegate and his sons I. D. and Oliver could take wild savage Indians, and against so much opposition, in the short space of four years bring them to this state, I know they can be civilized. If good men are to lead and teach them, not books alone, but civilization, with all it means. Men whose hearts are in the work, and that realize as soon as the duties devolve on them, that there is a great responsibility. Also men who have courage to stand squarely between these people and the villains that hang around reservations from the lowest motives imaginable, men paid $2500 per annum for doing duty, not hired at $1000 to steal greenbacks, so that they that will not try to civilize these people by "mixing blood" Then put in married men of character who will practice what they preach, and that can live without smuggling whiskey onto the reservation, and ten years from today may find this Superintendency self-supporting, and offering to the world 7000 citizens. I am conscious that this is strong talk, but it is surely true. I have not overdrawn this side of the case, nor will I attempt to show what has been done, or what will be done, with Supt., agents and employees in charge placed there as a reward for political service. The past tells the story too plainly to be misapprehended. While I am responsible for the advancement of these people, I beg to show my views and make known the result of observation and experience. And as a subordinate officer of the government, have my official acts scrutinized to the last dollar and respectfully ask that I may be furnished the funds and means to keep faith with a people so little understood, people so much like children that when they are promised a sawmill they go to work cutting logs, and grieved to see them rotted before the mill is begun, but with logic enough to say, "When you have got us the things you promised, then you may blame us if we don't do right."
    I have now no longer any doubts about President Grant's "Quaker Policy," if applied to Indians once subjugated. These people have mind, soul, heart, affection, passion and impulses, and great ambition to become like white men. There are more or less [omission] on each reservation that are already superior to many of the white men around them. At Klamath they are working under civil law of trial by jury, with judges, sheriff, civil marriages and divorce, in fact, are fast assuming the habiliments of citizens. I spent seven days in talking and listening and making laws, marrying and divorcing, naming babies, settling difficulties &c., and finally started, accompanied on my journey by a large delegation of Klamaths, who insisted that I should come next summer and stay "one moon" and make laws, and that I would build the mills, and tell them about our religion, all of which I promised, if possible, but--realizing fully and feeling deeply how much depended on the man who is in immediate charge of these poor struggling people.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 352-356.  Original letter (with the same elisions) on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 345-355.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jan. 22nd 1870
Sir
    I respectfully ask for instruction in regards to the Indian women now living unmarried with white men in some parts of this state. Our state laws forbid marriages of this character, California law does not; in some cases they are not treated and cared for, in others much abused. In nearly every case they have children. It is doubtful what policy is best. If you separate the white men and Indian women, what must be done with the children. I have talked with these white men and find some of them willing to marry if it could be legally done. Shall I compel all such women to go onto the reservations.
    It would assist very much if Supt. and agents could be authorized to solemnize marriages among Indians without licenses. They much desire it, and remoteness from civil offices seems to justify it. I think it would assist very much in the great work of civilization.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 356.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 293-294.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jan. 22nd 1870
Sir
    In nearly every treaty made with Indians in Oregon provisions are made that each Indian should have a portion of land set apart to him and his children. I know of nothing that would so much facilitate their advancement as the fulfillment of these stipulations.
    In my annual report for 1869 I recommended that an appropriation be made for surveying reservations and establishing boundaries &c.
    The Indians on Grand Ronde are clamoring for the survey and allotment of land. And I sincerely wish that it could be so ordered.
    I have directed that all able-bodied Indians be required to do four days road labor annually on the reservation to which they belong. We ought to have a small appropriation for such purposes.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 356.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 291-292.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jan. 22nd 1870
Sir
    I respectfully ask your attention to the fact that funds have been appropriated for building of mills on the Klamath Reservation, that said funds were placed to the credit of late Supt. Huntington with U.S. Asst. Treas. San Francisco California. I would also represent that there is urgent necessity for the erection of these mills. And in order to accommodate the climate, roads &c. the matter ought [to] be decided soon whether these mills shall be built the coming season or not. If so I ask that said funds so soon as possible be transferred to my credit.
    And further to represent that inasmuch as the Indians at Klamath are willing to do most of the labor in constructing said mills and because mills built by contract are never well built, I ask that I may be instructed to proceed with the work by day labor.
    As to the propriety of the plan and my ability to execute [it], I respectfully refer you to Senators Williams and Corbett.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
Hon E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 357.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 358-359.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 22nd 1870
Sir
    I transmit herewith my "report" of expedition into Southeastern Oregon to collect and remove Shoshone or Snake Indians to Klamath Reservation [above, dated January 11], also proceedings of council held with Modoc Indians at Natural Bridge, Lost River [December 19, 1869] at a later date. I hope you will give them due consideration.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Oregon
Hon. E. S. Parker
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 295-296.


   

Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Jan. 24th 1870
Sir
    I have many applications from good, responsible, moral people for Indian children for adoption, apprenticeship &c. There are many instances in which it would greatly benefit the children. Again there are cases of Indian men that are perfectly competent to take care of themselves and ask no help from the government and wish to live among white people. Please instruct as I find no law or precedent covering these cases.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 357.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 356-357.



"Yainax" Klamath Agency Ogn.
    January 30th 1870
Sir:
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month ending with the above date.
    The Snake Indians, left in charge of me at this place, have been easily managed. They have at all times appeared well disposed and perfectly satisfied with their situation.
    They have been furnished such assistance, in way of subsistence, as was in my power to give. I have urged upon them the necessity of adopting industrial habits, and am happy to observe among them a growing desire to make permanent improvements and particularly to cultivate the soil. I hope I will be furnished with tools and material as will enable me to commence faming operations early in the spring.
I am sir with high respect
    Your obedient servant
        I. D. Applegate
            Com. for Snake Indians.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs. in
        Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency
    January 31st 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor to report no change in the "condition of this sub-agency" since [my] report for December 1869. The Indians contented and satisfied with their rations. The weather has been favorable for outdoor work the most of the month. The Klamaths have taken the advantage of the weather and are at work getting out timber for cabins and rails to the best advantage with the few tools they have. I secured 85 condemned axes and have had the smith repair them, and quite a number make good chopping axes, and the balance answer for wedges until a supply of wedge iron can be obtained. I expect to have iron for maul rings and wedges by March 1st, and then the Indians can go to work in earnest.
    I also report the fact that the physician Dr. Wm. C. McKay has been absent from the reservation since November 1868. He is on some duty with the Superintendent, I believe, as I have no order detailing him. His presence is required on the reservation. There is a great deal of sickness, and there have been quite a number of deaths this winter. The surgeon at Fort Klamath has rendered me such assistance as he could, but has not been able to do all that is required of a physician. He does not know how to work with the Indians. Dr. McKay understands the Indian character and jargon and has the respect of the Indian, which render him of more importance than any other man that could be employed for the position.
    Another fact of importance is the Indians are continuously asking whenever they visit the agency or meet myself or the employees, "When is 'Billy' coming?" meaning "the Doctor. We want him here; we want to break up our medicine men. They are humbugs. We want a Boston doctor." The head chief Allen David is determined to stop the medicine men, but he cannot do anything without the presence of the regular physician. If Dr. McKay cannot be sent to his proper post I want to be so informed that he may be dropped from my employ and a physician secured who can remain on the reservation and assist me in caring for the Indians and in breaking up the "medicine men," who hold too much power over the Indian. I am determined to destroy their system of medicine if I have to punish severely to accomplish my object. The Superintendent approves of my determination on this question and has informed me that if it cannot be broken up any other way he will banish the medicine men to some other reservation.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    February 1st 1870
Mr. Parker
    Secty. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Dear Sir,
We the undersigned citizens of the above state, near the Klamath Reservation, wish to acquaint you of several facts that have transpired on this reservation within the last year or so, feeling that the head authorities are unacquainted with the rascalities and wrongs that have been committed upon the Indians and citizens neighboring on this reservation &c. &c.
    1st. The annuities have never been issued, but twist [tobacco], within the last four (4) four years, and we know that in consequence thereof that the Indians have been permitted, clothed with passes from Sub-Agt. Applegate, to go among the settlers at least one half of their time & harass and basen the settlers near the reservation for both clothes and provisions, of which we more than several times remonstrated to said agent both verbally & through petition to not allow said Indians the privilege to visit our settlements as they were doing and to keep said Indians from [sic] the reservation &c. &c. and to which Mr. Applegate never paid any attention to in the least respect &c. &c.
    Again we know that Mr. A. employed his entire family that was old enough to fill the most important stations on the reservation and turned out other good men of the Union party that had seen service for to give room to his sons.
    We know that he also hired Indians to work and paid them out of flour that was bought for to issue to the Indians for the two years past and charged the government with white labor, therefore keeping the money for his own use and defrauding the Indians out of their just deserts and cheating the government out of thousands of dollars &c.
    We further know that he reported a bill of expenses to the government for repairs on a purported sawmill built on said Klamath Reservation (that never was the case, as no such a thing as a mill ever was nor is not now on said reservation). Hence the report is a usurpation & a forgery, extorting money from the general government with the most foul and unprecedented rascality.
    We further know that one of his sons drew pay as boss farmer for one year, and said son was engaged in keeping a dry goods store at Ashland Mills, Jackson Co., Oregon for at least ten months of the time, only being on the reservation [a] little over one month, when said agent's son was discharged by the new authorities, Capt. Knapp, U.S.A.
    We further know that the said Agt. A. at all times gave his contracts out to private parties that were relatives to said agt. and never once advertised for flour or anything pertaining to contracts, only on the other hands ever gave them to his relatives.
    Now as to the above charges we can substantiate them by as many and as good men as you want to witness we will refer you to the following men of Jackson Co. for references &c. &c.
Capt. Knapp, present actg. sub-agt. K. Reservation
John Gotbrod, interpreter now, though employed under Agt. A. as field hand
Steven Shickle, citizen
Geo. Nurse, sutler for Indians & Fort Klamath
C. C. Baily, farmer, citizen
H. C. White, farmer, citizen
A. J. Weyht, farmer, citizen
D. J. Duval, farmer, citizen
J. R. Meacum, farmer, citizen
J. O. Moodey, farmer, citizen
H. Rouce, farmer, citizen
R. Whittle, S. Colver, O. A. Stearns, O. T. Brown
and many others that you can get to substantiate the same facts.
    Now we wish to have a general overhauling of the matter generally and let guilty perpetrators suffer; such will only give security in the future to our safety as a party and people.
    We would further ask that the military be charged with the full custody of the Indians and those civil agents & Supt. for Oregon at least be dismissed [from] the service. We feel satisfied from what little time the military agt. Capt. Knapp has had charge that he has served more good in compelling Indians to do their duty & seeing that they got their rights than all the agts. of this Dept. for the last five years. Hence we feel that Capt. Knapp is good enough to see that the government is not swindled in wholesale by such swindlers as the late Agent Applegate. We hope that you will cause an investigation of matters for at least Klamath Agency for the time Mr. Applegate presided at least and by so doing you will greatly satisfy the public generally. You have the necessary responsible references embodied in this correspondence for evidence as regards the truth of our statements.
    Justice demands an investigation to our county, our Administration and our political organization generally--throughout I am certain that if such conduct is let rest that it will work great evil to our cause politically throughout Oregon, if it does not materially injure the party throughout the Pacific Coast.
We have the honor to remain
    Your fellow citizens
        Most respectfully &c.
            John Potter
            J. R. Meacum
            T. I. Rouce
            J. C. Moodey
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 513-518.  The first group of "signatures" above are all in the same hand and may be misspelled (or bogus).



    I wrote to D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer, on whom the checks 316 & 318 were drawn, who stated to me they never had been presented and periodically since till last month. They have not been presented for payment, and I am by the present sub-treasurer assured they will not be paid if presented as the papers of J. W. P. Huntington are all referred to your office.
    Please examine into the merits of my claim and afford me the necessary relief. I am justly entitled to $640 and interest from October 1864 till paid.
    I refer to the Hon. H. W. Corbett, Senator of Oregon--as an identifier of my claim & handwriting.
    I have fully & fairly stated my claim. I will add I have heretofore presented a bond to the late J. W. P. Huntington asking new checks in lieu of those once issued.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
San Buenaventura, Cal.
    Feb. 24, 1870
   

    [in pencil] Note: The vouchers referred to within were paid by Supt. Huntington Sept. 21st 1865.
   

To the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Sir
        I desire to present for payment the following claim for $640.00 and in rehearsing the circumstances I desire to say in advance I speak from recollection, and the dates may vary a few not 30 days.
    3 men--1 named Bill & the other a forgotten farmer--under B. R. Biddle on Siletz Reserve Oregon were kept from their pay, and having employed me as an attorney, I succeeded in 1864 October in persuading Supt. Huntington (through the assistance of the Supt. of Indian Affairs at Washington) to pay the said claims, and said J. W. P. Huntington notified me on the surrender of the vouchers at Salem he would pay the same. I mailed to him the 3 complete sets--"I think"--2 sets called for $195 each and $250. I think 1 man's name was "Megginson," one "Hill," & the other name I think began with W.
    He soon forwarded me a check #316 on the Assistant Treasurer S.F. for $440.00. "Probably being unwell with too much whiskey," I wrote to him that I had surrendered voucher for $640 and that I was informed from Washington that much would be paid. He replied, forwarding me check #318 for $200. Thus I had
    Check #316 $440
Check #318 $200
Total on two checks $640
    These checks as was usual were payable to bearer. My custom was, as the records of D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer S.F., will show, was to mail said & such checks to him [in] exchange for 7 3/10 notes to be returned in the mail.
    To prevent any misapplication of money by 3rd parties, I generally & in this case wrote an assignment on the check fully stating why it was endorsed [and] made payable to D. W. Cheesman & also impressed my notarial seal in said check.
    Soon after I collected other claims of the Salem Indian office and received a check number #327 for a sum now forgot (please see record Indian agent books under date Oct. 1864) about 137.00 and as in case of the former two checks I mailed this one #327 to D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer--and the money by mail came back.
    This showed me the 2 former $640 was miscarried.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 134-138.



Klamath Indian Sub-Agency Oregon
    Feby. 28th 1870
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor to submit the following "report of condition of this sub-agency" for this month. The condition of the Indians remains the same as per last report. The tribes lately arrived on the reservation are well satisfied with their treatment and are pleased with the country. They express a desire to be shown how to work, but so far I have been unable to assist them with the tools they want, such as mauls, wedges and axes. I have taken measures to secure a small supply of iron and axes and will be able to start them at work making rails and getting out timber for cabins next month. A great deal of work could have been done this month (as the weather has been very mild, no snow on the greater part of the reservation) had the agency been supplied with the necessary implements. I will forward by first mail a list of supplies of all kinds for this agency to the Superintendent, who has promised to purchase all that I require and to forward them as soon as the roads become passable. This is the most economical manner of purchasing, as the goods can be sent by government teams from the Dalles, while if I purchase in this section [I] would have to pay heavy freight bills for packing across the mountains, the wagon road being open only a short time in the summer and fall (from August to middle of Novr.). This agency is not prepared for transporting property from the purchasing points either by wagon or pack train. On the 8th I started on a tour of inspection of the country between the agency and "Yainax," also to visit the owners of fisheries on Lost River to make arrangements for the Indians to have their annual fishing. I arrived at the camp of the Snake Indians (lately hostile) at "Yainax" on the 9th and found the people contented and satisfied with the rations issued them, which have been ample. I remained at Yainax one day and proceeded to the Lost River country, found no one objecting to the Indians fishing in that river. The river is full of fish of the species called sucker, resembling the fish called red horse in the middle and northern states. The fish are of good size for drying and very fat. I returned to the agency on the 12th and gave permission to the Klamaths and Modocs to leave the reservation for 31 days for the purpose of procuring a supply of fish. Most of those people are now on Lost River and under the supervision of their chiefs. I do not anticipate any trouble between them and the whites. The Snakes will be permitted to go fishing as soon as I can furnish them with spears. The Snakes are very poor, destitute of all kinds of Indian property. I propose to issue them those old broken-down horses and one mule now on my papers and which are totally unfit for any kind of service, but will be of some account to the Indians, they having
no horses.
    I am surprised at the policy that has been pursued on this reservation towards civilizing and learning the Indians how to work. This reservation has immense tracts of grazing and meadow and grain land, and there is no stock on the reservation but the few horses and working cattle used by the employees, and the ponies belonging to the Klamaths and Modocs. This reservation should be stocked with sheep, cattle and some good brood mares and stallions. There is plenty of room for 10,000 sheep, and as many cattle. Any amount of hay can be cured for use if severe winters should occur. The sheep and cattle would not interfere with the different pastures or range, plenty for both kinds of stock, and the Indians make good herders. One white employee could superintend all the stock. The result of stocking the reservation with good animals would be that in a few years the Indians would become worth some property, and instead of the few thousand dollars expended by the Department for goods, beef and flour, each year the Indians would spend hundreds of thousands of dollars for supplies of all kinds, and the government relieved of a heavy expense for supporting them. The Indians now live in huts made of bark and mats. They will soon be living in log houses, and when they become more civilized they will be wanting frame houses and furniture like white people. This will give employment to mechanics, and the Indians can pay well, for when their stock is ready for market they can find plenty of buyers. If this country was well supplied with stock these Indians could control the wool market of this section of country, and the cattle buyers of California and Nevada would come here instead of going to Texas after a class of stock that is debarred from many of the states and will be from the two states mentioned this winter. The hide and sheep pelt trade would be also of vast help to the Indians, for instead of the few cattle killed in the winter by the Department, the Indians would kill a large number for their own consumption and could also supply the government garrisons in this vicinity. The stocking of the reservation with cattle would not interfere with the farming operations; in fact with the increase of stock, more land could be cultivated. As it is now, I cannot break any land for the Indians this spring, having no plows for the purpose, have only small plows enough and animals to work them to plow what is called the general farm. This farm comprises about 200 acres of broken land, which I intend to sow with barley, oats, rye, peas, vegetables and spring wheat if I can obtain any for seed. Fall wheat is an uncertain crop, liable to be either frozen or drowned out in this climate. Peas and rye have not been cultivated here. If I succeed with a crop of the latter, it will be a great help to the Indians. The rye will be better than the bald barley, which is a very hard grain and is not good for either Indians or stock. Unless ground cracked or soaked, I believe I can raise oats enough for forage for Department animals, and to exchange for a threshing machine and one or two reapers and mowers, machines that we must have on this reservation for labor-saving purposes and economy in saving grain. I respectfully urge the supplying [of] this reservation with cattle and sheep at an early date, believing that it is the most expeditious plan of improving the condition of the Indians. I agree, with the Hon. Lewis V. Bogy, "that the Indians after being placed on reservations should be furnished with stock of cattle and sheep to raise. At first the cattle and sheep would be eaten by them, but it would not be long before they would find out that the milk of the cow and the wool of the sheep and the meat of the beef as well as the hide and tallow are all very good things, and instead of giving them large quantities of light and useless goods, prints and beads, give them a reasonable allowance of heavy goods until they can make them themselves, and furnish them with spinning and weaving machines. After thus localized and made to depend on their own care in raising their flocks of sheep and heads of cattle, I would then introduce the schoolmaster and the missionary and not before. It is worse than useless to attempt to educate and Christianize a few members of [a] tribe of barbarians. Elevate the whole tribe together. It is slower, but every step taken is maintained."
    Respectfully requesting that the suggestions set forth in this report may be favorably considered by the Department,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



"Yainax" Klamath Reservation Oregon
    February 28th 1870.
Sir:
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month ending with the above date:
    The Indians continue well pleased with their situation, prospects and treatment.
    They now begin to procure more or less roots, fish and game, so I am enabled to reduce somewhat their rations. I shall use every means of economy in my power, aiming to save all the provisions possible for the working parties when the spring opens. I have succeeded in procuring a small amount of tools, which I am using with all diligence in getting out rails. If I am furnished with a supply of axes and iron wedges in time I will be enabled to make quite extensive improvements; however, I will be almost powerless if not furnished with teams for breaking prairie. This Capt. Knapp, Sub-Agent, has promised to do. I hope the plan will meet your hearty approval.
    I would most earnestly urge upon the Dept. the importance of providing these people, at as early a day as possible, with the means of providing them with cattle and sheep, both as a matter of economy to the government and one of the best and surest means of binding them to their homes and reclaiming them from their wild and unsettled habits. There is probably no place on the Pacific Coast better adapted to stock raising than the extensive valleys and hills embraced in this reservation. There is little need of feeding stock, as is proven by the fact that horses in large numbers have not only wintered themselves, but have remained in good condition during all seasons of the year. I feel that it is unnecessary for me to enumerate the many advantages to accrue to both the Indians and genl. govt. by the adoption of this policy.
    No people have ever manifested a greater desire to lay aside their wild Indian habits and to adopt those of civilized life than the "Snakes lately hostile."
    They have already to a wonderful degree lost their hitherto perfect faith in "conjurism" or the power of "spiritual medicine men," as is evidenced by their perfect willingness to take medicines from white people.
    Notwithstanding the destitute and depraved condition of those people, they are the most virtuous I have known during more than twenty-six years among the Indians of this state, there not being a prostitute among them. They are becoming more and more pleased with this country, as they learn of its vast advantages. Fish, game and roots will soon be abundant, and they do not fail to see the broad valleys and bottoms of rich land. They are anxious to assist in getting all their people now off reservations to come and make their homes here with them.
    It would be impossible for any person endowed with a reasonable amount of charity, honesty and humanity to see those poor people reduced as they are to the very lowest depths of equalled poverty and frightful ignorance, struggling manfully against a cruel destiny, without at once feeling a wonderful interest in their improvement.
I am very respectfully
    Your most obedient servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Com. for Snake Indians
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
        In Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 389-391.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    March 7th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commr. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I see by the Army and Navy Journal that I have been relieved from duty as Indian agent on the recommendation of the Hon. Secretary of the Interior. I have also been shown a letter from Dr. McKay (physician for this reservation) to one of the teachers, in which [it] is stated "that reports have been circulated that while the Captain was in Jacksonville his associations and dealings were with Copperheads exclusively." If I have been relieved by reason of such reports made by parties who want the position I now hold as sub-agent, I respectfully request you to so inform me, that I may call for a court of inquiry before proceeding to my home. I do not want any such charges to appear on my record at Washington. Knowing that I was to be surrounded by parties who would do all in their power to injure me and gain some benefit for themselves, I have been guarded in my actions and am not afraid to stand the test of either a military or civil investigation.
    I made a bitter enemy of the old agent by relieving him, and it is through his influence that these reports have emanated. If I had taken the advice of the officers at Fort Klamath and other persons on this reservation, I would have discharged all the old agent's relations, five in all, and would have saved myself trouble. I now see my error in retaining them. I have shown great leniency in not reporting him for not transferring the funds and records promptly and laid myself liable, but this being a new duty to me I desired to learn it harmoniously with the old employees and so retained them. I have discharged two of his sons, and would the third, but he is not under my orders.
    Since assuming charge of this reservation I have been ordered by the Superintendent to Jacksonville twice, both times unnecessarily. The first journey was to receive checks on the Treasurer at San Francisco, and to try and convert them into currency. (See my report for Nov. '69.) This money should have been deposited to my credit with the Asst. Treasurer and not placed in my hands, which would have saved me a hard journey of 200 miles across the mountains and expense to myself and the government. The second journey was made to procure flour and other supplies, which could have been obtained at the trader's, but my order was positive to buy from a certain firm. The flour cost 13⅓ cts. and the expense of my journey (had to hire transportation, there being none at the agency), while it could have been had at 10 cts. from the trader. The trader sold his flour to the firm I purchased from. The other articles I purchased from men who were recommended to me by the officers at the fort and other parties, as I had no acquaintance with any business men of the town. They are the leading firms of Jacksonville. I did not ask their politics, neither did I care what they were if they filled my orders at the lowest rates.
    I do not desire to remain on this duty; did not like it when I first entered into it, but have since taking an interest in the welfare of the Indian, believing he can be made a citizen, I have laid out a new policy, different from the old one, and that does not suit certain parties. A policy that is to benefit the Indian and not the agent's and employees' purse, therefore I make enemies.
    Having no "friend at court," I appeal to you for justice. You can refer to any of the officers of the fort or the employees on this reservation, or to the Indians, as to my conduct officially and unofficially.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 252-255.



"Yainax" Klamath Reservation Ogn.
    March. 8th 1870
Captain:
    I would most respectfully report through your office to A. B. Meacham, Supt. Indn. Affrs., the following facts in regard to actions of Snake Indians at this place:
    Those people have been suffering from colds and coughs for some time. It appears that the "medicine men" decided that a certain woman was the cause of the sickness, and it was with the full sanction of the chief decided that she should be put to death, which decision was duly executed on March 1st inst. under the following circumstances, which said women was on [the] trail, going to Lost River, while about three miles and a half from "Yainax" was shot through the head and instantly killed. I did not learn of the murder until three days after it had been committed, when I went with "Ocheho," the chief, and five of his men, and buried the murdered woman, who had been stripped and left by the roadside.
    This band appear much excited, and I have good reason to believe that any attempt to arrest the guilty party would be attended with great danger unless assisted by a sufficient force. I shall be happy to take whatever action in the above case you may see fit to order or advise.
I am with respect
    Your most obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Com. for Snake Indians.
Capt.
    O. C. Knapp
        U.S.A. U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, no number.



Klamath Sub-Agency, Orgn.
    March 15th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comsr. Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I respectfully report that on the 16th of December 1869 I delivered to A. B. Meacham the sum of $7,744.36 funds pertaining to this agency for which I am accountable, to be deposited by him to my credit with the Asst. Treasurer at San Francisco. This has not been done, and Mr. Meacham does not answer my letters on the subject. He promised to attend to the deposit as soon as he arrived at Salem, as I had to issue checks as soon as I returned to this agency from [the] Modoc expedition (Jany. 3rd I returned). My checks have been returned. No funds with the Treasurer. I have to pay for purchases and employees this month, also to transfer the funds to my successor. A dispatch to the Superintendent will cause him to attend to his official duties instead of political matters. Respectfully requesting that the Supt.'s attention be called to his neglect without delay.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.A.A. Inf. Ind. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 256-257.



Link River Bridge
    Jackson County Oregon
        March 16th 1870
To the Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                We, the undersigned citizens of Link River and Lost River valleys, living in the vicinity of the Klamath Indian Reservation, having learned that Captain O. C. Knapp, U.S. sub-Indian agent for that reservation, is to be relieved, we would therefore respectfully request that Capt. Knapp should be returned on duty at that reservation. Since Capt. Knapp has had charge of the Indians we have not been molested or disturbed in any manner, and our property has been more secure than for years past. The policy adopted by Capt. Knapp is conducive to the best interests of the Indians and citizens; we are more deeply interested in having a good agent than any other citizens of this county, our farms and stock being contiguous to the reservation. The Captain has always shown himself to be an honorable, temperate and efficient officer since he has been on Klamath Reservation, and to the best of our knowledge the Indians are well satisfied with him and with him to be retained.
    Henry I. White R. M. Beard
Wm. M. Moody John Shook
J. R. Mecum T. J. Richards
F. M. Wright J. N. Shook
T. M. Rouse Dennis E. Crawly
Alfred Law John N. Thomas
John V. Kuhn George C. Thomas
William Roberts M. J. Murray
Thieu Meyer W. T. Harris
Paul Liebermann John Braun
Wesley Cole J. W. Miller
Stephen Stukel J. J. Jones
F[illegible] Tripp T. M. Ballard
H. White David Duvall
Joe Lutz Chas. C. Brigham
Chas. Blair J. Whrit
A. M. Poe Thomas Anderson
John W. Poe Frank Hefling
J. M. Poe George Fiock
W. H. Horton G. Hahn
J. R. Stearnes C. H. Farnham
D. Shook And. J. Burnett
James H. Calahan Wm. Angle
Edward Turing O. A. Stearns
I. H. Hudson Isaac J. Tripp
Henry F. Miller Joseph Seeds
W. F. Barey H. L. Robinson
Wm. Dingman I. Turner
H. Reilmann A. F. Woodruff
Daniel Barns James Barnes
Benjamin Walden
T. F. Ridle [Riddle]
John Fulkinson
Chs. Harris
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 532-535.



Mr. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir
            I have to thank you for your very full letter (H.R.C.) of Mch. 15th to me in relation to claim on the Indian Department for 640.00.
    It reveals to me in full what I have long expected, to wit, that J. W. P. Huntington did receive from me by my own mistake in putting into the envelope my 2 checks destined for D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer, and sending to him with a letter I was also writing at the same time.
    I ever feared some of the low crowd ever hanging on the Indian agent would get my money.
    The names of Hill, Megginson & H. Carpenter are forgeries or are procured under some false pretense of them. Ignorant but honest they are, I believe now. The records for a year prior to 1865 in your office in your letter books show me to have been the attorney of said parties.
    A letter of the Indian agent J. W. P. Huntington soon to be before you by my atty. Mr. C. M. Carter will show you I was the atty. and did receive said pay as atty. (he demanding a % he had failed to charge he said).
    He proffered to issue new checks 316 & 318 when I should give a bond & the bond I tendered, then he had some other excuse. Had I this information years ago I could have had an action for fraud. I have been willfully robbed.
    You know doubtless well enough the parties to blank vouchers always have to sign in advance of getting pay. You say if it can be proven he gave checks &c. & [illegible] his own handwriting shows it [and] admits his error in sending the one 316 for 440 & sending the one 318 for $200--
    Even D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer, writes me at one time "The fund for paying said checks is a special fund and must remain for the presentation of said checks." Now what I will call your attention to is as I am the recognized atty. & the checks were issued to "A. D. Barnard atty." in filing this bond why go back to 3 parties when I was the atty. of record & can furnish a good & sufficient bond.
    They may be struggling in Alaska or mayhap dead. I swear they were by me paid or were entirely uninterested in the checks from the moment I did pay them. Please reflect at the injustice of the case, the delay I have suffered. Examine the correspondence with the sub-treasurer at the S.F. office. The records these 30 days after I got the more they were not received will show I was entitled to 640 in 2 checks, 316 & 318.
    I think I at once wrote J. Huntington & got a statement that I was entitled to & saw checks & transmitted that to D. W. Cheesman, sub-treasurer.
Respectfully
    A. D. Barnard
San Buenaventura
    Mch. 26 1870
   

Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Aug. 28, 1865.
Sir
    I take great pleasure in informing you that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs has directed me to pay the claims which you have so often presented to this office for payment. The enclosed extract from the Commissioner's instructions to this office in relation to the matter will acquaint you with the reasons which have governed the action of the Department on this subject, and afford you some general insight into the mode of transacting business at Washington.
    The vouchers in your hands, which are mentioned in the Commissioner's letter, will be paid upon presentation at this office.
I remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            J. W. Perit Huntington
                Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
A. D. Barnard Esq.
    Corvallis
   

[in Barnard's handwriting, written on back of August 28, 1865 letter, above]
    Filed by A. D. Barnard of S. Buenaventura, Cal. to show I was paid the claim Hill, Megginson, Carpenter = 640.
    By reference to the file of the Indian Office you will see copies of letters sent to J. W. P. Huntington merely--Mr. Commissioner W. P. Dole sent to me to show me J.W.P.H. was instructed & had been to pay this aforesaid claim.
    I ask for a reasonable demand, that I give bond in twice the amt. for 640. It took near six letters to the chief of the Indian Bureau to force the pay from J. W. P. Huntington.
A. D. Barnard
   
Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Oct. 25, 1865.
Sir
    Your letter without date, concerning the Briggs claim, is received. Check No. 327 is herewith sent by express as you direct. Amt. $195.00 less $1.35 fed. tax = $193.65. I do not draw checks to "order" because I am forbidden to do by instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Asst. Treasurer is forbidden to pay any check drawn to "order," and never has paid any such. [Barnard wrote "Lie" by the preceding statement.] You will see the propriety of my conforming to these instructions, instead of making my rule of "mercantile United States and world generally" my guide as you propose.
    After the surrender of a Treasury warrant, properly endorsed, the Asst. Treasurer's responsibility is concluded. He will of course send the money by any channel designated. But he does not and will not upon a certified voucher, and I will not, except in such manner as to ensure responsibility in case of loss. In this I am governed by a very common practice of the mercantile world, to wit, to avoid sending money in the mail. [Barnard: "Observe his quibble; it was a warrant to me."] That this is sometimes deviated from does not alter the case. While I regret that Mr. Briggs has been deprived of the use of his money for three weeks additional by your refusal to pay expressage upon the package containing the money, I cannot consent to change the rule I have hitherto followed. In future please to understand that if you forward certified vouchers to this office with request to return your check, it will go in express with its value marked on the outside.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Perit Huntington
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
A. D. Barnard Esq.
    Corvallis, Oregon
   

[in Barnard's handwriting, written on back of October 25, 1865 letter, above]
    The enclosed letter, filed by A. D. Barnard of San Buenaventura as corroborative testimony in the case of his claim of 640.00.
    It was about this Briggs claim I was writing at the time. I had in my possession the 2 checks 316 & 318 ready to mail to the sub-treasurer, but which I believe I must have put in an envelope addressed to Huntington & he kept them.
    Now this shows he got the checks in this case. I ask--does this paper show any recpt. from Briggs dissimilar to the ones of Hill, Megginson [and] Carpenter, or are all the recpts. you mention merely recpts. anyone (most wrongfully) has to sign in advance of pay on presenting their triplicate set of vouchers for pay, perhaps to be got in 1 year's time.
    We had a U.S. mail. I had asked to have all checks sent by mail as to send express cost $1 to $2.00, which my clients disliked.
    I claim this a case of flagrant robbery. I can show you in Huntington's handwriting that then I was mailed to me checks 316 & 318 as atty. I believe there is such a letter on file in the office of Indian Affairs today.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 139-149.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon March 22th 1870
Sir
    Late Supt. Huntington, prior to his transferring this office to me, drew two checks, one on U.S. Asst. Treas. San Francisco, Cal. dated April 2nd 1869 for $700.00 in favor of Amos Harvey, then Indian agent at Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon. Shortly after Agent Harvey was relieved and instructed to turn over all public moneys and property to Charles Lafollett, who had been appointed to succeed him as U.S. Indian agent, and in the transfer this check was turned over by the outgoing to the incoming agent as so much money. Before the check was presented at the proper desk for payment, late Supt. Huntington died, and further payment of his checks was stopped.
    The other check was drawn on the U.S. Asst. Treas., New York, dated [blank] 1869 for $50.00 in favor of Messrs. Bowen & Cranston in part payment for tobacco furnished the Indn. Dept. This check was duly presented at the proper desk and payment refused, no reason given at the time. Now Messrs. Bowen & Cranston present this check (and justly too) as a claim against the Indian Dept.
    Agent Lafollett still holds said check for $700.00 and desires that some arrangement may be made whereby this money may be used for the object for which it is designed.
    I hope to be advised in this matter at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indn. Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 369-371.



Camp Yainax, Klamath Oregon
    Mar. 31st 1870
Sir:
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month just ended:
    As reported early in the month an Indian woman was put to death, her people believing their own safety demanded it. I am able to say that although this unfortunate affair created considerable excitement, it has so far subsided that all looks favorable again. The chiefs and headmen express a desire that the settlement of this trouble be left to the judgment of the Superintendent, and I hope such will meet your approval.
    On the 15th inst. twelve Snake Indians, three (3) men, three (3) women and six (6) children, came in from Silver Lake. They are highly pleased with the prospect here and say they will be able to bring in during the coming summer upon the reservation a number of their people. A part of the Indians are on Lost River, fifteen miles from here, drying fish. I am not issuing any provisions now, except to those who are making rails.
I am with high respect
    Your most obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Com. for Snake Indians
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affrs.
            for Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Sub-Agency Oregon
    April 4th 1870
Hon E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor to submit the following "Report of Condition of this Sub-Agency" for the month of March.
    The Indians returned from their fishing on expiration of time and brought home immense supplies of fish. Their conduct while absent from the reservation was better than ever before, as I am informed by citizens of Lost River Valley.
    Before the Modocs left the reservation I gave the chief, Captain Jack, instructions to bring back with him the Modocs who remained out when the Superintendent visited him last winter. He brought in forty-three Indians; three families numbering about fifteen persons.refused to come with him. I called for a detail of soldiers from Fort Klamath, and on the 17th started after these Indians, found them at Hat Creek Cala. on the 19th and returned to the agency on the 23rd. Had no trouble in bringing them in. All of the Modocs excepting a few women are now on the reservation. These women I do not care about, as they are prostitutes, and it is better for the other Indians that they are away. Twelve Snake Indians have come in this month, making a total of twelve hundred and fifty Indians now on the reservation, classed as follows. Klamaths 567, Modocs 324, Snakes 352, Molel 7. Farming operations are backward this spring, weather very rough this month. The employees have been engaged in preparing implements for farm work and building bridges, have completed a substantial bridge over Crooked Creek between the agency and the fort, and another over Williamson's River on the road to Yainax, besides other improvements in fences &c. at agency. On the 7th Mr. I. D. Applegate, Commissary for the Snake Indians, reported through me to the Superintendent the murder of a woman of that tribe. The reason assigned for the act was that the woman was a witch and had killed several Indians by her sorcery. The Snakes being very much excited about the affair and not as far advanced as the other Indians, the Commissary deemed it best not to take any action in the matter until a decision from the Superintendent was received. On the night of the 25th Joe Hood (Indian), Snake interpreter, was murdered by a Molel Indian named Spike. The murderer was arrested on the morning of the 26th and brought to trial before myself and the chiefs. He pled guilty to the act, and stated as his reason for committing the deed that he wanted to die. There was no quarrel between Hood and Spike. He was sentenced to be hung and was promptly executed at 7 minutes past 1 o'clock on the 26th. Hood was one of the best Indians on the reservation, always on duty, and a faithful worker. The Molels on the reservation are desperate characters requiring close watching. Have one now in irons as punishment for threatening the life of a Klamath.
    I respectfully ask attention to report of January relative to the absence of the physician. Complaints are continually coming in about his absence, and I am unable to render the assistance the sick require. No attention has been paid to my communications addressed to the Superintendent on affairs concerning this agency. On the 16th December '69 I gave the Superintendent $7,744.30 funds pertaining to this agency, to be deposited to my credit with the Assistant Treasurer, San Francisco. The Supt. promised faithfully to attend to the deposit as soon as he arrived at Salem, knowing that I would have to issue checks in payment of vouchers. I, supposing he would not neglect the business, issued checks, and they were returned with the reply "no funds on hand." No answers to my inquiries received from the Superintendent until April 1st, he having kept the funds in his hands over three months, the parties cashing the checks having to wait that time for their money, I having no funds in my hands to redeem them.
    I earnestly yet respectfully urge upon the Department the necessity of the agent being furnished with the money appropriated for building mills and other property. This money should be in the hands of the agents and not with the Superintendent. The agent has to do the work and is the responsible party for his agency. He has to take up the property and account for it, and I cannot see why the funds are withheld. The agent is present with the Indians and knows what his agency requires better than anyone else. It is impossible to make this reservation what it should be for the want of funds that have been appropriated but not furnished the agent.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 19th 1870
Sir,
    I have to inform you that Dr. Wm. C. McKay will tender you his resignation as physician at Klamath Agency to take effect May 15 next and further that I have employed to fill the vacancy thereby created Dr. Chas. H. Hall of this city, who will doubtless be at your agency at the time indicated.
    Also to say that I have appointed Dr. Wm. C. McKay Superintendency Commissary to date from the day of his resignation as physician at Klamath. You will turn over to him on his order the Williams wagon and harness, together with ten work mules including what was the Williams team last fall, reserving for your own use if needed one pair of mules or two pairs if necessity demands. Also camp equipage including kitchen &c.
    You will make out and forward a requisition for such articles as are most in demand in time to forward by 10th of June. I have urged the Commissioner for mill funds but have not yet received any definite answer in regard thereto. You will render Dr. McKay such assistance as he may require in fitting out team &c. for the Dalles, also should Ocheho, chief of Snake Indians at Yainax, desire to accompany such expedition for the purpose of recovering the women and children belonging to his band, you will give him a pass indicating the object of his journey. Should Ocheho wish to take with him two, three or even five of his people it would seem proper to grant such persons necessary passes.
    I met Capt. Smith, who has been detailed to take charge of Klamath in your stead, at the Dalles. He was then en route to Yakima to transfer to Lt. Wham and thought he would arrive at Klamath about the 10th of May.
    Gratified [that] your report together with that of Commissary Applegate indicate a health condition of affairs in your agency,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 386-387.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Salem Oregon [April] 19, 1870
Washington Apl. 19, 7:11 p.m.
    Hon. E. S. Parker
        Comr.
When will funds be furnished for erection of mills at Klamath. If this season, work should commence immediately.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 372-373.



Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            April 20th, 1870.
Sir:
    I am in receipt of a letter from S. D. Van Dyke, dated the 29th of February last, requesting to be informed of the amount of a voucher issued by the late Sub-Agent Applegate in his favor for services rendered as teacher at the Klamath Agency during the 3rd quarter 1869 and filed with the accounts of the late sub-agent for said quarter and claiming that he has not been paid for services rendered for the month of September 1869.
    By the accounts of the late sub-agent for the 3rd quarter 1869, recently received at this office, it appears from a voucher issued in favor of Mr. Van Dyke that services were rendered by him for the month of September and that he received pay therefor amounting to $104.71. You will please ascertain and advise this office whether Mr. Van Dyke has actually been paid the amount called for in said voucher.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. S. Parker
            Commissioner
A. B. Meacham, Esq.
    Superintendent Indian Affairs,
        Salem,
            Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 59.



Forty-First Congress U.S.
    House of Representatives
        Washington, D.C. Apr. 21 1870
Col. Ely S. Parker
    Com. of Indian Affairs
        Sir
            I desire to submit the enclosed letter to you and ask its favorable consideration and action in the case.
I am sir
    [omission]
        W. Loughridge
Please return me the letter.
   

Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    March 30th 1870
Hon. Wm. Loughridge
    Washington D.C.
My Dear Sir
    You may not anticipate a letter at this time from Oregon, but as yours is the only acquaintance I have in Congress I find it necessary to write to you whenever I need assistance in Washington.
    I am now executing the duties of Ind. sub-agent and came to this place last July (1869) under orders from the War Dept. and Commissioner Parker, and what I desire now is to secure a change from this agency to some one more desirable. I can present many good reasons why this change is asked for, but a few of the most urgent will suffice. In the first place there is allowed but one employee (supt. of farming) to the reservation excepting an interpreter, whose salary is so small that a white man cannot be secured by it. Thus to manage a reservation with 500 Indians I have the assistance of one man. I have been compelled to perform the duties of physician, carpenter, blacksmith &c., but propose doing it no longer; further, the amt. of funds furnished the agency by the Supt. of Ind. Affairs for this state out of the fund for "Removal & Subsistence of Indians in Oregon" and "General Incidental Fund" (Inds. here not being treated with) so far amounts only to $1,500, exclusive of salary to employees for the current year under appropriation of Congress in 1869. This is far short of the portion due the agency, and as I have applied three times for more funds without receiving a reply, I can have but little expectation of satisfaction. Out of funds recd. I have been barely able by economy to pay current expenses and furnish a few farming implements for the reservation. The Indians have been furnished with nothing in shape of clothing, in subsistence, and justly complain of being kept upon a reservation under such treatment when if the gov. would let them go they could earn a good living. These facts were represented to the heads of the Dept. in the state & at Washington, and here it is well for me to say that I have yet to receive the first communication from the Supt. of Ind. Affairs for Ogn., whilst I have applied to him for instructions and information of importance. His hostility to the assignment of army officers under his jurisdiction is notorious, and these are the only reasons I can assign for his indifference towards this agency.
    The Siletz Agency is but 30 miles from this and might be under the charge of one agent. This I recommended last fall both to Supt. & Commissioner of Ind. Affairs, but have heard nothing from it, as such action would jeopardize the position of the civil agent in charge & therefore be opposed to it by the Supt. of Ind. Affairs, that agency having a full corps of employees whose duty could extend to this reservation, thus be a matter of economy and redound in a great advantage to this agency without detriment to the others.
    I might go on and enumerate but have already been too lengthy. You can understand the situation; none of it have I colored in the least.
    I wish to ask you to do me the kindness to see Commissioner Parker and ask of him to assign me to the charge of some other agency. I am not particular where, excepting it be to a place where there is a corps of employees and where I can be on a level with other agents. Unless some change is made I will be compelled--in justice to myself--to apply to be relieved from duty in the Ind. Dept.
    Hoping you will give this your attention at your early convenience and apprise me of the result
I remain truly yours
    F. A. Battey
        Lt. U.S.A.
Please address me at--
    Newport, Benton Co., Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 268-272.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 25th 1870
Sir
    Your letter of 13th inst. concerning beef and flour is received.
    The following statement will explain the matter as it stands in this office.
    On starting my expedition to Southeastern Oregon to collect and remove Indians, I purchased at Dalles 3350 lbs. flour. About the same time I ordered 20000 lbs. from Wagner, McCall &c. to be delivered at Klamath Agency, making a total of 23,350 lbs., out of which I issued to Indians at Camp Harney 4000 lbs., at Yainax 9800 lbs., to Modocs 2400 lbs., to Klamaths 3600 lbs. and expended in expedition 1550 lbs., making a total of 19,350 lbs., leaving a balance of on hand of 3000 lbs., for which I enclose receipts in triplicate. Also the beef delivered at Yainax by D. J. Ferrel contractor (viz. 16510 lbs.) on same receipt which you will please sign and return to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Klamath Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 393.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 25th 1870
Sir
    I desire to call your attention to the accompanying report of I. D. Applegate [above, under date February 28], who has the immediate charge of Snake Indians brought to Yainax Klamath Agency November last. Capt. Applegate is acting as "special commissary" for Snake Indians by appointment of my predecessor, and continued by me in that position. You are aware that these Snakes have been but recently subjugated by Genl. Crook and are still "wild," requiring great care to manage them successfully and keep in subjection. I know Applegate personally and also as to his peculiar fitness for the position he now occupies, he being a strictly moral man in the fullest sense of the word, and has had from childhood abundant opportunities to learn Indian heart, character and peculiarities. I mention these things that you may know how to estimate his services and his opinion on Indian matters, present and future, as I propose to continue him in the service.
    You will understand from his report that we are making an effort to open a farm at Yainax for these Indians, and also have them perform the labor as far as possible. This they are willing to do to a considerable extent, and in order to make a successful thing of it more funds are necessary to purchase tools, teams, supplies and also some white man's help. You will see the point I am driving at is for more money. The amount of the Snakes' fund has been expended. My accts. for Dec., Jan., Feb. and Mar. will show for what purpose and how and wherefor. I have endeavored to manage the fund economically, and under the circumstances I am satisfied with the showing.
    Of the original appropriation of last year $55,000 was the total amount for removal, establishment and subsistence of Shoshones in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon at Ft. Hall, Klamath or Siletz reservation. One third of that amount has been remitted to my credit and expended as above reported.
    In your communication of August 30th 1869, in reply to my letter of August 10th 1869, you say: "Not knowing the probable number that will settle on the respective reservations, it has been determined to set aside one third of the funds appropriated as aforesaid for those in Oregon that may be placed on the Klamath Reservation." From which I suppose one third was still in reserve for Siletz, or at least unapplied. I most respectfully ask that this fund be placed to the credit of the Supt. in Oregon since no probability exists of the removal of any part of said Indians to Siletz, and since the Indians at Yainax are really located and entering with earnestness in the new life offered them. My opinion is that if this attempt at colonizing Snake Indians is continued as begun, by keeping faith with them, making farms, houses, mills &c., that all the Snakes now off the reservation may be ordered to come on and locate at a minimal cost to government. Already several families have come in since the settlement of Ocheho last Nov., and several more are reported as coming. This gives no reason for the above opinion. The people have a primitive telegraphic or mail facility by which even the smallest incident is sometimes known hundreds of miles away. I mention this to give you the probable influence and good results to come from a prompt and proper treatment of these Indians at Yainax. In this connection I would state that I have had several "talks" with Genl. Crook in regard to removal of [the] "Harney Snakes," but so far have not settled definitely on any place. I think however that Genl. Crook will visit that country soon and on his return we will arrive at some understanding about the matter. In the meantime, I sincerely hope funds will be furnished to make good the promises by government to "take care of them." It is cheaper to feed and clothe than to fight Indians, more humane and more in accord with our own Christian ideas of right.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 393-394.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 384-388.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 26, 1870
Sir
    By reference to your communication of February 5th 1870 I find that you report having on hand at that date $975.00 applicable to the payment of laborers Lee, Rockfellow, Spencer and Grubb. You are hereby authorized to settle the liabilities specified, also such others incurred since Jan. 1st 1869 as you have funds applicable to the settlement of [omission] provided that such accounts were presented as duly certified by your predecessor Mr. Applegate.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp, U.S.A.
    Indian Sub-Agt.
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 394.



[Telegram]
Ashland Apl. 28 1870
    Apl. 28 1870 8:15 p.m.
To A. B. Meacham
    McKay left with stallion for agency today. Rumored that Modocs have left reservation.
J. M. McCall
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 49.



Ashland Oregon
    April 28th 1870
A. B. Meacham Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Aff. Org.
        Sir
            I have purchased a four-year-old Norman stallion of E. F. Walker which I am confident it will answer the purpose.
    Capt. McCall is responsible for the money. The price set is two hundred and fifty dollars $250 in coin or at legal tender at 88% according to the present rates here. Please [omission] and forward [as] soon as practicable to Capt. McCall.
I am sir yours most respectfully
    Wm. C. McKay
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 53.



[Telegram]
Ashland 30 1870
    Apl. 30 1870 10:45 a.m.
To A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Modocs have all left reservation. No military force at Fort Klamath to bring them back. What shall I do?
O. C. Knapp
    U.S.A. Sub-Ind. Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 54.



Camp Yainax Klamath Reservation Ogn.
    April 30 1870
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following as my report for the month ending with the above date, viz:
    During the first ten days of the month, the Indians were engaged in packing their dried fish from Lost River.
    On the 17th ult. I was enabled to enter the woods with a small party of Indians and commence splitting rails, notwithstanding the weather was quite stormy, more or less snow falling, the Indians barefoot and thinly clad. They worked faithfully, splitting two thousand and seven hundred (2,700) rails the first week. On the 18th more Indians joined the working party, and it is only fair to say no people have done better work under similar circumstances, having up to date split ten thousand six hundred (10,600) rails.
    The whole amount of tools furnished being ten (10) old condemned axes, fourteen (14) maul rings and eight (8) iron wedges. The distance to the dept. shops makes it impossible to keep our small stock of tools in repair, so we are driven to the most rigid economy, using rings from our ox yokes for maul rings and making garden with wooden hoes.
    On the 17th I received notice from Captain O. C. Knapp to send him two yoke of work oxen, also Mr. P. W. Caris. On the 18th we started one breaking plow, which has been kept running with all possible diligence ever since. The remainder of the cattle (four yoke) have been used plowing when not engaged harrowing in grain. Have plowed and sown in barley, rice, turnips &c. fifteen (15) acres.
    The Indians have furnished teamsters and used their own horses in herding and getting up the oxen for use, in fact have in every way rendered every assistance in their power, all without asking or expecting pay.
    Since Mr. Caris was ordered to the agency, I have had the assistance of Silas Kilgore (farmer), Chas. Preston (interpreter) and Mr. Alex McKay all have worked hard.
    The Indians are well pleased with their prospects; all that's wanted now to make them even more than self-supporting is a good supply of tools and means to keep the same in repair.
    Three Indians of Ocheho's band, who had worked for white men in Surprise Valley and had left some skins &c. there, went away without my knowledge or that of their chief, who on finding it out immediately sent two reliable men after them. They are expected to return in a few days.
    Donald McKay arrived here on the 26th ult. from Camp Warner, bringing twelve (12) Indians belonging to Ocheho's band. Nineteen (19) Modoc Indians came here from Lost River asking to be enrolled along with
Mo-shen-koska's people to whom they are related, with the consent of Captain O. C. Knapp. I done so, and find them of considerable assistance in showing wild Indians how to work. They are satisfied here.
    The ground plowed and planted should be fenced in without delay, as it is already exposed to the bands of Indian horses, and droves of cattle may soon be expected on both roads leading through this valley. I have but one wagon here and barely teams enough to keep the plowing and seeding going ahead.
I am sir with high respect
    Your most obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Comr. for Snake Indns.
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affrs.
            for Oregon.
    Respectfully forwarded. I have divided my tools with the Snakes to start the work there. Funds should be furnished for beneficial objects for the Snakes. It is not right to use the appropriation for the Klamaths and Modocs. After May 15th I will have but four yoke of oxen and four horses and mules. You will readily see how I am situated, have not funds enough to buy horses or mules & harness or would do so. A great deal of work will have to be put off until the next year. The Indians were expecting a great deal, and now my plans are all knocked in the head by taking animals from me before replacing those you promised. The fault lies with the Supt.
O. C. Knapp
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath Agency, Oregon
            May 2nd, 1870.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Headquarters
    Fort Klamath, Oregon
        May 1st 1870
Hon. Ely S. Parker
    Comsr. Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
Sir,
    As I understand that Captain O. C. Knapp U.S.A., U.S. sub-agent Klamath Reservation, has, upon the reports of citizens that he is intemperate and neglects the interest of the government and Indians, been relieved as agent, and for the reasons just stated, I take the liberty, very respectfully, to address you upon the subject.
    So far as intemperance is concerned (and I have had good opportunities for observing), Captain Knapp has, to the best of my knowledge, never even been under the influence of liquor since he has been at the agency.
    As to his efficiency as an agent, no one who saw the condition of everything on the reservation a year ago would believe it to be the same place. The Indians are under the best of discipline. The grounds about the agency are kept as thoroughly policed as a military post. And everything is in absolutely good condition.
    Captain Knapp is an energetic and practical business man. He found it necessary upon assuming control of Klamath Agency (but with, I believe, the approval of Supt. Meacham) to bear down somewhat severely upon a family who for some time had recd. good things in connection with former control of agency--members of that family have, since that time, done their utmost to injure Capt. Knapp by false and slanderous reports, in which it seems they have been quite successful.
    It cannot be said that I am especially interested, or at all partial, for Capt. K., as, otherwise than officially, I have for some time been scarcely on speaking terms with him (owing perhaps to a personal misunderstanding only interesting ourselves). Yet my sense of justice will not allow me to be silent but constrains me to write at considerable length. This letter is written without his knowledge, and I would prefer that he should remain ignorant as to my having written at all.
    I trust, General, you will pardon my interference, and if you can understand my motive, know that you will.
I have the honor to be sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obedt. servt.
            G. A. Goodale
                1st Lieut. 23rd Inf.
                    Bvt. Capt. U.S.A.
                        Comdg.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 231-234.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    May 2nd 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham,
    Supt. Ind. Affairs,
        Salem, Orgn.,
            Sir
                I have the honor to inform you that I have forwarded requisitions for property actually required in addition to the stores already called for. A six months supply of stationery should be sent. Your clerk knows what is required. All kinds of paper except foolscap and unruled flat cap are needed, also black & red ink & mucilage--and official envelopes--have plenty of small size--flat cap paper ruled for returns--especially for abstracts, none on hand.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 66.



Klamath Agency, Oregon.
    May 2nd 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to submit the following "Report of Condition" of this sub-agency for the month of April 1870.
    Farming operations commenced on the 14th, four plows running, should have been eight, but had not teams to run more. Ninety (90) acres of land have been plowed and sown in peas, rye, oats & barley, very little rye put in, the seed being full of dirt. As much more land will be planted next month with oats, barley and turnips. The small lots of land broken last year for the Indians at their ranches will be sown next month in turnips and carrots. If the season is favorable, a larger crop will be raised this year than ever before on this reservation. More attention [is] being paid to preparing the land and putting in the seeds, the great drawback being the want of teams enough to run all the plows. Had to send two plows and ten yoke of oxen to Yainax. The number should be double that, and then not large enough. At this agency I have four yoke of oxen and fourteen horses and mules. Ten of those animals with harness leave here next month for the Dalles, leaving the agency only four working horses and mules, a number wholly inadequate for the work that [needs to] be done. I would purchase mules and harness, they being better adapted to this country than oxen, but I have not the funds. Therefore the work that was laid out for this year will have to be laid over until next year, which will be a very great wrong to the Indians, so having been promised by the Superintendent and not made good.
    But there is no help for it, the agent being powerless to work without the necessary materials. It is discouraging to be placed in such a position. It is a great injustice to officers, employees and the Indians. There are employees on this reservation who have from six months to one and two years pay due; others who have been discharged still have claims due as far back as '67, but not a word can be heard from their vouchers, which have been receipted by them and certified to by the former agent. I have in my possession a list of outstanding debts against this agency furnished by the former agent which amounts to $5,845. The vouchers for the same are in the possession of the Superintendent, and he promised faithfully last December when here that he would attend to those claims when he returned to Salem. He also said that he had furnished Mr. Applegate funds to pay up all claims incurred during his (Applegate's) term of office. If such was the case, why did Applegate have to give certified vouchers. I will have to give certified vouchers to most of my employees if funds are not furnished in the next ten days, no attention having been paid to my estimate of funds required, although forwarded in time, and all my returns have been rendered promptly to the Superintendent, leaving no excuse why I should not be supplied. The former agent was cursed by almost everyone connected with the agency for not paying. They would not believe that he had not received the funds until I took possession. It is time the money affairs of this agency were placed in proper order.
    On the night of the 25th the Modoc Indians left the reservation. The reason assigned for leaving was that they did not want to be kept moving around. On the 15th I told them that they must move, that they had no good water or land and no timber, that they could select their own land on the river six miles north, where there was good land, timber and water, and I would start a farm for them. They agreed to move. On the 21st I visited the Indians on the river and found the Modocs still three miles from the river. They had moved only three miles from their old camp and had not bettered their situation. I then ordered them to move to the river the next day. That they did not intend to stay after I stopped issuing rations is well known, and I wanted them to be where they could be watched. They were camped on the trail south of the other Indians and could slip out easily. If brought back, the chief Jack and his medicine men should be made an example of, being bad men. The balance of the tribe could be easily controlled. There are 90 men, 129 women and 96 children gone. (19 Modocs came in this month and joined the Wall-pah-pe Snakes and say they are satisfied with the reservation.)
    I have taken no steps towards bringing them back, there being an insufficient military force at Fort Klamath to accomplish any good. There are no horses at the fort suitable for an expedition, and if there was, there are not equipments for more than twelve. The men are not riders and are not to be trusted; if a detachment was to go, one half of them would desert. The last detail I had I lost one half, and the men declare that all they want is to be sent out on an expedition, thereby having a good opportunity of getting away with a horse and equipments. Six have deserted this month, and it [is] a well-known fact that others are going the first opportunity. The Indians have been used in searching for deserters but are not successful in apprehending them. I earnestly request that a full company of cavalry be sent here at once. There is no dependence to be placed in the troops now here. I do not include the officers. The Superintendent will see the situation I am in, and will recollect the difficulty we had in obtaining a detail last winter, and I hope will take prompt action in this affair. The Modocs must be brought back, and if they receive punishment in being forced on the reservation it will be of great benefit to them. No depredations have been committed so far by the Modocs. I keep informed of their movements. They are now in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Cal.
    The citizens of Lost and Link river valleys will render any assistance required by the authorities, even to furnishing their own horses &c. without charge.
    The Snake Indians are still contented with their situation and work well. Twelve (12) more came in this month from Camp Warner. The great drawback to Yainax is high waters every spring. It is impossible to communicate with teams at this date between the two places, and [it] also renders farming operations difficult, the whole country being overflowed and remains so until June, therefore a very small quantity of land can be tilled. I would advise that the Snakes be removed nearer the agency, plenty of room and good land &c. for them on Williamson River, where they can be better cared for and watched over than at Yainax.
    The Sprague River Valley should be kept for hay land and winter range for stock of the Department and Indians.
I am, very respectfully,
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            May 7th 1870.
Alfred B. Meacham, Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon.
Sir:
    A report received here from Captn. O. C. Knapp, U.S. Indian Agent at Klamath, in regard to affairs at his agency for the month of January last, mentions that the physician, Dr. Wm. C. McKay, has been absent from that reservation since November 1868, on some duty, he believes, with you--that he had no order detailing him--and that his presence is required at Klamath on account of sickness and for other reasons stated by the agent.
    You will please give this matter your early attention and report the necessity, if any, for Doctor McKay's absence from his post of duty at Klamath and your views in reference to the wish of the agent for his early return or the appointment of another physician in his stead to reside upon the reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        W. F. Cady
            Acting Commissioner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 72.



Link River Bridge
    Jackson Co. Oregon
        May 7th 1870
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            We, the undersigned citizens of the valley of Link and Lost rivers, request that the petition signed by us [that] went to you be sent to the general of the army. A great injustice has been [done] to Captain Knapp, and we desire that he shall have some record with the army of his services as Ind. agent. The conduct of the Captain should have been investigated before being so summarily dismissed. The parties who reported the Captain are men who want his position and cannot sustain the charges made. We want him continued on duty here, do not want any civilian agents. The Captain is willing to have his conduct investigated. Please transmit this with the petition at your earliest convenience and help as justice to a good officer who does his whole duty without fear or favor.
We are
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servts.
            George Nurse
            R. M. Beard
            James Barkly
            Gus Hahn
            James H. Calahan & others
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 504-505.



Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            May 10th, 1870.
Sir:
    I am in receipt of your letter of the 25th ultimo, enclosing a report from I. D. Applegate, acting as Special Commissary for the Snake Indians in the Klamath Agency, relative to the condition and wants of said Indians, to the work that is being done for them, and to the importance of furnishing them with cattle and sheep, stating that the funds heretofore remitted to remove and subsist the Snakes or Shoshones have been expended and requesting that the amount supposed to have been set apart to locate Indians upon the Siletz Reservation be placed to your credit, as there is no probability of any being located at that place to be used for those now established upon the Klamath Reservation.
    In reply I have to say that no funds have been set apart for the express purpose of locating Indians upon the Siletz Reservation. When the appropriation made last year for the re-establishment and subsistence of the Shoshones, Bannocks &c. in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon was divided, it was deemed advisable to allow two-thirds thereof for the service in Idaho and one-third for the service in Oregon, for this reason: A large number of Indians had already been located upon the Fort Hall reservation in Idaho, and others were constantly coming there, and it was therefore absolutely necessary to make provision for feeding them, to improve the reservation and to commence and carry on agricultural operations for their benefit, while in Oregon no steps had been taken to bring any of the Snakes to reservations in that state, and it was not known positively that any of them would consent to locate permanently upon any of said reservations, and besides there was an appropriation of $20,000 for the removal and subsistence of Indians in Oregon that was applicable and could be used, if necessary, in addition to the amount set apart from the former appropriation in locating and subsisting the Snakes, as well as any other Indians in your Superintendency.
    From Mr. Applegate's report it appears the Snakes who have been removed to the Klamath Reservation are well pleased with their situation and that he will be enabled to make quite extensive improvements if furnished with axes, iron wedges and teams for breaking prairie, which Sub-Agent Knapp has promised to furnish. It seems, therefore, that nothing further is actually required at the present time for the service in connection with said Indians. The question of purchasing stock cattle and sheep for them cannot be considered until funds shall have been appropriated or provided for that purpose.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. S. Parker
            Commissioner
A. B. Meacham, Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem,
            Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 77.



Klamath Agency, Ogn.
    May 13th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to transmit herewith triplicate receipts for beef issued by D. J. Ferree to Snake Indians, also for flour transferred by you.
    I took up the beef issued by Callahan on the 1st quarter (2576 lbs.) on my property return. He has also issued some beef in this quarter; the amount has not been reported to me yet by Applegate.
    I will report the total amount issued by Callahan as soon as I am relieved. How will beef be procured for Indians working in harvest and on the roads. Please inform this agency as soon as convenient.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 69.



Klamath Agency, Orgn.
    May 13th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of letter dated April 26th relative to paying certain vouchers, and in reply respectfully state that those vouchers could have been paid if presented before the expiration of last quarter.
    The amount of funds applicable to their payment has been reduced by payments in last quarter. I have not funds enough left to pay employees when I turn over the agency to my successor except those entitled to pay out of appropriation for pay of physician &c.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S.A.
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 70.



Klamath Agency, Ogn.
    May 15th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to inform you that I have this day given Mr. H. T. Williams certified vouchers amounting to three hundred and ninety-five dollars and eighty-eight cents ($399.88) for services as farmer on Klamath Reservation from January 1st 1870 to May 15th 1870 inclusive. Mr. Williams leaves with team in the morning for the Dalles.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 74.



Klamath Agency, Orgn.
    May 17th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I find that the amount of flour on hand at this agency and at Yainax will not be sufficient to issue to the Indians that will be engaged in working during harvest, and on the roads in this summer and and fall. There should be at least 10,000 lbs. purchased in the next two months which, with the amount on hand, will be sufficient to last until contract is made for flour for issue next winter. Please to inform me what course to pursue at your earliest convenience.
    I have written you about the beef. The Snake Indians who work must be fed flour & beef. I have stopped all issues to the Klamaths.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 75.



Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    May 25th 1870
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
Sir
    I hereby acknowledge receipt of two crusts vaccine virus transmitted in your letter of date May 13th, for use at this agency.
    It is well known that this agency has no physician, and no money appropriated for the employment of one. It is therefore evident that the instructions of the Commissioner of Ind. Affairs in letter of date Apl. [blank] 1870 cannot be complied with in relation to the vaccination of Indians at this agency, unless some physician employed at some other agency be directed to perform that duty, which I would respectfully recommend.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. A. Battey
            U.S.A. Ind. Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 81.



Camp Yainax, Klamath Reservation Ogn.
    May 31 1870
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following as my report for the month ending with the above date. The Indians have been engaged in putting in grain and garden, have broken ground to the amount of forty-five (45) acres. Thirty-five acres have been sown in grain, ten in vegetables. Also in hauling out rails and building fence, having to date six thousand rails laid up in fence, six thousand yet to haul. As provisions are scarce, Indians are compelled to make their own subsistence, principally on roots. I am compelled to allow them to scatter out in small bands in different places in the valley to procure it. The best of feeling exists among the Indians here, particularly the Snakes. Schonchin, [the] Modoc chief who left the reservation some week [sic] ago, came in here by consent of Captain O. C. Knapp, U.S.A., U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt., was enrolled and received back; six of his people arrived with him. Others are on the way here, among them chiefs George & Charley Riddle. Those coming comprise the best portion of the tribe, leaving "Captain Jack," followed by a band of desperadoes who deserve punishment as an example set for all Indians on the reservation. I cannot too earnestly urge upon you the importance of furnishing the Snake Indians without delay with the means to commence farming and stock raising.
I am sir with high respect your most
    Obedient servt.
        I. D. Applegate Spcl. Comr.
            Camp Yainax
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affr. Salem Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Ogn.
    June 5th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to transmit herewith my money accounts for May 1807, in triplicate.
    Vouchers Nos. 4 & 5 are not with the a/c for file in your office, but will be sent to your office by Dr. Wm. C. McKay. I failed to have the Dr. & Brown sign quadruplicate vouchers before they left here.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 94.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    June 6th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner of Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to report the condition of this agency, flourishing as well as could be expected under the circumstances. The crops all in, employees busy fitting up quarters and building fences. The Indians are absent digging roots. Schonchin, the old chief of the Modocs, has returned with part of his band, and will succeed in getting the remainder of his own people to return to the reservation. His band comprises the best part of the Modoc tribe. He was forced away by Capt. Jack and was absent only a few days. Schonchin is very old, but still has an influence for good with his people and is loyal. He has been a great warrior, but sees the error of his ways and knows it is best for his people to live on a reservation. I have great confidence in the old man. Have permitted him to locate on Sprague River.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    June 8th 1870
Sir:
    One Archey McIntosh came  a few days ago among the Snake Indians on this reservation, telling them that he was sent here by Genl. Crook, first to find out the facts in regard to the Modoc Indians leaving the reservation and to bring back his wife (an Indian woman named "Jenna" who had been kept by him, but was returned to her people, at her own request, by order of Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt. Indn. Affairs). McIntosh made the above statements in my hearing.
    After leaving my station, I am told by reliable Indians that he told Ocheho, chief, and his people, that he was instructed by the military chief at Warner to ask "Ocheho" to come to Camp Warner; he wished to talk with him. If he wished he would send and have his people brought back to Camp Warner. Before knowing the above facts I gave Ocheho ten days pass; he has gone in company with McIntosh to your post. The conduct of this man McIntosh has created not a little disaffection among these Indians, and I am afraid may lead to serious trouble. I would most earnestly ask that you have a personal interview with "Ocheho" and disabuse his men of these untrue statements. You have the facts in regard to McIntosh. You know him better than I. You know better what he deserves.
Very respectfully your humble servt.
    I. D. Applegate
        Spcl. Coms. for Snake Indians
Col. Elmer Otis
    Commanding Camp
        Warner, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Orgn.
    June 13th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
            Sir,
                I have this day given Mr. James H. Callahan certified vouchers for the beef furnished by him to the Indians on Klamath Reservation under contract with you dated January 1, 1870. Amount of beef furnished 7,376 lbs., of which 2,576 lbs. was accounted for by me on my property return for 1st qr. 1870; the balance 4,800 lbs. will be accounted for on returns for the 2nd qr. 1870. Is it correct for me to give the vouchers.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 100.



Klamath Agency Orgn.
    June 21st 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Ogn.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 15 inst. and to inform you that I have employed a blacksmith to fill Tucker's place. The man is now at the agency. The man engaged by you will not be required.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 106.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 23rd 1870
Sir
    I am instructed by Commissioner Parker to require you to enumerate the Indians living on and belonging to your reservation as per instructions accompanying portfolio herewith transmitted.
    1st. You will also enumerate as per schedule 1--on blank schedule 1--"All the white persons living on your reservation June 1st 1870, except such degraded whites as may be living with Indians as belong to their tribes or families." Schedule 1 in the pamphlet of instructions will be the only schedule of those named which will be used in the enumeration of your agency.
    2nd. You will be particular to write names of tribes or bands giving the name of each head of family with the number of women, and of male and female children in each family.
    3rd. The closest possible estimate of the number of warriors and total number of Indians of both sexes and all ages living and inhabiting the country north of the mouth of Siletz River and east of the Cascade Mountains and not recognized as belonging to your agency, stating the ground of the estimate.
    4th. Report in separate paper on the condition of each separate tribe or band as regards permanency of location, degree of civilization and industrial progress.
    5th. You will carefully distinguish between what you state from your own knowledge from what is necessarily conjectured.
    6th. You will keep an account in journal form of all your doings in the performance of this service, which journal together with the portfolio you will forward to this office immediately on the completion of the same.
    7th. You will be allowed a reasonable compensation for the service herein required in addition to your regular pay or salary.
    8th. Begin the work at once and push it to completion without delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Chas. Lafollette
    U.S. Indian Agt.
        Grand Ronde Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 420-421.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 23rd 1870
Sir
    I am instructed by Commissioner Parker to require you to enumerate the Indians living on and belonging to your reservation as per instructions accompanying portfolio herewith transmitted.
    1st. You will enumerate as per schedule 1--on blank schedule 1--"All the white persons living upon your reservation June 1st 1870, except such degraded whites as may be living with Indians as belong to their tribes or families." Schedule 1 in the pamphlet of instructions will be the only schedule of those named which will be used in the enumeration of your agency.
    2nd. You will be particular to write names of tribes or bands, giving the name of each head of family with the number of women, and of male and female children in each family.
    3rd. The closest possible estimate of the number of warriors and total number of Indians of both sexes and all ages living and inhabiting north of California line, west of Idaho line and south of the Blue Mountains, and not recognized as belonging to your agency, stating the ground of the estimate.
    4th. Report in separate paper on the condition of each separate tribe or band as regards permanency of location, degree of civilization and industrial progress.
    5th. You will carefully distinguish between what you state from your own knowledge from what is necessarily conjectured.
    6th. You will keep an account in journal form of all your doings in the performance of this service, which journal together with the "portfolio" you will forward to this office immediately on the completion of the same.
    7th. You will be allowed a reasonable compensation for the service herein required in addition to your regular pay or salary.
    8th. Begin the work at once and push it to completion without delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 421.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 23rd 1870
Sir
    I am instructed by Commissioner Parker to require you to enumerate the Indians living on and belonging to your reservation as per instructions accompanying portfolio herewith transmitted.
    1st. You will also enumerate as per schedule 1--on blank schedule 1--"All the white persons living on your reservation June 1st 1870, except such degraded whites as may be living with Indians as belong to their tribes or families." Schedule 1 in the pamphlet of instructions will be the only schedule of those named which will be used in the enumeration of your agency.
    2nd. You will be particular to write names of tribes or bands giving the name of each head of family with the number of women, and of male and female children in each family.
    3rd. Report in separate paper on the condition of each separate tribe or band as regards permanency of location, degree of civilization and industrial progress.
    4th. You will carefully distinguish between what you state from your own knowledge from what is necessarily conjectured.
    5th. You will keep an account in journal form of all your doings in the performance of this service, which journal together with the portfolio you will forward to this office immediately on the completion of the same.
    6th. You will be allowed a reasonable compensation for the service herein required in addition to your regular pay or salary.
    7th. Begin the work at once and push it to completion without delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz Ogn.
Copy of the above forwarded to Sub-Agent F. A. Battey--Alsea Sub-Agency.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 422.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 27th 1870
Sir
    The bearer, Maj. Joseph Magone. He goes to Klamath Agency for the purpose of superintending the erection of one sawmill and one flouring mill. The understanding and arrangement is to the effect that after he shall have in consultation with acting sub-agent selected the site for the mills, he is to make out a bill for material wanted and furnish the same to the agent, who will (unless otherwise agreed upon) provide said material, consisting of hewn timber and lumber, also agent to have the management of putting in the dam, building flume or races and making excavation for mills &c. The mechanical labor will be under the immediate supervision of Magone.
    Should Maj. M. desire more assistance (mechanical) you will if possible procure the same at not more than five dollars per day, board included. I doubt not you will work in harmony.
    Major Magone takes with him Mr. Weatherston, machinist. Mr. Scranton (millwright) will be out with Capt. Ferrel early in July. All the necessary supplies of material has been ordered. As subsistence will be allowed, each man can arrange to suit himself about board.
    You will in all possible cases give Indians the preference as to labor when they can be made useful, and at the same time use all reasonable effort to economize the very limited funds furnished for the purpose above referred to.
    I suppose Allen David [will] furnish men on very reasonable terms, small wages and board or wages without board. You will make the best arrangement possible. Hire as little outside labor as may be avoided. Eleven thousand three hundred dollars is small indeed to build mills and agency buildings.
    If you desire and think it advisable write me immediately and I will ship for Dept. use supplies of groceries.
    I have already bought your requisition for tools, agricultural implements &c. now being made for school books, stationery &c.
    I propose to visit you this summer. It is rumored that a general change in management of Indian affairs is to be made in August. What the change will be time will tell.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 423-424.



Klamath Agency Orgn.
    June 28th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comsr. Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                Having received orders from the headquarters of the army to proceed to my home and "await orders," and learning from Supt. Meacham that Lieut. Smith will not relieve me for some time (Rev. Mr. Wilbur having declined the agency at Yakima), I respectfully request that someone be directed to relieve me of the charge of this agency at the earliest possible date. As I am not regarded as an agent by the Department I am not encouraged to do anything for the agency, and it will be better for the interests of all concerned that an agent be sent here who will be supplied with the necessary funds for the payment of outstanding debts and to obtain supplies absolutely required for farming operations and also for purchasing cattle and sheep for the Indians.
    I do not desire to remain any longer on this duty. Again respectfully requesting that my request be granted without delay,
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 258-260.



Grand Ronde Agency
    June 28th 1870
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs Ogn.
        Sir,
            A. D. Babcock left South Yamhill six weeks ago with one hundred and fifty head of cattle and drove them over the Harris Trail through Tillamook Valley and by Netarts Bay to the mouth of the Nestucca River. The Indians who live there refused him a canoe and he did not cross and in a few days moved the cattle to Sand Bay, about five miles north [of] Nestucca. Last fall he cut a set of house logs south of Nestucca but did not attempt to lay them up or mark off a claim that I am aware of. Babcock says that he is not on the Coast Reservation, and I have no map of it or the Grand Ronde Agency. I was appointed Indian agent of the Indians on the Grand Ronde Agency. Do I by virtue of the above appointment, without an order from you, have any control over the Coast Reservation? I respectfully ask for a map of the Coast Reservation and the Grand Ronde Agency and for instructions of the proper course to proceed if persons trespass on the reservation.
I am very respectfully
    Charles Lafollett
        U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 108.



Camp Yainax K.R. Oregon
    June 30th 1870
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month of June.
    On the 7th inst. one Archey McIntosh came among the Snake Indians, stating that he was sent by Genl. Crook to find out how they were being used, to find out about the Modoc Indians leaving the reservation and bring away an Indian woman named "Jenna," who he had kept for some time. The statements of this man have created some disaffection amongst one band of the Snake Indians. The weather has not been favorable this spring for grain, however there is good reason to believe that a fair crop would have been grown but for the ravages of "crickets," these destructive insects having materially damaged both the grain and vegetable crops. The Indians are now subsisting themselves. They have worked very hard, and it is discouraging to see their crops doing poorly. Still, they are not discouraged and seem determined to work and improve their lands. The main farm of three hundred acres is all enclosed by a substantial rail fence.
Most respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Comr. for Snake Indns.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Orgn.
    June 30th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                I respectfully inform you that I have discharged George N. Tucker, blacksmith, and have given him certified vouchers for $614.57 for services from Jany. 1st 1870 to June 24th 1870, inclusive.
    I also inform you that the man employed by me to fill Tucker's place is a married man--and a good workman--could not have got a better man for the agency.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 110.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    June 30th 1870
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            (Through Supt. Ind. Affairs Salem)
                Sir,
                    I have the honor to report no change in the "condition of this agency" since last report.
    I regret that I have to report that the prospect for good crops is discouraging. The weather this month has been very cold, a great deal of rain, and heavy frosts.
    The crop of grain at Camp Yainax (Snake Indian village) is a total failure, destroyed twice by the crickets and once by the frost.
    The pea crop will be good, has not suffered from either the frost or crickets.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Portland Oregon
    July 1st 1870
Sir
    Please take up the claim of Robert Hill for $195, as per power herewith transmitted.
    This claim was presented several years ago by A. D. Barnard, and he got no satisfaction because he had no power by Robt. Hill.
    Please either pay this claim or return the power. He is anxious first to be paid. He has waited patiently.
Yours
    C. M. Carter
[power of attorney not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 168-170.




Klamath Agency Orgn.
    July 12th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                Enclosed find a petition from citizens of Klamath Valley and to which I respectfully ask your attention--also advice and instructions as to how I shall proceed in the matter.
    It is true that those whites who are living with Indian women and raising children should be forced to marrying the women--or be made to send the women to their tribes--and also be punished as the law directs if there is any law on that subject. From what I can learn some of the "squaw men" in the Klamath Valley will marry their squaws when they know that the Department intends to act in the matter.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 123.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 21, 1870
Sir,
    You will use reasonable exertion to procure such labor as may be necessary to forward work on the mills whenever the work can be done to the best advantage. Legal tenders are declining. Economy will be essential to make the funds complete the job.
    I have shipped everything necessary for sawmill and ordered machinery for flour mill. McKay will leave Dalles Monday with four teams with machinery and tools, but no annuity goods of clothes or blankets for Indian issue. I propose to remain here until 12th or 12th prox. before visiting your agency. I trust you will push the work on the mills. You will allow the common prices for Indian labor.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 427-428.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 21, 1870
Sir,
    In answer to yours of 12th inst. in reference to removing Indians from Klamath Valley &c., would suggest that you notify the Indians to "come in," and if they refuse call on the commander at Ft. Klamath for assistance to enforce your order. As to "squaw men" make them to understand that all Indians unmarried are to be brought onto the reservation. In event of refusal of "squaw men" to do either, we will try force.
    I believe you can manage it without difficulty and feel willing to leave it to you.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 428.



Klamath Agency Oregon.
    July 25th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir,
                As the Snake Indians are almost naked, and there being no woolen goods here, I respectfully request permission to issue the blankets on hand (521 pairs) to them. A majority of these Indians are not fit to be seen, having nothing but old rags to cover themselves with, some not a rag. An immediate answer is respectfully requested.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 130.



Camp Yainax K.R. Oregon
    July 31st 1870
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affrs.
            Sir,
                I am able to report all Indians present left under my charge except seven (7), three men and four women, who are at Camp Warner. I have made every effort in my power to have them return which will be seen from letters forwarded to you some time ago. Sixty-seven (67) Modoc Indians have been located here under old Chief Schonchin. I have just received two thousand (2000) pounds of flour, thirty-three (33) army jackets, and thirty (30) prs. blankets from Capt. O. C. Knapp, U.S.A., U.S. Indn. Sub-Agent. These articles are for Snake Indians and reach me in a good time. They will help me greatly in keeping these Indians and overcoming a strong influence in favor of their going to Camp Warner, where they are told Indians are furnished with plenty of new soldiers' clothes.
    The condition of Indian affairs in this country is becoming really alarming. The Modocs under Capt. Jack are riding in bands over the country, armed, threatening the lives of citizens. Cattle have been found shot and killed in the range. People living near [the] mouth of Lost River became so much alarmed that they hurriedly left their house and moved with their stock to Link River. Many threats have been made. George Jackson was driven from his ranch on Lost River and told to his face that if he returned they would kill him. I have just returned from the Modoc country and know what I state to be true. The Indians here are laughed at by them, and every effort made to demoralize them. I cannot too strongly urge upon you the importance of providing for the bands of Indians now here, allow the present state of affairs continue, and the present indications would warrant the fear that we are liable to become involved in serious trouble. The small assistance received from Capt. O. C. Knapp will be of untold benefit both to the Dept. and this country.
Very respectfully your
    Most humble servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Coms. for
                Snake Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    July 31st 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.   
            Sir,
                I have the honor to submit the following "Report of Condition &c." of this agency for this month.
    The Indians are absent gathering "wocus" at Klamath Marsh and Swan Lake. Work on the sawmill began on the 11th and is being pushed forward as fast as the limited number of tools will permit. The tools purchased by the Superintendent at Portland have not arrived, but are expected daily.
    The enumeration of whites and Indians was taken during the month. Number of Indians belonging to and on reserve 1005. Number on reserve not belonging to it--3 (Cayuse). Number belonging to reserve absent without leave 245 (Modocs).
    The Snake Indians are becoming very much dissatisfied, owing to failure of crops and want of clothing. Some have left the reserve and gone to Camp Warner, where they are told they will be fed and clothed and not returned to the reservation. The facts in the case have been reported to the Superintendent. I have sent all the flour, 2000 lbs., at the agency to Yainax, also 30 pairs blankets and 33 cavalry jackets, which is all the assistance I can render the Commissary in charge of the Snakes, and which will partly allay the dissatisfaction until the arrival of the Superintendent, who is expected daily.
    The Modocs off the reservation are threatening the lives of settlers and killing cattle. They should be forced on the reserve without delay. They are well supplied with arms and ammunition and no doubt will fight. The citizens are very much alarmed and are moving from the Modoc country to Link River for safety.
    The Indians being absent, the physician could not comply with circular relative to vaccination. I have directed him to perform the duty next month.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Grand Ronde Agency Oregon
    August 1st 1870
    Sir--In accordance with the regulations of the Indian Department I have the honor to submit the following annual report of the sanitary condition of this agency.
    Since my connection with the agency from the 1st February ult. I have administered medicines to about seven hundred patients, but a large majority of these cases have been of trivial consequence.
    Almost all forms of disease common to humanity have been found among these various tribes. Acute diseases as a rule yield readily to treatment, more so than among civilized people, while chronic cases are much more refractory.
    The Indians are much more susceptible to the influence of drugs than other nations, but owing to their long-continued habits and their want of medication it requires about twice as much medicine for a dose as among the white population.
    There have been eleven deaths during the time of my service here, and three patients remain under treatment for old chronic complaints.
    The situation of this agency is a very healthful one, having a pure but mild sea breeze and most excellent mountain water.
    The four mountain streams which flow rapidly through this valley to their confluence to form the Yamhill River to a very considerable degree carry away with their current our miasmata. There is a small lagoon, however, lying between the streams & wapatos which if properly drained would be very conducive to the health of those two tribes.
    The Indians on this reservation generally live in comfortable houses, and many of them are cleanly in their habits. There are some indolent families who live in a most filthy manner, and among these the vicious forms of skin diseases are fully developed and yield to treatment in a very obstinate way.
    Barrenness is a very common complaint among the women, and may generally be traced to some form of venereal infection, which when cured is generally followed by an increase of the species where I have succeeded in inducing them to adopt habits of cleanliness and chastity. Their former habits of debauchery has caused both existing forms of syphilis and scrofula, the latter of which is almost a universal complaint among them.
    Tubercular consumption is rare. I have only treated three cases of phthisis pulmonalis; one of these has already terminated fatally, while the other two are slowly tending to that point.
    Surgical operations are somewhat rare among the less enlightened tribes, and notwithstanding their former attachment to the tomahawk and scalping knife they have a superstitious dread of the surgeon's scalpel.
    When I operated with the aid of an anesthetic, and recovery has followed what seemed to them a frightful operation, their fears and superstitions have been somewhat allayed. Here allow me to express my obligation to your chief clerk, J. W. Crawford, for his efficient assistance in the surgery. Early in the spring I visited in connection with him the Salmon Rivers and Nestuccas.
    They live immediately on the ocean beach and subsist principally on fish. Their habits are the most filthy of any of the Indians on this reservation, their only luxury in the way of diet being pure, unadulterated seal oil.
    Pulmonary diseases are unknown among them.
    The supply of medicines furnished this office has been of excellent quality, but entirely insufficient in quantity to meet the wants of the sick. We need a new supply very much, and hoping you will authorize us immediately to replenish our scanty stock. This office ought to have a new operating case of surgical instruments; it would be quite impossible to perform a capital operation with what instruments are here.
    I respectfully ask your honor to furnish a "surgical case" as soon as possible.
    There ought to be some hospital accommodations for the indigent sick, where they could be supplied with wholesome food and better nursing.
    The office is very much dilapidated. The roof is poor--the foundation is rotten and giving way, and our medicines are quite unprotected from inclement weather, and there is no stove or warming arrangement here. The situation of the office is a very bad one; being in the same building with the clerk's office makes it very inconvenient for us both.
    I most respectfully ask you to build a new office at some more eligible point.
    The Indians here are rapidly abandoning their superstitious notions of their own medicine men, and I believe universally call on this office for medical aid.
    I have attended twenty-one women in accouchement since I have been here, and there have been several births besides this, so that there have been more than twice as many births as deaths.
    I believe this people with proper care may be saved from extinguishment and fully civilized, Christianized and made useful citizens.
I have the honor sir to be very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        C. H. Hall M.D.
            Resident Physician
Hon. Charles Lafollett
    U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



    No schools have been established on Klamath Reservation, no buildings having been erected for that purpose. A few of the Indians have been instructed in farming. It is the intention to start a school as soon as lumber can be obtained to build suitable houses. It has been impossible to teach the Indians "manual labor" owing to the scarcity of the necessary tools and farming implements. Requisitions were made in time, but the articles have not arrived, but are expected daily. A great improvement in the condition of the Indians can be made next year. As the mills will then be in operation and the agency well supplied with tools and implements of all kinds the "teachers" that have been employed during part of the year have been used as farm hands and such other work as required to perform.

"Statistics of Education &c. at the Klamath Sub-Agency, 1870," NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
    August 5th 1870
Sir
    In compliance with the regulations of the Department I submit my first annual report as teacher of the Umpqua Day School.
    There has been an average attendance of ten (10) scholars, and had we a larger and more comfortable school room the number could very easily be tripled. Good progress has been made by the pupils in their various studies.
    One girl of the Umpqua tribe by the name of Mary Ann deserves much praise for the advancement she has made in her studies and for her ladylike behavior.
    The health of the scholars has been very good, and if they can be induced to remain at school great good will be accomplished in the direction of enlightening the Indians of this agency.
Very respectfully
    E. A. Dunbar
        Teacher
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Portland Ore. August 6th 1870
E. S. Parker
    Comr.
        1310 G St. NW
Snake Indian funds expected. Must have funds applicable for them soon or lose them. They threaten to stampede. I will start tomorrow for Klamath. Answer Salem.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 433-434.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
    August 6th 1870
Sir
    In accordance with my duty I respectfully submit the following annual report of the Manual Labor School under my charge.
    Taking into consideration the insufficiency of funds appropriated  for the purpose of conducting this school, and the unfitness of the house in which it is kept, I feel that great progress has been made with the scholars.
    The average number of scholars during the year has been fourteen (14), aged from five to seventeen years.
    The studies pursued were as follows: spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic and geography. And here I wish to make especial mention of John Harris, Henry Crawford and George Moffit. They are quite intelligent and studious, are good readers and spellers--write a good hand and have stored their minds with a large amount of practical knowledge.
    The scholars all give satisfaction in school by their good behavior and attention to their books and their alacrity in performing any labor required of them.
    Quite an extensive garden is being cultivated this year by and for this school, and it will furnish them a large amount of good and wholesome food. They are fond of  all kinds of vegetables.
    In addition to their study of books the girls are taught the arts of housewifery and the boys to perform all kinds of labor that boys of their ages are capable of performing.
    The health of the school has been good during the year.
    In conclusion I would again through you most earnestly invite the attention of the government to the necessity of furnishing you funds sufficient to build and furnish a new school house for this school, as the one now in use is nearly rotted down and but very poorly furnished.
    Many of the Indians here are anxious to have their children educated, and they express great surprise that better accommodations are not furnished for this purpose.
    Let us aid them in their endeavors to scale the heights of civilization and enable them to become useful to themselves and all with whom they are surrounded.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        W. R. Dunbar
            Teacher
To
    Capt. C. Lafollett
        U.S. Ind. Agt.
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
    August 15th 1870
Sir
    In compliance with instructions from you, I have the honor to submit the following annual report. Since my last annual report the Indians of this agency have remained quiet, peaceable and happy, steadily progressing in the management of their farms and domestic improvements. The past year has been to them one of advancement. They have built more comfortable houses, fenced and placed under cultivation a larger area of land than in any year preceding, and their farming has been done much better and in a more farmer-like manner.
    These Indians have already a good knowledge of agriculture. They know how to plow, sow, reap and thresh--in fact, how to do all kinds of farm work, and have a strong desire to learn the ways of their white neighbors in all kinds of work.
    The system adopted by my predecessors, and continued by me, of giving passes to the Indians for from one to six weeks to work for farmers and mechanics of the Willamette Valley has, in my opinion, been the greatest agent of civilization these Indians have ever had. To illustrate--Suppose I give leave of absence to four hundred Indians, and they in turn are employed by three hundred farmers and mechanics. Some attend stock, plow, team, harvest, some work in saw and grist mills &c. &c., and so through all grades of work. Now three hundred white men are discharging the duties of farmers and mechanics on this agency, and instructing four hundred Indians how to do different kinds of work, and it is to their interest to learn as fast as possible to get larger wages, and to the interest of the instructor to teach his hired man all he can to get more work out of him; so both are mutually interested. Every mail brings letters to this office asking for Indians to go outside to work at wages ranging from one dollar twenty-five to one dollar fifty cents per day in coin, and unless there is some good and sufficient reason they are permitted to go. Some of them are idle and lazy--go to the towns, procure whisky from degraded whites and get drunk, but they are very few in proportion to the number here.
    As anticipated in my last annual report, the crops for 1869 were very poor, not more than one-half. The number of acres of wheat and oats sown by the Department this year is greater than last, and, being planted in good order, looks well and I think will produce a full crop, as will appear from tabular estimates marked B and C, and unless the winter is much more severe than common I hope to be able to get along next spring without having to purchase seed wheat and oats.
    For carrying on the Department farm Indians are employed and paid out of the annuity funds. The number of acres of grain sown this year by the Indians is greater than heretofore, and, being instructed to plow deep and sow at the right time, they will have full crops.
    The season was so favorable for the hay crops that the Department and Indians have saved amply sufficient for a hard winter. The potatoes and roots took well and promise a good crop. In short, we have the best crops that have ever been raised on the agency. The pay for a farmer having expired some years ago, I now perform that service myself.
    There are two schools in operation on the agency, the Manual Labor School and the Umpqua Day School. I would most respectfully request that I be instructed to consolidate the funds of these schools into one, to be conducted on the manual labor system, and that I also be instructed to erect a suitable building for this purpose, not to exceed in expense two thousand dollars, as the present building in which the Manual Labor School is taught would be totally inadequate and unsafe. For further information in regard to the school I would refer you to the reports of the teachers, herewith enclosed.
    In regard to the sanitary condition of the Indians I refer you to the accompanying report of the resident physician.
    In my last annual report I made mention of the fact that the foundation of the saw mill was about to give way, and, as I anticipated, it gave way about the 1st of April, and no more lumber can be sawed until it is repaired. It will require two thousand dollars to repair the sawmill and place it in good running order, and I would most respectfully ask for an appropriation of that amount for that purpose. It is not necessary for me to enter into a long detail of facts to show the importance of a sawmill on a reservation where there are so many Indians, for one cannot be carried on successfully without a mill and advance the Indians in civilization as they should be. I shall of necessity be compelled to purchase lumber outside for the Department and Indians and pay from the annuity funds, which are growing very short.
    On looking over the annual reports of my predecessors I find that they have all asked for funds to finish and keep in repair the grist mill, but they have never been appropriated, but unless they are, it will not run twelve months longer. Therefore I would most respectfully ask for an appropriation of fifteen hundred dollars for that purpose. The importance of this mill everyone knows that has been on this agency. Without it what are we to do with the five thousand bushels of wheat raised here?
    I have no blacksmith employed, but get the work done for Department and Indians at a shop immediately off the agency. Being short of employees, W. G. Campbell, who is employed as carpenter, is a hand at all work, does all kind of repairing, makes coffins &c. and has a general superintendency over the stock, fencing, and the Indians employed to work for the Department.
    Every annual report for the last ten years has asked for appropriations for the repair of agency buildings, but no funds have ever been furnished. The roofs are all leaky and past repair--the foundations rotten--floors given way--no chimney flues--in short, as you observed when here a few weeks ago, the buildings have been up so long and were never finished and carelessly thrown together, that they are ready to tumble down over our heads. The outbuildings and yard fences are, if possible, in a worse condition than the houses. What am I to do? Allow the buildings to rot and fall around us? Use our own private funds, with the uncertainty of our tenure of office? Use the Indians' money appropriated for the purchase of annuity goods, when that fund has dwindled to almost nothing, or ask again for an appropriation for repair of agency buildings.
    The following table will show the buildings that should be repaired and the amount of funds for that purpose, for which I would most respectfully ask an appropriation:
Agency Buildings
    Agent's House $500     Department Barns $500
Commissary's  House 400 Agency Office 100
Physician's House 400 Physician's Office 200
Carpenter's House 400 Shop and Outbuildings 350
Teacher, M. L. School House 400 Yard Fences &c. &c. 150
Miller's House 250
    The last appropriation for pay of physician &c., called for by treaty stipulation, is made, and unless they are further provided for must be left to the ravages of disease and allowed to fall back again into the old superstitious practices of their "medicine men." It would be cruel to allow the wards of the government to sicken and die for want of medicine and medical attendance. I would therefore ask for an appropriation of eighteen hundred dollars per annum for pay of physician and purchase of medicine.
    The last appropriation for pay of miller, called for by treaty stipulations, has expired, and the services of one being all-important, I would ask an appropriation of one thousand dollars per annum for that purpose.
    The appropriation for pay of farmer and blacksmith expired some years ago, and I can get along very well without, but I would ask for one thousand dollars per annum for pay of carpenter, as it is essential to have one here. I do not like to ask for so many appropriations, yet I have asked for nothing only that which is absolutely necessary to carry on the agency as it should be.
    The rails used in fencing the Department farm were split fifteen years ago, out of small timber, and a great many of them are rotten and will have to be replaced with new ones before another crop can be raised for the Department.
    Amos Harvey, my predecessor, recommended in the strongest terms that the land on the agency be surveyed and given to the Indians in severalty, according to treaty stipulations with the "Indians of the Willamette Valley." Mr. Huntington, late Supt. Ind. Affairs for Oregon, concurred with the recommendation of Mr. Harvey and urged it strongly. I made the same recommendation last year and showed at considerable length the necessity of so doing. There is nothing that the Indians desire so much as to have their lands surveyed and be assured that they are to live here for all time to come. I will still ask for an order to survey the land, and a small appropriation, say eight hundred dollars, for that purpose.
    No man can visit this agency and go away without being impressed with the wonderful improvement these Indians have made. They are marching along not slowly but with rapid strides to civilization. Less crime has been committed by them in the past year than by the same number of whites. Not a drunk Indian has been seen on the agency in a year. Not an Indian has been whipped since I have been in charge, and but one in the guardhouse, and he only for two days. Yet the discipline is all that could be desired. Some eight hundred wagons, containing four thousand persons, pass through this agency each summer on pleasure excursions to the ocean beach, and not a single instance has occurred where there has been any difficulty between a white man and an Indian.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt servt.
        Charles Lafollett
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
To
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs for Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            August 15th 1870
Sir:
    I enclose herewith a copy of Special Orders No. 28 Headquarters of the Army Feb. 3rd 1870 relieving Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A. from duty as Indian agent. Under date of February 11th 1870 Capt. Knapp was notified of the appointment of Lieut. J. H. Wham and directed to turn over to him upon application the effects of the agency. On the 21st of same month he was informed that Lieut. Wham had been transferred and that Lieut. Jas. M. Smith would relieve him at Klamath.
    Lieut. Smith has not reported at Klamath and will not now of course be sent there. You will therefore forward to Captain Knapp the enclosed order relieving him from Indian duty and direct him to at once turn over to you whatever public property and funds there may be in his hands belonging to the agency and to make up and forward his final accounts to you for transmission to this office as early as practicable.
    After Capt. Knapp has been relieved you will conduct the affairs of that agency until his successor shall have been appointed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Wm. F. Cady
            Acting Commissioner
A. B. Meacham Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affs.
        Salem, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 150.



Klamath Agency Ogn.
    August 22nd 1870
Sir
    From and after this date you will until otherwise ordered be relieved of any and all charge and care of the Indians located on Klamath Reservation east of Mahogany Mountain known as Snakes Woll-pah-pe and Modocs, said Indians being by me put in charge of I. D. Applegate with instructions to report directly to the office of Supt. Indian Affairs.
    He has also been instructed to prevent settlement on any of the above-described part of Klamath Reservation of any other than those under his charge, on which matter and all others of importance to the Indian Service you will be expected to cooperate with him.
    The general welfare of all the Indians on Klamath Reservation will require that trespass by other party of Indians should be prevented if possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Acting Ind. Sub-Agent
    Klamath Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 437-438.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    August 22nd 1870
Sir
    From and after this date you will take entire charge and control of (subject only to order of Supt. &c.) all the Indians now or hereafter to be located at Yainax, Klamath Reservation, consisting of the various bands known as Snakes, Woll-pah-pe and Modocs. You will be allowed such assistance and employees as the funds appropriated for those Indians will permit from time to time.
    You will be required to receipt and account for all property and money placed in your charge. You will have jurisdiction of all that part of Klamath Reservation lying and being east of Mahogany Mountain. You will not allow settlement of the above described country by other persons than those belonging to your charge.
    You will proceed at once to erect such buildings at Yainax as may be necessary for the use and accommodation of the employees and Ind. Dept., also stables and corrals for Dept. animals,and from time to time assist the various bands under your charge in the erection of suitable buildings, taking care always to instill in the Indians an ambition and desire for civilized modes and manners.
    You will ever bear in mind that the object of the Dept. is to bring these people to a self-supporting condition as civilized people as fast as possible.
    You will be further instructed from time to time in regard to your duties. And further you will make at least a monthly report of all proceedings and doings of your station. Also keeping a record of all important events in regard to Indians &c. to be preserved and belong to the Dept.
    Your salary will be twelve hundred ($1200) dollars per year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary of Subsistence
        to Snake Indians
            Klamath Agency
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 438.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    August 31st 1870
Sir
    I would most respectfully offer the following report for the month ending with the above date.
    The Indians have been busily engaged in gathering roots, hunting game and drying fish. They are putting up a good supply of Indian provisions. They are very anxious to have some cows and offer to support themselves if the funds to buy provision would be invested in stock cattle. Nothing will sooner make them self-supporting and at the same time bind them to their homes than the management and ownership of domestic animals. As was reported before, some Indians of Ocheho's band went up to Camp Warner, not being ordered back, but on the contrary being fed on flour; other Indians have gone to that post, against my orders, and those of their chief. I have just returned from a visit to that post and have to report that about twenty Indians belonging here are now stopping in and around that fort. The effect of this is ruinous in the extreme. The bands of Snake Indians, who were brought from Summer, Silver and Abert lakes, see these Indians leave the reservation without permission, go to Camp Warner and remain. This kind of work balks the efforts of the Indian Service and makes the Indians insolent and indolent.
    As long as commander of post will allow Indians to leave a reservation and come with their complaints to them and even offer to get them permission to leave their farms to return to their old haunts among the mountains and rocks, both the burden of fighting and feeding Indians will rest upon the government.
    These Indians complained to Col. Otis that they had not been fed all they wanted &c. and as will appear from letters forwarded last month he says, "In view of these facts I have made no effort lately to return these Indians to the reservation, nor shall I &c."
    As it will be impossible to keep the different bands of wild Indians on the reservation unless a different course is pursued by the commander of Camp Warner, I would most respectfully suggest that the matter receive your earliest attention. Farming operations here are far from a failure, notwithstanding the season has been a very unfavorable one. Wheat, oats and bearded barley have matured well. The turnip crop is very good; peas, potatoes and carrots very fair crop. There is every reason to believe that next year we will be able to produce a full supply of both grain and vegetables.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Coms. for Snake Indians
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs. in
        Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    Sept. 2nd 1870
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
            Sir,
                I transmit herewith license granted by me to George Nurse, which I respectfully request you to approve as under the circumstances I do not believe my authority to grant the license will be approved by the Comsr.
    Nurse has done a great deal of good for the Dept. and the Indians, and they like him, and as the Dept. owes him considerable I believe it just that he should have the position another year. If it meets your approval, please forward the papers to the Dept. without delay.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 163.



Klamath Agency, Oregon.
    September 5th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to submit the following as "Report of Condition of Indian Affairs" within this agency for the period intervening between the 30th of June 1869, date of last annual report of my predecessor, and the 15th of August 1870.
    I assumed charge of this reservation on the 1st of October 1869 in compliance with instructions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, relieving Mr. Lindsay Applegate as sub-agent. I found the crops all harvested and stored. The amount of grain raised, as reported by former agent in report for September 1869, was wheat 3000 lbs., oats 7200 lbs., barley 9000 lbs. The vegetable crop not reported, it being a failure. The wheat and greater portion of the barley was issued to the Indians during the spring. Oats used as forage for Department animals. Found the agency in great need of all kinds of tools for the shops and farm, and also in need of an increase in number of animals for farming purposes. But little work was done the first three months of my administration, nearly all the employees and all the teams but one having been sent on the Snake expedition a few days after my arrival, and did not return until the winter had set in. In the latter part of November '69, the Superintendent arrived with about 300 Snake Indians and located them on Sprague River, forty miles from the agency, naming the village "Camp Yainax" and placing them in charge of Mr. I. D. Applegate, special commissary, and issued blankets and clothing to them. Blankets and woolen goods were issued to the Klamaths in December. The issues made last winter were the best these Indians ever received, the articles of good quality and fairly distributed. On the 18th December the Superintendent and myself, accompanied by Dr. McKay, I. D. Applegate and others, visited the Modocs off the reservation at their camp on Lost River, for the purpose of inducing them to return to the reserve. After "talking" for ten days they consented to return, and on the 30th Decbr. we returned to the reserve with 258 Indians. Blankets &c. were issued to them, the same as to the other Indians, on the 31st Dec. They remained quietly on the reserve until April 26th, when I stopped issuing rations. They then left the reserve without cause or provocation. Since that time they have been roaming around the country between Lost River and Yreka. Up to last month they had committed no depredations, but are now driving off the settlers (in their country, as they call it) and killing cattle. I met Captain Jack, chief of the absent Modocs, in Yreka during the first week of August, and he informed me that he would not go back to the reserve. Tried to induce him to come to Sprague River and see the Superintendent, but did not succeed. The old Modoc chief, Schonchin, is still on the reserve and has succeeded in getting 67 of his people to return, and I have located them at Camp Yainax. During the months of February and March the employees were engaged in building bridges & fences. Two good bridges were constructed, one over Williamson River on the road to Yainax and the other over Crooked Creek, between the agency and Fort Klamath.
    On April 14th commenced plowing. 185 acres were sown in oats, barley, rye, peas, turnips and carrots on the agency farm, 25 acres sown in vegetables at Indian ranches, 45 acres broken and sown with oats &c. at Yainax. The Snakes work well for men unaccustomed to labor. They have made about 12000 rails and fenced in about 300 acres of land. The Klamaths have made a large number of rails for their own use, also 5000 for fences required at agency. A great deal of building and fencing would have been done by the Indians this year had they tools and teams to work with. Requisitions for a large supply of all kinds of tools and farming implements were forwarded to the Superintendent last spring, with the understanding that I should have them, also wagons, plows, harness, mules and oxen to replace oxen issued for beef during the winter, by the middle of May. The train had not arrived August 15th, therefore very little farm work has been done beyond that of last year. There should have been eight plows running at the agency this year, there being that number on hand, but only four were used, could not run more for want of teams. Eight mules, one wagon, and six sets of harness were taken from the agency May 15th by order of the Supt., reducing plow teams one-half in busiest part of the season.
    The crops started favorably, being well put in and the land in good order, but a drought in May, cold rains and frost all the month of June, hot days and frost in July, has seriously damaged them, especially the vegetables, which will be almost a total failure. Crops at Yainax destroyed twice by crickets. I again urge upon the Department the uselessness of trying to make this an agricultural reservation. The seasons are too uncertain for raising grain and vegetables. The Indians should be supplied with cattle and sheep, and they would soon become self-sustaining. The reserve is well adapted for stock-raising; no better in the country.
    Work on the sawmill commenced in July and is being pushed ahead as rapidly as the limited amount of tools will permit. The non-arrival of [the] train to be sent by the Superintendent is keeping everything behind.
    The Klamaths have gathered large quantities of "wocus," I having told them to gather all they could, and I would haul it from the marsh for them. The more of such stuff they can gather the less flour will be to issue. They put up immense quantities of fish in the spring, and if they are successful in hunting this fall very little beef will be required this winter.
    Three cabins, one for employees' quarters, one for office and one for store, also a building 25 by 50 feet for warehouse, have been erected this year. As soon as the sawmill is started a suitable barn for storage of hay, grain &c. will be erected, also stables and wagon sheds, there being nothing of the kind on the reserve. Next spring suitable buildings for the agent and employees, and the necessary shops, schoolhouses and hospital will or should be erected. All of them are needed. The Snakes became very much disheartened in July, owing to failure of crops and non-arrival of the Superintendent; some of them left but have since returned. They were in a very destitute condition, nearly naked, and living on crickets. I sent them all the flour and blankets I had, and they were presented with a small lot of condemned clothing by the commanding officer of Fort Klamath, all the assistance we could give them. This allayed the discontent until the arrival of the Superintendent early in August with supplies; they are now quiet and contented.
    Too much care cannot be taken with these Indians; every promise made must be kept strictly, which, I regret to say, is not always the case with those in power.
    With the additional number of teams, plows &c. to be received this fall, work can be commenced in earnest next year, and the Indians can see what the government intends to do for them. The great drawback here has always been the want of materials and implements to work with. Very few deaths during the past year. General health of the Indians has been good.
    No reports of employees accompany this report. Most of those in employ at date have been but a short time on the reserve. All employees except mechanics have been kept at farm work, building fences, getting out mill timber, &c. I transmit herewith statistical reports and reports of education.
    In conclusion, [I] would respectfully state that not being regarded as an agent by the Commissioner, and the necessary funds for the reservation, except one quarter's appropriation, having been kept out of my hands, and abuse heaped upon me by parties who desire to have a politician as agent, and the authorities denying me the privilege of defending myself, has made it a difficult task for me; but under the circumstances I have done all in my power and to the best of my ability to carry out the designs of the government for the best interests of the Indians.
    The agency and its surroundings and the Indians are now in better condition and under better discipline than ever before. I have done the best I could and am not ashamed of my efforts.
I am, very respectfully,
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 5th 1870
Sir
    I am directed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in letter dated August 15th 1870 to forward to you the enclosed order relieving you from Indian duty. I am also instructed in same letter to direct you to turn over to me all public funds and property that may be on your hands belonging to the Indian Dept., and further to direct you to make up and forward to this office your final accounts for transmission to Commiss. office at an early day.
    A commissary will be designated to receive said funds and property as soon as possible.
    Mr. O. C. Applegate is directed to render you such assistance as you may require in the transfer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
                By C. S. Woodworth, clk.
Capt. O. C. Knapp, U.S.A.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 440.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 5th 1870
Sir
    I have this day forwarded to Capt. O. C. Knapp an order from the War Dept. relieving him from Indian duty. You will therefore remain at the agency and render him such assistance as he may require in preparing his papers for transfer to me of funds and property.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
                By Woodworth, clk.
O. C. Applegate, Esq.
    Klamath Agency
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 440.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    September 6th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I have the honor to submit the following as "Report of Condition of Indian Affairs" at this agency for the month of August 1870.
    Indians still absent gathering wocus have secured immense quantities of it, which I have agreed to haul for them.
    Work on mill going ahead finely--commenced harvesting on 22nd. Some of the grain not ripe killed by frost last week. The Superintendent arrived at the agency on the 15th with blankets, woolen goods and flour for the Snakes. They are now contented, and all fear of trouble with them allayed.
    On the 21st one wagon loaded with tools &c. arrived; the Superintendent issued the farming implements to the Indians, viz: scythes & snaths, sickles and scythe stones and hay forks. They will be able to put up quite an amount of hay for their own use. Tools will be given them as soon as the balance of train arrives.
    On the 30th the balance of train reported with mill material and tools for agency and Indians. The train returns immediately to Salem to bring balance of freight, about one-half left behind. The teams are needed here for fall plowing.
    While here the Superintendent issued orders dividing the reservation, taking the Modocs and Snakes from the control of the agent and placing I. D. Applegate over them as special commissary, and directing me to transfer property to the commissary, taking his receipts therefor. I have made no objection to the change as it relieves me of considerable responsibility and labor, but I doubt the validity of the order. My orders from your office makes me "Sub-Agent for Indians in Oregon on the Klamath Reservation," therefore I do not believe the Superintendent has the power or authority to place any other man on duty in the capacity of acting agent, as he has done in the case of Applegate. It is virtually making two agencies on one reservation and will not work very harmoniously. He has also ordered certain employees who are borne on my books to be sent to Yainax.
    I transmit herewith surgeon's "Report of Vaccination."
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Captain U.S. Army
                U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    September 8th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem, Orgn.
            Sir
                It is too expensive to purchase seasoned timber for spokes, felloes, hounds & axles in this section. Send me some in next train if possible, especially spokes & felloe timber. Can get along without the other, if you cannot send it.
    The spokes & felloes we must have. If I send to Jacksonville for them the merchant will have to order from San Francisco. Send spokes for wheels for the two spring wagons. Applegate has bought the blacksmith's wagon & the wheels need repairs, also spokes for freight wagons. Send at least enough for a dozen wheels, ½ doz. sets felloes.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 76.



War Department
    Washington City
        September 9th 1870
To the Honorable
    The Secretary of the Interior
Sir:
    The resignation of First Lieutenant F. A. Battey, of the United States army, now serving on Indian duty at Newport, Oregon, having been accepted to take effect October 16, 1870, I have the honor, in the absence of the Secretary of War, to request that he may be relieved from that duty at as early a day as practicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. Shriver
            Inspector General
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 112-113.



War Department
    Adjutant General's Office
        Washington, September 10, 1870
Special Orders
    No. 240
(Extract)
    5. At his own request, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved July 15, 1870, section 8, 1st Lieutenant Frederick A. Battey, unassigned, is, by direction of the President, hereby honorably discharged [from] the service of the United States, to take effect October 16, 1870, or as soon thereafter as he can be relieved from duty as Indian agent, when he will proceed to his home. Under this order Lieutenant Battey, when relieved, will be allowed the ten cents per mile provided by section 24 of the aforesaid act.
By order of the Secretary of War
    E. D. Townsend
        Adjutant General
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 101-102.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    September 11th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
            Sir,
                I transmit herewith inventory and receipts for property received by Dr. McKay's train and articles purchased by you at Jacksonville and of Nurse. These receipts cover all the articles that have come into my hands.
    Please return the inventory without delay so I can turn over property; have transferred some of this property to Applegate. Yours of the 5th and telegram of 7th received last night.
    If Miller's train arrives with mill material left on the road by McKay before I leave here, will notify you if it agrees with inventory left here.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
    Should there not be a contract for the 8000 lbs. of flour bought of Nurse @ 5¢ per lb. coin. If so shall I make it and give certified voucher, or will the Supt. make vouchers & pay on my certificate that the flour has been delivered.
O.C.K.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 174.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    September 11th 1870.
Mr. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
            Sir,
                I have given certified vouchers to the following named persons, whose accounts I could not pay for want of funds, viz:
Sept. 6th A. H. Miller for 1 reaper & mower combined, coin $312
Sept. 9th George Nurse for 50 bu. lime $3 per bu. coin $150
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Capt. U.S. Army
                U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 175.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Salem Oregon Sept. 18, 1870
Washington D.C. Sept. 19th 8:10 a.m.
    Hon J. D. Cox
        Secty. Intr.
The Indian Service in Oregon requires funds for current half year to be sent immediately & before snow in the mountain. Department teams here waiting for goods for Klamath.
Geo. H. Williams
    U.S.S.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 537-539.



Adjutant General's Office,
    Washington, September 21st 1870.
Hon. Ely S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have respectfully to request to be informed at your earliest convenience whether Captain Orson C. Knapp, U.S. Army, has yet been relieved of his duties as Indian agent at Fort Klamath, Oregon, in accordance with orders from this office, dated February 3, 1870, issued at the request of the Interior Department. If not yet relieved, can the Commissioner inform me when he probably will be.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        E. D. Townsend
            Adjutant General
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 106-107.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 21st 1870
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit my second annual report of the condition of Indian affairs in Oregon.
    The changes made, suspending civilians and appointing military agents at the commencement of the current year, created some embarrassment, which for a time seemed [to] retard prosperity and to dishearten the Indians. They could not be made to understand the reason wherefore, and with the instinct of their race feared the change. So strong was the feeling that on every reservation within my Superintendency Indians "stampeded," or threatened to do so, in consequence thereof. It required a great amount of "talking" to reconcile them.
    I am, however, at present writing prepared to state, so far as this cause for discontent is concerned, that nearly all of them are again at their homes, some perfectly reconciled and willing to be governed by military agents, and perhaps pleased with the change. Others look upon it with distrust and fear.
    Although we have not fully accomplished all that we had proposed, yet a decided progress in civilization has been made. Under instructions from [the] Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and in conformity with the spirit of President Grant's inaugural address and policy, as made known from time to time, also the tendency of the legislation by Congress, the judicial and political construction of the several amendments to the Constitution of the United States, the advancement the Indians themselves have made, the eagerness with which they embrace the idea of citizenship, individual responsibility and ownership of homes, I have felt justified and encouraged in saying to agents, also to Indians, that a new policy with more liberal regulations would be instituted in the management of Indian affairs under my control. These people now believe that our government recognizes them as wards or children, provides for their wants, not as aliens but only to prepare them for the duties of citizenship, that they have a part in all that pertains to the general government, that they are to enjoy all the rights and privileges of citizens, and whenever they prove by the adoption of our manners and customs and the abandonment of their native ways that they are then qualified to enjoy such a boon.
    I assert fearless of contradiction that this very "idea" has done more in one year [to] elevate the Indians in Oregon than all the cruel and inhuman regulations ever invented could accomplish in ten years.
    Few Indians are so low or so depraved that there is no soil in the heart where hope and ambition may not take root. On every reservation and in every tribe and band there may be found strong men born to lead, and whenever they once feel within them the possibility of manhood they will take hold with zeal and determination that perpetuates so long as they have confidence in the representatives of the government.
    In my last annual report I suggested, among other changes, that the Indians would be consulted as to the purchase of goods, and in what manner annuity money should be expended. In no instance of importance has that proposition been neglected, and in no instance have the Indians suggested improper purchases, but always asking for plows, wagons, harness, farming implements and tools, seldom for blankets, oftener for ready-made clothing.
    Many of them have abandoned Indian laws in the settlement of their affairs, proposing to make their chiefs by election, marriage by American law, to abandon the custom of selling their daughters for wives, by accepting medical treatment of resident physicians, burial of the dead, the adoption of American names, breaking up of bands, the establishment of family relations, separate households, eagerness to have lands and homes allotted, and in many other ways making progress in the great work of civilization.
    I would not be understood as indicating that these satisfactory evidences of progress were universal, would to God they were, but that the condition of the masses is rapidly improving.
    But again, mixed up with these people throughout the state are those who are slow to embrace American usages, looking with distrust upon every new "law." It will require many years to overcome their prejudices, but this class is in the minority. One serious drawback is the existence among the Indians of Oregon of a peculiar religion, called "Smoheller," or "Dreamers," the chief doctrine of which is that the "red man is again to rule the country," and this sometimes leads to rebellion against lawful authority.
Umatilla Agency
Lt. W. H. Boyle, U.S.A., Acting Agent.)
    This agency has undergone no very material change during the present year. The Indians already located upon the reservation have long since abandoned all idea of resistance or rebelling against authority. They are composed of the Walla Wallas, Cayuse and Umatilla tribes, jointly occupying a large tract of beautiful country of abundant resources, but unfortunately for the Indians the reservation is surrounded by white settlements and traversed by thoroughfares of commerce, thereby exposing them constantly to imposition by white men.
    The subject of the removal of these Indians has been often presented and thoroughly discussed in former reports. The last Congress "authorized the President to negotiate with these people for their lands." I would respectfully suggest that immediate action be taken in this matter, that a council be ordered and the proposition officially presented to the Indians at an early day, for the reason that whatever may be the result of the first council, further legislation may be necessary and by learning the "minds" of the Indians the present season, the whole thing may be consummated in time for their removal in early spring. Having resided for seven years on the border of this reservation, and subsequently as Supt., [I] have intimate acquaintance with these people. I entertain some doubts about the success of the proposal to sell and remove unless men are appointed to negotiate with them in whom they have perfect confidence from personal knowledge. But, with this precaution, I believe some arrangement may be made. I have not felt authorized in the councils I have had with them to discuss the subject, but from casual conversations I conclude that a division among them will arise. The best men will prefer remaining, taking land and becoming citizens. This will be practicable if lands are set apart in such a way that they cannot, without the consent of local or federal authority, sell or dispose of them, and if it can be so done it will thus place them in every other respect on equal footing with other citizens.
    Another portion, composed of Homle's band of Walla Wallas, will consent to removal cheerfully to some new reservation, or what would suit them better to be "turned loose" to look out for themselves. My opinion now is that choice should be offered them and for those who prefer removal a reservation be selected, or that they be allowed to select homes among friendly tribes already located on other reservations. I would oppose forcing them to go among other tribes against their own will. Experience teaches that semi-civilized Indians of different tribes, who have ever been enemies, cannot be made prosperous and peaceable when compelled to live together.
    Reference to Agent Boyle's census report shows the whole number of Indians belonging to Umatilla Reservation to be 1622. Of this number only 837 are located there; the remainder, 785, are scattered along the Columbia River at various points. In the month of February last I made an official visit to these bands, at which time full report thereof was forwarded, asking instructions in the matter, which I deemed necessary for the reason that they were found mostly out of Oregon and also because they denied belonging to Umatilla by treaty and refused to recognize my authority. I again respectfully ask instructions in regard to these people. The public welfare demands that something be done with them immediately. They doubtless belong to Umatilla, and I would respectfully suggest that the military commander of the district be instructed to remove them hence that they may become parties to any treaty that may be hereafter made with the Umatilla Indians, thereby securing to themselves some of the benefits of such treaty.
Warm Springs Agency
Capt. W. W. Mitchell, U.S.A., Acting Agent
    I have visited this agency once during current year, of which I made special report.
    Representation of the condition of affairs in said agency are satisfactory, as per report of agent and subordinates. Warm Springs Reservation as an agricultural country is a total failure. The only way these people can ever become self-supporting will be as stock-raisers. They are poor, have but little stock of their own, and the funds annually appropriated are expended in keeping up the agency and feeding Indians from year to year. A few individual Indians have small farms of poor land; nevertheless they are advancing in agricultural pursuits, and would make responsible citizens if allowed to become so. The remainder appear disheartened from repeated failure of crops and other causes and take but little interest in the march to manhood. The few above referred to should be given their lands in severalty, the reservation abandoned and the remainder of the Indians removed to some place where they could develop.
Grand Ronde Agency
Chas. Lafollette, Agent
    This agency is fully reported and makes a very satisfactory showing as to the condition of its affairs. These people are successful farmers; they are clamorous for the fulfillment of treaty stipulations, especially that they may have their lands surveyed and allotted in severalty. Nothing could do more towards preparing them for the ultimatum of the present Indian policy, "citizenship," than to fulfill promptly the terms of the treaty of 1855. I would earnestly recommend that an appropriation be made of, say, $1000, or such amount as may be necessary therefor and that an order be issued to survey and set apart these lands immediately, whether absolute title be given at present or not.
    From a personal examination and inspection of agency buildings and mills, I would earnestly support the agent's request for a small fund for repairs. This agency as a charge to the government may be abandoned in a few years. It fully demonstrates the declaration that "Indians can be civilized." I know whereof I speak.
Siletz Agency
Benj. Simpson, Agent
    This agency has not yet been reported, but from personal observation I am safe in saying that a fair advancement has been made on this reservation also. The Indians, composed as they are of several fragmentary tribes and bands, are more restless, more quarrelsome among themselves, more difficult to govern, than any others in this Superintendency, yet I hesitate not in saying that considering the facts above stated, they being under a very efficient agent, and his policy of allowing them "passes" to work for and among the white people for limited periods, they are progressing rapidly. The resources of Siletz are varied and abundant.
Alsea Sub-Agency
Lt. F. A. Battey, U.S.A., Acting Sub-Agent
    This agency runs along smoothly, has abundant natural resources to support a much larger population. The Indians are easily governed and anxious to have homes set apart to each family, are rather industrious but not ambitious. Alsea, from its location, is not desirable for white settlement; in fact, it is just suited to the Indians now located there.
Klamath Agency
Capt. O. C. Knapp, U.S.A., Acting Sub-Agent
    This agency is at present requiring a great amount of care and attention, from the fact that it is remote from settlement, of recent establishment, occupied as it is by five several tribes of Indians who have long been enemies and but lately reconciled. The Klamaths are the original occupants of the country comprising the reservation, the Ya-hoos-kin, half Klamath and half Snakes, Modocs, Woll-pah-pes and Shoshone Snakes. The former made joint treaty with late Supt. Huntington in 1864. The latter were removed from Camp Warner last fall; the Modocs were brought onto the reservation last December. Semi-barbarous as they all are, it has been a difficult work to keep the peace among them. The Klamaths are brave, but insolent and overbearing to other Indians, but especially the Modocs. In order to prevent further disturbance I have temporarily divided the reservation, leaving the Klamaths under the control of the acting agent [at] Klamath Agency and the Snakes, Modocs and Woll-pah-pes being placed under management of I. D. Applegate, acting commissary at Camp Yainax, also severing the business relations of the two places. I have felt justified in so doing, believing it to be the only remedy against continued broil and stampedes. Under this new arrangement no fears are apprehended of serious trouble among these several tribes. The Klamaths are ambitious and are taking rapid strides towards higher life.
    Under instructions from Commissioner of Indian Affairs I have in process of erection a first-class sawmill now nearly completed, also on hand material for [a] flouring mill. The funds for mill purposes were not received in time to complete the latter this summer, but it will be furnished early the coming spring. The Indians have contributed somewhat of labor to the erection of the mills.
    The Snakes and Woll-pah-pes are working together in harmony at Camp Yainax. Under the directions of Commissary Applegate they have enclosed about 300 acres of farming l. They have laid up large supplies of fish and roots, which together with the crop of grain and vegetables will go far towards subsisting them through the coming winter. They are ambitious and willing to work, have a great desire for cattle and horses. With the funds appropriated for their benefit by last Congress ample preparation will be made to take care of them.
    It is gratifying to state that the new camp promises soon to rank with other settlements of Indians, notwithstanding the various efforts by Klamaths to drive them off and the encouragement held out to them to return to Camp Warner, their old home. The resources of this locality are abundant for a much larger population.
Education
    This very important branch of Indian affairs in this Superintendency is not in a flourishing condition. The fault is with the system, not with teacher or Indians. Without exception agents and teachers agree that what is commonly called a "day school" is of but little real value. The reasons are that so long as Indian children remain with their parents, spending all their leisure hours at home, where they use the native language only, they forget what is learned through the day, and again the parents do not compel attendance, do not encourage them by word or example and are often scattered too widely to attend. Hence the real truth is that only a few who by chance live within reach are ever benefited by the immense outlay of money appropriated annually for schools among the Indians.
    I would earnestly recommend that manual labor schools alone be organized in the several agencies, and that to do so the whole school fund belonging to each agency be consolidated and appropriated to the support of said manual labor schools. I do not doubt the success of such a plan, and indeed experience proves that to be the only successful way to educate Indians.
    Manual labor schools may in a few years become nearly self-supporting. It is, however, true that it requires more outlay to get them fairly under way and firmly established, but the end to be accomplished justifies the expenditure.
    The moral culture of the Indians has not been neglected. Throughout the entire Superintendency some interest is felt among agents and employees, and with a very few exceptions--unavoidable--married men of moral character have been appointed to subordinate positions. It [is] safe to say that fair progress has been made in this direction and that the Indians themselves are gradually assuming the habits and manners of moral people.
    Health reports are not full, yet I believe the mortality to have been light. No serious epidemics or infectious diseases have visited the Indians of Oregon during the past year. The vaccine virus forwarded to this office was distributed among the several agencies, but appears to have been of little value, only a few successful operations being reported.
Indians Not on Reservations
    It is impossible to state the exact number, but from best information I estimate them at 1775. They are scattered in various parts of the country, from Columbia River to the California line and from the coast to the eastern limit of the state, the largest band being Snakes at Camp Harney, Weahwewa, chief. In obedience to orders from [the] Commissioner I made an effort to remove them to Klamath last fall, but owing to causes set forth in a report of said expedition was unsuccessful. They have since been fed by the military at Camp Harney. No complaint of any depredations by them have come to my knowledge. So long as they are cared for by the military no trouble need be apprehended. After making the above-named report I have awaited orders from the Commissioner.
    If they are ever to be settled and domesticated, they should be compelled to go onto a reservation. Having exhausted my power I now recommend that they be removed to Klamath Reservation by military authority. If due notice is given my Superintendency can take care of them whenever delivered on the reservation. It would be great economy to the government to have them permanently located, thus obviating the necessity of keeping up military posts at enormous expense. The Indian Dept. can provide them with everything they need at one-fourth the annual expense of one post.
    The next largest band is "Smohellers," at Priest Rapids, Washington Territory. They also refused to obey my order to "come in," made to them during the month of February last, of which full report was made. I would also recommend that they be removed to Umatilla by the military.
    Another band, the Modocs, belonging by treaty on Klamath, up to last December had resisted all efforts to transfer them put forth by late Supt. Huntington, also of L. Applegate, late agent at Klamath.
    In December last I succeeded in removing them to the reservation, of which also a full report was forwarded. I located them at Modoc Point, Klamath Reservation, provided them clothing and food and, under favorable circumstances, turned them over to Capt. Knapp, acting agent. They remained about three months, when through the constant interference of the Klamaths Agent Knapp ordered them to move a few miles to a new location. Here again the Klamaths ceaselessly annoyed them with threat and insult. Agent Knapp again ordered them to change location, where they would be surrounded with Klamaths, to prevent them running away, as Agent Knapp asserted, but whether that was the real intention or not it caused them to stampede. The mistake may have been one of ignorance. I cannot blame the Indians for leaving, under such management. They returned to Lost River, and for awhile fears were entertained of serious trouble with them. I have proposed, through I. D. Applegate, special commissary for Snake Indians, to set apart for the Modocs a small portion of Klamath Reservation, in close proximity to Yainax. I have good reasons for believing that under this arrangement they will all come back to the reservation, except perhaps fifteen or twenty desperadoes, whom I propose to have arrested and confined. There are other small bands that have never yet been domesticated. Some of these are troublesome to white settlers and should be taken care of. Hitherto they have eluded or defied the authority of the Indian Dept. Others, against whom no complaints are ever heard, and in some instances they are really advancing as rapidly as those on reservations.
    It is a matter of much importance that all Indians should be made to acknowledge the authority of the government. In this connection I would respectfully suggest that some distinct special regulations be promulgated, whereby the relative position of the military and Indian departments may be clearly understood and acknowledged. Whenever that is done much embarrassment will be removed, and the two departments can act successfully and in harmony.
    In looking the whole field over, I am justified in saying that this Superintendency is in good condition. No fears of serious trouble need be apprehended, subsistence sufficient, clothing enough will be purchased, medical treatment provided on every reservation and, at present writing, no serious discontent, but a general manifestation of desire to advance is noticeable.
    In conclusion I desire to say that much of the prosperity evinced is due to the promptness with which funds and instructions have been forwarded from [the] Department at Washington, in connection with a ready disposition of agents and employees to cooperate with me in nearly every effort to abolish wrongs and institute new rules for the welfare of the people under my charge, and fervently believing that each succeeding year will record ever-increasing prosperity, trusting for continued encouragement and support from superiors in office,
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10, Letter Books I:10, page 447-454.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 444-464.


Inventory
of property pertaining to the Indian Service in Oregon, transferred to A. B. Meacham, Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon by Captain O. C. Knapp, U.S.A., U.S. Indian Sub-Agent for Klamath Agency, Oregon on the thirteenth day of September 1870.
    No.   Qty. Articles
9 no. Horses
26 " Oxen
2 " Riding saddles
4 " Riding bridles
2 " Halters
2 " Saddle blankets
6 " Horse brushes
16 " Curry combs
1 " Horse card
4 " Horse collars, extra
2 " Trace chains
29 " Ox chains
2 " Fifth chains
1 " Bearing chains
120 lb. Cable chains
13 no. Ox yokes
34 " Ox bows
32 " Ox bow keys
1 " Ox lash
4 " Wagons, freight
1 " Wagons, spring
1 " Wagons, log
2 " Wagon covers
4 " Wagon harness, sets of
6 " Axle grease, cans of
9 " Hay forks
3 " Stable forks
3 " Stretchers
1 " Jockey stick
1 " Mule bit
1 " Horse bell & strap
1 " Whip lash and stock
3 " Baggage racks, wagon
13 " Plows
3 " Garden hoes
1 " Grubbing hoe
3 " Scythes and snaths
4 " Scythe stones
4 " Grain cradles
6 " Grain scoops
1 " Fanning mill
16 " Axes and handles
12 " Axes
12 " Handles
7 " Monkey wrenches
2 " Jack screws
19 " Long-handled shovels
12 " Short-handled shovels
6 " Long-handled spades
1 " Field roller
3 " Harrows
1 " Sleigh
23 " Picks
11 " Pick handles
3 " Mattocks
14 "  Padlocks
1 " Saddlebags, pair of
3 " Water buckets
1 " Butcher knife
1 " Meat saw
1 ' Meat saw blade, extra
1 " Candle mold, stand of
2 " I.D. brands
8 " Grain sacks
1 " Steel yard
1 " Butcher's steel
12 lb. Rutabaga seed
450 no. Garden seeds, asstd. papers of
lb. Parsnip seed
1 no. Spring balance
1 " Oiling can
4 " Hoisting blocks, patd.
209 lb. Rope
1 no. Reaper and mower combined
1 " Threshing machine
1 " Check lines, pair of
1 ' Grindstone
1 " Grindstone fixtures, set of
6 " Hatchets
4 " Crosscut saws
8 " Hand saw
2 " Panel saw
2 " Back saw
2 " Keyhole saw
1 " Compass saw
2 " Saw sets
3 " Board froes
2 " Broad axes and handles
1 " Hand ax
4 " Hammers
2 " Brad awls, sets of
9 " Assorted awls
1 " Marking awl and spool
2 ' Drawing knives
1 " Boring machine, complete
1 ' Nippers, pair of
1 " Sash chisel
10 " Mortising chisels
1 ' Firmer chisel, set of
1 " Gouges, set of, firmer
1 " Fillister
1 " Pliers, pair of
1 " Compass, pair of
1 " Dividers, pair of
1 " Calipers, pair of
2 " Bench planes, sets of
1 " Plow plane
1 " Sash plane
3 " Match plane
2 " Rabbet plane
3 " Dado plane
2 " Steel squares
3 " Try squares
4 " Single gauges
1 " Double gauge
1 " Panel gauge
6 " Gimlets
1 " Diamond
2 " Bench screws, wood
6 " Hand screws, wood
1 " Spirit level
12 " Carpenter's pencils
6 " Chalk lines
1 " Iron brace & bits
1 " Patd. auger bits, sets of
2 " Screw drivers
2 " Oil stones
2 " Whetstones
9 " Handsaw files
1 " Oil can, tin, patd.
2 " 4-fold rules
2 " Bevels
2 " Spokeshaves
2 " Foot adzes & handles
5 sq. Sandpaper
2 gross Assorted screws
4 no. Door locks
2 " White lead, kegs of
300 lb. Nails, asstd.
4 no. Door butts, pairs of
1 " Window glass, boxes of
2 " Paint brushes
1 gal. Linseed oil
1 " Turpentine
1 lb. Finishing nails
2 no. Iron wedges
2 " Maul rings, sets of
1 " Bellows
1 " Anvil
2 " Vises, bench
1 " Vise, hand
2 " Hand hammers
2 " Sledge hammers
1 " Riveting hammer
2 ' Shoeing hammers
8 " Tongs, pairs of
19 " Files, bastard & assorted
20 ' Files, mill, saw & assorted
2 " Treenail irons
1 " Soldering copper
1 " Compasses, pairs of
4 " Screen plates, complete
1 " Gunsmith's plates, complete
1 " Steel square
2 " Oil stones
2 " Fillers, sets of
2 " Pincers, pairs of
7 " Drills
1 " Iron brace & bits
1 ' Punch
3 " Swedges
2 " Heading tools
4 " Rasps
2 " Shoeing knives
1 " Monkey wrench
1 " Drawing knife
10 lb. Horseshoe nails
89 " Steel, assorted
758 " Iron, assorted
45 " Nail rod
80 " Horse shoes
10 " Mule shoes
20 " Borax
150 bu. Charcoal
2 lb. Bolts, asstd.
18 no. Gun nipples
11 " Emery paper, sheets of
4 gal. Lard oil
1 " Iron saw
1 " Grind stone
1 " Grind fixtures, sets of
4 " Augers and handles
4 " Hand saw
1 " Back saw
1 " Felloe saw
1 ' Hand ax and handle
1 ' Brad awls, set of
1 " Scratch awl
1 " Drawing knife
5 " Mortising chisels
1 " Firmer chisels, set of
1 " Bench planes, set of
1 " Steel square
1 " Try square
1 " Single gauge
1 "  Double gauge
3 " Chalk lines
2 " Iron braces and bits
1 " Patd. auger bits, set of
1 " Oil stone
1 " Rasp
1 " Oil can, tin, patd.
1 " Glue pot and brush
4 lb. Glue
1 no. Pocket rule
1 " Bevel
1 " Spoke shave
1 " Spoke auger
1 " Wood brace and bits
1 " Monkey wrench
1 " Foot adz and handle
2 " Hammers
1 " Broad ax and handle
1 " Dividers, pair of
1 " Saw set
1 " Ruler
1 " Ruling pen
1 ' Rubber
6 quire Flat cap paper
9 " Fools cap paper
22 " Letter
205 no. Blank vouchers
325 " Sub vouchers
455 " Envelopes
2 " Inkstands
gross Steel pens
3 no. Steel pen holders
4 " Lead pencils
4 " Blank ink, bottles of
8 " Record books
1 lb. Sealing wax
70 no. Contracts, blank
1 " Paper clip
1 " Letter file
15 quire Fools cap paper
6 no. Lead pencils
12 " Slate pencils
1 gross Steel pens
2 no. Pen holders
1 " Ruler
10 " Slates
12 " Wilson's First Readers
8 " Wilson's Large Spellers
11 " Wilson's Primary Spellers
9 " Primers
¼ lb. Syrup ipecac
½ " Balsam copaiba
1 " Spts. nitro dulc.
3 oz. Plumbi acet.
3 " Sulf. zinc
½ lb. Epsom salts
¾ " Sulfur
2 " Ground flax seed
¼ " Composition powder
" Ground elm
¼ " Tartaric acid
3 " Gum camphor
" Calomel
¾ " Lunar caustic
¼ " Tinct. opium or laudanum
½ " Paregoric
¼ " Fluid ext. stillingia
¼ " Fluid ext. valerian
½ " Calcd. magnesia
¼ " Pulv. rhubarb
" Pulv. jalap
" Cream tartar
½ " Compd. syrup squills
¼ " Cantharides emp.
oz. Quinine
½ lb. Ung. hydrarg.
1 " Sulf. ether
" Alum
¾ " Carb. ammonia
1 " Muriate ammonia
½ " Aromatic spts. ammonia
½ " Fluid ext. cubebs
3 oz. Pulv. opium
1 " Dover's powders
lb. Ung. simplex
¾ roll Isinglass plaster
½ lb. Tinct. terri mur.
¾ " Fluid ext. buchu
½ oz. Podophyllin
½ " Oil of cinnamon
8 " Aqua peppermint
lb. Castile soap, white
4 oz. Bichromate potassium
8 " Aromatic sulf. acid
8 " Liq. arsenious potass.
2 lb. Compd. syrup sarsaparilla
" Bicarb. soda
½ " Lint
1 no. Lewis syringe
1 " 8 oz. metal syringe
1 " 4 oz. metal syringe
7 " Penis syringe
1 " Vaginal syringe
2 " Forceps
1 " Universal
1 " Spring lancet
1 " Medicine glass
1 case Pocket instruments
1 no. Pill file
1 " Spatula
2 " Graduates
1 ' U.S. Dispensatory
30 bu. Lime
1 no. Cargo cover
1 " Mess chest
4 " Blankets, pairs of
3,800 lb. Flour
1 no. Camp kettle
1 " Coffee pot
1 " Frying pan
2 " Water kegs
2 " Coffee mills
6 " Knives and forks
2 " Wheelbarrows
4 " Muskets, Springfield
3 " Revolvers, Colt's
1 " Flatboat
2 " Office desks
6 " Brooms
3 ' Window curtains
1 " Stove
6 " Stovepipes, joints of
1 " Shovels and tongs, pair of
1 " Lamp
5 gal. Lamp oil
4 no. Andirons, pairs of
1 ' Clock
6 " Crowbars
500 bu. Barley
907 " Oats
1500 " Turnips
28 " Rye
30 " Peas
100 tons Hay
I certify on honor that the foregoing list is correct and true.
O. C. Knapp
    Captain U.S. Army
        U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Klamath Agency, Oregon
    September 30th 1870
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Camp Yainax Klamath Res. Oregon
    September 30th 1870
Sir,
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month ending with the above date.
    The Indians have generally appeared well disposed and industrious. They have been mostly engaged in hunting game and laying up winter provisions. On the 24th I visited Camp Warner and found about thirty Indians who belong at this camp in and around that post. One Indian was confined in the guardhouse by order of the post commander for some small offense; he was subsequently released and in company with twenty more returned with me to Sprague River. The Indians who are induced to lay around this post (Camp Warner) are becoming wretchedly degraded and exert a very bad influence over their tribe. Five Indians from Camp Harney belonging to Chief "Weahwewa's" band met me at Camp Warner and expressed themselves as anxious to make their homes at this place, saying "that only for the influence of their headmen very many of their people would like to come upon this reservation and make farms like those already here." I allowed these Indians to come with me, promising to inform the Supt. of the fact and to urge upon the Dept. the economy and justice of locating not only a portion but the whole tribe or nation of Snake Indians in Sprague River Valley. They are well pleased, and one of them has returned to inform his people of their emigration thither.
    Lieut. S. Guthrie, A.C.S. at Camp Warner, invoiced to me twenty-six thousand and eight hundred (26,800) lbs. of flour for issue to Snake Indians. I shall freight said flour to this camp with as little expense as possible. All the Indians here that I am able to furnish tools are busily engaged in building houses.
    P. W. Caris reported for duty Sept. 1st, S. W. Kilgore Sept. 15th, making with A. L. McKay three employees. They have put up in stock thirty-five tons of hay, and are now engaged in getting out timbers for suitable quarters. Fifteen Indians from this camp have been cutting saw logs at Klamath Agency; more will be sent for same purpose during the fall. Several Modoc families have come in during the month, and many more are expected. If provision is made for their support during the winter I have but little doubt but that most if not all will return to the reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your most obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Coms. of Subs.
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affrs.
            Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    October 1st 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indn. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            (Through Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.)
                Sir,
                    I have the honor to submit the following as "Report of Condition" of this agency for the month of September 1870.
    The sawmill is approaching completion as rapidly as possible with the small force upon it. Will be in running order by October 15th. Harvest completed, except stacking about 70 tons of hay. The grain crop stored at the agency is about 500 bushels of barley, 97 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of rye & 30 bushels of peas. Only one-half of the barley was harvested, the other half being so poor that it was deemed unprofitable to harvest it. The Indians have been allowed to glean the fields, and it is estimated that they have gathered enough to equal half the quantity of grain stored by the Department. The turnip crop sown by the Department and given to the Indians to gather is estimated at 1500 bushels, about one-half the quantity that would have been produced if the seed had been of good quality. 100 tons of hay have been cut for the use of the Department. Amount cut by Indians not estimated.
    The grain crops have yielded about one-half less than was expected, owing to the unfavorable season. The barley weighs 65 lbs. to the bushel, oats 35, rye and peas 56.
    On the 10th received notice from the Superintendent that I was directed to transfer funds and property of the agency to him and that a commissary would be designated to receive funds and property as soon as possible. On the 21st received orders from the Superintendent to transfer funds and property to Mr. John Meacham, Commissary for Klamath Agency, the Superintendent receipting to me for the same.
    On the 30th I transferred the funds and all property belonging to the Department to the commissary, taking his receipts for the records and other documents, also for the funds and property transferred to the Superintendent. I also closed up all accounts with the employees and others on the 30th, giving certified vouchers to those whom I could not pay for want of funds. My final accounts will be forwarded as promptly as possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        O. C. Knapp
            Captain U.S. Army
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Fort Klamath, Oregon
    October 11th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comsr. Indn. Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I have this day forwarded to the Supt. Indn. Affairs in Oregon my final accounts as U.S. Indn. sub-agent for Indians on Klamath Reservation and respectfully request that when the accounts have been received and examined at your office that a certificate be furnished me, showing that no more returns are due from me as Indian agent. This certificate is required to enable me to settle my accounts with the 2nd Auditor and to obtain a certificate of non-indebtedness from him.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Captain U.S. Army
P.O. Address
    Howell
        Michigan
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 261-262.



Salem Oregon
    Oct. 17th 1870
Genl. Ely S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I desire to present for your consideration the following statement in regard to certain claims which are now held against the Indian Department of the U.S. government.
    I have had the honor to be an employee of the Indian Department in this Superintendency, in the capacity of physician, for several years, in 1869 and during the last few months of the late Superintendent Huntington's life. The condition of the Snake and Klamath tribes of Indians requiring his attention, and deeming it necessary to make an official visit to them, he proceeded in the month of March 1869 to organize an expedition for that purpose. Desiring to avail himself of my knowledge of the Indians and their country, I was detailed and entrusted with the organization of the expedition and to accompany it to its destination. In pursuance of this duty I repaired at once to the Dalles, the place fixed as the starting point, and there assumed in charge all the employees, animals and means of transportation for said expedition. Owing first to a press of official business, next to the serious illness of himself and family, Superintendent Huntington was delayed for weeks from the original time fixed for starting, during which time, acting under instruction from the Superintendent, liabilities for supplies of subsistence, forage, for pasturage and other necessary expense incidental to the delay, were incurred.
    After Mr. Huntington's death, which occurred on the 3rd day of June at Salem, in the absence of any instruction the expedition was held awaiting orders until discharged by Mr. Meacham, Mr. Huntington's successor in office, acting in conjunction with Mr. Earhart, administrator, the liabilities thus incurred (a list of which is herewith enclosed) remaining yet unpaid from technically arising from the death of one Superintendent, and the transfer of the affairs to another. These claims have the full approval of Mr. Earhart, Mr. Huntington's administrator, as well as that of Mr. Meacham, present Superintendent, both of whom are fully cognizant of all the circumstances, and satisfied of their being entirely just. I feel it a duty incumbent upon me to make to you the foregoing statement from the fact that, being directly connected with all the transactions referred to, I know of my own knowledge that these parties furnished these articles and services in good faith, upon the distinct and positive understanding that they were to be paid for at once, and the delay in payment incurs upon them great hardship upon the claimants, most of whom are in needy circumstances and entirely dependent upon daily labor for their support.
    Feeling satisfied from assurances given me by gentlemen who had the pleasure to meet you in official capacity--that any proposition connected with the Department of which you have the honor to be the head, involving the question of right and justice, will have an impartial hearing--I am led to hope for a favorable consideration of these claims, and it also must be my apology for thus trespassing upon your valuable time.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            Wm. C. McKay
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 465-468.



Klamath Agency Ogn.
    Oct. 18th 1870
Dear Sir:
    I have become satisfied from long experience that I can make it of decided benefit to Dept. to employ a few of the most apt and best Indians to encourage as well as assist others. Accordingly I would most respectfully ask that the following appointments may receive your sanction--
    Chas. Preston (Klamath) Klamath Farmer
Thomas Poe (Modoc) Modoc Farmer
Saml. Reed (Yahooskin) Pack Master
Jake Chocktoot (Snake) Packer
    I propose to pay each man $25.00 per month currency. These four men can be had for less than one good white man would want, and they will do more work than three white men anyhow--besides greatly encourage other Indians.
    Please let me know. These men are now with the train working from 1st Oct.
Very truly &c.
    I. D. Applegate
        C. of Subs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 194.



Ashland Mills Oregon
    Oct. 22nd 1870
Dear Sir,
    I came in [a] few days ago, will start back Monday.
    Now the mountain is liable to block anytime after 1st Nov. Whatever amount of flour we get out should go very soon. When you left Klamath we estimated that we would require near 75,000 lbs. of flour. The Snake Indians are all in or on the road to "Yainax." We said to the Modocs to come in and we would feed them; over one hundred are already in, building houses, and most if not all the tribe will be in. It will be impossible to get our people through the winter with less than 50,000 [lbs.] of flour with what I now have. We will have over one hundred more Snakes I believe than we had last winter. If Indians at "Yainax" are provided for properly this winter we will never have any more trouble. I have made up my mind to have 50,000 lbs. of flour sent out before the roadblock. I would be under lasting obligations if you would write or telegraph to McCall upon receipt of this, saying whether or not there will be funds to pay for that amount of flour. I have aimed to put my figures for flour as low as possible. I do not believe a less amount would let us through the winter. Hoping to hear from you at your earliest convenience, I remain
Very truly your obd. servt.
    I. D. Applegate
        Coms. of Subs.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs. Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 195.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Oct. 22nd 1870
Sir
    On Monday 17th inst. I dispatched five mule teams freighted with goods & merchandise for Ind. Dept at Klamath and Yainax. On receipt of those designed for Klamath you will make a full and complete inventory of same before issuing and furnish the office therewith. I have also ordered to be delivered at Klamath from Ashland twenty thousand pounds of flour, fifteen hundred yds. of flannel and one hundred pairs of Oregon blankets. You will find on examination thirty-five suits of clothing invoiced as blankets; thirty-five other suits have been sent to Yainax which I have ordered Applegate to turn over to you, making seventy suits of made clothing, which together with other goods ordered will be sufficient to clothe your Indians the coming winter. The flour you will only issue to needy persons except at the time you issue goods and also at all times at least once per week. One sk. to Chief Allen David. The blankets only to such persons as are in absolute want. The funds belonging to Klamath are too near exhausted to do more this fall. Explain this to Allen David and say to him that he must make his people understand that fact. If you can make more lumber than you can use for Indians and Dept. you will dispose of it to procure cattle or other needed supplies for your agency. Again if individual Indians should bring logs to the mill you will allow them to have their proceeds of sale if any.
    Of the five teams sent out, two of them together with all appurtenances, wagons and blankets will be turned over to you, of which you will make full and complete inventory. Two teams with necessary harness will be turned over to I. D. Applegate at Yainax.
    You will consult with O. C. Applegate and Supt. Ferree, and if you can consistent with public interest, I wish you to employ Scott (mule teamster). If you can to any advantage, retain Brown, ox driver. Make such other charges as the invoice may require. Make no issue until all the goods are delivered and then first deliver to Allen David in presence of army officer, after which you can prepare them for distribution.
    Allow no Indian of any size to have a hat unless he cuts his hair so as to show his ears. Be patient with those under you, and above all be just, especially to the poor. Should Applegate desire the use of teams to freight flour, you will allow him the use of the same. Should you require more animals for general use than you have on hand, make demand of Applegate, who has been instructed to turn over to you.
Respectfully &c.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
John Meacham
    Commissary at Klamath
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 459.



Klamath Agency, Oregon
    October 23rd 1870.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affairs in Oregon
        Sir,
            I have the honor to report the following appointments for this agency.
viz
Wm. Angle employed as Mill Laborer October 13th 1870.
Henry E. Rockfellow employed as Asst. Farmer October 15th 1870.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of Klamath Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 204.



Klamath Agency Oct. 24 1870
Sir
    Pursuant to your order of the 13th inst. I have made "temporary arrangements with Dr. Cardwell" to succeed Dr. Foley as physician for this reservation including Yainax, the same to take effect on the 1st prox. Dr. Foley has not tendered his resignation as yet, and I have thought proper to withhold his discharge until the 1st of Nov. My opinion is that Dr. Cardwell will give good satisfaction among the Indians. I have talked with him at length concerning their superstitious ideas of medicine, informing him of the fact that their system and practice of medicine had been abolished, but that they still entertained their ancient superstition ideas concerning it, that some of them still practiced it in secret, that this superstition was one of the greatest stumbling blocks in the way of their civilization, and that aside from using his best endeavors to cure them of disease, it would be expected of him to exert the greatest possible diligence to eradicate from their minds these heathenish ideas by practically demonstrating to them the power and efficacy of our system of medicine.
    The Dr. pledges himself to these conditions. As your instructions look only to a temporary arrangement with him, I would respectfully ask that he be permitted to hold this situation until he has had a fair trial.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary for
                Klamath Agency
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 199.



Office of Klamath Agency
    Oct. 31 1870
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report of the condition of this agency and of the Indians on this reservation for the month of Oct. 1870.
    On the 1st inst. in accordance with your order of the 14th ult. I relieved Capt. O. C. Knapp, taking charge of all the property and effects of the Indian Dept. at this agency.
    I feel that it is but justice to Capt. Knapp to say in this connection that at the time of taking charge here I found (with a few exceptions) everything in a most prosperous and healthy condition, and that for the well being of the service I recognized the necessity of but few changes.
    Of these, one was in regard to certain Indian women who had established several habitations in the vicinity of the agency. They were in the habit of hanging around the office, the quarters, the private houses and other buildings of the agency, losing no opportunity of insinuating themselves into the presence of the employees. They were saucy, impudent and lewd in the extreme. It occurred to me that the proper place for a woman was at home with her husband and children, and that their presence here was not only entirely superfluous, but discreditable to the com. in charge and the authority under which he acted as well, and furthermore that the toleration of such a practice was an injustice to the Indian men and not in good faith with certain promises made to them by yourself. I accordingly determined to rid the premises of their obnoxious presence by issuing an order forbidding any Indian woman to come to this agency except she were able to show that her business was legitimate and her intentions to return to her home as soon as the same was accomplished. I am glad to inform you that this order has met with the hearty approval of the Indian men, and the faithful observance of their women. Most of the other changes made relate to employees, whereof your office has been officially informed. In making these my object has been to consult the interest of the Indians and the Ind. Dept. and not white men, especially not bad white men.
    On the 12th inst. (Capt. Knapp having concluded his official business with this reservation and having no conveyance of his own) I deemed it nothing more than courtesy on the part of the Dept. to provide the retiring agent with suitable conveyance to Jacksonville and accordingly detailed Wm. Taylor with four-horse team to convey the Captain and his baggage to that place. Taylor returned on the 23rd inst. Vouchers covering his expenses on the road and while in Jacksonville are forwarded this month.
    On the 24th inst. pursuant to your order of the 11th farmer Sykes Worden was dispatched with an Indian guide, a six-mule team and 3,600 lbs. of oats to meet the train of Chief Com. McKay on the Eugene road.
    During the entire month work on the mill under the supervision of (carpenter) Scranton has been crowded with the utmost vigor, and I am glad to inform you that on the 24th inst. the lower saw was set to work, since which time it has cut over 20,000 feet of excellent lumber. From present indications I feel entirely warranted in saying that the mill is an entire success and that in capacity and in quality of lumber as well it fully meets the most sanguine expectations of its constructors. (Sawyer) Ellis gives as his opinion that when both saws are busy they will have a capacity of 8000 feet per 10 hours. As an evidence of its speed I submit that it today cut from a log 18 feet long & 10 in. in diameter 10 planks in four minutes.
    Taking into consideration the near approach of winter, and the great want of lumber to make the agency buildings comfortable, no time will be lost in completing and running the mill, and as soon as possible every preparation for building the barn contemplated in your instructions to Capt. Knapp will be made. But I think for the comfort of Dept. animals temporary stabling for at least 20 horses had better be constructed immediately.
    The Indians have generally been quiet and peaceably disposed during the month. Many of them have been engaged in getting out timber for new houses, quarrying rock for chimneys &c. &c.
    During 14 days of the present month two teamsters, 2 wagons and 4 yoke of oxen have been turned over to Chief Allen David for the use of his people, and I am glad to say they improved the opportunity to hauling timber, firewood and stone in large quantities. They display considerable skill and ingenuity in their work, especially in improving their barns and in rendering comfortable their homes. During the month they completed the millrace, cut 500 excellent saw logs, and are at present working on the Rock Point road. Agreeable to your instructions to them they are to work four days on roads before expecting a pass to leave the reservation.
    In conclusion permit me to say of these people that I had never yet seen Indians more willing and anxious to learn, that though enshrouded in darkness and superstition, they are slowly climbing the dusty hill of civilization. And to express the belief that the children are already born who will reach its summit and behold for [last
page lost or not filmed]]
[John Meacham]
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Camp Yainax Klamath Res. Ogn.
    October 31st 1870
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month ending with the above date.
    The employees have been busily engaged in erecting suitable quarters for their own use and in helping the Indians in building their houses. The Indians have built eighteen (18) log dwelling houses. I have been unable to furnish them with tools, nails &c., as they require. Bands of men have been idle for the last two months, anxiously awaiting the arrival of the wagons sent from Salem with tools &c. The houses are not yet covered, for want of nails. It is now so late in the season, the weather growing cold, but little work can be done before spring. Our people must make temporary winter shelter as best they can.
    On the 10th inst. I employed S. Nelson to work with and assist the Indians. He has worked faithful and has been of great service in directing them in the construction of houses, chimneys &c., and I would most respectfully recommend that he be continued in the service.
    On the 11th I started for Camp Warner at Drews Valley. I met Chief "Ocheho" and most of his people, also Chief George from Camp Bidwell. Both chiefs, with several of their headmen, accompanied me to Camp Warner. With them I called upon Col. Elmer Otis. Chief "Ocheho" requested that all his people now in and around the garrison be sent back to Camp "Yainax," and that the commanding officer at Warner assist him in keeping his people upon Klamath Reservation, where they of right belong. Chief George asked that all his people in and around Camp Bidwell be compelled to remove to Camp "Yainax, Klamath Reservation." Col. Otis promised to comply with their desire and immediately wrote an order directing Lieut. Street, commander of Bidwell, to order all Indians to report themselves to me at this camp without delay. With this letter one of George's men was sent to Camp Bidwell.
    Chief "Ocheho" succeeded in returning to Drews Valley with all his people. A portion have not yet arrived here. They with several families from Camp Harney and Harney Lake are hunting in the mountains east of this camp; what number I cannot correctly inform you until all are in.
    The Modoc Indians are moving in here and building winter houses. Chiefs Schonchin, George and Chas. Riddle are now here and report a number of their people willing to come in. I cannot yet tell what number will come in peaceably. Capt. Jack refuses to come upon the reservation and is doing all in his power to disaffect those now here. The well-being of the Service as well as the public safety demand that measures be speedily adopted to bring by force this faction of desperadoes under the control of the government.
    The flour turned over to me at Warner, 26800 lbs., will all be delivered by [the] tenth of next month.
    The vegetable crop, principally turnips, has been gathered and issued to the Indians, estimated at one thousand bushels. The turnips were very large; many measured from ten to twelve inches in diameter.
    The Indians are generally healthy and in good spirits, are very anxious to work. If suitable tools could have been furnished in time, every family might have had a good, comfortable house built to winter in. I have never seen any people more anxious to improve their condition. They seem determined to do so, at any cost to them, in overcoming old superstitions, prejudices, habits &c.. To know their wants, to see their desperate degradation, see them struggling against a cruel fate, makes one feel no small amount of sympathy for them and interest in their welfare.
    I trust their wants will be duly appreciated by you, and through your energy and untiring industry be made known to the govt. in time to do them some good.
Very respectfully
    Your most obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Spcl. Coms. for Snake and Modoc Indns.
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indn. Affrs.
            in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Office Klamath Agency, Ogn.
    November 1st 1870.
Sir,
    I have the honor to report the following changes in employees at this agency.
Viz
Samuel Grubb, wagon and plow maker, resigned October 31st 1870.
Marcenius P. Crapo, mill laborer, resigned October 31st 1870.
Lemuel Foley, physician, discharged October 31st 1870.
William Taylor, miller, resigned October 31st 1870.
   
Samuel Grubb, appointed miller, November 1st 1870.
Marcenius P. Crapo, appointed wagon and plow maker, November 1st 1870.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of Klamath Agency
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 203.



Office Supt. Indn. Affrs.
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 3, 1870
Sir
    I transmit herewith Physician's Report of Vaccination of Indians in Umatilla, Warm Springs, Grand Ronde and Klamath agencies, physician at Siletz Agency not yet reported. No physician located at Alsea Sub-Agency.
    As the time of forwarding vaccine virus to the several agencies was at that season of the year when many of the Indians were absent from the reservation, fishing, hunting, gathering roots &c., therefore the delay in physicians making their reports.
    The report of the physicians at Warm Springs and Klamath agencies is not satisfactory to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indn. Affrs. in Ogn.
                by C. S. Woodworth, Clerk
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commr. &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
   

Klamath Agency Oregon
    Aug. 30th 1870
Report of L. Foley
    Physician for Klamath & Modoc Indians
        at Klamath Agency Ogn.
    Number of Indians unprotected from smallpox 1980
Number vaccinated 212
Number revaccinated 6
Number of successful vaccinations none
    I certify that the vaccine virus furnished me was properly and judiciously used, and that the failure is due to the virus not being genuine.
L. Foley
    Physician
To
    Capt. O. C. Knapp
        U.S. Sub-Agent
   

Grand Ronde Agency 1870
Report of C. H. Hall
    Physician for all the Indians
        at Grand Ronde Indian Agency Oregon
    Number of Indians unprotected from smallpox 290
Number vaccinated 230
Number revaccinated 142
Number of successful vaccinations 184
C. H. Hall
    Physician
To
    Charles Lafollett
        U.S. Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 474-478.



Klamath Agency
    Nov. 6th 1870
Sir
    I have the pleasure to report that the wagons dispatched by you from Salem on the 17th ult. and bearing supplies for this place have this day arrived.
    Commissary McKay went on to Yainax with the freight for that place. As soon as he arrives at this place I will make an inventory of property and effects transferred by him to me according to your instructions of Oct. 22nd and forward to your office.
Very respectfully your obdnt. servnt.
    John Meacham
        Commissary in charge Klamath Agency
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 209.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 10th 1870
Sir,
    Yours of 27th ult. has been received containing acceptance of appointment as commissary to relieve Agent Battey, also informing this office of your possession of the govt. property at said agency. I have also noted your report of condition of said property and suggestions in regard thereto. In reference to the condition of govt. buildings, not having examined them myself, I shall rely entirely on your judgment and trust to your own discretion that you will make necessary repairs with due regard to economy, and to that end you will proceed to purchase on open market the necessary materials therefor. Whenever labor is required on your agency, you will at all times employ Indians belonging to your agency if it can be done without too great a sacrifice to the Dept., the object of which is to encourage and develop these people by paying to them every dollar that may be expended for labor. No bills will be allowed for white labor that Indians might do. You will also encourage them to be industrious and economical, taking constant care to instill in them respect for truth and virtue.
    I hope to visit you sometime before New Year's and have a square talk. Should you become cognizant of any violation of the intercourse laws you will take immediate steps to bring offenders to trial.
    I trust that you will remember that you have not only your own reputation, but my honor and credit in your hands when acting commissary.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Saml. Case, Esq.
    Comsry.
        Alsea Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 466.



Klamath Agency Nov. 10th 1870
Dear Alfred
    In your letter written at Umatilla you request me to write you "fully." I suppose by this you wish me to state what I propose to do and how I intend to do it. Well, in the first place let me say that I can see but one course to pursue in regard to the general management of affairs here, and that is to proceed just as if I were the regularly appointed agent.
    This reservation has suffered enough already from the effects of keeping the acting agent when he did not want to stay and did not know how long he would remain or what day he would be relieved. It could hardly be expected of Capt. Knapp that he would administer affairs as vigorously and efficiently as if his position had been permanent and had been so recognized by the head of the Dept. at Washington [page lost or not filmed] the future of their race the sunrise of an enlightened day.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of
                Klamath Agency
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



(Telegram)
Salem Ogn. Nov. 11, 1870
J. M. McCall & Co.
    Ashland, Ogn.
        Forward to Yainax twenty thousand pounds of flour, one hundred prs. blankets, five hundred yards flannel.       
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 468.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon
        Nov. 12th 1870
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of Sept. 15th transmitting special orders No. 240 of the War Department dated September 10th 1870 honorably discharging 1st Lieut. Frederick A. Battey from the service of the United States with request that the same be forwarded to Lieut. Battey and that he be relieved from further duty as Indian agent. Said order was duly forwarded Oct. 21st with instruction to turn over Dept. property to Samuel Case, special commissary. In compliance with instruction Agent Battey did on the 27th of ult. transfer to Comy. Case government property of Alsea Agency, a full inventory of which property certified to by Comy. Case has been received at this office, and further Agent Battey transferred to me government funds in his hands at this office the 31st of Oct., at which time he made up his final accts., closing on that date his service as Indian agent.
    I did not deem it advisable to place the affairs of Alsea Sub-Agency in charge of Agent Simpson of Siletz Agency, for the reason that the two agencies are too far apart, and Agent Simpson could not give Alsea proper attention without detriment to the service at Siletz. Commissioner Case was formerly an employee at Alsea, thoroughly acquainted with the people, country and business of "Alsea," and being well recommended by agents Battey & Simpson, I felt justified in placing him in charge, also in recommending him as permanent sub-agent for that agency.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Aff. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner
        Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 481-483.



Office Superintendent Indian Affrs.
    Salem Oregon Nov. 12th 1870
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of Aug. 15th enclosing a copy of Special Orders No. 28, Headquarters of the Army Feb. 3rd 1870, relieving Capt. O. C. Knapp U.S.A. from duty as Indian agent.
    Said order was forwarded to Capt. O. C. Knapp Sept. 15th with instructions to turn over Dept. property to John Meacham, who I have appointed special commissary to receipt to and relieve Agent Knapp. In compliance with said instructions Agent Knapp transferred all the gov. property to Commissary John Meacham Oct. 1st and also to my order funds remaining in his hands at that date; a full inventory of all of which property certified to by Commissary Meacham has been forwarded to this office.
Very respectfully your obt. svt.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Aff. Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 487-488.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    Novb. 16th 1870
A. B. Meacham Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Aff. Org.
        Sir,
            I started H. T. Williams, John Dorsey, Isaac & Jimmy with the wagon for the Dalles yesterday. Mr. Weatherston and I will leave in a few minutes to overtake them. H. G. W. Scott and W. H. Chapman were transfered to this Klamath Agency, and Geo. Barger to Yainax on the 14th November 1870. Their blank vouchers will be forwarded to your office.
    You will also find enclosed the accounts of Jim Cane [Kane?] and Isaac. The money should be sent to the Dalles to pay them off, also to pay H. T. Williams &c.
    The weather permitting I shall be at the Dalles on the 2nd December; also Mr. Weatherston will require money to take him to Salem &c.
I remain
    Your most obdt. servant
        Wm. C. McKay
            Commissary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, No. 226.



Warsaw, N.Y.
    November 19th 1870.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Comsr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir,
                In the instructions received by me from the Supt. Indn. Affairs in Oregon relative to taking the census of Indians on Klamath Reservation, I was informed that I would "receive a liberal compensation in addition to my regular pay or salary." I respectfully request to be informed how I am to obtain the extra compensation.
    All the data from which the account will be made was forwarded with the census returns to your office through the Supt. of Indn. Affairs in Ogn.
    I have no retained papers concerning the census of Klamath Reservation.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        O. C. Knapp
            Late Capt. U.S. Army N.Y. Ind. Agt.
P.O. Address
    Warsaw
        N.Y.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 263-264.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Ogn. Nov. 25th 1870.
Sir,
    As smallpox is very prevalent in this state at present and liable at any time to get among the Indians on the several reservations, and as the vaccine virus furnished from your office last April for distribution among the several agencies proved of but little value, I would respectfully request that more of a reliable quality be furnished this office immediately.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 493-494.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    Nov. 28th 1870
Sir,
    Yours of 16th ult. received and contents noted. And while you have authorized me to make such improvements on the agency as in my judgment will justify, I will here state as it is now so late in the season I will try and get along with but little repairing from the fact work cannot be done to any advantage this late in the season.
    I  have moved my family to the agency and am now settled and ready to exercise all my time and talent in bettering the condition of the Indians on this agency.
    I have made a thorough examination of things in and about the agency and am sorry to say [that I] do not find things in a very prospering condition.
    You spoke of visiting this agency soon. I really hope you will, then you will see for yourself how things are. I have made strict inquiry as to Lieut. Battey's method of governing and treating the Indians while there and am now satisfied that bad results have grown out of it.
    I find that about sixty-five of the Coos tribe have run away and quite a large number of the Umpquas.
    This state of things in my opinion is caused by bad management and neglect on the part of the agent.
    I find there is but little raised here this year in the way of provisions for the Indians during the coming winter, which will make it very bad for me from the fact they expect the agent to provide for them when in want.
    Two hundred bushels of potatoes is all I have in my hands to issue to them during the winter, although I believe they have considerable stowed away in their houses.
    The crops of potatoes, carrots & turnips it appears was a perfect failure.
    The reason of the failure of the potato crop is, in my opinion, because the seed have been planted over and over for the last two years. I think it would be good policy to purchase all new seed for to plant in the spring.
    If this should meet your approval I would suggest that they be purchased as soon as possible, from the fact potatoes are bound to be scarce and high in the spring.
    I will here state also that there is but about ten bushels of seed wheat on hand, and it would be well enough to secure that also in time and such other seed as is required for spring crop.
    I am satisfied the best way to make the Indians of this agency contented here is to raise a plenty for them to eat.
    I shall at all times try to impress upon them the importance of being industrious and truthful and will to the best of my ability try to advance them in civilization and virtue.
    Be assured that I appreciate the confidence you have placed in me in appointing [me] to the position I now hold under you, and while I have your honor and credit in my hands it will only stimulate me to true acts of honor and deeds.
With much respect
    I subscribe myself
        Your most obdt. servt.
            Samuel Case
To
    Hon. A. B. Meacham
        Supt. of Indn. Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    November 30th 1870
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report of the condition of the affairs of this reservation for the month of November 1870.
    On the 5th inst. the train of Chief Commissary McKay arrived here, bringing supplies for the agency and also such a portion of the annuity goods as was shipped from Salem. Pursuant to your order McKay transferred to me twelve mules, one horse, twelve sets of harness and two wagons complete, also numerous other articles of his equipage whereof a complete invoice is forwarded to your office this month. On the 15th inst. McKay, with the remainder of his outfit, started on the return trip.
    In my report for October reference is made to the fact that in accordance with your instructions the Indians under the supervision of O. C. Applegate were working on the lakeshore road. I am happy to inform you that on the 17th inst. said road was completed. Seventy-five Indians responded to your order "to work four days each on public roads" during these hundred days' work. You are aware that Mr. Geo. Nurse had agreed to give the Indians one hundred dollars ($100) on the completion of the road, in accordance with which contract the Indians, in addition to work already referred to, worked three hundred and seventy-six days. Mr. Nurse is well satisfied with the road and will make his part of the contract good in a few days. Mr. Applegate certainly deserves great credit for the energy and perseverance he displayed in pressing this work to a successful completion, especially when we consider the inclement season in which it was prosecuted, and in this too the Indians have certainly displayed a most tangible evidence of their determination to be like white men. While doing the work rations of beef and flour were regularly issued to them, whereof certified statements will be furnished to your office at the end of the present quarter.
    During the month Capt. Ferree and his assistant farmers have succeeded in plowing about 80 acres of stubble land for next year's crops. Much more would have been plowed had not the land been so dry. Early in the month I instructed the plow maker and blacksmith to restock and remodel two of the old breaking plows which I found here. This they did in a most substantial and satisfactory manner, using the fore and hind wheels of an old wagon for each. These carriages are so arranged that the plows require no other management than the changing of the leverage at either end of the furrow. On the 16th inst. I sent two employees, one with an eight-mule team, the other with six yoke of oxen, to the river Williamson with instructions to break ground first for the chiefs, and afterwards, should any time be found, for such other persons as might be designated, the ground plowed to be as nearly square as possible and the amount in any one place not to be less than three acres nor to exceed ten. I regret to say that cold weather and the scarcity of grain to feed the animals at work are likely to put an end to this operation soon, and they will probably have to return to the agency early in the coming month.
    The sawmill, I am glad to inform you, is entirely completed. The upper saw was started on the 28th inst. and works as perfectly in unison with the lower one that the dividing line between them would be imperceptible on the planks were it not that the two run in opposite directions. Owing to the near approach of winter and the danger of the mountain roads blocking up with snow, Mr. Weatherston, one of the principal mechanics on the mill, thought best to return to Salem with the train of Dr. McKay. I certified to his time, and he will probably report at your office early next month for settlement. It is but justice to say of Mr. Weatherston and also of carpenter Scranton that they are masters of their trade, and no man will ever visit the Klamath mill and fail to recognize in it the enduring evidence of this fact.
    Early in the month, the temporary stables contemplated in my last report were completed. They are sufficient for the accommodation of 16 horses and six yoke of oxen. No work has yet been done to "render more comfortable the agency buildings." This however will be a short job. I regard the construction of a carpenter's and wagon and plow maker's shops as an absolute necessity. The changes made in employees at the commencement of the month give us 4 good mechanics. The Indian houses on this reservation are almost destitute of door shutters and windows. I notice among the commissary supplies sent here a large amount of window glass, and I see not why the mechanics cannot construct, during the coming winter, door frames and shutters and window frames and sash. Another thing which they badly need is wagons. We have an excellent wagon maker employed in their interest and paid out of their money, and I see no reason why he would not be employed the coming winter in the construction of the woodworks of wagons for their use. Incapacity and idleness in an employee can only be tolerated the expense and ruin of the employer. Regarding the Indians as the real employers, I assure you that while acting as commissary in charge of their affairs I shall make it my especial business to see that they receive a fair equivalent for the money they have invested in the pay of employees.
    There has been considerable sickness among the Indians during the month. Pneumonia is the prevailing disease, in the treatment of which Dr. Cardwell has been very successful, though he has had several of the worst cases I ever knew. The difficulties in the way of successfully combating disease among these Indians are numerous. Their houses do very well while they are in good health, but in sickness they are anything but comfortable; their food too is doubtless both wholesome and palatable in the former condition, but in the latter I am satisfied it is neither. But the greatest of all obstacles is their ancient superstitious theory of medicine. Capt. Knapp forbade their doctors to practice and shackled and imprisoned them for attempting to persist in the same. This was well, and the Captain deserves credit for it, but it had about as much effect in eradicating these superstitious notions from the minds of the Indian people as would the execution of the Pope of Rome and the proscription of every priest in Christendom in abolishing from the face of the earth the papal theory of religion. To prevent a practice is one thing and to change the belief in the theory which actuated that practice is quite another thing. Thus while it is true that the practice of medicine by Indian doctors is abolished, yet I am fully warranted in saying that there is not half a dozen Indians on the reservation who are not as firm as ever in the belief of "spiritual" medicine. Even Head Chief Allen David, grave, sedate and logical as he is in most things, acknowledged to me the other day that he still believed and was afraid to punish the doctors. Nothing but time and the patience, perseverance and energy of a thoroughly practical physician, aided by a comfortable hospital and a sufficiency of hospital stores, will ever relieve these people from the thralldom of this ancient heresy, which has as deep a seat in their minds as has the religion of Loyola in the bosom of a Jesuit.
    On the 14th inst. I issued to Allen David, chief of all the Klamaths, one yoke of oxen and an old wagon, neither of which were actually needed by the Department and are a source of great convenience of the chief and his people in hauling wood for the coming winter.
    The Indians have been industrious and peaceable during the month. Indeed, their conduct compares favorably with the stage of civilization at which they have arrived, and I have no fault to find with them unless it be in an excessive disposition to go to law. I have counseled their board of chiefs against this, especially against making arrests for trifling offenses or for no offense at all, advising them always to bear in mind that the object of law is to protect
the people and not to oppress them.
    In this report I have stated but few things which you will regard in the light of suggestions. Hoping the one in regard to hospital and hospital stores will not only meet with your favorable consideration but action as well, I am
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of Klamath Agency
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Camp Yainax, Ogn.
    December 1st 1870.
Sir,
    I am happy to be able to report for the month of November general good feeling, much industry, a laudable ambition to improve and fair success among the Indians under my charge. During the month work has been done as follows:
    With eight Snake Indians I succeeded in opening a good wagon road over "Mahogany" Mountain. My party behaved remarkably well, both in camp and on the road. All the houses begun last month have been finished excepting doors and windows. Thirty-five temporary camps have been erected, and one barn 30 by 36 feet. One store house 16 by 22 feet and a carpenter shop 16 by 20 feet have been built. About six thousand feet of lumber has been hauled from the Klamath Agency mill about forty miles. Our pack train of from 14 to 20 mules has made one trip to Goose Lake Valley, distance one hundred miles, and one trip to Ashland, distance one hundred miles. Two plows commenced running late in the month and have continued whenever the weather has permitted. Several hundred rails have been split, twelve thousand boards have been made, and two hundred house logs have been cut besides those already put up. Every Indian family has several cords of wood cut and hauled. One stock corral has been made, and the house for the office and residence of the commissary and employees is almost finished. This building is 22 by 25 feet, one and a half stories high, and is decidedly the best building now on the reservation. Chimneys have been built to the eighteen houses erected last fall. This amount of work has been done mostly by Indians who one year ago knew nothing of the ways of civilized life.
    Without medical aid it seems impossible to break up and overcome the long-prevailing faith of the Indians in their "spiritual" medicine. With a good active physician who would take an honest and laudable interest in his business, I could in one year break down and thoroughly overcome this monster superstition that meets us at every turn and that is such a formidable enemy to the advance of civilization. The demand for medicine is very great. It is easy to note an increase of confidence in our system of medicine and mode of life.
    Our team of seven yoke of oxen has done wonderful work, but the oxen are becoming tired and much reduced in flesh under the great draw upon their services. The interest manifested by the Indians in the improvements now being made is truly surprising. I have laid out the village with streets seventy feet wide and houses fifteen feet apart. The Indians have a police force whose duty it is to see that the streets and alleys are kept clean of rubbish and the accumulation of filth. This regulation is observed with punctuality. For each village I propose to elect a "justice of the peace" and "constable." The justice I propose to furnish with a blank book in which to record the names of offending parties, with the nature of their crimes and the measure of their punishment, most offenses punishable by labor on the streets, alleys and public buildings. I feel very much encouraged in these people and hope soon to have Indians qualified to fill every appointment on the farms. I may here mention that those appointed as farmers &c. have rendered very efficient service. As soon as carpenter, blacksmith and physician are furnished I should like to place under the supervision of each an active and industrious young Indian. I would have much confidence in the good results of such a plan. The demand for household and kitchen furniture is remarkable. As soon as such things can be made their condition will be much improved. Soap is in great and increasing demand and is one of the necessities as a civilizer. All readily cut their hair and, in fact, in many ways adopt the ways and customs of civilized people. Their interest in domestic animals is very marked, and nothing will sooner or more certainly bind them to their homes and forever change their roving disposition than the possession and ownership of such property. At the same time, this property will make them rapidly self-supporting. With confidence in their agent, they readily and willingly adopt nearly any reform, but like children they expect too much in too short a time, and are liable if not carefully managed and watched to become discouraged. So long as they can see improvement, so long will they struggle manfully to advance morally, their condition has rapidly improved. The long-established custom of buying and selling their women, also that of burning their dead, have been forever abolished, as also many unjust and abusive laws. Every slave is free. Everyone is made to know that his rights are equal before the law to those of any other man, and that from the most aristocratic chief down to the poor captive slave boy all stand upon their merit.
    Long and hard indeed has been the struggle in breaking down the long line of royalty and aristocracy which has bred up bands of tyrants, petty chiefs and conjurers, who have ruled with an iron grasp, have preyed like wild beasts upon their unfortunate constituency. As the light of civilization breaks upon their benighted vision and hope lights up the darkened countenances of the oppressed hundreds and an appreciation of their long-endured wrongs dawns upon them, with real savage earnestness they clamor for their rights. The petty aristocrat trembles on his uncertain throne, and with cunning, wonderfully hard to detect, fights bravely and with desperation to maintain his hold. Such has been the downfall of despotism, tyranny, usurpation and royalty throughout the world's history; in fact, in miniature form we have here the grand panorama of life through which nations pass until republics are born. With confidence in your intentions and good judgment, I feel willing and anxious to labor in the cause of these downtrodden and much-abused wards of the government.
    One great obstacle in the way of the successful management of Indians is the bad influence exerted over them by degraded whites who hover like wolves and vultures around the borders of the reservation, constantly poisoning and inflaming the Indian mind. They degrade and prostitute the Indian women, and in every way use their greatest endeavors to create disaffection, are ever inciting the Indians to disobey the counsels and orders of their agents. Through the actions of these men, the Indians, instead of forming an exalted opinion of the white man, are led to regard him with doubt, distrust, fear and hatred, and too often men are employed both as agents and agency employees who are more or less dissipated and dishonest, who take less interest in their duties than in the accumulation of money and in the gratification of their baser passions. Such I know is not the intention of the government, but that such is the case often, we are compelled to confess with shame and sorrow. Too often, men are chosen for such places as a reward for some political assistance they may be able to render, and not for their knowledge or merit. In fact there is all to discourage, and little to encourage, honest, conscientious men to labor in this cause. The Department is surrounded by hordes of speculators and petty politicians who stand ready to defeat every honest effort at improvement, unless their pockets are lined with the patronage of the Dept.
    The Modoc Indians under the lead of "Capt. Jack" still refuse to come onto the reservation. Chiefs Schonchin, George and Charley with their respective bands are here. They have done everything in their power to induce Capt. Jack to remove to this place. Up to this date Jack's people have been scattered through the mountains and, not having established winter quarters, it has been impossible to meet them. As soon as they locate I shall make an effort to have an interview with them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of Camp Yainax
Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indn. Affairs in Oregon.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 26; Letters Received, 1870, no number.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. December 13 1870.
Sir:
    Senators Corbett and Williams of Oregon having requested permission of this Department for A. B. Meacham, Supt. of Indian Affairs at Portland (or Salem) to visit this city, I have the honor to inform you that I yesterday transmitted to Mr. Meacham a telegram, of which the enclosed is a copy.
Very respectfully
    C. Delano
        Secretary
Hon. Ely S. Parker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
   

Telegram.
Washington, D.C. Decr. 12 1870.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Portland (or Salem)
            Oregon
If official business renders it necessary for you to visit Washington in order to communicate with this Department you are authorized to come here. You must judge of the necessity.
C. Delano
    Secretary
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 249-251.



Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        December 14th 1870.
Sir:
    Over a month since I called on you and requested that the returns of Orson C. Knapp, late Lt. 15 & Capt. 35th U.S.A., but more recently Indian agent, be forwarded to the Second Auditor's Office that his account as Indian agent might be settled by this office. You stated that the request would be complied with as soon as the returns were examined. I trust you will do him the favor to send the same to this office at the earliest practicable moment as he is desirous to close his account with the government as agent, having done so as an officer in the army.
Very respectfully
    Jno. R. Knapp
Chief Clerk
    Bureau of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 265-266.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Oregon
    December 17th 1870
Sir
    I have the honor to submit to you this, my first report of the condition of Indians in this agency, also state of government property belonging thereto, for the month of November 1870.
    Immediately on relieving Lieut. F. A. Battey of the duties of Indn. sub-agent at this agency, it was my first business to make a thorough investigation of the general condition of things pertaining to the agency and find them as follows.
    As far as I am able to ascertain, it is evident to me that the Indians on the agency farm (Coos & Umpquas) are very poorly provided for [for] the coming winter, partly I think from neglect and partly owing to the unfavorable season.
    All the articles of subsistence that I have in my care for the two tribes is about two hundred bushels of potatoes. These with what they have in their respective houses is all they have for their winter use. Wheat, turnips, carrots &c. they have none of. All the wheat that was raised is about ten or fifteen bushels, and that I intend to reserve for seed.
    The present state of affairs are rather discouraging to me, and much more so to the Indians interested. I see no reason why a plenty to satisfy all their wants cannot be raised here--and it can! providing sufficient interest is manifested.
    The lack of attention is I think why so many of the Indians of this agency have run away from the reservation.
    I am informed by Mr. G. W. Collins that there are now about sixty of the Coos tribe of Indians absent without passes. As to the other tribes, they are mostly at home and apparently contented and happy. The Siuslaws and Alseas are very well supplied with subsistence for the winter, while the Coos and Umpquas are likely to want.
    I have examined closely the present condition of the farms and find that but little attention has been bestowed in the cultivation of them, and this no doubt is in part the reason of so great a failure of crops this season.
    The condition of the fences are very good, and there are on hand a sufficient number of rails to keep in good repair all the fences on the place the coming season.
    The work oxen are, with the exception of two or three old ones, in fine condition and well-broke cattle, but the horses are mostly old and badly used up.
    Three of them are so poor and weak that I hardly believe they will winter, even with the best of attention. There is now on hand ample feed for all the stock for any ordinary winter in Oregon.
    The government buildings in this agency are very poor and uncomfortable, especially the dwelling houses, which are almost worthless, and in all probability, should this agency be kept up another year, new dwellings will be required.
    The barn and stables are in a dilapidated and leaky condition, but with such repairs as I am having done they will be very comfortable for the season.
    I have also improved the condition of the dwelling houses by repairs that will make them comfortable during the coming winter.
    The farming implements are in very good condition, although quite a number of articles will be required in the spring in order to carry on successfully the business of farming. And some repairing of plows , chains and wagons will be required during the winter in order to have everything in readiness for spring. And as this agency is not furnished a blacksmith, I would recommend that I be instructed immediately to employ one for such length of time as will be required to put the tools in order and readiness for spring work.
    Trusting this may meet your hearty approval, I subscribe myself
Your most obdt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Chief Commissary
            Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
                Oregon
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. of Indn. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Washington Dec. 20 / 70
Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Dear Sir
        I desire respectfully to call your attention to the report of Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon in which he recommends that the Grand Ronde Agency be surveyed and lands assigned to the heads of families and others. I think the treaty with these Indians provides for the survey of these lands. I visited this reservation this past fall, and found great dissatisfaction in consequence of the non-survey of these lands. The Indians, many of whom are building good and comfortable houses, feel uncertain as what will become of their improvements, unless these lands are surveyed and their improvements set apart to each, so far as practicable. I therefore respectfully ask that the Hon. Comr. and Secy. of Interior will make a special recommendation of an appropriation for this purpose, which I am informed will not cost to exceed $7,000. This amt. may be appropriated for this purpose or so much as may be necessary.
Yours respy.
    H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 177-179.



Capt.:
    Refer this to the Secy. with a brief history of the case, stating the fact that $3,000 have already been paid as per agreement, that the evidence as to the delivery of the trees is so & so, that there is a balance of $17,184.85 affs. for such & such objects (Sen. § 14 p. 468--last ¶ on page) and express the opinion that the claim is a good one and should be paid & so recommend.
C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 188-189.  Penciled note filed with transmittal for letter from B. F. Dowell dated December 23, 1870 "enc. a/c of N. B. Clough for fruit trees furnished for Ind. Service in Oregon."  Dowell's letter was either lost or not filmed.



Camp Yainax K.R. Oregon
    December 31st 1870.
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month ending with the above date. Not having [a] very large supply of hay on hand and no grain, and not being able to get a supply from Klamath Agency in order to ensure the Dept. stock against suffering or danger from winter weather, I felt compelled to purchase a small supply of grain; the price, amount &c. will appear from "Abstract of Purchases" forwarded to your office. The urgent demand for lumber, the Indian houses being without floors, doors or windows, and all entirely destitute of furniture, induced me to keep the two mule teams on the road until compelled by heavy snow and extreme cold weather to cease operations, which happened early in the month, snow falling from sixteen to twenty inches deep, the mercury ranging from 18 degs. below zero to 25º above. During this time the Indians have not been able to procure roots and fish or hunt game. Some in attempting to hunt in the mountains have suffered very severely. I have carefully explained to them the importance of rigid economy, and a careful and judicious expenditure of their funds, pointing out the many benefits hereafter to accrue to them from the purchase of domestic animals, tools and such things as will help them on to a self-supporting condition. I have done everything in my power to make these people as comfortable as circumstances will permit and to supply them with such subsistence as will prevent actual suffering. For savages they have acted with judgment and have been very obedient. The amount of flour furnished by your order will, I am confident, by careful and judicious management and due economy, be all sufficient to meet the demand, provided near an equal amount of beef is furnished. In accordance with your instructions, I have purchased only what beef I was compelled to have, and at the lowest rates possible, and will continue until further notice from your office. Every assistance possible has been freely rendered by the Indians in caring and providing for the mules and horses bought for them last summer. Those animals have been of much benefit to these people; they have been used to advantage in many ways, in packing in fish, roots and game, and will soon be of great utility in plowing their gardens, hauling wood and packing grain to the Klamath mills. Nothing has seemed to bind these people to their homes and add to their confidence in the ways of civilized life [more] than the providing of those animals. Their desire for ownership in cattle is very great. I say to them, show us by the good care and use of what you now have, your fitness and honesty in this matter; let your good actions and conduct speak to our government for you. Old Chief "Mo-shen-koska" was by my order reduced and broken of his rank for attempting to create disaffection among not only his own but other bands of Indians. His place has been filled by the election of "Barcley," a man [in] every way fit to fill the office.
    The issue of blankets, clothing &c. has given general satisfaction--the "army clothing" in particular.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obd. servt.
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Coms. of Subs. for Snake Indns.
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indian Affrs.
            in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Klamath Agency Decr. 31st 1870
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following report of Klamath Agency for this month.
    In the report for November the policy in regard to work for employees the coming winter is so clearly set forth as to need no further reference.
    On the 4th inst. I detailed G. W. Scott as herder, instructing him to take such Dept. animals as were not required here to Link River Valley and there keep them during the winter.
    I have retained more stock here than has been customary, from the fact that I found plenty of forage here, and the use of stock here is indispensable to running the mill. You are aware that the Indians are destitute of wagons and harness. For this reason I thought it advisable to keep two ox teams here to haul logs for them, informing them that as many logs as they might think proper to cut would be hauled to the mill for their use. I am glad that several of them have made good use of the opportunity to get lumber and thereby utilize the money they have invested in the mill. They have cut about one hundred saw logs, and Head Chief Allen David assures me that they will continue to cut as many as the two teams will haul. The lumber when sawed will be turned over to the individuals cutting the logs to be disposed of according to his own inclinations.
    I can see no way in which these people can make any use of their mill without the assistance referred to without some assistance in hauling their logs. The mill would simply be an elephant on their hands.
    Their health during the month has been very good. In a previous report I called your attention to the necessity of providing them with a hospital for the better treatment of their sick; their sanitary condition, however, has so much improved under the medical treatment of Doct. Cardwell that I have thought proper to take no action in the matter at present.
    By the quarterly report of issues you will observe that aside from issues made to them while digging millraces, cutting saw logs and making the lakeshore wagon road, but little flour and beef has been expended.
    I have fully explained to them the necessity of using rigid economy and the advantages arising therefrom, showing them that there was just so much money to be applied to their use, that whatever was expended in the purchase of beef and flour would leave it so much less to purchase wagons, harness, cows &c. I believe the true policy for investing their money in the future would be to purchase more agricultural implements, seeds, domestics and nails, and less in blankets, flannels and clothing.
    As an evidence that they would make good use of wagons & harness, I submit that after sending Dept. animals to Link River I loaned to some of the headmen all the harness I did not need, and the result shows that in every case they have made good use of them, making sleds to haul wood, rails &c.
    On the 17th inst. I visited Yainax Sub-Agency by request of I. D. Applegate, commissary in charge, and witnessed the issue of goods to the Snake Indians. Several of the Klamath chiefs were present and took part in the council. I am glad to say that a spirit of the warmest friendship exists between the various tribes on Klamath Reservation. In their present condition it is probably best that each tribe should be represented by their hereditary chiefs, but I am satisfied that the time is not far distant when good judgment will direct the deposing of all hereditary sovereigns and the election of the proper officers by the people at large. Their present mode of constituting courts of justice and of conducting trials is probably far in advance of their primitive style, but is anything but republican and must continue so until some other mode of representation is provided for.
Very respy. your obt. servt.
    John Meacham
        Commissary in Charge
            Klamath Agency
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.




Last revised December 15, 2016