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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1871
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Oregon
    January 10th 1871.
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit the following as my report of the condition of the Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Oregon for the month of December 1870.
    During the month I have completed the repairs of government buildings spoken of in my last month's report. I have been to as little expense as possible, believing in my judgment the state of the old buildings would not justify the expenditure of much money upon them. They are now quite comfortable and will let that suffice.
    As you are no doubt aware, this is a month in which but little can be done on an Indian reservation beyond that of tending the stock and looking after the general interests of the agency. Consequently I have but little to report, although such general business as has been required, attention has been promptly attended to.
    The month of December has been accompanied with some severe storms and heavy blows and also very cold weather, yet for all this the stock in general look well. Yet I have on hand a few old horses which I am inclined to believe will, with all the care bestowed, die on my hands before spring.
    The number of tribes of Indians in this agency is four, and at present are in a very healthy state (those that are here).
    During the month one Coos man, one Alsea woman and one Siuslaw woman have died, and in all probability gone to their happy hunting ground beyond the clouds.
    The Indians, as yet, have a plenty to subsist upon, but from the best information I can get some of the Coos and Umpqua tribes will want for food before spring.
    I have had frequent talks with each and all of the chiefs, and in fact a great portion of the men of the various tribes, and am thoroughly convinced that a great lack of interest in regard to the wants and comforts of the Indians has been manifested. This is why there is a scarcity of food among them.
    I am inclined to believe, with proper attention and good management of things here, these Indians can be made a happy and contented people and rapidly advanced in civilization, for they are rather of an intelligent nature, more so than the most of the coast tribes.
    What they want first to be assured of is that the agent is here with them for the purpose of improving their condition and laboring to advance their interests and elevate them in the scale of humanity and civilization to as high a standard as their mental and moral capacity will admit of.
    I intend to convince them by my treatment toward them that I am here for the purpose of benefiting their condition and to guard and protect their rights and to instruct them in such duties as may be of use to them in after years. With this method of treatment I intend to make them a contented people and but little trouble to manage.
    With much respect, I subscribe myself
Your most obdt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Special Commissary
To
    Hon. A. B. Meacham
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Mission Rooms of the
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
805 Broadway, New York
January 14, 1871
General E. S. Parker
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
                Dear Sir
                    I have a letter from the Rev. J. H. Wilbur of Oregon, asking us to make a change relative to two of our agencies in Oregon.
    We have recommended the appointment of Joel Palmer for the Grand Ronde Agency and L. S. Dyar for the Siletz Agency. Mr. Wilbur asks us to change these, so that Mr. Palmer may be assigned to the Siletz Agency & Mr. Dyar to the Grand Ronde Agency. Mr. Meacham, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, says this change is important to the success of the service, because of the peculiar difficulties of administering the Siletz Agency & the peculiar qualifications of General Palmer for that post. We therefore request that the change be made accordingly.
Yours respectfully
    W. L. Harris
        Asst. Cor. Sec.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 655-656.



Portland, Oregon, January 27th 1871
Gen. E. S. Parker, Commission Indian Affairs
    at Washington
        My Dear Sir
            I was much pleased when returning from home and traveling through the United States, in December ultimo, I read in the message of the President that the old system of the Indian agencies was to be replaced by a new one, more liberal and more just too, in dividing the care of the Indian reservations to the various religious denominations. This wise plan will at last put an end to the sufferings of our Catholic poor Indian missions, which hitherto have remained under the control of Protestant ministers or layman agents, notwithstanding our own efforts and the repeated reclamations [sic--"reclamer" in French means "ask" or "beg"] and protestations of the Indians to the contrary. The friends of the old system, on losing the grasp of our Catholic missions, may, no doubt, highly complain and condemn the change, but most certainly all upright and impartial men will rejoice and praise our excellent President for such an act of justice so long expected.
    I claim, under the new arrangement, the care of three Indian reservations as Catholics, viz: those of Umatilla, Warm Springs and Grand Ronde. To prove our right to the same, it is but necessary to throw a glance at the following facts.
    In the fall of 1847, and at the request of the Catholic young chief, Towatowe, Very Rev. Brouillet V.G. went to Umatilla to reside among the Cayuses of his tribe. Saint Anne was the name of that mission. He remained teaching them there till he was forced to leave his mission on account of the war against the tribe of the Cayuses of Walla Walla, who had murdered their teacher, Dr. Whitman. The peace having been reestablished, the same mission was continued at Walla Walla among the Cayuses and Walla Wallas, under the name of Saint Rose of Lima. At my request and with the counsel of his superior, Rev. Father Chirouse, being sent and arriving there May 7th 1852, began the mission with the assistance ($150) of my diocese. His zealous efforts were so successful that he wrote to me, in 1852, that he had instructed and baptized 200 Cayuses, 80 Walla Wallas, 35 Nez Perces, 5 Snakes and 50 Palouses, had blessed 20 marriages and had a congregation of 420 souls. There came a new war with some of the Indian tribes in 1856, which caused Father Chirouse to abandon his dear mission and to join in Puget Sound the fathers of his order. When peace had been restored and the Cayuses and Walla Wallas had been, by a treaty, transferred to the Umatilla Reservation, in 1856 or 1857, neither I by my representations nor the Indians by their reclamations could ever have a Catholic teacher among them for 6 or 7 years by reason of the opposition of the agents, until, at last, Mr. Barnhart, an agent better disposed, consented to receive a Catholic priest as a teacher, and he arrived at his post November 1, 1855 [sic]. But Mr. Barnhart having been removed, there came new agents, with their prejudices against the priest and his religion. Such were in particular the dispositions of the last agent, a strong, bigoted Methodist. But Rev. Father Vermeesch, the teacher, having made complaint to Washington, I am glad to hear that he has been removed and replaced by a Catholic agent. This act of justice deserving gratified acknowledgments and the commendation of all honest and impartial men. So much for the Umatilla Reservation.
    The Warm Springs Reservation is settled in great part by the Wascoes, Grand Dalles and Tygh Indians, who had been instructed and baptized with their children by the priest at our mission at Dalles, from its establishment in 1848 till the time they were transferred by a treaty from the Dalles to the Warm Springs Reservation, about 1856 or 1857. Since their removal there, at 70 miles from Dalles City, a priest has been sent nearly every year, at great expenses, to visit and teach our Catholic Indians, administer to them the sacraments and baptize the children. I have tried to have a Catholic teacher. I have offered to support a priest there, except the boarding, but neither my offer nor my reclamations with these of the Indians have ever been attended to, on account of the prejudiced dispositions of the agents. Such is now the situation of our Catholic Indians at Warm Springs Reservation for 15 years, from 1855 to 1870. The consequence is that our Catholic Indians, who were so well versed with their religion by being taught with the help of the "Catholic ladder" and who know their prayers and were able to sing many sacred hymns, have now nearly forgotten, lost all that they had learned with so much labor for them and so much fatigue for the priest, and are now falling again into their old pagan practices and perhaps in some worse practices, taught by unprincipled men at the expenses of government, for men indifferent, or having but little or no religion at all, cannot give what they have not. No, no, never will the Indians be brought to a true civilization, that is, to a true Christian civilization, by these means.
    The Grand Ronde Reservation is composed of the Clackamas, Oregon City, Tualatins and other tribes of Indians, who have received religious instructions as early as 1842 and the following years, and whose children then baptized are now grown men. Having been congregated, by a treaty, in that reservation, with many Catholic half-breeds, they asked me for a priest. I gave them one, who went and began to reside among them September 24th 1860. The Catholics desiring to have a Catholic teacher, a general meeting of all the different tribes was called a certain day in order to ascertain the disposition of all concerning the subject, and it was decided by a very large majority to have a Catholic teacher for their children. By letter of August 31, 1860, John F. Miller, Indian agent, referred me on the subject to Mr. E. R. Geary, superintendent, who by letter of December 28th 1860 answered that my demand being granted, and Mr. Healy, a Catholic, having been presented, he accepted him to superintend and govern the school, and so he went to teach and kept teaching until he was told there was no more allocation for the schoolmaster. A church being needed at the reservation, an application was made, and the same Superintendent answered by letter of February 14, 1861 that Mr. Miller, the agent, had been instructed to designate and assign a suitable site on the Grand Ronde Reservation for a church, which having been built at the expense of the Diocese and of the missionary priest was dedicated to the divine service on October 12, 1862. Many efforts have been made ever since by me, by the priest, Rev. Father Croquet, and also by the Indians to the end of housing a Catholic school teacher, but all in vain. In 1865 or 1866 the Sisters of Portland offered to go and keep a school there, at their own expenses, but their offer was refused and an answer given that the school at Grand Ronde Reservation was as good as any other Catholic school. Some time it was the Superintendent, other times it was the agent who was opposed. The Catholic Indians, indignant and unwilling to send their children to such a school, keep them at home. Hence the very small number of children frequenting the school. Some years ago the teacher and his wife kept boarders, boys and girls. They had their beds fixed along the walls, in a pretty small room, in the manner of the berths of a cabin in a steamship, the boys sleeping on one side and the girls on the other.
    To these three reservations, claimed as Catholics, I might add these of Siletz and Alsea as partly Catholic, for having been visited every year since 1860 by Rev. Father Croquet, the missionary of Grand Ronde, he having baptized, each time, a large number of children and taught them the Christian doctrine.
    Such is the sad history of our Catholic missions among the Indians till now; we have been unable to take care of them, neither by ourselves nor by our Catholic teachers. They have surely been snatched from our hands by a spirit of interest and propagandism, nay, in many occasions, this has been done to keep away a disagreeable and investigating witness of ending foul deeds of injustice and iniquities contrary to and destroying the benevolent views of the government.
    Hoping that the time for a reformation is arrived and that the system proposed by our excellent President is not a mere show of vain words, I beg justice for our Catholic missions among the Indians in the state of Oregon.
    I have the honor to remain with sentiments of high conviction
Hon. and Dear Sir
    Your most humble and obedient servant
        F. N. Blanchet
            Archbishop of Oregon City
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 567-571.



Camp Yainax, Oregon.
    January 31st 1871.
A. B. Meacham,
    Supt. Indn. Affairs,
        Sir:
            For the present month I am happy to report general good health and fair conduct on the part of the Indians under my charge.
    The employees have been busily occupied in assisting the Indians, procuring wood, making rails, building fences, taking care of Department animals &c. The weather has been cold and a portion of the time stormy. No lumber could be hauled from the Klamath mill. To avoid expense, I have turned out on the range all the Department teams except one span of mules.
    As the spring opens, the want of a blacksmith shop here will be very much felt.
    Saml. Reed (Indian) was appointed on the 1st inst. as interpreter, to fill vacancy made by resignation of John Littlejohn.
    The Snake and Modoc Indians, being in a very destitute condition, have required a larger amount of beef and flour than I had at first anticipated. I will get them out fishing at the earliest possible date, so soon as the fish run, and in all things use the most stringent economy.
    A very encouraging reform is working among these people: the old custom of selling their women has not only been abolished, but they have adopted the marriage ceremonies of civilized people. Their observation of the Sabbath [and] general moral conduct are convincing proofs of a marked advancement.
    One year ago the Modoc tribe was notorious for the number of prostitutes among them; today there is not one known among any of the Indians at this place. No crime receives so prompt a punishment by the chiefs as that of adultery.
    During the month, two Indian men came in here from Camp Harney. They are from "Weahwewa's" band. They say old Chief Winnemucca of Nevada met the Snake chiefs at Camp Harney Valley and urged them to join with him in a war against the whites, that Sub-Chief "Pony" was shot in Camp Harney by soldiers who were intent upon violating the persons of some Indian women who were with the chief. Considerable excitement prevails among the Indians.
    "Weahwewa" refused to join "Winnemucca" but proposes to come upon this reservation if all proves favorable. These are Indian statements.
    These two men mentioned say they are well pleased with the situation of Indians here, that they will make this their permanent home, and that they will visit Weahwewa and advise him and his people to come here.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of
                Snake and Modoc Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 31st 1871
Sir,
    Complaints have been made to this office of depredations committed by Indians in and about Albany, and also request their immediate removal from that vicinity.
    You are therefore instructed to collect and remove all Indians in said vicinity belonging to your agency immediately and place them upon the reservation where they belong.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
                By Woodworth Clk.
Benj. Simpson
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz Agency
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 490.



Washington City, D.C.
    February 11, 1871.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner Indian Affairs, U.S.
        Sir:
            In response to your circular letter asking for "information and estimates, and of the wants of the several agencies" in my Superintendency for educational purposes, I submit that assuming a pro-rata division of the amount indicated in your remarks--"viz. $100,000.00"--would give to Oregon Superintendency $12,500.00, which would be insufficient to place the Indian schools on a prosperous basis.
    Thus, "Umatilla," with a population, all told, of 1622 souls, has by treaty two teachers employed, but with buildings entirely inadequate, while the appropriation for mill fixtures, mechanical tools, medicines and hospital stores, books and stationery for schools, repair of buildings and furniture and for employees is only $3000.00. Not more than $500.00 of this fund can be applied to schools. For buildings we should have at least $2500.00. For subsistence that cannot be furnished by Indians $1000.00. Incidental expenses for school $500.00--making a total of $4000.00, in addition to funds appropriated by treaty.
    Warm Springs--Indian population reported at 687--has one teacher only, should have one more at salary of $1200.00. Buildings are sufficient with repair fund of $1000.00. For books and stationery for school, first year $500.00. Furnishing boarding school house, $1000.00. Subsistence that cannot be furnished by Indians $1000.00. Total $4700.00.
    Grand Ronde Agency, population 1167--has no buildings, but some of those already erected could be altered and repaired so as to make them available and comfortable at an expense of $1000.00. Books and stationery for schools $500.00. Furnishing boarding house for Indian children $1000.00. Subsistence necessary outside of regular appropriation $500.00--making a total exclusive of treaty fund $3000.00.
    Siletz Agency--population, including Alsea Agency, 1382--without treaty funds, hence all the money heretofore expended in school has been Incidental and Removal and Subsistence funds.
    The buildings are in bad condition and require repairing and enlargement for which purpose to make permanent the improvement would require (one year) $2000.00. Pay and subsistence of teachers 2500. Furnishing boarding house for Indian children 1000. Stationery for school--annually--500. Total required $6000.00.
    Klamath Agency, population 1680. Has two teachers provided by treaty--no suitable building but abundant resources. For manual labor school house $1500.00. Furnishing boarding house for Indian children $1000.00. Stationery for school in addition to appropriation $500.00. Subsistence for Indian children $1000.00. Total amount required $4000.00.
Recapitulation:
    Umatilla Agency Number of Indians 1622 Amount $4000.00
Warm Springs Agency 687 4700.00
Grand Ronde Agency 1169 3000.00
Siletz and Alsea agencies 1382 6000.00
Klamath Agency 1680     4000.00
6540 $21700.00
    There are perhaps 1500 to 2000 Indians scattered and not enumerated. I have estimated for funds to place the Indian schools on a firm basis and have taken into consideration the school funds furnished by treaty. If the whole amount cannot be allowed, I would suggest that whatever amount may be allowed should be divided "pro rata" among the reservations, and not "per capita" according to population.
    I would most earnestly recommend that these, as well as all other Indian school funds be applied to the establishment and support of manual labor schools in Oregon.
Most respectfully your
    Obt. svt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs, Oregon.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 763-768.



Camp Yainax, Klamath Reservation,
    Oregon, Feb. 28, 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report of the condition of affairs at this place for the month of February 1871.
    The condition of the Indians throughout the month has been quite prosperous. There has been a sufficiency of subsistence furnished them; the houses constructed for them at the beginning of winter have proven quite comfortable, and difficulties among them have been rare. A number of them have labored diligently in improving their houses so as to make them more comfortable and have shown considerable industry in providing firewood, and the customary practice of imposing such labors as wood-getting upon the too-often-mistreated women has almost entirely been discarded as a barbarous relic of the past.
    Some of their horses have been broken to work in harness and have been quite extensively used in hauling wood on sleds. In this the Indians have been encouraged, as by such training their horses will become of great service to them in prosecuting farming operations in the future, and the Indians themselves are benefited not only by practice in the management of their horses, but in learning to appreciate, in a stronger light, the superiority of our methods of accomplishing proper and desirable results.
    Throughout the month, the weather has been quite changeable, and as a consequence sickness has prevailed to a considerable extent, resulting fatally in two instances. The Department physician at Klamath Agency can render but little medical aid here from the fact of his being stationed so far away, and also that during a sickly season his services are almost constantly in demand among the Indians in the vicinity of that agency. Also, at certain seasons of the year the road between the two places is extremely bad and sometimes almost or quite impassable from reason of snow, high water or swampy ground, so that in a case of extremity it might be impossible for him to reach this place in time. These things, taken in connection with the fact that an efficient and intelligent physician could do more than almost any other man in removing the faith of the Indians in their spiritual medicine, by showing, in a strong light, the virtues of our own system, thus helping to open the way for the white man's customs, arts, laws and religion, seem to argue strongly in favor of the stationing at this place of a good physician.
    Early in the month I commenced, with the available force at this place and two employees from Klamath Agency, the construction of a bridge on Sprague River within four (4) miles of this station. The river at that point is a little less than one hundred and fifty feet wide, has very little current and has high land on either side and is about the best point on the river for the purpose. The bridge will stand considerably above high water mark. Since its commencement, work has been diligently continued up to the present time, and now the frame is up and ready for covering, and it will no doubt be completed in a workmanlike and substantial manner before the spring overflow, which must be near at hand. This is an improvement which has for years, as you are aware, been a great want of this reservation, as the high water of spring for a long while each season prevents communication between this place and Klamath Agency, except by swimming the river.
    On the 10th instant Stephen Stukel, who has been acting as farmer for the Snake Indians lately hostile, resigned, and as there is need of an employee here whose peculiar duty it will be to instruct the said Indians in agriculture and assist them in farming, I earnestly hope that at an early day you will sanction the appointment of an efficient farmer as a successor to Mr. Stukel.
    In conclusion, I would say that the quiet, peaceable, law-abiding conduct of the Indians during the month, their industry and the many evidences they have given of their desire to become "like white people," only strengthen my faith in the conviction that not in the far future these people, under the influence of zealous, efficient, moral men, would reach a stage of civilization that would do honor to them and to their instructors, as well as to that government whose policy if properly carried out must result in incalculable benefits to the Indian race.
Very respectfully, sir,
    Your obt. servant,
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary for Indians at Camp Yainax.
Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Department of the Interior
    General Land Office
        March 2, 1871
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commr. Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            The official plat on file here represents Lot 5 in Sect. 35 T1S R1E Will. Mer. Oregon (containing 3.87 acres) as an Indian reserve.
    The said lot was occupied several years since as an Indian agency and information having reached this office recently that the agency buildings had been sold, I have the honor to inquire whether the lot referred to is still needed as an Indian reserve or whether it might not with propriety revert to the public domain.
Very respectfully
    Willis Drummond
        Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 693-694.  This property had been bought by Anson Dart for the Superintendent's house, which was washed away by the 1861 flood.



Office Grand Ronde Indian Agency Org.
    March 7th 1871
Sir,
    In compliance with instructions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Washington D.C., December 29th 1870, I have the honor to make the following quotation from my last Annual Report, in regard to the buildings, schools &c. at this agency.
    "
Every annual report for the last ten years has asked for appropriations for the repair of agency buildings, but no funds have ever been furnished. The roofs are all leaky and past repair, will have to be recovered. The foundations are rotten--the floors giving away--no chimney flues--in short, as you observed when here a few weeks ago, the buildings have been up so long--were so carelessly thrown together & never finished that they are ready to tumble down over our heads. The outbuildings and yard fences are, if possible, in a worse condition. What am I to do? Allow the buildings to rot and tumble about our ears, use our own private funds, with the uncertainty of our tenure of office? Use the Indians' money appropriated for the purchase of annuity goods, when that fund is dwindled to almost nothing, or ask again for an appropriation to repair agency buildings?
    "The following will show the buildings that ought to be repaired and the amount of funds for that purpose, for which I would respectfully ask an appropriation.
    "Department barns $500--Agents' houses $500--Physicians' houses $500--Commissioner's house $400--Carpenter's house $400--Teacher of manual labor school $400--Miller's house $250--Agency office $100--Physician's office $200--Shops, outbuildings and fencing $500."*
    The above is a correct list of all the buildings on this agency for residences, all of which are in bad condition, and no land attached to any of them for the private use of the agent or any of the employees.

    "There are two schools in operation on the agency, the Manual Labor School and the Umpqua and Calapooia Day School. I would most respectfully request that I be instructed to consolidate the funds of these schools into one, to be conducted on the manual labor system, and that I be also instructed to erect a suitable building for that purpose, not to exceed in expense two thousand dollars, as the present building in which the Manual Labor School is taught would be totally inadequate and unsafe."* Its accommodations will not exceed twenty-five.
    There are no buildings here suitable for the operations of missionaries, either as chapels, schools or dwellings.
    In addition to the above buildings there is one, the Catholic Church, built for a mission station twelve years ago from their own fund. The building is 24x50 feet for chapel, with rooms attached for a residence, with two small stables. Three acres of ground served as a garden. Father Croquet with his assistant have occupied the above buildings since they were erected.
    The above statement embraces all the information I can give you in regard to the building, and the repairs necessary to make them comfortable for residence.
Charles Lafollett
    U.S. Indian Agent
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 799-802.  *The wording of this quote is considerably altered, though the meaning is unchanged, from the annual report of August 15, 1870.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    March 8, 1871
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report of the condition of Indian affairs on this reservation for the month of February 1871.
    During the month the inclemency of the weather has somewhat retarded the progress of operations for the benefit of the Indians at this agency, yet considerable has been accomplished in their interest. The sawmill has been kept steadily running throughout the month, the ox teams have hauled many logs to the mill, and the Indians now have quite a supply of lumber of good quality on hand in the yard. They have assisted energetically in getting saw logs, stacking lumber etc., and, indeed, have evinced quite an unlooked-for spirit of industry. Aside from sickness, their condition throughout the month has been quite prosperous. Most of the scanty supplies of subsistence furnished for the agency has been distributed among the most needy and destitute, as well as among the sick, and this, with the supply of native provisions, has been amply sufficient for the sustenance of the whole tribe.
    The Indians have also lived together quite harmoniously, difficulties between them having been unusually rare. The weather has been very changeable, and in consequence much sickness has prevailed among them, resulting fatally in two or three instances. High Chief Allen David was for some three weeks quite seriously sick, and although now considered convalescent, is far from well. His loss would be a very serious one to his people, as he is regarded as their ablest man, is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of civilization, and is the very man who under good advice is best calculated to lead them towards the light of civilization. Dr. Cardwell has rendered the Indians good medical aid and has given them tangible evidence of the superiority of our system of medicine, and their growing faith in our system is sufficient to prove that an efficient, patient and intelligent physician can do more than nearly any other man in rooting out their faith in their own "spiritual" medicine and thus opening the way for the white man's customs, laws and religion.
    A number of the Indians have worked diligently in improving their houses so as to make them more comfortable or convenient, have hauled wood, house timbers and rails with their horses, and have otherwise manifested a disposition to emulate the whites. Indeed, I feel justified in representing that the Indians have displayed tangible evidence of a desire to become more "like white people," and I feel strengthened in the conviction that there is in them a spirit which if developed by the efforts of efficient and conscientious instructors will advance them rapidly in the customs, arts and laws of civilization.
Very respectfully
    Your obt servant
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of Klamath Agency
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Washington D.C.
    March 8th 1871.
Sir,
    I have respectfully to request that the funds for Grand Ronde and for the general survey of Indian lands in Oregon be placed to the credit of the Indian Service in Oregon for surveys, and that the Surveyor General be instructed to make the necessary surveys under the direction of the Supt. Indian Affairs for that state.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs Oregon
H. R. Clum Esq.
    Acting Commr. of
        Indian Affairs
ARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 791-792.




Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C. March 10, 1871
Sir:
    I have the honor to report that I am in receipt of a letter bearing date the 8th instant from A. B. Meacham Esq., Supt. of Indian Affairs in the state of Oregon, asking that the portion of that state lying between the forty-second and forty-fourth parallels of north latitude and the one hundred and seventeenth and one hundred and twentieth degrees of west longitude (excepting so much thereof as may have been or may hereafter be granted for military or wagon road purposes) be withdrawn from market as public land, for the space of eighteen months, with a view to the selection of a reservation upon which to collect all the Indians in that state east of the Cascade Mountains, except those who may select lands in severalty upon the reservation on which they are now located.
    The suggestion of Superintendent Meacham is concurred in, and I respectfully recommend that the President be requested to issue an executive order withdrawing the most of country described from market as public land for the period and the purpose above indicated, and that this office be authorized to instruct the Superintendent to proceed to select such reservation without unnecessary delay.
    A copy of Supt. Meacham's letter is herewith transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        H. R. Clum
            Acting Commissioner
Hon. C. Delano
    Secty. of the Interior
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Department of the Interior
    March 14, 1871
    The recommendation of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs contained in his accompanying report has my approval, and it is respectfully submitted to the President with the request that he direct the temporary withdrawal from market of the lands in Oregon as therein designated, with the exceptions stated, for the purpose of establishing a reservation for the Indians in that state.
C. Delano
    Secretary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Executive Mansion
    March 14, 1871
    I hereby direct the withdrawal of the land referred to from market as public lands for the period of time and for the purpose indicated, as recommended by the Secretary of the Interior.
U. S. Grant
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. March 24th 1871.
Sir:
    You will please prepare and submit to me for signature a commission for the appointment of Johnson N. High, at present agent at Fort Hall, Idaho Ty. as agent for the Indians of the Klamath Agency in Oregon.
    This change is made on the recommendation of the Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        C. Delano
            Secretary
The Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 665-667.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. March 30th 1871
Sir:
    I transmit herewith a commission from the Acting Secretary of the Interior for the appointment of Johnson N. High to be U.S. sub-agent for the Indians at Klamath Reservation, Oregon.
    You will please cause said commission to be delivered to Mr. High when he shall have filed the proper bond and oath of office.
Very respectfully &c.
    J. H. Delano
        Chief Clerk
The
    Commissioner
        of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 668-669.




Klamath Agency March 31st 1871
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following report for Klamath Agency for the month of March 1871.
    During the month the mechanics have been busily employed in extending the flume of [the] millrace, which had been seriously damaged by the thawing of the ground, also in repairing farm machinery, restocking plows & building field roller &c. &c. The wagon maker has six wagons in process of construction; carpenters Scranton and Angle are making window frames and sashes for Indian houses.
    Early in the month I received written notice from certain parties on Lost River informing me that the Indians of Klamath Reservation would not be allowed to take fish at their old fishery, as the land adjacent thereto had been preempted by said parties.
    In company with I. D. Applegate (commissary at Yainax) I went to Lost River and had an interview with said parties. After explaining the necessity of the case they reluctantly consented to allow the Indians to come and fish.
    I do not know what the laws of this state are concerning the rights of parties to obstruct streams with fish traps, but I am of the opinion that no such right exists. However this may be, I deem it a matter of the utmost importance to the Klamath Indians that their right to take fish in Lost River should ever remain undisputed. A majority of them are there at present and are getting plenty of fish. The Modocs under Capt. Jack are at the same fishery taking fish. Information has reached me within the past few days that serious difficulties were likely to arise between them and the Klamaths growing out of disputes in gambling. The former have made threats of violence on the latter. In order to prevent any serious difficulty between them I have enlisted the services of one Augustus Hohn, who is a friend and confidant of Captain Jack, and will use his utmost endeavors to preserve peace among them. Should he fail, I will make requisition on post commander at Ft. Klamath for military protection for the Klamath Indians. The defiant and lawless attitude which the government has permitted this little band of Modocs to maintain is having a very bad effect on the Indians of this reservation, and I sincerely hope that measures may be taken this summer to remove them to some reservation where they may be compelled to remain. Their experience on reservations has rather had a tendency to make them more lawless than otherwise. Nothing short of a military chastisement will ever reduce them to subjection. On the 28th inst. active operations were commenced on the farm.
    We have about eighty acres of ground which was plowed last fall. This will be seeded to barley immediately. At present we have eight teams in the field. As soon as the principal part of the Dept. farm is seeded I will send all the teams and men to plow and sow for the Indians individually. I very much regret that the Indians have not been furnished with harness. There are plenty of plows here belonging to the Department, and the Indians have horses of their own, and with a little assistance they could put in their crops themselves. I have requested Capt. McCall at Ashland to purchase fifty or seventy-five bushels of seed potatoes for them to plant, the Indians agreeing to go after them, which will save transportation to the Department.
    Every effort will be made to ensure a large crop on the Department farm for the Indians individually as well.
    Hoping that the policy indicated in this report will meet your approbation,
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge
                of Klamath Agency
Alfred B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Camp Yainax, Oregon,
    March 31st 1871.
Sir:
    For the month ending with this date I would most respectfully submit the following report.
    The bridge across Sprague River commenced last month was completed on the 6th instant.
    The weather continuing usually severe up to the 27th inst. it was not possible to do much work on the farms, but the employees were kept busily engaged in getting out board timber, making rails and stakes, repairing the fences and in putting farming implements in order for spring operations.
    On the 14th inst. Chief Barcley, with a party of ten men of his band, went down to Klamath Agency and commenced cutting saw logs. They were compelled by the severity of the weather to suspend operations after cutting one hundred and thirty-five logs.
    The usual run of fish in the streams adjacent to this station commences generally in February, but this spring has proven an exception to the general rule, and I have been compelled to issue rations of flour and beef up to the present date; however, all can now find their own subsistence except the sick and the old and decrepit.
    On the 27th instant, with all the available force at hand, we commenced plowing and putting in grain and have up to date, the weather having been quite favorable, put in in good condition fifteen acres of spring wheat. All the employees, assisted by several Indian boys as teamsters, are now constantly engaged in plowing and seeding.
    The general health of the Indians has been good. Their conduct has been very creditable, not a single difficulty having occurred among them during the month. They take a laudable interest in the work being done for them, always willingly lending whatever help is asked of them.
    Having no blacksmith shop here I have been materially assisted by Mr. John Meacham, commissary in charge of Klamath Agency, and his blacksmith has done much work for us in the way of shoeing animals, repairing agricultural implements etc. By his assistance and with the means at hand I shall hope to push farming operations with very creditable success this spring.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of Camp Yainax
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. April 13th 1871
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Dear Sir
        Enclosed find notice of appointment and also blank bond. You will understand what is necessary to be done in the premises. If you accept such appointment it is desirable that you should assume the duties of said office at an early day. I have instructions to deliver to you commission and instructions upon filing of your bond and oath of office.
    I propose to leave here for Umatilla Saturday 21st inst. to be absent two weeks and desire to arrange the above affairs before leaving. Should you decline the appointment please notify the office at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 502-503.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. April 26th 1871
Sir
    Joel Palmer Esq. having been appointed U.S. Indian Agent for Siletz Agency, and having as directed filed with me his official bond and received his commission, you are therefore directed to turn over to said agent Joel Palmer upon application whatever public funds and property there may be in your hands, taking his receipt for the same.
    All liabilities for which you have not funds applicable for the payment thereof you will issue certified vouchers, which your successor is authorized to pay "if satisfied they are correct."
    You will make up and forward to this office your final acct. without unnecessary delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Benj. Simpson Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 508.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 4th 1871
Sir
    I learn that "Indian Pete" has been captured and returned to the state prison as an escaped conflict.
    From the representations made I suppose he ought to be released. I have talked the matter over with Watkins Supt. and have arranged to have him pardoned out as soon as I can hear from you whether it ought to be done or not. I wish you would write immediately on the subject and let me know what is right about this matter as you doubtless understand all the particulars.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Chas. Lafollett Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 511.


Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency Ogn.
    May 5th 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit this as my report of the condition of Indians &c. in the Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Oregon for the month of April 1871.
    Nothing of interest having taken place during the past month, I have but little to report.
    Spring's work [is] progressing finely and wholly with Indian labor, I having now employed Indians for farmers and all general work.
Your most obdt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Special Commissary
To
    Hon. A. B. Meacham
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 9th 1871
Sir
    Maj. Magone leaves today. Dr. Bayley of Corvallis shipped to Siletz this morning two hundred (200) bushels of oats, two (2) flour, three (3) set of second-hand harness, ten (10) lbs. blue velvet and garden seed. I send you, per Magone, one horse that with proper care may be of good service to you.
    I see by Mr. Simpson's property returns (the last one on file) that he had sixty-three (63) head of work oxen and seventeen head of horses and mules. I doubt not that he has produced and turned over enough stock to complete your spring work when you have forage for them which I send you. I cannot but believe that Mr. Simpson will make things all right. Having confidence in your judgment I have no fear but you will bring everything out all in good condition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 511.



Salem, Oregon, May 10th 1871.
Rev. Dr. Wm. L. Harris
    Cor. Secy. Methodist Mission
        New York
            Dear Sir,
                I wrote you May 1st inst. in regard to the appointment of Chas. Lafollett and informing you that Mr. Lafollett and Rev. C. C. Stratton, presiding elder of the dist. covering Grand Ronde, would meet to have an informal talk over the matter.
    The result is first that Mr. Lafollett has no official notice that he has been recommended by the Methodist Church from any source, and that no other parties have any official information on the subject, and that until it is definitely understood whether the Methodist Church is responsible for said agency, no further action can rightfully be had.
    The questions arising are, 1st, Is Grand Ronde a Methodist agency? 2nd, If so, how much responsibility attaches to church, to agent and to Superintendent? Who represents the church here in Oregon? And what are his powers, privileges, responsibilities &c.?
    Please give an early answer to these questions and give also any information on this subject.
    I would respectfully suggest that a fair and distinct understanding on this matter be had with the Department of the Interior.
    I will today write Commissioner Parker on this subject, for the reason that no one has any definite instructions in the premises, and some confusion and misunderstanding are likely to arise.
    In this connection I desire to state, for the protection of Capt. Lafollett, that he is recognized by Rev. Stratton as a friend and proposes to him to meet, informally, any charge that can be brought against him, and whenever anyone is qualified to officially prefer any charges he courts investigation and will demand it.
    Rev. Stratton and Agent Lafollett have had a long, full and free conversation upon the subject of implied charges referred to in my communication of May 1st, and the result is that Mr. Stratton says, "I am satisfied that Mr. Lafollett has been misrepresented." My own opinion now is that no charges will be made or could be sustained if they were preferred. He has made a full explanation of all the implied charges and will be ready at all times to answer thereto.
    I am now of the opinion also that fury and bombast has been made by Democrats for political effect and should be treated with the indifference they deserve.
    Rev. Mr. Stratton will write you fully in regard to the principal subject matter of this communication.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Copy furnished for the information of Commissioner E. S. Parker, Washington, D.C.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Aff. Ogn.
 NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 816-818.  Another copy is on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 512-513.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 10th 1871
Sir,
    You will proceed without unnecessary delay to erect a suitable school house for the use of Indians on Grand Ronde Reservation, taking care to select a suitable site where it will be easy of access to the Indians, and for this purpose you are authorized to apply one thousand dollars of the school funds now on hand, and further, for the purpose of carrying on a manual labor school, to consolidate all the school funds on hand or that shall be hereafter placed to your credit until otherwise ordered.
    In making up your accounts you will refer to this order.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Chas. Lafollett Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 513.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 10th 1871
Sir,
    Being as you are identified with Agent Palmer of Siletz in the service of the Indian Dept., and having some interest in common looking to the welfare of the Indians under you, respectfully I would suggest that in order to get everything on a friendly and well-understood basis that you make Agent Palmer a visit looking to this end at your convenience. I doubt not such a visit would be for mutual benefit to you and the service. I have written Agent Palmer of your probable visit.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Chas. Lafollett Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 513.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 12th 1871
Sir
    I desire information on the following propositions.
    1st. Should not an agent holding office by virtue of recommendation by "Church" be notified thereof by some party having authority in the premises?
    2nd. Who represents the "Church" in Oregon?
    3rd. To what extent is an agent responsible to the "Church" recommending said agent?
    4th. May representative of "Church" inquire into official acts of agent prior to notification of his appointment under recommendation of said "Church"?
    5th. May representative of "Church" inquire into official acts of agents at any time, and may he demand access to official books and papers in Supt. or agent's office for the purpose of investigating the official management of agents?
    6th. May agent be suspended or removed on recommendation of "Church" with or without preferring charges against him on account of official management?
    7th. Before [whom] are charges and agent to be brought and tried? Is Grand Ronde Agency considered as under the assignment of the Methodist Church?
    Is Chas. Lafollett agent by virtue of recommendation from and by the Methodist Church?
    Accompanying letter to Dr. Wm. Harris, Cor. Secy., Methodist Mission, will suggest the necessity of an early settlement of these questions about when "Church" power and responsibility begins and ends. Until some understanding is had and circular letter issued, unpleasant episodes will occur. Earnestly asking an early reply,
Very respectfully &c.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
   

[penciled response]
    Answers--1st. Official notice to an agt. of his appmt. can only be given by the Indn. Office.
    2nd. I don't know.
    3rd. An agt. is legally responsible only to the Indn. Dept. Yet if the religious body recommending such agt. desire his removal an intimation to the Dept. to that effect would receive attention, and the agt. would probably be removed.
    4th. The agt. not being amenable by Dept. regulations to the church they cannot officially inquire into his official conduct & books unless he chooses to permit them as an act of courtesy. The church in its own way may and should inquire into the antecedents of the person whom it proposes to recommend for appmt.
    5th. Is answered above.
    6th. Is answered in 3rd answer.
    7th. Charges should be sent to Ind. Dept. at Washn. & they will determine who will try them.
    Chief clk. will see whether Grand Ronde is assigned & answer.
    Chief clk. can answer whether Lafollett is a religious appmt.
   

[in H. R. Clum's handwriting]
Mr. Waugh,
    Please attend to this.
Clum
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 516.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 813-815, answers on frames 819-820.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 16th 1871
Sir
    Yours of 29th ult. has been received. In reply I have to say that I share with you in regret that we did not meet, make personal acquaintance and have a talk over Indian matters. However, your very gentlemanly chief clerk did the honors of your office in good style.
    I fully agree with you that the enforcement of that particular provision in the last appropriation act, prohibiting over 20 per ct. payment &c. will work much inconvenience and in some cases actual hardship on the friends of the Dept. Our merchants and other furnishers of Indian supplies have had bitter experience waiting on "red tape" and insist that hereafter they must take that experience into consideration when putting in bids. The meaning of which is that we will have to pay 10 or 20 per ct. more for goods and supplies of all kinds bought on contract under the new law.
    I was in Washington when the act passed and did all I could to prevent it; in fact, the original proposition was to pay nothing until the contracts and vouchers were passed on by ex committee and goods and supplies examined and received.
    You perceive the law is much modified. Again, it was said that no charges or complaints were made against the Indian Dept. on the Pacific Coast, that this stringent law was made for "the plains." I believe that is true, nevertheless I suppose that all general laws must be uniform in operation, as per Constitution &c.
    It has been intimated that all goods for our coast was to be purchased East. I hardly think such will be the case. Unless forbidden by order I shall proceed to advertise very soon for summer supplies.
    I think next session we can prevent any such clause in [the] appropriation act, if we make our senators and members of Congress to fully understand the expense and inconvenience arising from this new arrangement.
    It would seem that a Supt.'s bond was a sufficient security to the govt. for faithful and honest expenditure of govt. funds, and contracts that have been made could be as thoroughly investigated and an officer be amenable for his acts under oath and bond when the whole amt. has been passed as well as but one half.
    I have had no communication with Supt. McKinney, but have no doubt he entertains views similar to those you have expressed. If it could be arranged for a meeting of you, Genl. McKinney and myself before next meeting of Congress, I doubt not we could agree on some plan to secure legislation that would be of general benefit.
    Surveyors are now on the several reservations preparing for allotment of lands to Indians in severalty. This move will advance the Indians in Oregon more than anything that has as yet been done for them, besides it is simply an act of good faith and justice.
    Hoping to meet you during the summer and also to hear again from you,
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. B. C. Whitney
    Supt. Ind. Affairs Cal.
        San Francisco
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 518-519.



Camp Yainax, Klamath Reservation
    Oregon, May 19th 1871.
Sir:
    Pursuant to your telegraphic order of April 13th 1871, I took charge of this station on the 19th of that month, relieving I. D. Applegate, who started for Salem on the day last mentioned.
    The Indians I found well contented. They seemed much interested in the progress of operations here, declared their determination to be obedient and faithful and cheerful rendered me such assistance as I called on them for.
    Pursuant to the plans of I. D. Applegate, on my arrival here I organized a force of Modocs to make their proportion of the rails required in enlarging the general farm. They worked quite industriously and in about ten days had made 3,000, the number required of them. I then detailed a larger party of Snakes to make the same number of rails, which they did in one week, working with equal industry but with less skill than the Modocs, the latter having had considerable experience in laboring for the whites before they came onto the reservation.
    During the whole time of my remaining in charge, operations on the farm were energetically prosecuted. All the employees were engaged either in plowing, sowing, harrowing or rolling, and every effort was made to put in the crop in the best manner possible.
    On May 19th 1871, I. D. Applegate returned from Salem and took charge at this place.
    In conclusion, permit me to say in regard to the Indians that I believe them "as good raw material out of which to make civilized Indians as any in the country," and I feel confident that under proper management they would soon reach a stage of civilization which would do credit to them and be an honor to the government, the real policy of which is to civilize and enlighten the original race of the country. Here we have a few bands of Indians that have never been tampered with by men whose design was to enrich themselves by defrauding the Indians out of their just rights, and as a consequence they repose much confidence in the government and in the persons selected to carry out its designs respecting them, and it is to be hoped that nothing may occur to shake their confidence in the good intentions of the government and those who represent it.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servt.
        O. C. Applegate
Hon. A. B. Meacham Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 23rd 1871
Sir,
    Having just returned from an official visit to Grand Ronde Reservation, I desire to call your attention to a few items that are of importance:
    First: The Indians have an unusual crop in prospect.
    Second: They fully realize the advantage to result from having lands allotted in severalty, and therefrom arises several questions which I propose to submit. (See paper marked "A.")
    Third: The mills built fifteen years since are totally unfit for service, for the reason that they were not located with good judgment in this--that they were built on a low, flat, muddy piece of river bottom, composed of alluvial deposit that washes away almost like sand or snow, having neither "bedrock nor hardpan" for foundation, constantly settling out of shape and damaging machinery, besides being threatened with destruction at every overflow.
    The lower frame of both mills, but more especially that of the sawmill, are so rotten that it would not stand alone if the props and refuse slabs from the saw were removed.
    The flour mill is a huge, impaired structure, supported on wooden blocks or stilts, and double the proper dimension, with an old patched-up wooden water wheel that has been a constant bill of expense for ten years: machinery all worn out, even the bolting apparatus, rat-eaten and worthless, but with one 42-inch French burr, that, together with mandrel, are as good as new.
    The sawmill is the old-fashioned "single sash" with flutter wheel, only capable when in best condition of making 600 to 1000 feet of lumber per day, but utterly worthless at present for several reasons, chief of which is want of water. The "dam" was originally built about ¼ of a mile above the mills--at an enormous expense to government--across a stream (four times as large as need be for such mill purposes) with flat, soft, alluvial, porous banks and mud bottom.
    The history of said dam is that it has broken twenty times in fourteen years, each time carrying away mud enough at the ends of the dam to make room for each successive freshet.
    I believe that history--since inspecting the works--as evidence is in sight to show where thousands of days' work have been done and many greenbacks "sunk."
    I called to my assistance Agent Lafollett and George Tillotson, of Dallas, Polk County, a man acknowledged to be the most successful and practicable mill builder in our state, who stands unimpeached as a gentleman of honesty and candor. The result of the conference was that it would require $5000 to build a dam that would be permanent, that all the lower framework of both mills would require rebuilding at a cost of $2000, and that at least $1000 would be required to put machinery in good working condition, and when all was done these people would have only tolerable good old mills, patched up at a cost of $800O.
    But mills are indispensable civilizers, and must be had. I am determined to start these Indians off on the new track in good shape.
    There are three several branches coming in above the old mills, any one of which has abundant motive power. On one of these creeks a fall of thirty feet can be obtained by cutting a race at the bend of a rocky cascade, taking the water away from the danger of freshets, and building the mills on good, solid foundations, convenient of access by farmers and to unlimited forests of timber.
    Mr. Tillotson estimates the total cost of removing the old mills and such parts as are useful, and rebuilding on the new site a first-rate No. I double circular sawmill, with Leffel turbine water wheel, all the modern improvements attached, same kind of water wheel for flour mill, with new bolting apparatus etc., at about $4000, exclusive of Indian labor.
    I submitted, in full council, to the agent and Indians the proposition to apply funds already appropriated for the repair of agency buildings, a portion of the Umpqua and Calapooia school fund, that has accumulated to upwards of $5000, and so much of annuity fund as may be necessary to this enterprise, on the condition that the Indians were to do all but the mechanical work.
    The matter was fully explained, and without a dissenting voice they voted to have the mills, if furnished tools, beef and flour.
    The agent has now on hand a considerable amount of flour. For beef, I propose to use a number of the old, worn-out work oxen, as they are now fifteen or twenty years old, worthless for work and dying off with old age.
    To sum up, I have put this enterprise in motion, and propose to have the new sawmill grinding in ninety days.
    I now ask permission to apply the funds I have named to this object, fully satisfied in my own mind that it is for the benefit of these people. If it cannot be granted, then I will insist on funds that may be so applied be furnished from the general funds of the Department. These Indians must have a mill, besides it would reflect on the present administration of Indian affairs, to turn them over to the world without that indispensable appurtenance of civilization.
    Klamath mill is a monument of pride, and has done much to redeem the reputation of our Department, and I propose when I retire to leave every reservation supplied with substantial improvements of like character.
    Klamath flour mill is now under way, and will grind the growing crops.
    Going out of the ordinary groove, and wishing you to be fully posted about such transactions, is my apology for inflicting this long communication.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
"A"
    I respectfully ask for instruction in regard to Indian lands; and as the time for allotment is near at hand, it is necessary that some points be settled, for instance: 
    1st: Where there is more land suitable for settlement on a reservation than is required to fulfill treaty stipulations, shall more than the said stipulated number of acres be set apart to the individual Indian?
    Some of the reservations will have an excess, and others will fall short of the amount required to comply with treaty stipulations. In some instances, when the excess is small, it would seem proper to divide pro rata. It does not appear that any of these tribes are on the increase; hence no necessity exists for lands to be held in reserve to any considerable amount for future allotment. When possible, I would favor giving them more than the treaty calls for.
    2nd: When less land than is necessary to comply with treaty is found, must the number of acres be cut down so that a proportional allotment can be made? Or may unoccupied government lands outside be allotted to Indians belonging to reservation?
    A few instances will occur of this kind, as at Warm Springs, where insufficient lands can be found, and a few families who are well advanced and capable of taking care of themselves could be located outside. I favor of that plan, and suggest if approved some instruction be given land officers, so that said location can be legally made.
    3rd: May Indians not on reservation be allotted lands on reservation, and may they be allotted government lands not on reservation?
    There are Indians in this state that have never yet been brought in that can be induced to locate on reservation under the system of allotment. And when all parties consent, they should be allowed to do so. Again, some of these people have advanced sufficiently by being among white persons to locate and appreciate a home. And there are a few instances where the whites would not object to their being located among them.
    They must have homes allotted them somewhere, and the sooner it is done the better for the Indians.
    4th: Are not Indians who have never been on reservation citizens under the late amendment to the Constitution, and have they not the right--without further legislation--to locate lands and do all other acts that other citizens may rightfully do?
    I am fully aware of the political magnitude of this question, but while I am "Superintendent" for the Indians in Oregon, they shall have all their rights if in my power to secure them, whether on or off reservations.
    5th: Are white men or half-breeds, who are husbands of Indian women, who do now belong or have belonged to any reservation, considered as Indians--by virtue of their marriage to said Indian women--in making the allotment of lands?
    I understand that all half-breed men living with Indians on reservations are considered Indians (but always allowed, nevertheless, to vote at all white men's elections). But there are several Indian women in various parts of the country who are married to white and half-breed men, and the question is asked whether they are not entitled to land. Again, there are Indian women living with white men, but not married, who have children that should have some provision made for them.
    6th: May the allotment be made immediately on completion of survey, without waiting for survey to be approved?
    For many reasons it is desirable that the allotment be made as early as possible, so that the people may prepare for winter. They are very impatient, and I hope no unnecessary delay will be made.
    7th: Is a record to be made by and in local land office of surveys and several allotments? Is record of allotment to be made in county records, and if so, how is the expense to be met?
    These people are soon to be as other citizens, and stand on equal footing. I have no doubt about the propriety and necessity for making these records, but so as to close up all the gaps, I want to be instructed to have it done.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10, Letter Books I:10, pages 523-527.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 825-835.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 24th 1871
Sir,
    I desire to know whether employees on agencies are to be worked eight hours or to comply with the usages of the country.
    This question has been raised, and I have invariably overruled the eight-hour proposition. The customary time is ten hours among mechanics, and all day with farmers.
    Please settle this matter or I shall enforce ten hours, because it is right and just whether law or not.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 527-528.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. May 30th 1871
Sir
    Mr. Tillotson reported to this office on yesterday. We have decided to proceed with the sawmill as soon as you can have Indian laborers to assist. It is desirable that we push this enterprise and in order to do so it would seem necessary for you to "call in" enough men to make a gang of say twenty working men, and as soon as this is done notify Mr. Tillotson at Dallas.
    I have ordered all the tools required to be forwarded to you at Dayton, and have no doubt they will be awaiting your orders. I think you can send immediately without fear of disappointment. In the meantime you will arrange subsistence for the Indian work parties. It would be well also to assist Mr. Tillotson about a boarding place. My arrangement with him is that "the mechanics are to board themselves." He [is] to have the entire control of the work, we to furnish the laborers. I have said to Mr. Tillotson that he could employ such mechanics as he wished, including S. D. Reinhart and A. J. Monroe, and when dissatisfied with their services to certify to the time through your office and forward to this office for payment.
    I think it best to not transfer funds until a reply is obtained from Commissioner's office. In regard to diverting the funds we cannot expend or anticipate a fund not yet remitted, as I find a rule laid down to that effect. If we meet with a favorable reply from Commissioner we will then proceed with the flour mill. You may find employment while waiting for tools for Mr. Reinhart at such wages as you may agree on. Hoping you will give this enterprise sufficient attention to secure success &c.,
I am respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. Chas. Lafollett
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde
P.S. In absence of Agent Lafollett, Mr. Crawford, acting agent, will proceed to execute the orders within suggested.
A.B.M. Supt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 530.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    May 31st 1871.
Sir:
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the months of April and May 1871.
    In my report for March I mentioned the fact that agricultural operations, under the supervision of Capt. D. J. Ferree, Supt. of Farming, were being vigorously prosecuted. The same energetic measures were continued in April, and by the 19th of that month I had the gratification of seeing the greater part of the Dept. farm sown and planted in the best manner possible, besides considerable farming done for the Indians on their various little farms on Williamson River and at various points on the lake shore.
    On April 19th, in accordance with your telegraphic order of the 13th of that month, I placed Capt. Ferree in charge and started en route for Salem in company with I. D. Applegate, commissary for Camp Yainax, and did not return to this agency and assume control again until May 19th. Consequently it is unnecessary to offer any explanation for not sooner making a report for the month of April. On my return I found affairs in a very satisfactory shape and ample evidence that both farm hands and mechanics had been during the whole time industriously employed for the best interests of the service.
    During the months for which this report is made every available means has been employed in the prosecution of agricultural operations. The Department farm was planted and sown at an earlier date than usual here and in the very best manner, but as the season has been very backward, heavy frosts having been frequent, I regret to say that the prospects for a good crop of grain are not flattering. The weather for the past week has been much more favorable, and we have reason to hope that the frosts are at an end for this summer and that the crops may yet succeed tolerably well.
    The sawmill has been running quite busily in sawing the logs cut by the Indians last winter. The blacksmith, carpenter and wagon and plow maker have been diligently engaged in making and repairing agricultural implements, and the two last in laboring on the agency buildings to make them more comfortable and convenient. In fact, the employees have labored energetically for the interests of the service.
    The Indians have been quiet and peaceable, and some of them have labored quite industriously on their little farms in fencing and in assisting the employees in planting for them. They are nearly all of them engaged in digging various kinds of edible roots, and some of them have received permission to visit some parts of the country adjacent to the reservation where such roots abound.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    John Meacham
        Commissary in charge of Klamath Agency
A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Camp Yainax, Klamath
    Reservation, Ogn., May 31st 1871
Sir:
    I would very respectfully report as follows for the months of April and May 1871.
    From April 1st until the 19th of that month all of the employees, both whites and Indians, were kept busily employed in putting in grain on the general farm at this place. The two mule teams were engaged in breaking prairie, the ox teams, managed entirely by Indians, in plowing old ground, in harrowing in grain, rolling &c.
    On April 19th in accordance with your instructions O. C. Applegate was placed in charge of this station and on the same day I started en route for Salem in company with John Meacham, commissary for Klamath Agency. As you are already informed of my services during my absence, I feel that no report from me for that time is necessary. On my return I relieved O. C. Applegate on May 19th, finding everything in satisfactory shape. For a statement of operations during my absence, you are respectfully referred to the report of O. C. Applegate, which is forwarded herewith.
    During this spring every available means has been employed in prosecuting farming operations. 6,000 thousand [sic] rails have been hauled out to be used in enlarging the general farm. 80 acres have been sown in grass and 20 in peas, turnips and a variety of garden vegetables on the general farm, and 6 acres of turnips have been sown on separate farms lately commenced by individual Indians. All this ground was carefully prepared and sown, and all the crops, although they have been kept back by the lateness of the spring frosts, now look quite well, and we confidently expect quite an abundant harvest.
    On my return here I was met by the chiefs of the several bands of Indians, all intensely anxious to know the feeling and intentions of the Department towards them. They appear delighted at their prospects and say they are ready and willing to do everything in their power to become more like white people. The likeness of Commissioner Parker excited them very much. It was decidedly encouraging to mark with what interest they looked at the picture of this man, of whom they have heard so much, and with what feeling they asked me questions about him as to what he would do for them, etc. These Indians, having never been deceived by the whites since peace with made with them, and on the contrary having learned by experience that our real motive is to do them good, place unbounded confidence in the government and its agents, and I do earnestly hope and trust that there may never be cause for a change in their present confidence and respect.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of Camp Yainax
Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Sir
    I have the honor to transmit this, my monthly report of condition of Indians and agency at Alsea during May 1871.
    The first part of the month all hands engaged [in] planting potatoes, after which gardens were prepared and seeded.
    The month has been very cold and backward, consequently everything put in late. Grain sown in April looks backward, with very poor prospects.
    We have had no warm weather during the month.
    Indians all appear contented and quiet, although there has been a great deal of sickness among them this spring, mostly, however, bad colds and violent coughs. During the month I visited, Umpqua and Coos Bay returned quite a number of Indians who had been long absent in those parts without passes. Quite a number more are in those vicinities which I believe will come in during the summer.
    The Indians that are out now are those who have been absent a long while and never did have any desire to remain on the reservation but have been consistently running away almost as soon as being back.
    Stock look well, and everything in general pertaining to the agency is in a good and healthy condition.
Your most obdt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Commissary
Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    June 10th 1871
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 24th 1871
Dr. W. C. McKay
    Dear Sir,
        You are directed to take charge of such persons as may be sent by Commissary Applegate from Yainax, together with the outfit of animals, saddles &c., for the purpose of hunting up and returning to the Snake tribe of Indians at Yainax such persons as were taken prisoner during the Snake Indian War.
    Commissary Applegate has been directed to select such persons of said tribe as may be best adapted to the accomplishment of the object above indicated, putting them first under charge of messenger O. A. Brown, who has been directed to turn them over to you at whatever place you may meet him. You will take the necessary precautions to prevent said Indians from being transferred or sent off beyond your reach.
    To prosecute this purpose to success you are authorized to employ interpreters, purchase necessary supplies and pay all necessary expenses of said expedition, not to exceed in the aggregate the sum of 1000 dollars.
    It is probable that some of said Indian captives are now held as slaves by the tribes of Washington Territory. Supt. McKinney has been requested to make the necessary order to agents and others within his Superintendency as will facilitate the object you have in view. I have requested him to furnish this office with a letter recognizing our right to enter his Territory for the purpose mentioned above.
    You will prosecute your search for captives wherever you may have reason to believe they can be found within Oregon, Washington Territory or Idaho Territory.
    You will be careful to explain to the Indians that you are executing the will and orders of Commissioner Parker and that no more slavery will be tolerated within the United States, that no compensation will be made for these captives and that they must not be detained against their will.
    Wherever they may of their own free will elect to remain where they now may be be found you will not seek to remove them. In event you should find any of them married and they elect to take with them either husband or wife, this you will allow them to do, on the express condition that such persons renounce all allegiance to all other tribes. This, however, must be by consent of such government agent as may have charge of said Indians who may elect to emigrate to Klamath on account of marriage relations.
    The service will require the exercise of much patience and care in order to fully meet the promises made to Ocheho and at the same time do no injustice to the Indians in general.
    I have confidence in your ability to manage this expedition with discretion and bring it to a successful termination.
    I have directed Commissary Applegate to send a sufficient number of animals so that none need be purchased.
    Agent Smith of Warm Springs reports that he has a surplus of horses and mules, which he is willing to transfer. Should you require more animals than Commissary Applegate furnishes you may make a requisition on Agent Smith for supply.
    Supplemental instructions will be furnished you from time to time as may be necessary.
    You will be careful to keep a correct account of all expenditures.    
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 544-545.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 27th 1871
Messenger James Brown
    Will proceed to Klamath with such dispatches as may be delivered to him by C. S. Woodworth, and remain at Klamath or Yainax until such time as Commissary Applegate shall have completed arrangements for expedition to hunt and return Snake Indian captives, when he will unless otherwise ordered take charge of said expedition in detail and proceed to Warm Springs or such other point as may be arranged with Dr. McKay and unless otherwise directed will transfer to Dr. W. C. McKay the whole charge and control of said command including men, horses and everything pertaining thereto, taking therefor a memorandum receipt for the same, after which you will return immediately to Salem.
    In the event that John Meacham shall be relieved from duty at Klamath, he will have charge of the entire outfit until junction with McKay.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 545.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 27th 1871
Sir
    You will select from Ocheho's band suitable men to hunt up the Snake captives, say three or four, put them under charge of messenger Brown, who has been instructed in the premises to turn them over to Dr. McKay. You will mount the whole party and furnish everything requisite including say ten or twelve spare animals. Be careful to send some Indians along that can be used as interpreters.
    You will also--in conjunction with acting agent at Klamath--forward to Salem, in charge of Geo. Barger (or your mule teamsters, the large eight-mule wagon with six mules, the best you have for freighting.
    See that the mules are shod and wagon put in repair at Klamath before leaving.
    I will write you again at Ashland. This entire outfit to be placed under command of John Meacham, provided he shall have been relieved from duty as commissary at Klamath, otherwise as above directed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary
        Yainax
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 546.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 27 1871
Sir
    You will forward in charge of messenger Brown one four-mule team to Salem, to arrive at junction of the Albany, Dalles and Klamath road by 20th of July next.
    Have four large good team mules shod and harness and wagon in good repair before leaving Klamath (do not send little mules). Commissary Applegate has been directed to forward large wagon and six mules. You will assist him in putting this team in good repair. Should he require other assistance pertaining to expedition to hunt up Snake Ind. captives, you will see that he is supplied to the extent of your resources.
    The object of these teams is to transfer mill machinery and goods to Klamath, to arrive about 25th of August. The whole outfit to be put in charge of John Meacham, commissary, provided he shall have been relieved from duty at Klamath.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
To
    Acting Agent
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 546-547.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 27th 1871
Sir
    Having been officially notified by Commr. Ind. Affairs of your appointment as sub-agent at Klamath, I have directed John Meacham, commissary in charge, to transfer to you, on presentation to him of your commission, all the property and effects of said agency belonging to the Ind. Dept. You will give him triplicate receipts in the name of Supt. of Ind. Affairs.
    You will be furnished with funds within a few weeks.
    I would suggest but few if any changes of employees for the present.
    You will carry out the instructions now in force by Commissary Meacham. On assuming control, you will report immediately to this office, after which you will receive instructions from time to time. In the absence of any law or instructions on any point, be governed by common sense and justice.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
J. M. High Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 547.



Camp Yainax, Oregon
    June 30th 1871
Sir,
    I would most respectfully report the following for the month ending with the above date.
    The employees have been busily engaged on the farms in hauling rails and completing the fencing. The Indians have mostly been absent on leave, gathering roots, killing game, fishing etc. A Modoc Indian absent on leave was shot and killed on Lost River on the 19th of June by "Captain Jack," the chief or leader of the disaffected band of Modoc Indians now off the reservation. As soon as I was informed of the outrage, I made application to Maj. Jackson, commander of Fort Klamath, for the arrest and confinement of the murderer and his accomplices.
    Some of the Snake Indians under Chief Ocheho have gone to Camp Warner without permission. The exact number I have not been able to ascertain. A few, probably seven or eight, have gone to Camp Bidwell. On their way thither, passing through Goose Lake Valley, they showed some insolence towards settlers. I have sent reliable Indians to notify all these stragglers to return without delay to the reservation, which I believe they will do within a short time. The grain crop, particularly the wheat, bids fair to make an abundant yield. The Indians have generally been active and industrious in accumulating Indian provisions and have responded to every call for work on the farm. At one time the crops were threatened to be destroyed by crickets, but the employees, assisted by the Indians, either killed or drove them away, and the crop was saved.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary for Snake Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 1st 1871
Sir
    May offenders be prosecuted for selling liquor to Indians who do not now or never have belonged to any reservation under U.S. intercourse laws?
    Has not Superintendent authority over all the Indians in the state?
    The U.S. prosecuting Atty. is in doubt on the first proposition.
    I am resolved to break up, if possible, the liquor traffic with my people.
    Whiskey sellers seek to evade the U.S. law as above indicated. State laws are efficient. Please give instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c,
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 548.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 885-886.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 1st 1871
Sir
    You will either proceed immediately to Yainax yourself or arrange with Oliver Applegate or John Meacham to execute orders forwarded by messenger Brown to this effect. Select from Ocheho's band proper persons to hunt up Snake prisoners, under charge of Dr. McKay, and to furnish them necessary outfit including animals, placing them under command of John Meacham if he is relieved, otherwise under command of messenger Brown, who has special instructions in the premises. He will be awaiting you. You will also find instructions about mule teams.
    I regret that so many important things are to be done just at this particular period of your history, but you are equal to the emergency.
    I desire the teams to leave Klamath at the earliest day convenient and to arrive at the point mentioned in order sent per Brown, 20th inst.
    I have purchased a new storm flag for each agency. I have also a promise from Genl. Canby of all the army clothing we may need.
    I further propose for you to meet me at Camp Harney about the 10th of Sept. with a delegation of Snake Indians, but will write fully on this subject hereafter.
    I have ordered Mr. John High to take charge of Klamath and not Yainax.
    How did you settle with Dr. McKay?
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary
        Yainax
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 55O.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 3rd 1871
Sir,
    Chas. Lafollett, U.S. Indian Agent for Oregon, and in charge of Grand Ronde Indian Agency, has this day filed with me a letter of resignation to take effect on the 31st inst., a copy of which letter is herewith transmitted.
    The reasons intimated as being known to me are 1st that he is unwilling to serve as agent under recommendation of the Methodist Church because of the undefined authority with which said church, through the membership thereof, seek to control his official acts.
    2nd because he is fully convinced that the said church as an organization are dissatisfied with him as a Methodist agent.
    3rd that he has business prospectively more remunerative than the Indian agency.
    Agent Lafollett assures me that these reasons are a sufficient justification for him in taking this step, and that had not the assignment to the church been made he would willingly serve out his present term of office, and that his relation with the Indian Dept. having been pleasant and satisfactory, he regrets the necessity of severing such relationship by his own act.
    I have carefully looked the matter over and, in view of all the facts in the case, would respectfully request that his resignation be accepted.
    Unless otherwise instructed, I shall appoint a commissary to take charge of Grand Ronde Agency at the time designated in his letter of resignation, and conduct the business myself until such time as the church shall have recommended his successor and he shall have been appointed and commissioned.
    Trusting that Agent Lafollett's resignation may be accepted and my action approved,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 550-551.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 887-889.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 4th 1871
Sir,
    I respectfully submit a few items in connection with the survey of Indian lands, in addition to my letter to you of 3rd inst. on same subject. Under treaty the Klamath Indians are to have-- "To each head of a family shall be assigned and granted a tract of not less than forty nor more than one hundred and twenty acres according to the number of persons in each family. And to each single man above the age of twenty-one years a tract not exceeding forty acres."
    Under the stipulation it would seem that an estimate might be made of the amount of survey necessary.
Whole No. of Men Women Child. Total
Klamaths 140 244 196 580
Modocs   40   34 107 181
Snakes   91 115 152 358
Not on reservation but belonging there 635
    It is not expected to permanently locate at Klamath the latter. And it is doubtful if any of the Snakes are finely [sic--"finally"?] located. Hence, for the present, estimate for the Klamath and Modocs. From this data you may be able to approximate the amount required for Klamath.
    I will furnish similar statement as regards to other reservations within a few days.
    As to when you let those subsequent contracts I have no doubt you will do justice and arrange wisely.
    I think in most cases it would be good policy to allow those who have surveyed on any certain reservation to complete the work. Moody expects it and I have assured him that as far as my influence extends, he should have it for a contract to finish up Umatilla.
    On my return from Siletz I will endeavor to meet you. If you have business here, say within two weeks, please let me know.
    Hoping I have given you such information as you desired,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Wm. H. Odell
    Surveyor General
        Eugene City, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 552-553.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 5th 1871
Sir
    The Surveyor Genl. is now ready to subdivide Klamath Indian lands preparatory to allotment. His deputy will report to you. You will give the subject particular attention so that the surveys are made of such lands only as are suitable for allotment.
    It is desirable that at least 320 acres of choice land be located as a Dept. farm.
    You will also direct O. C. Applegate to proceed to enroll the Klamaths preparatory to allotment. This should be done in such a manner as to preserve the identity of individuals and also of families.
    Reference to the treaty will enlighten you on the subject, also show you what should be done.
    It is desirable in making up this statement [that] each person at least should have some plain American name, in addition to the Indian one. Be careful and not duplicate surnames.
    You will explain this matter to the chiefs about surveying and new names and consult them about the latter especially.
    In making the arrangement for Indian lands, you will not include the Snake Indians now at Yainax.
    I doubt whether the Modocs can ever be induced to locate at Klamath, but in compliance with the treaty with Klamath and Modocs, it would be well to make an estimate for them.
    You will receive a further instruction before making any allotment, and in the meantime assure the Indians that when everything is ready, the apportionment shall be made fairly and justly.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Agent in charge of Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 553.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 5th 1871
Oregon Iron Works
    Portland
        Please forward without delay to Dayton marked "Agent Grand Ronde" sawmill complete as ordered by Mr. Tillotson, also 23½ inch water wheel as agreed, with Myers Jr., that is to say, the wheel that has the piece broken out of the rim. Send bill to this office.
    Please overhaul the Klamath flour mill irons to see that they are ready to ship on notice.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 554.



(Telegram)
Salem Oregon July 6th 1871
To Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
            Lafollett resigned Grand Ronde Agency. Sub-Agent High not yet reported at Klamath. If possible transfer him to Grand Ronde.
    Presiding Elder Stratton approves.       
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 554.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 883-884.



Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Ogn.
    July 6th 1871
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit this, my report for the month of June as to the conditions of Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Oregon.
    Since my last report nothing of interest has transpired.
    I have only to state that crops so far look very bad, owing to cold, wet month of May and dry June, not having had one drop of rain during the whole month.
    Large quantities of rutabagas were sowed during the month and scarcely a seed came up. Oats & barley will be a failure this season.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted.
Samuel Case
    Commissary
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. of Indn. Affairs
        Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Portland Oregon July 7, 1871
8:40 a.m.
    Hon. E. S. Parker
        Commr.
            Indian Affairs
Sir
    I have heard that Charles Lafollett, U.S. Indian agent at Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon, has sent in his resignation. I beg you earnestly not to accept it until you hear from me.
F. N. Blanchet
    Archbishop of Oregon City
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 572-573.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 7th 1871
Sir
    Your communication of 6th inst.has been received, also those addressed to Commissioner Parker and Hon. Vincent Colyer. The latter have this day been forwarded.
    I regret that such action has been had without first advising Superintendent and agents of the complaint, setting forth the grievance.
    I doubt not that the Indians around Oregon City as elsewhere are troublesome. I have endeavored to do my duty and have not failed to insist on agents in charge of reservations doing theirs.
    It is almost impossible to prevent the Indians from visiting fisheries, and especially those located at their old homes.
    We of the Indian Dept. propose to protect white people from any annoyances by our people, and we ask you as officers and citizens to assist us by executing the laws against citizens who sell whiskey to these people. You would not complain of them if no whiskey was sold by your own citizens. Now since there is a necessity for these people visiting fisheries and sometimes other places for trade and labor, let me with all respect to you and in a spirit of fairness and justice suggest that your county government enforce the state laws against the persons who are the real cause of all the trouble with Indians by selling them liquor. We on our part promise to protect all persons from any wrong by Indians who may visit our reservations with or without passes.
    We compel our Indians to respect the rights of all persons who may pass through their country. Can you not compel your citizens from violating your laws when our Indians visit them?
    By reference to Statutes of Oregon to an act approved Oct. 21st 1864, you will find a law to prevent Indians and half-bloods from unlawfully running at large &c.
    Now suppose your citizens live up to that law and refuse to have trade and intercourse with any and all Indians who are not provided with passes. We would have little or no trouble to control them. I mark these suggestions because perhaps you have never looked at both sides of this question, and I doubt not you will be candid enough to admit that if you are justified in filing complaint against the officers of the Indian Dept. in Oregon without first asking at our hands such relief as we could give, that we are justified in prosecuting every citizen who fails to comply with the law above referred to passed in 1864.
    Messenger Brown of this Dept. visited your city a few weeks since to look after Indians. Every man that rendered assistance either did so with seeming indifference or on promise of pay. Brown reports the Indians most troublesome as belonging to Washington Territory.
    I have written Supt. McKinney on this subject and await his reply. Would suggest that you communicate with him to the extent at least that he should know that some of his Indians are annoying your citizens very much, and that the Ind. Dept. of Oregon is held responsible for what they are not to blame.
    I will this day order Agent Lafollett at Grand Ronde and Palmer of Siletz to see that our Indians are either called in or removed from the danger that threatens them by remaining at Oregon City.
    Hoping soon to restore peace and quite at your city,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. J. K. Wait
    County Judge
        Clackamas Co. Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 555-556.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        July 7th 1871.
Hon. E. S. Parker,
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington, D.C.
            Sir,
                I herewith transmit, at request of J. K. Wait, county judge of Clackamas County, Oregon, an "appeal" to you in behalf of the citizens of said county as against Indians and Indian agents.
    I have to say in this connection that I have no doubt these Indians are troublesome to the citizens, and that they have cause to complain. It seems rather a difficult matter to manage. A large proportion of the Indians in this case are "renegades" from Washington Superintendency. Referring to official letter of July 1 to Commissioner, the question is submitted whether a Supt. has jurisdiction over Indians that do not belong to his Superintendency, although within the state. I hope to receive instruction on this point at an early day.
    Those who belong to Oregon, as named in the complaint, are out on passes to fish at Oregon City, a custom of long standing, and one that cannot be abandoned until such times as subsistence shall have been provided either by government or the Indians themselves on the reservations, under the wise provision of the Dept. of the Interior last spring in providing for the survey and allotment of lands in severalty to Indians.
    I am confident that hereafter less cause of complaint against these Indians will exist for the reason that every family will have an inducement to remain at home and cultivate the land.
    While I respect the hon. county judge's statement, I do not overlook the fact that many white men employ Indians as laborers; indeed, agents are besieged with applications for help, and many citizens would protest against the refusal of agents to grant "passes."
    I would respectfully suggest that the county court of Clackamas County and all good citizens thereof should enforce the civil power of law against white offenders in their midst who sell liquor to and associate with our Indians. We are doing all in our power to break up this traffic and regret that so few citizens lend assistance in the matter. And we may justly complain of the officers of the county government, and citizens who compose juries, that no convictions are ever had under state laws.
    We admit our Indians are immoral, but we know well who it is that makes them so.
    Assuring you that we of the Ind. Dept. are endeavoring to do our duty to all parties and will continue to do so, and that the complaint from citizens may receive the consideration due them.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
   
Oregon City July 7th 1871
Genl. Parker
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Sir:
            Knowing that the general government has made appropriations for the care and maintenance of the Indians near here, and that there have been reservations selected and designated as their homes, we are extremely anxious that every one of them should be moved (excepting such as have bought land and, living on the same, have adopted the modes of civilized life) whether their true reservations are known or not, as we are greatly troubled with them in our county, more particularly in the vicinity of our towns and villages, some under cover of a pass from their reservations, others without. Sometimes the Indian agents manifest a very slight desire to take them home, and with very unsatisfactory results to no citizens [sic], for here they are continually, a pest, a nuisance, a curse and a constant expense to our county.
    Managing by some means to obtain liquor, they make night hideous with their diabolical yells, their deadly combats, their bacchanalian orgies. (And white men, or whose who claim to be such, often join them in their deviltry.) The squaws that are with them are almost invariably licentiously disposed, and many of our young men and boys (being enticed) are morally and physically corrupted and contaminated to a degree that is most frightful to contemplate. While a great part of the criminal expense in our courts is caused by these Indians being in our midst.
    Now, dear sir, we the county court of Clackamas County, Oregon appeal to you to know if there is no mode of redress, or if we must calmly submit to these wrongs. It would be better, far better, were these Indians our professed enemies and on the warpath against us with deadly tomahawks and scalping knife than under the guise of friendship to be quartered in our very midst, constantly sapping the very foundations of all that tends to promote the happiness, peace and prosperity of the community.
J. K. Wait
    County Judge
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 890-896.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 10th 1871
Genl. Joel Palmer
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz
Dear Sir
    In addition to suggestions already submitted as regards survey of Indian lands in your agency, I have to add that it is the intention of the Indian Dept. to consolidate Alsea Sub-Agency with Siletz, conditional, however, that sufficient land shall be found suitable for settlement of all the Indians on the two reservations.(Alsea and Siletz). This fact can only be known by actual surveys. Now in order that everything may be properly understood and satisfactorily arranged it is necessary to enroll all the Indians now on Siletz anew, arranging them in families, and it is good policy to enroll them under their old names and at the same time giving to each family and person an American name in connection with the Indian name, the latter to be dropped after the record of allotment shall have been made. In making up the new roll, be sure to preserve the identity of persons and families as to former tribal relation.
    It would seem to be of importance also that the respective ages of all persons should be estimated together with sex and relationship to family with whom they may be identified at the time of making allotment. I am aware that the loose marriage customs will make this thing a very difficult matter to arrange, but I see no other way, only to classify them as above indicated.
    Should any other Indian than those belonging to your agency elect to take land with your people and both parties agree thereto, you will enroll them among your Indians, and hereafter they are to be on equal footing with all others. Half-breeds who live among Indians are considered Indians.
    It would seem that the present is the exact time to put a stop forever to polygamy. Therefore on making up the new list of enrollment, you will recognize only one wife to each man. All others now claimed in excess of one should be liberated and allowed to find a husband or find homes with parents or other families aside from their present owners. All orphans made so by death of parents should be assigned homes with families, taking care that their identity be not lost and also that when allotment shall be made the lands allowed to families on account of their connection therewith shall be identified with the name of said orphans by number of lot in each case, as also you will do in all other cases. I mean, for instance, such grass widows as may be placed in new position or with other than the families with whom they now live under polygamy.
    I have looked the matter over very carefully and can see no amendments to make at present. If, however, you have any propositions or amendments to offer, they will be fairly considered, and I trust you will communicate your ideas freely on this subject.
    Now as to the basis for allotment, I have decided that inasmuch as a large portion of your Indians are now treaty Indians, and as the whole matter has been left for me to arrange in absence of treaty, to take the following from treaty of 1855 with Willamette Valley.
[omission]
    When your enrollment is completed and the estimate made for all the Indians--whether under treaty or not--under foregoing rule you can then ascertain the amount of land required.
    But as this may not be finished in time to furnish Deputy Surveyor Davenport with the number of tracts or lots necessary, it would seem well for him to subdivide into twenty-acre lots all the available lands as far north as the mouth of Siletz River.
    You will doubtless have some difficulty with your Indians about the allotment, and I would suggest that you should give this matter especial attention from and after this time and until the allotment has been made. Every Indian will want his present home. Instances will occur where two or more families may be in the same lot. In similar cases on other agencies I have said to the Indians that the house nearest the middle of the lot should hold it, and that as near as possible every man should have his own home, and that no man should have the improvements of another without paying for it, and that this allotment should be made fairly and impartially, without fear or favor, but with strict justice to all parties.
    You can do much to prepare these people for the new march towards manhood by frequent talks in a friendly way.
    Your employees when made acquainted with the subject can and should assist you in preparing the Indian mind, but be sure that they--the employees--understand it well first.
    You will of course await special order before proceeding to make the allotment.
    This is the grandest step ever prepared for those under our charge, and as we are employed to think for them and to teach them to think, it is the business of every man in the Indian service to work faithfully for the welfare and advancement of these poor neglected people. See to it that your subordinates do their whole duty, and if they are unwilling or incompetent, or have no heart in this work, you will discharge all such persons.
    Any Indians of any tribe or band who are held in bondage, under any pretext whatever, are hereby liberated and declared forever free.
    Any of such persons who may belong to other reservations or tribes must be allowed to elect for themselves whether they remain where now located or return to their own proper reservation. In either case they are to be enrolled and placed on equal footing in every respect with other Indians. Again, any Indian who may for good reasons desire to change from one reservation to another may be allowed to do so upon consent of all parties, agents and Indians of both reservations.
    There are many other points coming up in this new state of our Indian affairs that have been submitted to Commissioner for instruction, the result of which will be furnished you at the earliest moment.
    Trusting that you will give particular attention to this communication,
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 558-561.



Siletz Indian Agency
    July 15th 1871
Sir
    I am informed that each agent is required to furnish your office with monthly reports, to be rendered in duplicate at the end of the month, giving a general outline of the business transactions, and as my report for the month of May was omitted, I will now consolidate the months of May & June in one report. This report will more particularly set forth the condition of the agency stock &c. at the time of my taking charge in justification of the large outlay of means and number of persons employed during these months.
    Upon arriving at the agency April 30th 1871 I found that but little progress towards putting in the spring crops had been made, and the continued rains up to the 10 of June so retarded the work that every variety of cereals and roots are more backward than usual. The teams belonging to this agency were greatly reduced in flesh, so much so in fact that portions of them were entirely unfit for service and were turned out to graze, as there was no grain belonging to the agency to even feed the working horses and horses and mules, beyond about forty bushels of oats at the lower farm. Quite a number of the work oxen were so old that they could not well masticate dry hay and so poor that they actually staggered when walking about after food, and two or three have since died from old age, poverty & poison. The remainder of the stock is improving in flesh since completing the spring crops, as they were turned out to graze. I selected a number of the best oxen to make a breaking team and with them have broken up some forty acres of sorrel sod at the upper farm with the intention of summer fallowing it with fall wheat and am now breaking up an old meadow of about twenty acres at the home farm for the same purpose. One hundred and nine bushels of oats recd. from Supt. A. B. Meacham were sown for government and issued to Indians for seed. I succeeded in purchasing from Messrs. McAlpin & Dodge (with a small quantity from the Indians) a sufficient quantity of oats to subsist the agency teams until the spring crops were put in. The only sown grain is very poor and will yield but a poor crop. A portion of that sown by Indians bids fair to be a moderate crop, while a great portion of the late-sown grain failed to germinate in consequence of the excessive dry and warm weather since the cessation of the spring rains and the lateness of sowing, and I fear the crop will be light. Nearly all the ground cultivated since my taking charge was so foul with sorrel and other weeds that it was necessary to mow down and haul off the weeds before planting.
    The fences were old and dilapidated and required much repairing, and portions had to be rebuilt, to do which we were compelled to make rails. The greater portion of fencing around yards and gardens has been made from pickets or clapboards, nailed to strips split out years since and are so decayed as to require new fencing altogether, while that around fields has been so indifferently constructed as to but partially keep out hogs and other stock, but as the allotment of land in severalty to these Indians is now in contemplation, thus necessitating a change of locality, I have deemed it best to temporarily repair the improvements for the season. One of the greatest drawbacks to the carrying on of farming successfully is the want of teams. There are but two Indians upon the reservation who have serviceable teams of their own, and one of these has to rely upon the agency for wagon and harness; with these exceptions all the team work of the agency has been supplied by the government, and during the season of putting in crops it is a constant source of trouble in caring for and subsisting teams while in use by Indians, and the constant change of teamsters, many of whom appear to have but little or no knowledge of the management of teams, renders it very difficult to keep the stock in a condition to work.
    When I assumed charge, many of the Indians belonging to this agency were absent without leave, and during the latter part of June, the crops being in and their supply of provisions being exhausted, I was necessarily compelled to give passes to a large number, as I had no means to subsist them upon the reservation.
    I employed quite a number to improve the agency roads, as also the road from the agency to the depot slough, the point from which supplies for the agency have to be transported by land with agency teams.
    These roads were almost impassable, having been washed out by winter rains and obstructed by landslides & falling timber. During the month of May and the early part of June considerable sickness prevailed among the Indians. But six deaths occurred, however, three of whom were adults and three children.
    I am endeavoring to break up their superstitious notions in regard to the treatment of their sick and burial of their dead. Their medicine men and women, as they are called, exert a powerful influence over the minds of these people and sometimes actually cause the death of persons by their persisting efforts to drive the bad spirits or temanimus ["medicine"] out of the system, and after death the great destruction of property, burning houses, tearing up clothing, breaking stoves and generally destroying whatever effects the party may possess. I have had coffins made and furnished suitable apparel for the deceased and with the employees have attended and assisted in the burial service and have designated ground for burial purposes instead of permitting each family to bury their dead in their yards & about their houses. By changing their mode of burial and eradicating their superstitious notions in regard to their dead I am of the opinion that much good will be accomplished.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Or.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        July 20th 1871.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    I would respectfully request that a copy of the papers concerning the purchase of Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, and plot of same defining the boundaries, be furnished this office without delay.
    It is necessary that this office be in possession of these papers in order to determine the boundaries of said reservation prior to the survey for allotment of lands to Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 901-902.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 26, 1871
Sir
    In the matter of Modoc Indians who have committed murder, it would seem that when you have exhausted your power to control them that they are no longer under your authority or of the Indian Dept. and therefore are subject to military supervision. Your duty under such circumstances is to notify the commander of the post at Klamath or dept. at Portland of such resistance and let them do as they may feel authorized in the premises. I have no doubt about the authority of the Military Dept. to deal with the Modocs. I have some doubts about our right to punish Indians who are not under our authority.
    The Modoc Indians, being in a state of rebellion against the authority of the Indian Dept., are beyond its control. Again this being the case I have no doubt that they--the Modoc Indians--are amenable to the local laws, and may be arrested and tried as other offenders are. Doubtless the people of Jackson County feel averse to any action on their part in such cases, but if the military neglect or refuse to take action in this matter you should lay the subject before the grand jury of Jackson County without delay. I cannot see the matter in the light you seem to, that is, that you should take charge of any expedition for the arrest of the Modoc murderers. If, however, you choose to accompany any such expedition as guide, interpreter or a guard of any officer of military or civil dept., I can see no objection thereto.
    Mr. Woodworth will visit your station during August for the purpose of settling up the accounts. (His family will accompany him.) Dr. McKay has reported with his Indians as ready for the service required of him to leave the Dalles in a few days.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary at Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 568.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 26th 1871
To Knapp Burrell & Co.
    Portland, Ogn.
        Gents,
            I have to request you will fill the following orders and send bills of each to this office.
  62 feet leather belting 12 inches wide
  56    "         "           "         5     "          "
117    "         "           "         4     "          "
  65 feet cable chain 5/8 inch rod in links
 I keg 40º nails
Mark Acting Agent Grand Ronde Agency and ship to Dayton, Oregon.
(No. 2 Bill)
270 feet 5 inch leather belting
  30    "  12    "         "           "
  50    "    6    "         "           "
 I doz. sheets tin
 I pr. tinner's snips
Mark A. B. Meacham Supt. Salem, Ogn. Ship by boat.
    Presuming that you are prepared to furnish bolting cloth ready made, I also request that you forward (with last bill) bolt for a 32 inch reel, 20 feet long of quality to make superfine flour.
    The cloth bought of you last fall (and still in your keeping) I presume you would exchange, as that was designed for a 40 inch reel. The above bolting cloth is designed for Klamath Agency, and as there is no one in that country competent to make it up, therefore the above request.    
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 568-569.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 26th 1871
Sir,
    You will proceed at once to Portland Oregon and remove to proper reservations all unemployed, dissipated or vagabond Indians who belong to Oregon Superintendency. Also all other such Indians that you may find in said city of Portland or elsewhere you will remove from the limits & the state.
    To execute this order you are authorized to employ such assistance as may be necessary.
    You will use economy and keep a correct account of all your expenditures. You will keep separate those incurred in removing such Indians as do not belong to Oregon Superintendency. You will also obtain and keep a correct list of such Indians as to what agency of Washington or Idaho superintendencies they may properly belong, and furnish the same to this office.
    You will also endeavor to obtain the names of all persons who are engaged in selling liquor to, harboring or employing Indians in violation of the state law or the intercourse law of the United States.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
James Brown Esq.
    Messenger to Ind. Dept.
        Salem, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 569.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 27th 1871
Sir,
    Your letter received. Reference to your instructions will show you what I propose to do. If those Indians so long residents at Oregon City are industrious and temperate you will allow them to remain without consulting anybody. Such was Mr. Parker's instructions to me last winter. The scalawag vagabonds you will remove. Messenger Brown, from long experience, will be able to afford you assistance. If on consultation you think best you may join with Brown or otherwise turn the whole job over to him. You will see by his instructions what he is authorized to do. We cannot stop to quarrel with citizens. Let all such matters go by.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Maj. Magone
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 570.


Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 27th 1871
Sir
    You will please send out, at earliest reasonable time, four (4) yoke of oxen suitable for freighting to Klamath.
    I leave you to make the selection relying on your judgment. If your business will permit, it would be well to bring them yourself. As to the proper route, you must decide.
    If you have suitable ox yokes and chains that are not needed on your agency, it would be good policy to send them along.
    If you send the oxen with other hands, caution should be used that they are not driven too hard. A plug of a pony would come in good play to go out with the ox team.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Saml. Case Esq.
    Commissary
        Alsea Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 570.



Klamath Agency Oregon
    July 31st 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the month of July.
    The Indians have throughout the month been busily engaged in collecting native food, and for that purpose have been moving around from one part of the country to another visiting the various places where edible roots and seeds abound. As usual at this season their health has been good, probably mainly on account of their leaving their close and smoky winter quarters and living in the open air. They have been quiet and law-abiding, no difficulties having occurred among them of any consequence.
    In relation to the subject of schools, I would say that I have no doubt but that the good being of the service would be promoted by the opening of a school, if conducted by an efficient teacher and one acquainted with Indian character. It is well known that Indian schools have not generally been very successful on our reservations, and this may have been due in a measure to the teachers' want of interest in their work. I am of the opinion that if a good, reliable, educated Indian, one who would take a pride in the enlightenment of his race could be had to take charge of the school, I think he would be more likely to succeed than almost any white man that could be found. He would himself be a living example of the result to be achieved by study, and this fact alone I believe would be a great incentive to effort on the part of the children.
    Work is being vigorously prosecuted in the erection of the flouring mill, but with the limited force at hand progress on the work is necessarily slow.
    On the farms the men are working energetically in haying and soon will have finished putting up a large quantity of hay of splendid quality. The grain will also be ready for the reaper in a few days. Having been damaged seriously by late frosts, it does not promise a very abundant yield, but will yield better than was anticipated a month ago.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        John Meacham
            Commissary in charge of
                Klamath Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    July 31st 1871
Sir:
    I would most respectfully report the following for the month of July--
    In accordance with instructions received from your office, Mr. P. W. Caris was temporarily placed in charge of this camp. On the 10th I left en route for Ashland. During my absence the employees, assisted by several Indians, were employed in cutting and putting up hay. On my return, near the end of the month, I found that everything had progressed finely; about (75) seventy-five tons of hay had been stacked. The Indians generally had behaved well; many are still absent, gathering roots and killing game in the mountains. The grain crop as also the more hardy kinds of vegetables looks very promising. Several of Ocheho's headmen met me here. They say Chief Ocheho will be here in two weeks. He is very anxiously awaiting the return of "Chocktoot" and party, sent out by your order to collect Snake captives now with Indian tribes in eastern Oregon. The return of these captives will do very much indeed toward establishing firmly the confidence of these bands in our government.
    There are many reports of probable danger from the Modoc Indians under the leadership of "Capt. Jack," but from the best reliable information I can get I think there will be no open outbreak.
I am
    Very respectfully
        Your humble servt.
            I. D. Applegate
                Commissary Camp Yainax
                    Ogn.
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indian Affrs.
            for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 1st 1871
Sir,
    Sec. Delano telegraphs "Lafollett's resignation not accepted at present. Await my letter of today."
    I do not know what is up. Under the circumstances you may as well return to Salem, unless your presence at Grand Ronde is necessary to the well being of the people there; use your judgment. I will leave instructions here for you.
    You will furnish the bearer, Mr. Loosley, with the Ind. Dept. horse, the one I sent over last fall known as the Umatilla horse. Lafollett will understand. The mare that Loosley rides over will be in your personal charge; you can either put her in pasture or ride her home and then put to pasture. Charles Gillingham takes Dunbar's work. I leave here tomorrow or next day at furtherest.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
E. N. Gillingham
    Asst. Clerk to Supt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 571.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 1st 1871
Sir,
    The enclosed copy of telegraph from Sec. Delano puts a new face on things generally. I do not know what it means, can only conjecture. It seems that the only way now is for you to continue in charge until the letter referred to shall have been received. I will arrange here to have it forwarded to me at Umatilla on its arrival.
    I have written to Dunbar to come immediately so that I can arrange for him to go to Warm Springs.
    Let Charles Gillingham take charge of the work Dunbar has in hand. Other arrangements must await the "letter."
    You can make such explanations as you think best to the Indians and others. Much confusion and annoyance may be avoided by keeping cool and saying nothing.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Capt. Chas. Lafollett
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 572.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 1st 1871
John Loosley,
    Sir,
        You are hereby authorized to arrest and remove from the towns of McMinnville, Lafayette and Dayton all vagabond unemployed Indians, and either return them to their proper reservations or find them employment away from the towns referred to. You are authorized to employ necessary assistance to execute this order.   
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 573.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 1st 1871

Sir,
    You will proceed immediately to the city of Albany and arrest all vagabond Indians who are not citizens (or so regarded) no matter to what reservation they may belong, or whether to any reservation or not. You are hereby authorized to employ all necessary assistance, to either return to agency or find employment away from the towns of all such persons.
    Should any be found who do not now belong to any reservation you will, if possible, [omission] to what agency they belong by treaty or tribal relation, and remove them in conformity thereto. This order is to apply and extend to all towns and places where vagabond Indians may be found. You will endeavor to obtain the names of all persons engaged in selling or giving liquor to Indians or having other unlawful intercourse with them.
    Make special report to this office and to agents to whom any of such Indians may belong.
    This service will require discretion and patience besides much shrewdness and courage. See to it that you give no cause of complaint that the Indian Dept. lacks either of the above virtues. We are much censured by the citizens. Let us see that the censure is not just.
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Maj. Jos. Magone
    Acting Special Commissary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 573.



Office Siletz Agency
    August 1st 1871
Sir,
    Since my last report nothing has transpired here materially changing the condition of affairs as then indicated. Many of the Indians are absent with leave; those having crops have generally returned to the agency and hoed their potatoes and gleaned their grain. This process of gleaning or cutting out fern, wild cucumber or man-in-the-ground and other weeds peculiar to this climate and soil must be resorted to in almost every instance or else the crops are wholly choked out and rendered useless. This is doubtless owing in part to shallow plowing and continued cropping. All the meadows were equally foul, so much so that before the timothy began heading I was compelled to mow down a rank growth of lupine, which covered the entire meadows.
    This growth of fern and other weeds adds materially to the cost of producing crops in this locality, but the late rains this season has doubtless made it more than usually so, and I am of the opinion that this can be remedied to a great extent by burning the stubble and fall plowing.
    The hay crop has been very good and is now mostly all stored away in the barns, yet the quantity is limited considering the number of stock to be fed, and we must rely greatly upon straw to subsist the stock during the coming winter.
    The Indians have several small patches of club wheat, which gives promise of a fair yield. A number of small fields of Noah Island and other varieties will hardly pay the expenses of harvesting, but this is owing more directly to the indifferent manner of cultivation than the fault of the climate or soil.
    The agency crops will yet require a considerable outlay of means to glean them, and the potatoes will require being worked over several times more.
    Owing to the late frosts, the fruit crop will be a failure.
    The health of the Indians is generally very good, yet there are quite a number of chronic cases that require the constant care & attention of the physician.
    As yet no steps have been taken looking to the establishment of daily schools; in fact, there are no suitable buildings for the purpose, and there is no lumber to build school houses, no funds with which I can purchase, and could I purchase, the distance to haul the lumber over these mountains could the limited number of teams at my disposal would necessarily lessen our ability to carry on agricultural operations. The sawmill at the upper farm is hardly worth repairing; besides, it is difficult getting logs to it, and it is but a trifling affair, though the stream of water on which it is located furnishes a column of water that would answer a very good purpose.
    If it be found impracticable to obtain funds to construct a mill at a more eligible point, it may be well to overhaul and repair the one in hand, as with the present limited number and decayed condition of the government buildings at this agency much lumber will be needed for construction and repairs.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 1st 1871
Genl. Joel Palmer
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz Ogn.
            Sir,
                I desire to call your particular attention to the fact that there is a general complaint coming from the various towns and cities against the Indians, Indian agents and Superintendent. Brown and Maj. Magone are devoting their time, clothed with authority to arrest and remove all vagrant Indians wherever found. I have to suggest that you exercise a great deal of care in granting "passes," and make your Indians understand that they must not hang around the towns, also suggest that in granting passes they be made to state particularly where they extend to, always stipulating that they are not to visit towns; with this precaution, also withholding from improper persons, it would seem that we may avoid unjust censure. There are two sides to all questions and one side of this question is to do our duty faithfully and promptly.
    I regret that so much fault-finding is made directly to the head of the Dept. at Washington on account of our vagabond Indians, but it is no more than we may expect if we do not take care of them.
    Maj. Magone will report to you as soon as he shall have executed the order above referred to. You will continue him in service at your own option. I have found him very energetic and faithful to the orders I have given him. His time will be continued on your papers although in detached service until you finally dismiss him. His expenses incurred by my order will be settled in this office.
    It seems to me that some of your Indians are scattered a great deal and should be collected, also that there may be a few Indians who have been on any reservation that may have tribal relations with your people and should be brought in. You can post yourself on this matter and exercise your own judgment about who to send for them. I think the major (Magone) efficient, faithful and economical.    
Very respectfully &c.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 574-575.



    The estimate of crop mostly made from judgment and not measurement. Hay and oat crop is all that has been harvested; spring very late and cold, consequently crops late and very light. Land allotted to each family after it was seeded. Each has tended his own crop and will take charge of proceeds when harvested. All that will be taken charge of by me will be enough for sick. The houses are not actually frame but are constructed by standing posts in the ground and covered with split shakes, made by their own hands.
"Statistical Return of Farming &c. at Alsea Indn Sub-Agency, 1871," NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 2nd 1871
Sir
    I wish you to proceed at once to the Modoc country and make one more effort for peace. I am induced to make this request on reading a long and intelligent letter from Jesse Applegate Esq. who has had a talk with Capt. Jack's 1st officer "Capt. Jim." It appears that they are anxious to see me, and that they are willing to talk this matter over and if possible avoid bloodshed..
    It is impossible for me to go at present on account of the Umatilla council. You can go and say to them that you represent me, my heart, my wishes and --, and that I have authorized you to talk for me. You are familiar with all the facts in the case and do not need special instructions except on one or two points. 1st. That I will try to get a small reserve for them in their country, but it will take time to bring it about, and until such time I desire them to go onto any unoccupied land on Klamath Reservation. That I will lay the whole matter before the Dept. at Washington and put it through if possible. That you will protect them from insult or imposition from either Klamaths, Snakes or whites until such time as the authorities shall order otherwise. I mean by this that Capt. Jack and men shall be free from arrest until I am ordered to investigate the affair. And that he shall, if ever arrested, have the benefit of jury trial by his peers or white men under civil law, on the condition, however, that he and his people return to Klamath and remain there, subject to the authority of the Ind. Dept. That if ordered to trial he will surrender himself and accomplices.
    You can say to him that in the event I succeed in getting a home for them on Lost River, they will be allowed their proportion of the funds of Klamath and Modoc treaty, with the privilege of the mill at Klamath to make lumber &c., that if I fail in this they may elect to go into the Snake country beyond Camp Warner on the new reservation to be laid out there this fall. You can say further that while I do not approve of their conduct, I am not unmindful of the bad treatment of Capt. Knapp and the Klamaths, and that I do not wish to have them destroyed; that if they refuse to accept these terms, they are under military control and subject to military laws and commanders.
    You will confer with I. D. Applegate and together with him with the commander at Fort Klamath. I will request Genl. Canby to allow any order now out for the arrest of Jack to rest until you have made this effort to prevent war.
    I have requested I. D. Applegate to accompany you and advise with you, but this you will understand that you are charged with this mission. I think going as my brother may give you more influence. The Modocs can appreciate that inasmuch as the Supt. could not come he sent his brother.
    I have confidence in your coolness and sense of justice and with I.D.A. as counselor I hope you may bring this unhappy trouble (so heavy laden with death to many persons) to a peaceful solution.
    Do not take more than two or three persons with you, and whatever the result of "the talk," you will be faithful and true to yourself and the Indians.
    Mr. Jesse Applegate is somewhere out in that country, and is a safe advisor. I have no doubt he will assist you in this hazardous undertaking. You will report the result of this visit promptly to this office. In the event that the military commander at Fort Klamath may have already gone after Capt. Jack, and opened hostilities exist, I do not wish you to take any hazardous chances.
    This matter I leave to the circumstances that may exist on the receipt of this letter. I see clearly from Jesse Applegate's letter that hostilities are imminent and that many good men may lose life and property unless the threatened hostilities are prevented. I have never seen the time when we could have done otherwise than as we have, but I fully realize that we may be held responsible by the citizens of that country, who do not understand the power and duties of the Ind. Dept.
    Go on this mission realizing that you may carry in your hand the lives and happiness of many persons and the salvation of a tribe of people that have been much wronged and seldom if ever understood.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
John Meacham Esq.
    Commissary at
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 575-576.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 2nd 1871
Hon. Jesse Applegate
    Dear sir
        Your letter of 27th ult. has been received, for which you have my sincere thanks.
    I have this day requested John Meacham, commissary at Klamath, and I. D. Applegate, commissary at Yainax, to visit the Modoc country and make one more effort for peace. I have instructed them to say to the Modocs that if they will return to Klamath Reservation or any part of it and remain subject to the authority of the Indian Dept. that no arrest will be made until the whole matter can be laid before the Dept. at Washington, and that if ever tried for the alleged offense they shall have the benefit of a jury &c., also that I will make the effort to secure a home for them on Lost River, and in case of failure, they might choose between Klamath and the new reservation near Harney or Warner. These are the main facts; I hope they may be successful in making peace.
    It is impossible for me to visit that country at present, on account of the approaching council with the Umatillas. I have confidence in the young men I have sent to represent me and the Dept. They are both cool, cautious, discreet, brave men and have hearts that feel for the Indians, and I believe they are very just men.
    I have placed John Meacham in charge, thinking that the fact of him being the Supt.'s brother might have weight with the Modoc, but no fear of any collision on that account with iron [sic--"irons"?]. Should you find it convenient or ever possible to accompany them, I will feel much gratified, and will not forget my obligation to you for your kind letter and friendly interest generally.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 576-577.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 2nd 1871
Sir
    I desire you to accompany John Meacham on a visit to the Modocs. I have put him in charge, think that he being the Superintendent's brother might have weight with the Indians.
    From Uncle Jesse Applegate I learn that hostilities are imminent. I have written fully to Meacham what to say &c. Let us do our whole duty that no blame may attach to us. I have confidence that you may succeed in preventing war. You will confer with John about when and how to make this visit. No time should be lost.
    Uncle Jesse is somewhere in the Modoc country. Secure his company and counsel. I leave tomorrow to hold the council with Umatillas. Hoping for your success,
I am, respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary
        Yainax
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 577.



Sir
    I have the honor to submit this, my monthly report for July 1871 of condition of Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency.
    In reporting the condition of the Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency for this month, I am pleased to state all things in a flourishing condition, considering the unfavorable season.
    The month has been a very busy one with all the Indians on the agency.
    The crops has been finely tended during the month, and the general crop, also the gardens, begin to look a little more favorable. The wheat is fine, potatoes medium, but oats and barley a failure. The oats have all smutted, and the barley ruined by the cold month of May and dry June.
    The hay crop will be light, but I think there will be a sufficient for all the Department stock. Most of the hay is cut, but as yet a very little of it is housed owing to the rainy days the last week, rather unfavorable for haying but of great advantage to the gardens and potato crops.
    The Indians are all very orderly and obedient, and from all appearances are improving in civilization every month.
    There has been but little sickness during the month, and everything has passed off pleasantly. Therefore I feel highly compensated for all the untiring labors I have bestowed in trying to instruct all Indians under my charge in the various duties pertaining to a farmer's life.
    At the commencing of the month I divided all the potato ground equally among the respective families and assured them they should have all they raised and should control it themselves. This appeared to stimulate them greatly, and all hands have tended their crops nicely this month, and I am satisfied that could these people have a portion of land allotted to each family they would make good use of it and be much better satisfied and raise larger crops and be less expense to the government.
    Stock looks fine and everything running smoothly.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted.
Your most obdt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Commissary
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. of Indian Affairs in Oregon
        Salem
Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    Aug. 2nd 1871
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Westfield, Mass., Aug. 11
Hon. H. R. Clum
    Dear Sir
        Yours of 9th inst. concerning claim of George Nurse for supplies furnished Klamath Indian Agency was forwarded to me at this place.
    If there are no other funds applicable to the payment of these claims I have no objection to their being referred to the Supt. Ind. Affrs. for Oregon for payment provided he has funds for the payment and is instructed or authorized to pay them. If he has no funds applicable to the payment I prefer they should not be referred to him, as the proceeding would be of no avail. He informed me that he had repeatedly urged the payment of these claims but did not state whether or not he had funds for that purpose if instructed to pay them.
    Will you please advise me at this office of the disposition you make of the claims. If sent to Oregon, please accompany them with the power of attorney with request to make the payment to my agent, Mr. Albert, whom the Superintendent knows, or advise me and I will so instruct him. I represent two other small claims--one of H. L. Pittock and one of A. L. Stinson. Please let this take the same course the Nurse claims do.
    The Oregon Supt. is cognizant of all the facts pertaining to these claims, and providing he has the funds for their payment is authorized to so apply them I shall be glad to have them referred to him, otherwise not.
Yours very truly
    A. Bush
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 577-580.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 17th 1871
Sir,
    If you can without too much inconvenience use in the sawmill at Grand Ronde the wheel already there I wish yo to do so, otherwise we may have some difficulty in getting things properly arranged in my papers. I would rather send the shaft below and have it remodeled than to change wheels. Write me the result of the conference with Mr. Myers. It appears that he had sold to another party the wheel we desired. It is also doubtful whether we can build the flour mill this fall, and I do not wish to have a wheel on my hands.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Mr. Geo. Tillotson
    Jefferson
        Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 580.



Westfield, Aug. 21, 1871
H. R. Clum Esq.
    Chief Clerk Ind. Affrs.
        Dear Sir
            With first of next week I desire to leave here, returning to Oregon. Before doing so, I would like to be informed of what action has been taken upon the George Nurse claims. If the Supt. of Oregon has no funds applicable to their payment, is there not the appropriation that can be so applied? Some of these claims (those of the late Supt. Huntington) have been recently paid.
    Will you have the kindness to advise me so that I may know whether or not it will be important for me to visit Washington before returning west? By so doing you will greatly oblige
Yours truly
    A. Bush
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 582-583.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        August 25th 1871
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington, D.C.
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the diagram of the Grand Ronde purchase, also a copy of the map of the Indian Coast Reservation with the executive order attached thereto &c.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 906-907.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 26th 1871
Sir
    I received the letter herewith enclosed from Agent Lafollett on the 19th inst.
    After considering all the circumstances I decided to receipt to him for the government property in his charge and placed the same under S. D. Reinhart as special commissary on the 22nd inst.
    I have no fear of either the ability or integrity of Mr. Reinhart and take pleasure in saying that this agency is going along smoothly and with satisfaction of Indians and the Dept. once more.
    I would most respectfully suggest that the question as to whether it is a Methodist or Catholic agency be settled at an early day.
    The Indians are very much excited and will not be quieted until it is fixed permanently. They are also very anxious about a flour mill. The new sawmill will be running in twenty days.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. E. S. Parker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 586.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 28th 1871
Sir,
    Your private letter of 19th inst. in regard to talk with Capt. Jack--Modoc--has been received, also Commissary Meacham's report of the same. I am gratified and fully appreciate your success. You have my thanks. Dr. McKay is writing you the particulars of the disappearance of Chocktoot, Ski-dat and the other Snake Indians.
    I cannot see that the Doctor is to blame in the matter and certainly not willfully to blame. I very much fear they have met foul play somewhere. Now should they not put in appearances at your agency very soon it is reasonable to suppose they are murdered. Should such be the case, you must be very careful how you treat the news to the Indians under your care and remember that they are not far removed from savage warfare.
    I would not cause you needless trouble, but it appears to me that you had better remove your family from Yainax. Secure all your arms and have some considerable force on hand when you attempt "the explanation." In fact I would not allow the least intimation to get out until the Doctor arrives at Yainax. He will not be there for one month or six weeks yet, and maybe you may learn of the whereabouts of those lost Indians.
    Now as to the Harney trip, that is not yet decided on positively and cannot be at present. I will write you in time to make preparation.
    I have turned over to Sub-Agent High Klamath Agency, not Klamath Reservation. I think well of him as a man and expect him to make his administration a success. I have posted him as well as possible about how things are arranged, and he will doubtless cooperate with you. I see no reason why Oliver cannot take charge [of the] agency during your absence. I intend to visit you this fall if possible. Have your annual report in early.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary at Yainax
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 586-587.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Aug. 28 1871
Sir,
    I have this day received the enclosed report of the commissioners appointed to visit Capt. Jack (Modoc chief). I would respectfully request the return of the report at an early day. My office help being somewhat reduced prevents me from copying, otherwise I would have furnished you the report for retention.
    If you consider it of sufficient importance I will hereafter forward certified copy. Please send to this office the "Applegate letter" submitted to you some time since. I propose to visit the Modoc country at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Gen. E. A. [sic] Canby
    Comdg. Dept. of Columbia
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 587.



Westfield, Aug. 29, 1871
H. R. Clum, Esq., Acting Com.
    Dear Sir
        Yours of 24th relating to the George Nurse claims against Ind. Dept. of Oregon is received. As I know expect to return to Oregon in the course of two weeks. I have placed those claims, together with those of A. L. Stinson and H. L. Pittock, in the hands of Messrs. A. E. & C. E. Tilton, 95 Liberty St., N.Y. Anything of interest to the claimants you will please communicate to them hereafter.
Yours very truly
    A. Bush
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 584-585.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 1st 1871
Sir,
    In reply to yours of the 30th ult. I have to say that a copy of said letter has been forwarded to U.S. Dist. Atty. Cartwright at Portland, with request that immediate action be had. I doubt not that the parties implicated will be arrested without delay and dealt with according to law.
    You have the thanks of the Ind. Dept. for your very prompt action in the premises. In this connection I would suggest that hereafter you will promptly arrest any and all Indians who may be found intoxicated, place them in confinement until sober and then put them to hard labor until they are willing to divulge the names of persons furnishing liquor to Indians in violation of law. Do this promptly and you can soon put a quietus on the Indian whiskey traffic.
    I hear nothing from Mr. Brunot, and cannot say when I will visit you again. In the matter of belting for the mill and saws &c. I have to say that the saws were ordered one week since and are doubtless now at Dayton. I have also ordered two beltings, provided the party furnishing is willing to accept the one returned in lieu or credit of the new belt, otherwise we will be compelled to utilize the one now on hand. I have a "log truck" under contract and it is fast assuming shape. When completed it will be necessary to send a team here to haul it to the agency, of which fact you will be notified and can arrange matters accordingly.
    As to the Spaniard mistreating his wife, you can act your judgment. It might be well to arrest him and have him tried by a jury of his peers. You will also do as you may think right about discharging Lawrence. I think, however, that he can do you more service about getting in your harvest. If you think not, "all right."
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
S. D. Reinhart, Esq.
    Comsy. in charge Grand Ronde
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 591.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    Sept. 4th 1871.
Sir:  I have the honor to submit the following report of the condition of Alsea Indian Sub-Agency, Oregon, since the 1st of Nov. 1870, at which time I relieved Agent F. A. Battey of the duties of this agency.
    On taking charge here, my first duty appeared to be to the looking after the general interests both of Indians and stock and preparing comfortable [quarters] for winter, which I did by having Indians' dwellings repaired and also government buildings patched up and made tight and warm as possible.
    This completed, there was but little to attend to until spring except to look after and care for the stock, which was properly attended to, and repairing for spring work the farming implements which were out of service.
    Spring opened rather unfavorably owing to cold late rains, which puts everything back, although the wheat and oats were all sowed by the 20th of April and the potatoes planted during May.
    The summer has been very dry and cold here on the coast, and consequently crops were very slim.
    There was an abundance planted and sowed, and had it been a favorable season all the Indians on the agency would have had a surplus; as it is, however, they will have a plenty. Crops have been well tended, both in garden and field.
    In the spring I divided up the ground, giving to each family a certain piece, with the understanding that all they raised should be their own. The result was the best attention was bestowed on the ground and everything tended with care and neatness.
    Up to the 1st of May 1871 Mr. G. W. Collins was employed as supt. of farming. Since then [I] have carried on all the business of the agency with Indian labor and find it works well and is certainly an advantage to these people.
    They are much better satisfied with this manner of business and are at all times ready and willing to perform all the duties required of them.
    After the crops were put in attention was turned to fencing, making new fields for pasturage &c.
    During the summer I have had a great deal of plowing done on old land which has heretofore been left to grow up to weeds, and the only way to cultivate it property was to summer fallow. This ground I design for fall wheat, for I believe it much more profitable and I think will do better here than spring grain.
    The oat and hay crop has been secured, both rather light. Wheat is still green and will not be fit for harvesting under two weeks.
    At the time I took charge of this agency, some thirty or more of the Coos and Umpqua Indians were absent without passes, but I am happy to inform you that a portion of those Indians have returned on their own accord, and others I returned last May while on a trip to Coos Bay. Still some are out, but I am inclined to think that during the year about all of them will get in onto the reservation.
    Those that are here are quite able to take care of themselves. All they require is a sufficient amount of land allotted to them and such farming implements as is necessary, and there need not longer be one dollar expense to the government, except a few who are very old and infirm; such ones should have care and attention while they may live. The Indians on this agency are a quiet and well-disposed people, and with fair treatment and honest dealing with them can be made a respectable and reliable people.
    The Indians of this agency enjoy a great many advantages over other Indians, from the fact their fisheries are extensive and their hunting ground far superior to any other I know of on the coast.
    Here all along the shore of the farm mussels and fish are very plentiful; of these they prepare great quantities for winter. They also cure large amounts of dried elk, which they store away for winter use.
    I would most respectfully call your attention to the condition of the government buildings, which are very old and leaky, and also state that a dwelling for the person in charge here is actually necessary, there being but one room in the agency dwelling suitable for a person to live in during the coming winter.
    For a few hundred dollars a good, comfortable house can be erected there that will answer very well the requirements of the place. I have already commenced reroofing the government stable and can by considerable labor make it very comfortable for winter.
    Some of the Indians (especially the aged) have poor dwellings for winter and are unable to work and make boards to build houses of; therefore some provision should be made for these poor beings to make them comfortable the coming winter.
    Stock and other government property in this agency is in fine condition and fix and everything in general is satisfactory here.
    All of which is most respectfully submitted.
I am sir
    Your most obdt. servt.
        Samuel Case
            Commissary
To
    Hon. A. B. Meacham
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Siletz Ind. Agency
    Sept. 9th 1871
Sir
    I have the honor to submit this, my report for the month of August. A large proportion of the grain sowed by Indians has been harvested and stored, though much of the government oats, the principal cereals produced here, was sowed so late in the season, on account of rains and want of team, that it is not yet ripe, nor will it be ready for harvest before the latter part of this month, for reason that the entire team force upon the agency was first applied to putting in crops for the Indians. The wheat is now just in bloom. This wheat and a portion of the oats were sown as late as the 20th June.
    The grain sown by the Indians as a general rule has yielded but light, owing to indifferent cultivation and the presence of sorrel and weeds.
    The late planted potato crop will be an entire failure on account of a severe frost the sixth of this month. A few fields planted early & those in sheltered positions may possibly mature. All kinds of vines are generally killed, and the corn and bean crop greatly injured. The fruit crop as previously stated is a total failure.
    There can no longer be a doubt that the crops produced upon the reservation this season will fall far short of subsisting the Indians until another harvest, and we must look to other sources to supply the deficiency. Fish will constitute one of the chief articles, and many are now preparing to take the fall and winter run of salmon. We are also fitting out hunting parties to take elk and deer; with these two resources we hope to materially lessen the expenses of subsisting these Indians this coming winter. A few of the families will have an abundance of provisions and to spare, while many others will be destitute of food.
    As intimated in a former report we are preparing about sixty acres of summer fallow for winter wheat and thirty or forty acres for putting down to meadow; we expect also to plow a large surface this fall for early spring sowing; this will involve the necessity of mowing down and burning a heavy growth of fern, sorrel and weeds before the land can be plowed, but with the combined reaper and mower recently purchased, the expense will be materially lessened. Quite a number of these Indians desire to sow fall wheat. We will be compelled to purchase all the seed for fall sowing in the Willamette Valley, and I think it best to procure several varieties so as to test the kind best suited to our climate and soil. From the samples of wheat grown here this season, I am confident that an abundant supply can be produced to meet all the demands of the agency.
    We are now preparing to reroof the agency barns and other buildings. Many of these buildings have been recovered from time to time, laying one course upon the old decayed boards or shingles, until five courses are now upon the roofs. The rib poles are rotten and many falling down. The fences must also be rebuilt, for the horses and cattle have become so breachy that it is with great difficulty we have been able to save the crops. Many of the Indian grain fields have been ruined by them.
    We have nearly completed a house for the residence of the commissary; a portion of the lumber used for this building was that turned over to me by Mr. Simpson and which has been hauled from the depot mills, but we were compelled to purchase the flooring and siding at the Oneatta mills, situated on the Yaquina Bay. The doors and windows and nails have been purchased at the cheapest rates that they could be had.
    The Indians are patching up their old dilapidated lodges and houses, as well as fences, and making almost constant demands for nails and lumber, and a number of kegs [of] nails have been purchased to supply their wants.
    The census of these Indians is nearly completed, and thus far it develops a great falling off from former reports. From present indications the aggregate number will be less than one thousand, including the estimated number of absentees, being (150). During this fall I will endeavor to bring in those from the coast settlements and obtain a correct list of absentees.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obd. srvt.
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Honl.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Siletz Agency
    Sept. 9th 1871
Sir,
         I have the honor to submit the following as my first annual report of the affairs of this agency. In making this, my first report, I may not be able to set forth all the facts that ought to be known in order to induce the proper kind of legislation to secure the wants of the Indians upon this reservation, and that kind to which they are justly entitled.
    If we take the Indians of this reservation as a criterion by which to judge of the merits of the civilizing progress for the last sixteen years, there is but little to encourage us, for while a little improvement may have been made among a portion in regard to apparel and ordinary work in the held, it is difficult conceiving of a people who have sunk lower in the scale of morals and all the vices to which civilized or savage people can reach than is found among these Indians. If there be an honest or virtuous male or female among them, it is an exception rather than the rule. The child is educated from its infancy to steal. The women are bought and sold like cattle & as a general rule, the number of wives owned by a man is limited by his means to purchase, the price ranging from ten strings of Iroquois shells [dentalium] of ten each, to five horses. The daughters are loaned, hired or sold at from twelve to sixteen years of age, as inducements are offered, sometimes for one night, one month, a year, or a bona fide sale, the purchaser casting her off at pleasure, and when so cast off or divorced, the property originally paid must be refunded. The feelings of the girl or woman are seldom consulted. If they have no parents, the nearest of kin, or if no relations the heads of the family or tribe to which they belong make the sale and receive the purchase price; & it is often the case that, after a woman has been thus disposed of and matters settled, that another relative or tribal claimant makes a demand upon the purchaser, and an additional amount must be paid.
    This plurality of wife system, and the recognized right of the man to cast off the banns, is a fruitful source of contention, for it is often done for the purpose alone of securing a return of the property or gifts originally paid, and one of the worst features of this degrading system is that it extends to the whites, who have been their teachers in many of these debasing vices.
    Considerable progress has been made in the surveys, but the dense growth of brush, fern and weeds & the circuitous course of streams, with precipitous cliffs and mountain ranges, renders it a slow and tedious task. I have had detailed one & sometimes two persons to accompany the surveyors to aid in marking lines and designating corners; yet with even this precaution I fear it will be difficult tracing lines another season, as fires have been raging through the uncultivated portions of the agency, and in many localities have obliterated every trace of surveys. Much interest is manifested among the Indians in relation to the allotment of land, but we cannot hope to amicably adjust the conflicting interests involved until a sawmill is erected so as to obtain lumber to build them houses in lieu of those to be vacated when land is assigned them in severalty.
    At the central or home farm, the greatest number of the Indians are residing upon the land best adapted to the use of a manual labor school and for agency purposes. The government buildings are located upon this tract, as are also about sixty families of Indians, and even if this were allotted to Indians, the greater number of them would be compelled to rebuild, as they are now huddled together in small villages of from ten to fifteen families. The character of the buildings belonging to government are not such as can be conveniently removed, and in fact many of them are too much dilapidated to be longer fit for habitation, and the site now occupied is probably the best location on the agency for such purposes, being nearly central between the upper & lower farms, the extremes being about twelve miles, besides this the largest body of land suitable for cultivation.
    The system of farming heretofore has been to generally have large fields bordered on one side by the river, these fields cultivated by from ten to fifteen families, each having their separate tracts designated by stakes or strips of uncultivated land, but when the allotment of land is made it will involve the necessity of much additional fencing; in fact, nearly all the fence upon the reservation must be rebuilt, for in addition to the fact that changes are to be made, nearly all the fencing is so old and so much decayed that but little remains sufficiently sound to make into new fence. Had we provisions with which to subsist the Indians, they might be induced to make rails the coming winter for new fence, and a portion might also be employed in clearing off brush land, which when assigned to Indians would place them upon an equal footing with those who obtain prairie lands & land already improved.
    The absence of teams among the Indians is a constant source of trouble and embarrassment, being very difficult, with the limited number of agency teams, to distribute them so as to even partially meet the requirements of the Indians. The work animals belonging to this agency, both horses and cattle, with but few exceptions, are entirely worn out and unfit for service. Many of the oxen are so old that they can scarcely masticate dry food, some of them partially and a few totally blind, and I fear quite a number will perish this winter from sheer old age. The horses are, some of them, quite old and many of them badly stiffened by hard and constant use. All the feed, harness, wagons, plows, harrows &c., in fact, all agricultural implements & the expense connected with keeping them in a condition to work or use, has been borne by the government, and [in] the event an Indian produces more than he requires to subsist upon, he disposes of the overplus to whomsoever will pay most, thus losing the lesson of self-reliance, for when he desires his ground plowed, his grain hauled, or any other team work performed, he calls upon the agent; so also if he has use for any agricultural or farming implements of any description, he calls upon the agent and seldom returns any tools so obtained unless specially required to do so.
    We greatly need some thirty or forty span of horses, with wagons, harness and plows &c., yet these implements might be manufactured in the shops upon the agency so as to teach some of the young Indians in each of these branches of industry or perhaps a more effective method would be to apprentice them to mechanics off the reservation and away from the superstitious influences of their people.
    With the foul condition of the cultivated portions of the agency, at least ten additional plow teams should be started this fall, and by this effort to assist the Indians we would remove great doubt from their minds & greatly encourage them to put forth new efforts in agricultural pursuits.
    The present has been a very disastrous season for farming operations upon this agency. The continued rains until the 10th of June so retarded the putting in of crops that nearly every variety is too late to fully mature; besides, several severe frosts about the first of the present month destroyed the greater portion of the potato crop and in fact all varieties of vines, and much injured the corn and beans.
    The hay crop was good, but the quantity of meadow is entirely inadequate to the requirements of the agency. The early sown oats yielded a pretty fair crop, but little, however, was sown until after my arrival for the use of government, & I fear that sown after the date of my assuming charge will but partially mature. For further information upon this subject I will respectfully refer you to the statistical return of farming herewith submitted.
    No successful effort seems to have been made to induce these Indians to obtain domestic animals with the exception of George Harney, a young Rogue River chief, who has nine head of stock cattle, not a single head of the cow kind is owned by these tribes, and with but few exceptions no horses are owned by them suitable to work. It was contemplated at the time of selecting this Coast Reservation to purchase for the benefit of the Indians to be located here herds of cattle and sheep, believing then as I do now that these Indians could be more easily induced to become a pastoral or stock-raising people than as exclusive cultivators of the soil. Quite extensive tracts of tide lands are situated upon this reservation along the shores of the Siletz, Nestucca and Salmon rivers, and rolling sand hills, coated with nutritious grasses, abound along that portion of the sea coast, & the adjacent mountain slopes and valleys all afford the best of grazing for cattle, sheep & goats. If one-fourth the amount that has been thrown away in the purchase of trinkets and useless farming implements, and in unprofitable experiments, now visible at every turn, had been expended in the purchase of that kind of stock, even ten years ago, if properly directed, would have made this a wealthy and prosperous people, and with the additional advantage of the allotment of land in severalty, as originally contemplated, furnishing each family with one or two cows, would have given them an individual interest in their homes that would have made a strong contrast to the roving, thriftless people they now are. It is not yet too late to attempt this policy among them, although much more difficult to accomplish at this late date, as the same number of cattle or other stock could have been bought then for one-half the sum demanded now. Still, if Congress could be induced to make an appropriation of four or five thousand dollars for the purchase of stock for these Indians, it would in the end be great economy to do so.
    The early construction of a sawmill upon this agency is a matter of the greatest importance. The government buildings as well as those of the Indians are generally very much dilapidated, and many so far decayed that the expense of repairing would almost be equal to that of rebuilding; besides the changes of residence in consequence of the allotment of land will require the erection of many new buildings, and a little interest exhibited in the style and manner of erecting these buildings will do much to make the homes of the Indians attractive and aid materially in reforming and changing their reckless habits. I therefore earnestly desire and hope that an appropriation may be secured for this purpose. Under the circumstances, it is my opinion that a portable steam mill would be preferable to any other and would cost, with the addition of transportation, about three thousand dollars. There is an old excuse of a mill at the upper farm, six miles distant, but it is hardly worth repairing, though if repaired it may be made to saw enough lumber to supply the demands at that farm. The only means we now have of obtaining lumber is to purchase of the Oneatta Mills, on the Yaquina Bay, boating up the bay seven or eight miles to the mouth of Depot Slough, thence up that slough three miles to Premier Mills, and hauling from thence over a mountainous road, fording the Siletz River to the agency, a slow, tedious and expensive method of obtaining lumber; besides, during a portion of the winter season it is impossible to cross the Siletz River with wagons.
    We will also require a flouring mill; the one reported as such, recently built, is useless for any purpose. The building, with proper improvements, may be made a dwelling, but it is difficult to imagine any useful purpose to which the mill could be applied upon this agency. The horsepower may be made useful to propel a lathe or some such purpose.
    The samples of wheat grown here the present season warrants us in believing that it can be produced in sufficient quantities to meet all the requirements of the agency.
    At present, all the flour consumed upon the reservation is hauled from Kings Valley, a distance by nearest wagon road of not less than fifty miles. For a time the steam power of the sawmill, if one is obtained, might be applied to propel the grist mill; still, it would be better to have them separate, and in that event it would probably require an appropriation of from thirty-five hundred to four thousand dollars. There are several streams upon the reservation suited to mill power, but none applicable convenient to the home or central farm. It appears that an effort was made by Agent Metcalfe to erect a mill upon a stream emptying into the Siletz River about one mile distant from the agency buildings, and quite an expenditure of government funds seems to have been made, but it was found that the backwater from the river destroyed the power at the only times when the stream afforded a sufficient column of water to run the mill and the enterprise failed, and the entire expense, whatever it was, was lost to the government and Indians. The burrs are still there, exposed to the elements, and the mill dam washed away.
    I have recently been examining the Siletz River as to the feasibility of the construction of a dam across the stream about one & a quarter miles above the agency buildings, and the opening of a race to intersect the river again about one-fourth of a mile below. The entire distance of the race will be perhaps a little more than a mile and a half, while the circuitous course of the river between these two points is not less than seven miles, with a continued succession of rapids. We have no instruments with which to take levels, but it is believed that a fall of at least thirty feet could be obtained by thus damming. The dam need not exceed ten feet in height nor two hundred feet in length, and the banks are very favorable for the construction of a dam at this point. The ground over which the race will pass presents a sag almost the entire distance, decidedly favorable, the exception being a gravel bench of perhaps near one-fourth of a mile, where it would require a cut of ten or twelve feet in depth. Could these suggestions be realized, it would make one of the most valuable water powers in the state, and would be sufficient to propel all the machinery required on the agency. I regard this as a matter of great importance, and would ask that a survey and estimate of expenses might be had of the premises by practical engineers.
    The sanitary condition of these people, I regret to say, is by no means flattering, for many reasons. They have but few comfortable dwellings, mostly living in huts and lodges, destitute of floors, windows and chimneys or any conveniences suited to health and comfort, and in fact many of their houses are but little if any better than the ones occupied by them  previous to their removal to this agency, in their old mountain haunts. Their diet is of an unhealthy character, subsisting upon fish, potatoes and oats often for months at a time, and sometimes even without a sufficient supply of these articles. The distance to their fishing grounds by the nearest available route is some twenty miles. The superstitious notions of the Indians in regard to their Indian doctors or "medicine men" are very difficult to overcome; they, with but few exceptions, believe that one of their "medicine men" can "will" their death, and they must inevitably die. Another great drawback to the treatment of diseases among these Indians is the presence of syphilitic infections among at least four-fifths of all the Indians belonging to this agency; in fact, this disease is so prevalent among them that its effects are becoming apparent among the reckless portion of the whites to an alarming extent. The erection of a hospital, where the old, helpless and crippled Indians could receive attention & subsistence, and be under the immediate supervision of the resident physician, would aid us materially in this great and important work, as it is impossible for a physician to administer to the wants of the sick at their homes, many of them living a distance of six or seven miles from the physician's residence, and his presence required at different points at the same time; some must be neglected. I would therefore respectfully ask for an appropriation for the erection and maintenance of a suitable hospital at this agency. When I assumed charge of the agency (May 1, 1871), many of the Indians being without food, I was compelled to give passes to quite a number to go out to the valley and work or permit them to suffer, as I had no means to purchase subsistence. Some of those leaving were industrious and purchased clothes, provisions and in a few cases work horses, while many others idled their time about the towns, drinking and selling out their women to profligate whites and greatly annoying the citizens and have since returned to the agency, many of them sick, as they were imprudent in their diet as well as habits, ague and fevers prevailing among them, as also bowel complaints. The fatality among them, however, thus far has not been very great.
    The schools upon the reservation have evidently been greatly neglected, and the policy adopted in regard to them very obnoxious to the Indians, for upon my arrival among them the mention of establishing schools was received with great disfavor. There is no building upon the agency suitable for school rooms, nor any seats or desks. The building heretofore used for that purpose is attached to a dwelling and is old and dilapidated and unfit for use. I much doubt whether there are to exceed six children among the tribes under the age of sixteen years who can call off the alphabet. The constant repetition of the great importance of acquiring an education is making a favorable impression among them, and it is my opinion that, as soon as we can get buildings we can gather together a sufficient number to maintain a good school. Owing to the scattered condition of the settlements, we will require at least three day and one manual labor schools. As a general rule, the teachers in the day schools should be females, as they can be had at less figures, and would be received among the Indians with more favor than male teachers, and could by example and counsel among the mothers of the children exert a great influence in this work of reform, and it is among the female portion of the Indian race that we must look for the greatest results in accomplishing this work.
    Much of my time has been consumed in adjusting difficulties between Indians. In the absence of head chief or prominent men, or the existence of any code of laws for their government, the settlement of these cases often involves an unpleasant and difficult task. We have in contemplation the calling of a council for the purpose of electing a number of Indians to act as a jury or court, before whom all minor cases may be adjusted. If this can be done successfully, it will in my opinion give more general satisfaction, and consume less of the valuable time of the person in charge.
I am very respectfully
    Yours
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. A. B. Meacham,
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Camp Yainax, Klamath Reservation,
    Oregon, September 10th 1871
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the current year.
    Quite early in the month of October 1870 five hundred and eighty-eight Indians, the various bands of Snakes aggregating 451 and the Modocs 137, had assembled at this place, none of them suitably prepared for the winter, and in consequence it was necessary to unite every effort in making preparations for their comfort. The lateness of the season precluded the possibility of accomplishing much in the way of building houses for them before winter, considering that a number of the most available men had to be employed in teaming and packing, in working road, etc., yet the Indians joined with zeal in all necessary labors, and by the time that the heavy snows of early December made it impossible to labor to much purpose out of doors, considerable labor had been accomplished.
    In October, 18 substantial log dwelling houses were built, principally by the Indians, and considerable other labor was done by them in cutting other house logs, in hauling wood etc. In the same month the turnip crop, estimated at a thousand bushels, was gathered. In November, assisted by a small party of Snake Indians, I opened a good road over the Mahogany Mountains between this place and Klamath Agency, a long-needed improvement. During the same month 35 temporary houses for the Indians and a barn, store houses, carpenter shop and an office and dwelling were erected at this place, and much other labor was performed for the good being of the service.
    A heavy fall of snow early in December made it impossible to work to much advantage in teaming, getting out timbers or in any other out-of-door occupation, yet through the winter whenever the weather was not too severe the white employees, assisted by the best Indian laborers, were kept busily employed in making rails, getting out house timbers, hauling wood, building fence etc.
    The Indians having no supply of native food at the commencement of winter worth mentioning, and during the months of December, January and March not being able to hunt, dig roots or fish to advantage, they had to rely for subsistence almost entirely upon the supplies of beef and flour furnished by [the] Department, which fortunately proved quite sufficient for them.
    The issues of army clothing, blankets and other woolen goods made to them during the winter and spring rendered very great satisfaction and prevented much suffering among them, especially among Ocheho's band of Snakes, which at the beginning of winter were quite destitute and actually in a half-naked condition.
    The mules and horses furnished them have also been of incalculable benefit to them in packing game and other supplies in autumn and again in the spring in moving to Lost River while the fish were running there in the month of April, afterwards in packing their dried fish to Yainax, and since in moving from place to place where edible roots and seeds abound. The possession of these animals and the care which they have been required to take of them have awakened in them a great anxiety to possess cattle and other domestic animals like their white neighbors, and I do not hesitate to say that few things would attach them more to their homes, would sooner fill their minds with the ideas of civilization or prove a greater incentive to labor than the possession of domestic animals and the prosecution of pastoral occupations.
    During the changeable weather of spring considerable sickness prevailed among the Indians and several deaths occurred. The distance of the physicians at Klamath Agency and the scarcity of medical supplies were found to be serious disadvantages, and I would again call your attention to the fact that in my opinion a good, intelligent physician, suitably supplied with medicines, could do much towards eradicating the faith of the Indians in their system of conjuration, and the stationing of such a man among the nearly 600 Indians at this place would certainly promote in no little measure the good being of these poor people.
    During the months of February and March a good, substantial bridge was constructed on Sprague River between this place and Klamath Agency; 135 saw logs were cut by Yainax Indians at Klamath Agency; considerable board timber was got out; many rails and stakes were made; the fences were repaired, and the farming implements were put in order for farm work.
    On March 28th plowing and sowing were commenced and continued during the month of April and until the 20th day of May, and during the remainder of that month the teams were employed in breaking prairie and hauling rails. Previous to May 31st 6000 rails had been hauled out to be used in enlarging the general farm; 80 acres had been sown in grain, 20 in peas, turnips etc. on the general farm and 6 acres in turnips on new Indian farms.
    On June 19th a Modoc Indian belonging at this place while absent on leave was murdered by "Captain Jack," leader of the band of Modocs yet remaining off the reservation. I immediately called on Maj. Jas. Jackson, commanding Fort Klamath, to make the arrest of the murderer and of his accomplices. Maj. Jackson responded willingly, but in an effort made soon after failed to secure the person of the murderer.
    During the months of June, July and August most of the Indians were absent gathering roots and seeds or hunting in mountains on and adjacent to this reservation, and a moderate amount of subsistence only was issued to the sick and to Indians remaining here to assist putting up hay, taking care of the crop, getting out house timbers etc.
    The whole amount of hay put up for winter use I estimate at about 75 tons and is of excellent quality. The grain has all been cradled, bound, hauled and stacked, and we only await the arrival of the machine from Klamath Agency to have it threshed. The season has been an unusually dry one; frosts continued at intervals until late in the season, and in consequence the crop is far from being a very good one but will compare favorably with any crop produced on this side of the Cascades this year. The yield of the general farm will not be less than a thousand bushels of grain.
    In reviewing the course of the past year, it seems to me that we have much reason to rejoice at our success in laboring in the interests of the red man. Realizing their condition they have entered into the spirit of the labor in their behalf and have done what they were able to hasten the day of their civilization. They are now quite comfortably clothed and housed and have done away with many of their barbarous customs and have accepted in their stead many of the manners, laws and customs of the whites. A very good crop of grain has been raised, 20,000 rails made, hauled and laid up. 30 substantial log houses have been erected, and numerous other labors have been performed, and these things are in no little measure due to the labor of a people who were only a few months ago wandering vagabonds, seldom knowing in the morning how to satisfy the day's hunger and actually depending on plundering their white brethren to get the wherewith to cover their nakedness and to shield them from cold during the rigorous winters of this high altitude.
    In conclusion I would represent the necessity of providing, at as early a day as possible, supplies for the ensuing winter both of subsistence and clothing, as the supplies gathered during the summer were scarcely more than sufficient for their subsistence while gathering them, and their clothing received several months ago is about worn out. The Indians will anxiously await the coming of these supplies.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of
                Yainax
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. Sept. 19th 1871.
Sir:
    By reference from you I have received the letter dated 26th ultimo from A. B. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, enclosing a copy of a communication to him from Charles Lafollet, Indian agent at the Grand Ronde Agency in Oregon, in which he expresses his unwillingness to continue in office.
    You will inform Mr. Lafollett that his resignation has been accepted.
    The Board of Missions of the Methodist Church has been requested to submit the name of Mr. Lafollett's successor.
Respectfully &c.
    C. Delano
        Secretary
The Acting Commr.
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 680-682.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    September 30th 1871
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        For Oregon
            Sir
                I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month of September. Early in the month the grain was all stacked ready for threshing; as soon as this was done a barn or granary was erected, 20x30 feet, also one house for use of employees, 18x20, timbers cut and hauled for two more houses intended for use, one as a blacksmith shop, the other as a store house. The teams and wagons have been kept in constant use when not used by the employees. The Indians have constant work for them; they have hauled timbers for several dwelling houses, stables &c. as also a large supply of firewood. They have cut and put up quite a supply of hay. Much work has been done this month. All seem well pleased and anxious to make permanent and comfortable improvements. The Indians generally are very anxious to have a school started for use and benefit the coming winter. The blacksmith tools were received during the month, and on the 25th I employed Mr. Wm. Harris, a practical blacksmith, at a salary of $800.00 per annum. What amount of subsistence stores may be allowed for the fast-approaching winter should be brought in soon, as freights will soon increase very materially.
    The Snake Indians under Chief "Ocheho" have not all come in; there seems to be quite a disposition among this band to remain in the Warner country, and as they have been informed that a reservation had already been ordered for them in their country, I would not be surprised if a portion of this band refuse to return here unless a true explanation could be made to them by the authorities at Camp Warner. I will be able in a few weeks to tell about the extent of this influence and its results.
I am with high
    Respect your
        Humble servt.
            I. D. Applegate
                Commissary for Snake Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Klamath Agency, Ogn.
    September 30, 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the month expiring with this date.
    On the 1st inst. in obedience to orders I relieved John Meacham, commissary, and took charge of the Department property at this agency. During the month changes in employees have been made as follows, viz:
Appointments   Andrew J. Boone, mill laborer Sept. 1st
Wm. B. Cardwell, physician Sept. 1st
Charles Brown, interpreter Sept. 1st
Allan Ferree, farm laborer Sept. 1st
John Loosely, miller Sept. 1st
John Hanley, mill laborer Sept. 4th
James Long (Ind.), mill laborer Sept. 11th
John Stone (Ind.), mill laborer Sept. 11th
Marian Stout, teacher Sept. 16th
H. G. W. Scott, teamster Sept. 16th
Resignations Wm. B. Cardwell, physician Sept. 30th
H. G. W. Scott, teamster Sept. 30th
H. G. W. Scott, teacher Sept. 15th
R. B. Hatton, mill laborer Sept. 30th
John Kreitner, mill laborer Sept. 30th
The Indians have been quiet, peaceable and industrious and generally have enjoyed good health. No deaths have occurred.
    They have generally been engaged in repairing their houses, building new ones, hauling wood and hay, packing in their native provisions and otherwise making preparations for winter, in which operations they have been assisted to the extent of the means at hand.
Very respectfully, sir,
    Your obt. servt.
        J. N. High
            U.S. Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon
    September 30th 1871.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon
        Salem, Oregon
Sir,
    In making my report for the month of September I beg leave to state that the harvesting and threshing is all done. The yield was light, owing principally to a lack of proper cultivation and partly to a lack of rain in the latter part of the season. I have also caused the potato crop to be dug; the yield of potatoes was also light, cause as above stated. The straw has all been housed for winter provender for stock.
    The survey of the land has been completed, and the Indians are very anxious to have the land allotted to them as early as possible, which I would earnestly recommend to be done as soon as practicable so that they may get their houses and fences built before the rainy season begins. The reservation for the agency includes all of the Department buildings but the old log barn on the south side of the reservation, the line running through the north end taking about 20 feet of the barn on the agency. The agency grounds contain 200 acres and are well situated for the purposes required.
    The sawmill is expected to start with the next quarter and is rather a botched job. I think the foreman is not entitled to full pay, as it has taken him longer than it would a man that understood the business, and it is not as well done. The Indians are forming companies for getting logs. I have decided to keep the same men in the mill and also with the team, the other men to pay them in lumber. I have also determined to reserve one fourth of all the lumber sawed for the use of the Department, old people &c.
    This week the old sawmill was burned by the carelessness of some boys who were gambling. I have arrested and punished them by ordering them to cut a stated number of cords of wood.
    I would most earnestly recommend that the Indians be allowed the privilege and rendered all necessary assistance in organizing and conducting an agricultural society and have a fairground set apart for them. I can arrange it so as to cost the Department a mere nothing. It is not expected to hold a fair before next fall. You cannot fail to see the vast importance of this plan to create an interest in agricultural pursuits.
    We have on hand two sets of tinner's tools, one of which I would recommend to be sold and converted into something of more immediate use.
    I have made an order requiring the chiefs to act as overseers of the poor and to see that each party supports their old and poor relations.
S. D. Reinhart
    Commissary in Charge
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.


GRAND RONDE RESERVATION.
    Name of Tribe. No.     Name of Tribe. No.
Clackamas 55 Calapooyas 42
Molallas 74 Santiam 125
Wappatoo 60 Mary's River 49
Yamhill 47 Tumwater 78
Luckiamute 36 Salmon River 36
Umpqua 189 Nestucca 55
Shasta 51 Tillamook 83
Cow Creek 45 Clatsop 56
Rogue River 60 Nehalem 28
    The last-mentioned four tribes are not on the reservation, but are scattered along the coast, north of Grand Ronde, to the mouth of the Columbia. They subsist principally by fishing, and live in the manner described at the commencement of this article. Grand Ronde Reservation lies in a fertile valley among the foothills of the coast mountains, in Yamhill County, and contains about three townships. It was purchased from white settlers, in 1855. The nature of the soil is only moderately well adapted to grain-growing, but for vegetables and the hardier fruits is excellent. The Indians on this reservation are well-disposed, and are pretty well advanced in agricultural knowledge. An enrollment is now being made, preparatory to an allotment of land to them in severalty, as a means of making them self-supporting. For the present, they subsist partly by the cultivation of the earth, and partly by government aid. They can find remunerative employment upon the farms in the Willamette Valley during the harvest season, and for a great portion of the year besides, but their proneness to wander, and the difficulty of getting them back upon the reservation, make inadvisable any attempt to utilize their labor in their present state of semi-civilization.
    What was formerly known as the Coast Reservation extended, originally, about one hundred miles in length, south from Cape Lookout, and of an average breadth of twenty miles. By an executive order, about twenty miles out of the center of the Coast Reservation (now known as the Yaquina Bay country) was thrown open for settlement. Thus divided, it forms two reservations, under the names of Siletz and Alsea, between which the remaining tribes of Indians are divided, as follows:
SILETZ RESERVATION.
    Name of Tribe. No.     Name of Tribe. No.
Rogue River 91 Chetcoes 26
Shasta Scotan and Umpquas 57 Coquille and Port Orford 218
Joshuas 118 Sixes and Euchres 136
Shasta Costa 101 Nolt-nah-nahs 77
Tututnis 97 Mikonotunnes 41
ALSEA SUB-AGENCY.
    Name of Tribe. No. Name of Tribe. No.
Coos 136 Siuslaw 69
Umpqua 52 Alsea 113
    That portion of the Coast Reservation lying on the Alsea River is fertile, and well liked by the Indians settled upon it. Game and fish are abundant, and the climate healthful and agreeable.
    The Indians on the Siletz Reservation are remnants of the most warlike tribes of Western Oregon. The California reader will, no doubt, recognize the names of several of them as having been most active in the Indian war of Southern Oregon and Northern California. How are the mighty fallen, since the Shastas, Rogue River, and Cow Creek Indians sent terror into the hearts of all the white settlers! or since the days when they and the Umpquas made traveling through their country, even for the purpose of trading for furs, a dangerous undertaking! Owing to their natural savagery, their progress on the reservation has been slow, but twelve years of domestication have brought them to a condition where it is thought practicable to divide up the land among them--for which purpose an enrollment is now being made. Those on the sub-Agency of Alsea are quiet and friendly, taking more kindly to agriculture, but are not independent of government aid. [pages 346-347]
*  *  *
KLAMATH RESERVATION.
    Name of Tribe. No. Name of Tribe. No.
Klamaths 580 Snakes 358
Modocs 107 Not on Reserve 635
    The Klamath Reservation, on the eastern shore of Middle Klamath Lake, although containing much waste country, is a better one than the Warm Springs. It comprises about fifty miles square, and is rolling, without being mountainous. It is covered pretty generally with a fine growth of pine timber, and is well adapted to the present habits of the Indians lately placed upon it, as it abounds in game, roots, fish and all the ordinary provisions of the wandering natives of the soil. There is some marshland on this reservation, also some rich bottomland, and an abundance of fine spring water. The altitude, however, is so great that cold will always interfere with successful farming, yet agriculture is being taught as best it may be. The Indians on this reservation have heretofore given a great deal of trouble, by massacres of emigrants and miners, and by running off stock. Once in the fastnesses of the Blue Mountains, or hidden in the long grass of the extensive marshes of Southeastern Oregon, it was impossible to find or punish them. But a well-planned and executed winter campaign, when the heavy snows prevented their escaping to the mountains, brought them to terms, and now they are conducting themselves in a friendly enough manner, both on and off the reservation. Indeed, why should they not? Those off the reservation receive military aid at Camp Harney. A Snake, a Klamath or a Modoc asks nothing but to be fed and clothed. They are no longer powerful enough to subsist by robbery. The whites are closing them in on every side, and there is no longer any alternative but extinction or life upon the reservations. Old Pauline, an eminent chief, did indeed declare himself more willing to die than to come under white rule, but the counsels of his friends, both white and Indian, were at length suffered to prevail. Smoko-eller, another chief, whose English cognomen would be "The Dreamer," still prophesies a restoration of the red men to power in the Snake country, but when it is considered that all the three once-numerous tribes of the Klamath and Snake countries, in Oregon, do not now number two thousand, his forlorn hope becomes a dream, indeed. [pages 348-349]
Frances Fuller Victor, "The Oregon Indians," Overland Monthly, October 1871



Proceedings of a convention of agents and delegates from the various reservations of the Oregon Indian Superintendency, held at Salem, Oregon, Oct. 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 16th & 17th, 1871, pursuant to an order of Hon. A. B. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon.
   

First Day.
    The agents and delegates assembled at the M.E. Church on State Street, Salem, at 10 o'clock a.m. of October 10th 1871, a number of white people holding no official relation to the Indians and about sixty Indians not delegates being also present. The roll was called, and it was responded to by the following persons:
    From Grand Ronde Reservation--S. D. Reinhart, commissary & acting agent. Indian delegates--Louis Lipsank [sic--Louis Nepissank], Joseph Hutchins and Solomon Riggs.
    From Siletz Reservation--General Joel Palmer, agent. Indian delegates--Tututni Jack, Pushwash and George Harney.
    From Alsea Sub-Agency--Samuel Case, commissary (in charge). Indian delegates: Joe Scott, Tyee Jim and Tyee John.
    From the Umatilla Reservation--N. A. Cornoyer, agent. Indian delegates: Howlish Wampoo, Wenap-snoot and Pierre.
    From Warm Springs Reservation--Capt. John Smith, agent. Indian delegates: Pia-noose, Billy Chinook and Mark.
    (There were no delegates from the Klamath Reservation nor Yainax Sub-Agency, as those places were so distant that delegates could not reach Salem in time for the fair, after the matter of holding the convention had been determined upon by the Superintendent.)
    The convention proceeded to effect a permanent organization, Mr. A. B. Meacham being chosen president, Messrs. Palmer, Reinhart, Case, Cornoyer and Smith vice presidents and James A. Waymire secretary and phonographic reporter.
    Mr. Meacham, on taking the chair, said: (Donald McKay interpreting) This is the first time in Oregon that the Indians from all parts of the country have met together like white men. They have met here for a great and a good purpose. When white men meet to do good things they always offer prayer to God and ask his assistance. We will do likewise.
    Rev. C. C. Stratton of the M.E. Church offered a prayer, the audience standing up during the exercise.
    Mr. Meacham: I wrote to your agents to bring you here in order that you might get acquainted with each other and see how white people live and what they have made for themselves by their industry. At present your faces are strange to each other. Some of you live in one place and some live in a far distant country. You have never seen each other before. You can here see that your skin and your blood is all alike. You all belong to one race of people, but you talk different languages. You cannot understand each other and you cannot understand my language. My words have to be interpreted to you in Chinook and also in the Warm Springs tongue. You see here that the white men have nice houses and many good things. They are far ahead of you in civilization. You are like little children in comparison with the white men. Now you want to improve; you want to grow. Then you must become like the white man. You cannot get his color but you may become like him in heart and language and dress and way of living and everything that is important. The time has come when you must try to do this. The Indian law that once ruled all this land is dead now. It has been thrown away, and the white man's law has taken its place. That law is the only one that can live because it is the best law. You all ought to know this now. Some of you do know it, but some do not. This is one thing you have come here to learn.
    Then there is another thing. You have come here to see the white man's state fair. I had a great object in view in bringing you here at this time. You will be able to compare our civilization with wild Indian life. Seeing how much better the former is you will understand the necessity of trying to become like the white man. You will learn the importance of each  one having his home and doing all he can to make it comfortable. You will see what a good thing it is to work so that you may have all these nice things.
    I want you to be easy in your minds while you are here. You have not been brought here to be scolded. I do not intend to find fault with you. This council will have nothing to do with taking away your homes or any of your property. Let your hearts rest about that matter. Everything that is to be done is to be for your good and nothing else.
    We will be in session here for several days, until we talk over some things which are of importance to your progress in civilization--about things that are for your good. Let us talk no bad talk, dig up nothing that has been buried. You come here to get ready to start, as it were, on a journey new life. You don't want to sleep on under the mountain any longer. You want to start out like it was a new day. Now there are some white men--a great many of them--who believe the Indian cannot be civilized. You want to show them that they are mistaken. That is one thing we want to talk about: You want to prove to them that you can come together like white men and council together and devise ways to better your condition.
    Then we will talk about Indian laws and the reason why the Indian should take the white man's laws. That covers the whole matter, but there are several little things coming out of that. One thing is schools, another is churches, another is marriage, another is slavery, another thing is the laws for the settlement of difficulties about gambling and drinking whiskey, and all kinds of dissipation and crimes. All these things we will talk about. We will talk some every morning this week. These white men who are your agents will have just as much to say as I. And so will these delegates from the different tribes. When they are done any other Indian or white man who wishes to can talk. Let any of you talk without being called upon. Whenever any man rises up to talk, he will first be introduced and then he will speak. He will address the person who occupies this chair as Mr. President. Then he will look at all these people and say, "My friends." There are some good white men here who are friends to the Indians, and they will first make short speeches of welcome. Then we will have a little short talk all around.
    Gen. Palmer (agent from Siletz). It has now been 26 years since I have been closely identified with the interests of these people. Twenty-six years ago I crossed the plains to Oregon, and the first interview I had with any Indians on this coast was with the Cayuses. Dr. Whitman, who is now dead and gone, was the interpreter. I was then but a private individual, but we had a close talk with them. Two years afterwards I visited the same people in the capacity of a commissioner, and since that time I have visited, I believe, all the Indians in Oregon. But as the Superintendent states, this is the first time that they have been brought from remote parts together into one council. I am glad you have assembled here. It was a happy thought of the Superintendent to take this occasion when the state fair is to be held to bring you together. There are more people here now than there are at other times, and it is good for you to come together and see them. All good white men have a desire to do good to the Indians. We are endeavoring to take you by the hand and lift you up. It was this feeling which induced the Superintendent to call you together here that you might consult together about matters pertinent to your interests.
    As this is the first day of our council I will not talk longer now. We expect to meet here every day this week, and I hope you will try to learn all you can. A man's ability to do good is supposed to depend very much upon his opportunities of knowing what is good. He begins a little child and by degrees grows up to manhood, and when he becomes a man his opportunities of doing good depend upon what he has learned. For that reason we desire to establish schools among these people, and I would here suggest to the Superintendent that as the schools are dismissed for this week, the Indians would be greatly benefited if allowed to remain over until next Monday and then taken to see the schools attended by white children. They can then see the manner in which we educate our children and train them up so that they may be intelligent and useful through life. If we expect to do anything for this people we must begin with the children. Teach them the necessity of constant study--continuous effort to improve. If they have good hearts they will never be too old to learn. They will learn something every day. There is at present a great feeling on my reservation against schools. I don't know how it is elsewhere. That feeling must be overcome. It can be overcome. They have improved a great deal since I first became acquainted with them. As the Superintendent said a little while ago, all these Indians have hearts that can be improved. They are improving every day. They live better; they have better houses, better clothes, and when they learn how to read and write they will do better. We hope someday to see them occupying the same position that we do. If they will be observant while here, they will learn a great deal. But what they do learn should be good. They should throw the bad away. We want them all to throw away their bad hearts and get good hearts. We believe they will do it.
    Rev. J. L. Parrish, of the M.E. Church, formerly connected with the Mission in Oregon, was introduced. He said: It is now more than thirty-one years since I came to Oregon. I came to this country for the benefit of the Indians. On coming here I became acquainted with all the Indians in this valley. Since then I have been an Indian agent five years and became acquainted with almost all the Indians in this state personally. On the coast as far south as the California line my acquaintance with them extends. With General Palmer I was on the coast 20 years ago. Today my heart is very glad to see these people from all parts of the country assemble together. A few years ago, if I wanted to see the Wasco people, I had to go to the Wasco country. If I desired to see the Port Orford people, I had to go to Port Orford, and if I wanted to see the Coquelle or the Umpqua people I had to go to them. So with all the others. They were far apart, scattered over a large country. Today I see them all here represented in council. This makes my heart very glad. I feel glad towards the Superintendent who has called you here. I am glad towards you that you have obeyed like good children and come here. I am glad you are going to talk about schools and such things, for it will do you good. I hope you may learn a great deal and carry it all here with you.
    Rev. A. F. Waller, one of the early missionaries, being introduced, said he had come to this country with Mr. Parrish. He had known all the Indians and preached to nearly all of them. He was glad to meet them as the representatives of the various tribes. He had no doubt they would be greatly benefited by exchanging views and interchanging experiences. He assured them that they were quite welcome in Salem.
    Rev. C. C. Stratton of the M.E. Church was then introduced. He said: I have not been on this coast a long time like some who have addressed you. But I have heard a great deal about you through the missionaries and through Genl. Palmer and Mr. Meacham. I am glad to see you here this morning. I believe that you can learn, that your children can be educated like the whites. I was sorry to hear Genl. Palmer say a little while ago that the people at his reservation did not like the schools. Unless your young people go to school you never can come up to be like the whites. Unless you go to church and pray to God you will not come to be like the whites here. I want to see you come up to be just like the white people in religion, manners and education. That is the reason why we want to see your children going to school and to church.
    Hon. T. W. Davenport of Marion County, being introduced, said he was glad to see the interest manifested by Supt. Meacham and the various agents in the welfare and progress of the Indians. It indicated a change of policy towards them which was full of promise for the future. He assured the Indians that no matter how they may have been wronged in time past, their present officers were good and true friends to them. He hoped that as they were desirous of becoming like the white men, they would learn the language of white men. The English language, he said, is as far ahead of the Indian tongues as the nicely finished ax of the white man is better than the stone hatchet. He hoped in a few years to see them meet and hold their council in one language understood by all, and that the English language.
    Mr. Meacham. All these white people here have hearts full of good talk. Some of them have now shown you what their hearts are like. We will have other meetings, and more white men will talk to you. But we don't want to have all the talk on one side. We are now ready to hear some of you talk. We want little short speeches of good talk.
    Pushwash, a delegate from Siletz Reservation, being introduced said:
    Mr. President, my friends, I am going to have a little talk with you. I see you just like American men in your dress. You have the white man's clothes, and some of you have his words. We all want to be like the white man. We want to get rich, to have houses and all such things. Well, let us be like white men. Let us take his heart. It will make us good. Let us all get his heart. The Superintendent tells the truth about all these things. If we become like the white man we will be better off. I think some of these old Indian men have missed the Superintendent's words. They did not understand him. He wants us to take the white man's heart. Well, I think we had better take his advice. We all have different hearts and different words. What is the reason why we should take the white man's words and his heart. Each Indian tribe has a language of its own. There are many different tribes. We cannot agree to adopt the language of any Indian tribe. Now that we are trying to learn to be like white men, it would be better for us all to have one language and as the white man's language is best, we had better take that language and throw ours away. Then by and by we may becomes just like the white man.
    Louis Lipsank, a delegate from Grand Ronde, said he wanted to talk a little. He was introduced by Mr. Hall as a man who had once saved the life of a missionary, Spalding, had acted as guide for Fremont and afterwards had settled in the Umpqua Valley, marrying a Klickitat woman, and raising a nice family of two sons and two daughters. He spoke in jargon. He said: "Mr. President, my friends, I am glad to see so many of my Indian friends here looking so much like white men. It is a good thing to come here in this house today. It is God's house. It is right that we should have good hearts when we are in God's house. Mr. Meacham understands that it is right that our hearts should be good, and he brings us into God's house for that reason. All these people here know me. The Cayuse people all know me; the Alsea people all know me; all these people understand me; they know me. I have been among all of them. I know them from every reservation. I am getting old now. I know all the ground this side of the Rocky Mountains. I have been over it all a great many times. I want to talk just a little today. I want to talk good talk that you can all understand. What is the reason that you don't all want to get white men's hearts and do like white men? We old people did not have this chance when we were young. The young Indians have good chances to be like white people now. They must understand that if they want to be like white people they must talk to the white people's God, and if they want to be smart, the children must go to school. If we would send our children to school, then our children would grow up like white men. You see that the whites are all smart. They have railroads, steamboats and good houses, and where did they get them? They learned these things out of books. They talk to God and learn what is in the books. It is all right; we want our children to be in school. We want them to learn, and want the children to learn how to build good houses and how to do everything like the white people do. We are almost like white people now; we do not eat grasshoppers and caterpillars and such things now. We cook our food and eat it from tables. All Grand Ronde Indians eat on tables and have stoves--cooking stoves. They do not now sit down and eat out of the ashes by the fire. They have stoves and cook on stoves. They have good houses. All my people are that way. What is the reason you don't want your children to go to school? The white men want to make the Indians like them--want to have the Indians learn the blacksmith's business, how to make wagons and work in gun shops and tin shops. My people understand these things. They can make all these things like the white men. I see good wagons running around here on the streets, and my people can make good wagons just like them. What is the reason you don't all want to be like the white people? I want you to put off your Indian habits and cut off your long hair and be like the white people in their dress and language. That is all I have to say now.
    Billy Chinook, a delegate from Warm Springs, was introduced by Capt. Smith as having received a medal from President Van Buren for services rendered Fremont and also as having been first sergeant of a company of Indian scouts employed against the Snake Indians of Eastern Oregon and Idaho Territory a few years ago. He made a few remarks in the Wasco tongue, saying he was glad to see so many friends, that he was not afraid to say what he wished to but would wait until he saw what was to be done. A young man acted as interpreter, but the speaker understanding English pretty well and seeing that his language was not well rendered, appeared much confused and closed his remarks.
    Capt Smith. I would make this remark. Billy is accustomed to talk in the Wasco language. He is at the head of our Bible class, consisting of about twenty Indians, and he reads the Bible well in that language. I see he is highly confused in trying to speak in jargon.
    Howlish Wampoo (chief of the Cayuses) from the Umatilla Reservation was next introduced. Speaking in the Cayuse tongue he said:
    I do not know anything about white people. I was not brought up by them. That is the reason I have to have an interpreter. These red men that I see here that have been brought up by the white people have the advantage of me. I cannot talk like them. I have been brought up away out in the woods. I was brought up right there in my own country, and that is the reason that I am not as far advanced as you people are who live near the whites. I am glad to hear what you have said to me here. You have learned me something--you white people and Indians too. I am a poor Indian; I do not know anything, and that is the reason I am glad you are teaching me. When I came here I did not know we were going to hold a council. When I go to church I go for one thing, and no council is held there. I am brought here into this church where everything is to be clean; nothing dirty can be done in here. God Almighty sees us here today and he expects that we will do everything right in this church. We come here, I think, with good hearts; that is the way with me. I come here with a good heart, and I hope that all do. We must not come here with bad hearts. It is just like the first time I ever saw a church. I am glad to see all you men sitting around here. You have brought me here and it makes me glad to see you around here. I am not afraid of them scolding me. Whatever they tell me, I think it is right: I think they want to do me good. When I am at home, every Sunday and every evening, morning and at night I pray all the time. I have a church and I go into the church to worship. That is the reason I am not ashamed to come here now. I have given up my Indian religion. I have started into the white man's religion--the Christian religion--and I am going further every day. I am going as far as I can go. Some of the old men of my tribe have got religion. I am only talking to you, my friends; you need not cry or get scared. I am just telling you my mind. I have been looking around here since I came to this place, and I have seen a great many wonderful things that I never saw before. I see a great many things that won't do me any good, for I am too old to pick them up. That is the reason I have put my children to school. They can learn a great deal more than I could. When I go back home I will tell them what I have seen here, and it will do them a great deal of good. I am going right along and want to do the best I can. I hope to have not said anything out of the way. That is all I have to say.
    Joe Scott (a delegate from Alsea). I see you here, my friends. I see all my people here today. I want to talk a little, but I don't want to say anything out of the way. A long time ago I was a little fellow. Gen. Palmer came to see me at my land. What General Palmer said to me I tried to do; I tried to get his heart. He was a good chief. He gave me a great many things. That was a long time ago. Now pretty near all my people are gone. I have only five left. I have never done anything mean to the white people. The white people came to this country when I was young. A schooner came to the coast of my country. I went out upon the ocean to meet it. I went out to sea and brought the schooner in as pilot. The people around through the country were then at war. Some of the white men who came to my country were sick. We took care of them and gave them food and they got well. Now what is the reason I should not get like a white man? I do not get like white men. I have no school houses, no church houses. That is what I need. That is the way to make white men out of my people. If we had a school house and a teacher of religion I think that would make us like white men. That is my opinion. I just wanted to say this much.
    No, I have a good heart. I see all these people who were once strangers to me. Some of us were enemies. I see these Cayuses and people from up east of the mountains and I feel like they were my people. I have a chief here, General Palmer. Long time ago he was a good chief to the Indians. By his advice I gave up my original country and moved upon the reservation where I now live. There we expected to get houses like the white men's houses. General Palmer told us that was the way we would become like white men. General Palmer gave us a good start, but he went away. If he had stayed he would have made us all like white men. Then another man--Dr. Drew--came. He fixed us up good houses. But he went away, and another chief came who was named Metcalfe. He took away all we had. Then we got poor. We didn't get anything. We got very poor. The Indians ran about everywhere. They would get passes and go out and work. They would get some money and buy little things that they wanted. They went hunting. All through the summer and winter they would hunt deer and elk and sell the skins for money and things. Now, General Palmer has come back to us and we expect to do well again. We will build houses and raise gardens and we hope to have school houses and churches. All the talk I hear here is good talk, and it makes my heart feel glad.
    At the request of Mr. Meacham some ladies came forward and sang the hymn "Alas and Did My Savior Bleed," which was listened to with great interest by the Indians.
    Tututni Jack (delegate from Siletz). We have had some good talk here today. All of us say we want to be good. I don't want to tell a lie about anything in this house. After awhile some of us may be bad. Maybe some of these white men around here will be bad. I don't want to tell anything but the truth. We will quit everything bad now. We must watch ourselves. When we go out of doors again we may get different hearts altogether. We want to get like white men, but we don't learn fast. We have no houses, no farms. We are poor where I live. We are pretty near the same as dogs. How are we to be getting like white men? We must have good hearts and then we must work and get houses. The President at Washington is a long ways from here. He can't see us. But he has sent us good agents now. I think he is going to fix it all right for us. All right, we will behave. We will do the best we can. I want to tell the truth. I hope all Indians here will tell the truth.
    Mr. Meacham. My heart is warm. My people have come here today and behaved like men. They have said no foolish words. They have said many good words--many things that made my heart feel good. We are trying to learn them to be like we are. Now we have talked long enough for today. It is nearly 12 o'clock. We want to be regular about the time. We came here to talk till 12 o'clock, and we must close when that time comes. We cannot talk more today. We will come here at half past nine o'clock tomorrow and talk until 12 o'clock again. And we will do that every day until we get through. Every man shall show his heart that wants to and nobody shall be put down.
    Yesterday, when I was out at the fairgrounds, the officers told me that you had behaved well, better than some white people. I felt my heart get right up into my throat. Now I want you to go back again today and see the fair. Keep away from the whiskey and cards. Don't drink, don't gamble; be gentlemen. Come back here tomorrow morning when the bell rings. You may go now.
   

Second Day.
Wednesday, Oct. 11th 1871.
    The convention met at 9:30 a.m., the president, Mr. Meacham, in the chair. All the delegates answered to their names at roll call. Prayer by Rev. C. Bonnell of the Episcopal Church.
    Several gentlemen were introduced and made brief remarks impressing upon the minds of the Indians the importance of having their children attend school and the necessity for learning how to farm and to manufacture useful implements.
    These remarks were interpreted by a young man from the Warm Springs Reservation who, Capt. Smith stated to the convention, had but a few years ago been captured from the Snake Indians, of which tribe he was a member. Although then in the depths of degradation he had since acquired a good degree of education.
    Rev. L. L. Rowland, of the Christian Church, said he had lived among the Indians nearly all his life and of late years he had resided in Wasco County, where he frequently saw Indians from the Warm Springs Reservation. He had been in the habit of dealing with them--selling them horses and sometimes loaning them to them. He had found the Indians like white men--some honest and some dishonest.
    A hymn was sung by the ladies present accompanied by music on the organ.
    George Harney (Siletz Reservation) said he had listened with a great deal of interest to all that had been said, and he was anxious to profit by the advice that had been given. He wanted to see the children go to school, and he wanted the grown-up Indians [to] plow and raise grain, learn the carpenter's trade and build houses and learn the blacksmith's trade. Then they might by and by learn the law under which white men live. He said: "I do not think we can learn all these things right away. We will have to wait. It is like the wheat. We first plow the ground; then we sow the grain, then harrow it in, then wait till it grows up, and we cut it, thresh it, grind it and then we make the flour into biscuit. So it is with the white man's laws. Now we don't know anything about them. But our children may go to school and study the books. They will grow up after awhile and come to know these laws. But they must learn them gradually just like the wheat grows up. The old men here can't learn them."
    Solomon Riggs, a delegate from Grand Ronde, chief of the Umpquas, said he looked upon the Superintendent as a father, and he desired to take his advice. He had seen the advantages of civilization on his reservation. There they now have a sawmill, and they have plows and good houses. Their lands have been lately surveyed and so arranged that each one can have a piece of land of his own.
    Mark, a delegate from Warm Springs, was introduced by Capt. Smith as a man of great intelligence, but not a fluent speaker. He said: My friends, I hope you will listen to me a little while. I suppose these white men would like to know our hearts. That is the reason we have been brought here that they may find out what our hearts are like. White people who live away from us do not know how we live or what we think. Now we are going to show our hearts in this council and let them know what our words are. May[be] all these whites will take notice of what we say and maybe they will think that we have hearts too. When I came across the Cascade Mountains on my way here, I noticed everything on the way that I saw and put it into my heart. All that I know I have learned by sight. I have not learned anything from books. I would like to be young again so that I could learn. I am very sorry that I am so old. I want to say a few words to you white men now. I feel this way in my heart, just as if the white people and the Indians have only one home now. I do not mean that I will be the same as you are in my home, but my children may be. I have been helping the whites all I could. I want to see them make homes here, and I want my children to be like them. I send my children to school, and I tell them to steal all the learning they can from the white men--get all they can out of them. When they once get the learning it will be their own always. The whites cannot get it back. I feel glad to be here today and hear so much pleasant talk. I feel like I had been taking some good, cold ice water and drinking my heart cool. I am an old man. I cannot learn how to read nor write. All the way I can learn is with my eyes and my ears. I have listened to all that has been said. These things have all been good talk. I take them for the truth and will tell them to my children. There are a great many white people who do not know our hearts. They think we eat white people like some savage animal--like a rattlesnake or something else. Some of the whites say: These Indians, it is no use to try to learn them anything. But I always try to take the good advice the white man gives. I am learning a great deal here. Since I have come here I have felt like I had two hearts. I go down to the fairgrounds and I see everything in confusion, wagons and people going in all directions and everybody talking. I come into this house and everything is still. It makes me think of the place where you white men say something that is good in us will go when we die.
    Capt. Smith stated that Mark has a little son at home who is very bright in his studies. He has learned to read well, can give the boundaries of the United States and of the several counties of Oregon.
    After another hymn, the convention adjourned until 9½ a.m. tomorrow.
   

Third Day.
Thursday, Oct. 12, 1871.
    The convention met pursuant to adjournment, Mr. Meacham in the chair. The roll was called and all the delegates responded to their names. Prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Nickerson of the M.E. Church.
    Mr. Meacham said the day's session would be given to a consideration of the advantages of the white man's civilization.
    Several gentlemen made brief remarks on the subject.
    Joe Hutchins (a delegate from Grand Ronde). I want to talk a little to these people. I will not say much but will soon sit down. It was not very long ago that I was a wild Indian. Now I have a farm, and I plow and work like a white man. We have a good place to live. The land is good and we raise many things. Some of the people here are not so well off. They live away off in the woods and have no farms. I would feel very bad if I should be driven away and had to live in the woods. It is not good to live that way. I want to live with the whites in houses and have a church and school houses. What you say about my people I think is for their good. I think you will do all that you promise. I think the present Superintendent and the President of Washington have good hearts and want to do the Indians good. But some things have been done a long time ago that I don't exactly understand. I was promised that my people should have some things that they have not got. I can't see them; maybe it is because I am getting old and blind. (Laughter.) I see now that you are trying to make white people of the Indians. I have come over here to see what makes the white people stand above the Indians. I go out to the fairgrounds and I see a great many people there and I see them have so many things. Now I would like for you to give my people such things and give us a fairground. I hope you will show us the way in which you white men got these things and then we may have such things and have a fairground too. I do not want you to stand on our heads and put your feet on our heads but stand square up and look us in the eye. I want you to understand that I am not a snake. I do not crawl on the ground but stand up straight like a man. I think it is all right for you to know that this is my feeling today. You have been talking to me a long time about throwing away my heart. Now I have thrown away my heart and I want you to give me your heart. (Applause.) I think I am something more than a beast. Standing here in God's house today, I feel like I could claim to be a man. I am ignorant, but I want to be wise. If I am too old to learn, then I want my children to learn. Ignorance hangs like a dark cloud over our eyes. If you will take that cloud away, we can see the bright sun and all the beautiful things that it shines upon. That would make us very happy. Then we would know how to build houses and to raise good crops. We could see how bad it is to steal and to drink whiskey. We would get money and wear good clothes. Then, maybe, people would not look upon us as if we were beasts. They would not sneer at us and think we are all thieves. This is the way I feel today. My heart is sad when I see how my people are--how poor and ignorant and degraded. But when I think of what they may be, my heart gets very proud and I wish I could live to see it. I think I am almost like a white man today. If you, Mr. Superintendent, will keep on doing as you have been, I will very soon be like a white man, and then it will be all right to get into your buggy and take a ride. (Laughter.) I want you to understand that I regard you as my principal chief and that I have the biggest respect for you. You have done me a great deal of good by bringing me here. You encourage me to go on and do the best I can, and I will do it. I hope you will keep on encouraging us. I am glad to see so many white people out here who seem to be interested in doing us good. I am afraid some of them come to look at us like they go to a show. I hope not. Now I want to say another thing. We are very poor. Some of us are a little rich in horses and one thing and another, but they get property very slowly. They want a little start. If you take an apple tree and plant it in the ground it will grow up slowly, little by little, and maybe in five years it will be a large tree with a good deal of fruit. But if you had had no tree to plant you would have got no fruit. So it is with my people. If you will help them a little at first, they will grow up a little by little until by and by they will be well off. If you should go out to make a living without a plow or anything, how would you get a start? How is a poor young man to get a start in life? That is what I want to know. (Dr. Hall, who was interpreting, said the speaker had often mentioned this subject to him. "He says that when the white people came to this country they were poor--came on foot, had no money and but few wagons, and few horses and cattle. Now they are rich and have fine houses and steamboats and railroads. He wants to know how they accumulated their property so that his people may do likewise.") How will you get your firewood if you have no wagon? Will you go out and cut it down and carry it on your shoulder? I think it is slow work for a white man to carry it on his shoulder. How do you expect us to get property when we have children and their mothers to feed and keep clothed while at the same time we are poor and have got nothing to work with? We are poor and have nothing to work with. If you had nothing to work with you would just sleep; you would not try to do anything. That is the way with my people. They are discouraged and have become lazy. When I go among my people I see here and there on every hand men and women who are poor and who have hardly anything. They are very low spirited. The sense of their property makes them feel depressed. Now I wish you would help us and show us how to get property. If you will give all of the Indians a little wheat to sow and show them how to plant it, they will get rich by and by. The old people are [omission] and helpless and will have to be supported, but the others would soon be able to take care of themselves.
    Mr. Meacham. You have heard white men talk and Indians talk. It has been all good. Now  we want a man to talk who has white man's blood mixed in his veins. He has their hearts and ours combined in his. He is a white man in sense and he stands high as a physician among the members of his profession wherever he is known. Dr. Wm. McKay will now speak to you. Hear every word.
    Dr. McKay addressed the convention at considerable length in jargon. The Indians manifested great interest in his remarks. It was not interpreted. At the close of [the talk} Dr. Hall said he had never heard an address to the Indians so eloquent and so full of good sense. He said Dr. McKay had explained to the Indians that he used to [be] a wild Indian and could recollect the first time he saw the early missionary Jason Lee. It was at Vancouver, and there he was taught to read. He had afterwards attended college last [sic] and graduated. He also explained in reply to Joe Hutchins' inquiries that it was God and the Bible--education and industry--that had made the white men rich and enabled them to build their houses and steamboats and railroads.
    Two daughters of Dr. McKay--aged respectively 13 and 5--appeared on the platform and sang "Precious Jewels," after which the congregation present sang "From Greenland's Icy Mountains," &c.
    Captain Smith said he thought Dr. McKay had never been fully appreciated. He was capable of rendering very valuable service to the Indians in the way of encouraging them to be industrious and moral. He thought it would be a good plan to have him go from agency to agency for this purpose.
    Mr. Meacham. That was an excellent speech, Doctor, and there are a great many here who would like to hear you tell it over in English.
    Dr. McKay. I feel very thankful for the kind manner in which my remarks were received. I cannot repeat them now in English, but I may, perhaps, be able to give the substance of what I said. The speech of Joe Hutchins called up reminiscences of thirty-seven years ago when I was a little boy at Vancouver. The first missionaries to arrive there were the Lees--two brothers--accompanied by Mr. Shepherd. They were on their way to locate a mission in the Willamette Valley, which they soon afterwards did a few miles below here. Mr. Shepherd stayed with us the first winter. And there I got my first start in education. The fact of it is, I never saw a Bible until I came there. I was telling these Indians that the Hudson's Bay Company did not come here to educate the Indians but to make all the money they can by trading with them. At the same time I must say they treated the Indians well. All their agents had instructions to that effect. They were told to treat the Indians well and get all the furs they could from them but keep themselves away from them. Some other people came out here and put themselves on an equality with the Indians and in many ways did them harm. The missionaries came for the purpose of teaching the Indians and civilizing them. But they did not meet with a high degree of success--and I asked these Indians why it was that they did not succeed better. At the Dalles they had a very flourishing church for awhile, but after a little while the Indians became as bad as ever. The great difficulty was the Indians did not take hold. A few of them did, but the most of them preferred their old way of living--preferred the chase and camping out. Joe Hutchins said he could not see how the white people had grown rich so fast while the Indians are still poor. I told the Indians that was education and early training. The white man brought his education with him to this country. He could not lose that. He might lose everything else crossing the plains, but that he retained, and that was a good start. I told them that it was a part of the doctrine of Christianity that a man should be industrious, economical and avoid all bad habits. Wherever a man lives up to this doctrine he is sure to prosper. Wherever you find a man who lies around idle or who drinks whiskey or who is very extravagant in his way of living you will find a man who is nearly always poor. The Bible, I said, is the foundation of the white man's prosperity, and without [which] they would never have succeeded. And I also told them that if they would follow the teachings of the Bible, they would not only prosper here but would also be happy hereafter. That is the principal part of what I said.
    Gen. Palmer said he wished every man, woman and child could have been present during the day's session. There had been a time in Oregon when people thought the Indians "had no rights which the white man is bound to respect"--that he could not be elevated above his condition in the wild state. During an experience of twenty-five years among them he was satisfied that they could be greatly improved and relatively civilized. All that was required was perseverance by men of honesty and zeal--men who were willing to work for the sake of doing good rather than for the almighty dollar. There is a great difference, he said, in the situation of the different tribes. Some of them are located on better reservations than others, and some are better provided for by the government than others. This was the result of the stipulations of the different treaties under which they had given up their hunting grounds. As Superintendent of Indian Affairs some years ago he had made treaties with the Cayuses, Umatillas, Wascos and with all the Indians of the Willamette Valley. Those treaties were ratified by the U.S. government. But some of the provisions of the treaties had never been complied with. He had made a treaty with the Indians of Southern Oregon. The treaty with the Indians now on the Siletz and Alsea reservations had not been ratified and consequently they have no payments made to them by the government as other tribes do--consequently they are very poor. In some instances the Indians had been badly dealt with by men in charge of them. One agent--Robert Metcalfe--had stolen over $30,000 from his agency some years ago--1860. The present administration had adopted a wise policy towards the Indians, and he felt confident it would result in great good to the Indians.
    The convention then adjourned until tomorrow at 9½ o'clock a.m.
   

Fourth Day.
Saturday, Oct. 14, 1871.
    The convention met pursuant to adjournment, the President in the chair and all the delegates answering to their names at roll call. Prayer by Capt. Smith.
    Rev. J. C. Powell of the Willamette University and H. Small Esq. of the San Francisco Bulletin made short addresses to the Indians, encouraging them to be industrious and zealous in the efforts to become civilized. Rev. L. L. Rogers of the Willamette University sang "Scatter the Seeds of Kindness" and gave his experience as a preacher among the Ottawa Indians, where, he said, the Indians live like white men. He assured the Indians that there are many white men who are willing to do all they can to help them along.
    Dr. McKay said he had paid a visit to Rev. J. H. Wilbur, agent at Simcoe, W.T., last summer for the purpose of finding out the secret of his great success in managing and Christianizing the Indians. He found that Mr. Wilbur was in the constant habit of asking the Divine blessing upon all his business undertakings, and he taught his people to do likewise. He also encouraged them to build churches and school houses, he furnishing the necessary nails and glass and the Indians doing the work and making the lumber.
    Peter Cornoyer, from Grand Ronde, said the children of his people did not learn fast. He could not understand why they did not take more interest in books. The school was there and had been opened all the time except for a few months during last summer. But the children did not seem to take hold. He understood a good deal about the white man's law and he thought it all right. He would be glad to have his people learn to live under it.
    Geo. Harney (chief of the remnant of the Rogue Rivers) said he had heard the other delegates express themselves in favor of taking the white man's laws. He was willing to do it too. He wanted his children sent to school.
    Wenap-snoot, chief of the Walla Wallas, said he did not understand at first what was to be the object of the convention. Now he could see all about it. Mr. Meacham had explained it fully, and he had heard from others and he [was] very much pleased with its object. He had learned a great deal himself already which he would take back to his people. And he hoped to learn still more.
    Hon. Geo. H. Williams, ex-U.S. Senator from Oregon, being present, was introduced by Mr. Meacham as a man who understood how to make laws at Washington. He said: The great question to be settled now in respect to the Indians is as to the policy of the government. Some men think that the employment of force and violence is the true way to govern and manage the Indians, but good men have concluded that the true policy is to treat them with more consideration and kindness, and that is the policy adopted by the President of the United States. To aid and civilize and Christianize the Indians is the policy of the President of the United States, and all the Superintendents and agents are instructed by him to execute that policy. Heretofore the laws of the country have been obstacles to the success of the Indians, but now those obstacles have been removed, and under the laws of the country it is written the power of every Indian if he will to obtain the powers, rights and privileges of a white man. Every Indian in this house has the power if he has the will to attain to the exercise of the political rights and privileges of the white man, and he may if he qualifies himself obtain the right to vote and to help make the laws by which he and the white men are governed. No Indian can exercise this power unless he abandons the customs and practices of Indian life and becomes intelligent, industrious and virtuous and adopts the mode of life, customs and practices of the white man. Then he will become to all intents and purposes a white man except his color, which is of no great consequence in these days. Indians who wish to secure these great privileges and who desire to permanently better their condition must learn to rely upon themselves, as white men do, and not too much upon the government. Government does not provide for the support of white men, and if Indians could become like white men they could support themselves. They must learn to depend upon their own industry in order to become like white men and exercise the powers and privileges of citizenship. I can say on behalf of the President of the United States that if the Indians will try to educate themselves, will try to acquire property--houses and lands and all the comforts of civilized life--that they will have the earnest support and sympathy of the President and that he will do everything in his power to promote their happiness. I am satisfied that the Superintendent and all the agents in this state are disposed to carry out this policy of the President's, and if the Indians will obey their instructions and listen to their advice there is no reason that I can see why they may not advance in civilization and become to a very great extent like white men. I would advise all the Indians to be industrious and not be lazy, to avoid the company of bad men, never to drink intoxicating liquors and not to gamble or allow themselves to be influenced to evil actions. If they will try to be like white men they will have the assistance of all good men. And if they have another convention like this they will be able to report progress.
    Tututni Jack said he had listened carefully to all the advice that had been given him in the convention, and he intended to try to follow it. He hoped none who had heard it would reject it. He felt sure that the present Superintendent and agents and the President of the United States were all good men and would do what was right by the Indians.
    Mr. Meacham called upon Mr. Williams to explain the white man's law in regard to selling women.
    Mr. Williams. I suppose the Indians can all see that the white men do not sell women. White people make the laws and white people obey them and it is in obedience to the laws that they do not sell women--that they do not buy nor sell women. All these laws which govern white men in this respect apply as well to you, and it is a violation of the law of the land and a violation of the law of God for an Indian man to buy or sell a woman. If the Indians have any doubts upon this subject it is very easy for them to solve those doubts by looking at General Palmer, Mr. Meacham and others who are placed over you. Mr. Meacham does not do it. Gen. Palmer does not do it. None of your agents buy or sell women. They understand the law and they do not do it. If the Indians want to know what the law is upon this subject they can ask any of these agents, and you can depend upon what they say in that respect. The President of the United States has told these men to tell you the truth upon this subject and all other subjects. They are willing to do it and they will do it. It is only necessary for you to consult them.
    Mr. Meacham. Now we have had a good many good talks. We have been in session all week. Tomorrow is Sunday. We will not meet to talk tomorrow. Consult your agents and go with them to some of the many churches in the city. On Monday we will meet again and go to business. We will visit the schools in the afternoon. One more word. I was at the fairground yesterday, and they told me my people behaved well. It made my heart very warm. I came back to town and I found two of your men drunk and in jail. I don't want to see any more of that. Any man who gets drunk disgraces all his people. The eyes of all the white people are on you. Don't make a failure.
    At 12 o'clock in the [omission] the convention adjourned until Monday at 9½ o'clock a.m.
   

Fifth Day.
Monday, Oct. 16, 1871.
    The convention met pursuant to adjournment, the president in the chair and all the delegates present. Prayer was offered by Rev. L. L. Rowland of the Christian Church.
    Mr. Meacham. We have heard from all the people in the Willamette Valley and from those who live at Umatilla and Warm Springs. There are still others from whom we have not heard. Nobody has spoken for the people of Klamath nor those of Yainax Sub-Agency. Now we will hear something from them. Mr. John Meacham who comes from Klamath will talk a little.
    John Meacham. I have been acting agent at Klamath for some months. I have had a great many talks with the Klamath Indians and have got to liking them--some of them--very much. They were too far away to send representatives to this convention this year. If they had sent them, their delegates would have told you that they are very far behind most of you from the fact that they have been but a little while on the reservation. Six years ago they were a wild people at war with the whites. But they have learned very fast since they came upon the reservation. The Klamath Reservation is situated east of the Cascade Mountains near the California line. It is about 75 miles in length by 25 miles in width. It is divided into two agencies, one called Yainax Agency, where the Snake Indians live. The other agency is called the Klamath Agency. The Klamath Indians, proper, live there. There is in all about 1400 Indians there. The Snakes have only been there about two years. Donald McKay can tell you all about the Snakes, as he is well acquainted with them. The Klamaths are about as far advanced as the Umatilla people. They have a very poor country for farming--it is too cold. There is frost for several months in the year. It is very discouraging to the people there who are trying to be like white people because the land is so unproductive. I think if they had a good country they would become like white people in a few years. They dress like you do--most of them dress like white people. Their head chief is [omission]. They have four sub-chiefs. They generally manage their own cases at law--they have their own juries. These head chiefs and sub-chiefs form the jury. They have never seen many white people like you have. They live among the mountains. I recollect they often speak of Genl. Palmer, who was there a great many years ago. They speak of him as a very good man. That is all I have to say now. Perhaps I will have something to say by and by.
    Mr. Meacham. Donald McKay will now talk to you. He has been with the Snakes a great deal. He understands all the Indians' hearts. He can talk several of their languages. I will ask him to talk to you as a Snake this morning and afterwards it will be told to you in jargon. We want you to hear how that language sounds.
    Donald McKay. I have come from the far distant Snake country. I was sent for by the Superintendent to come here as a chief. We do not know anything. We are away off in the mountains. We are like coyotes and foxes. I have come here to look at you all and listen to what you have to say. Mr. Meacham has told you that the Snake Indians have only been two years on the reservation. That is true. We went to work, though, right away and put up lots of houses. He set us to work. Whenever he told us to do anything we just pitched right in. We never miss his instructions. Although our hands are all sore and blistered we never ask for pay. We just go to work. We can see it is for our good. All we wish and hope for is that Mr. Meacham will give us instruction a little faster. If he would only press us a little more we would soon be up with those Indians who have been on the reservations so long. If he would give us the advantages of schools we would learn very fast. There are several of them who have mixed with the whites some and can talk English already and are learning all the time. Our women are tired of digging roots. They want to learn to keep house. All they need is the chance to learn.
    Mr. Meacham. That is just like a Snake chief talked to me when I was there. I tell you people now-- hear my voice--hear every word of it, I say. These Snake people are starting a long way behind you, but they keep coming this way all the time. I think next year they will be here in this convention, and I think they will appear very well. It is the same way with all the people on the Klamath Reservation. They started away behind, but they are putting away Indian laws and customs, and they are coming up very fast and make me very glad. What is the reason? Because they go to work. They have not got much money. Snakes have but little money, but they work. Donald McKay tells the truth. Two years ago there were no settlements. The Snake Indians were scattered all over the Harney country. They have now got a great big field fenced in with a staked and ridered fence. They have forty-three houses built with doors and floors in them like the white people. They are getting along very well, and I think they will catch up with you by and by.
    This is the seventh day we have met. Yesterday most of you went to church; many of you came here. You filled up that side of the house (pointing to the east side). I came here and looked at them. General Palmer also looked at them. All the white people looked at you. They looked into your eyes and at your clothes, and they noticed that you were clean and that you looked at the preacher. After the sermon you came here and talked and all the white people who heard you were well pleased. They are satisfied now that they did not know you. They had only seen your bad people. Last night they saw some of your good people. They changed their minds about you. They do not think you are dogs. They treat you like men. You see what we have told you before is true. You have two kinds of people among you. All have two kinds of people with us. Some of your people are good and some are bad. Our good people go to church. They do not swear. They do not drink whiskey; they do not gamble. It is our bad men that do these things. It is our bad men who sell your men whiskey. We do not want you to open your hearts to such men.
    You have heard many things on your reservations that you did not believe. You have come here now and seen it for yourselves. You have seen our fair, our town, our churches. We will go to do [omission], to see the school and the place where they manufacture woolen goods--clothing. We want you to keep your ears open. Open your eyes wide and see all you can. Put all the good things you see and hear into your hearts, so that when you go back to your people you can tell them you have seen a great many things that were good. We do not want you to carry the bad back with you. Take the good only.
    We have not yet voted upon anything yet. We have talked over a good many things and will talk some more. Your delegates have all said they were willing to put away the Indian laws and talk the white men's laws. You are much pleased with what you have seen and now propose to be like the white men. But we will not ask you to vote but this question yet. If you should vote to adopt the new laws now when you go back to your people, maybe they would not agree to it. We do not want you to take a step and then fall back. People do not go up high all at once. They put away one bad thing at a time. Some of you have already taken several steps. You are ready to take more steps. All your agents stand up on a high place. Whenever you hold up your hands they will help you. They will not put you back. Neither will they pull you up too fast. Now when you go back home you will take all the good you have learned while you were here and keep it. You will take our good advice and that of all who have talked to you here. The first thing you must try to do is to put away your old Indian laws. There is the law about marriage. White men have but one wife, and no white woman marries a man unless she wants to. No white man buys his wife. No white man sells his child. All white men take care of their children. Some of you men have several wives. We do not expect you to kill them off nor to drive them away from you. You must take care of them and you must take care of the children and provide for them. But you must cease to sell your daughters or to allow your men to buy wives. You must not allow your men to marry more than one wife. And when you get your land this winter you will recognize one woman each as a wife and only one. You will not drive off the others. Every women, except the man's wife, will have a piece of land given to her in her own name, and she will be allowed to marry if she wishes to and go where she pleases. The lands will be allotted according to the stipulations of the treaties.
    The Indians manifested great interest particularly in Mr. Meacham's remarks in regard to marriage and the distribution of the lands. They began discussing the matter among themselves in an undertone.
    Mr. Meacham remarks that he was aware that this was a most dangerous subject to come before the Indians. He repeated his explanation, adding that after a man had selected one woman to remain as his wife, it would be permitted the others to remain with him or go to herself.
    Geo. Harney said he was in favor of breaking the practice up by making those who have more than one wife put away all but one at once. He thought that if a woman should be allowed to choose whether she should go or stay she would stay in every case. He thought the polygamous practice could not be broken up that way.
    General Palmer said this matter had been considered 16 years ago when the treaties were made. He said there were some Indians, like Pushwash, one of the delegates from Siletz, who had several wives which they had taken according to the laws and customs of the Indians. Pushwash lives very harmoniously with his three wives, knows no distinction among them, and they all love him. It would be very hard for him to make a selection. This is what makes the question so difficult. He explained the manner in which the treaties provided for allotting the lands among the Indians. Among those in the Willamette Valley each adult is to have 20 acres, each child 10 acres up to two, and then 20 acres for every three children in a family. In the case of a man with more than one wife he and his wife proper are to have 40 acres and each additional wife is to have 20 acres, but the former husband is to have no control over it. If they continue to live together they may enjoy the land in common. He said the Indians were anxious to become civilized and expressed the belief that good white women could do [more] towards accomplishing that result by their influence over the Indian women than could be done in any other way.
    Capt. Smith said that the ladies on his reservation (Warm Springs) had begun teaching the Indian women all kinds of housework, and he anticipated great results from the experiment.
    Mr. Meacham urged the Indians when they should return home to remember the advice they had received here and act upon it. They should learn to settle their differences by the white men's laws, and they should learn to speak the English language. He gave them a lesson in parliamentary usage, showing them how motions are made, amended and carried. The convention adjourned until 2 o'clock p.m.
   

Afternoon.
    The members of the convention reassembled at 2 o'clock p.m., and forming in line marched up State Street to the Willamette University, where they were cordially received by the professors of the University, saw the way in which white children are educated, and witnessed with profound interest and astonishment some experiments in chemistry and natural philosophy. They then visited the public schools of the city, after which they adjourned until 9:30 a.m. tomorrow.
   

Sixth Day.
Tuesday Oct. 17, 1871
    The convention assembled pursuant to adjournment, the president, Mr. Meacham, in the chair and all the delegates present. Prayer by Rev. [omission].
    Mr. Meacham announced that this was to be the last day of the convention. He expressed satisfaction with the interest which had been manifested by all in attendance upon the session and particularly by the delegates. He was gratified and greatly encouraged to see so general, so unanimous a disposition among the chiefs and leading men of the Indians to lay aside the old Indian customs and laws and to accept the civilization of the white people. Such a course was the only thing that would save the Indians from utter ruin and save them from a rapid and certain extinction as a race. They must frown upon and discourage idleness among their men and women and teach them to labor for the love of it, to be economical, abstaining from bad habits, to acquire property as fast as possible by honest means, to build up homes--good houses, good fences, good horses and cattle and good farms. And above all they must send their children to school and require them to be attentive to their studies. They should not forget to be patient. They must wait. The acquisition of property and learning is made by degrees, slowly, little by little. They must expect to meet with difficulties sometimes, but it will only make them the stronger to have such to contend against. They will grow richer and richer, wiser and wiser, every year, until, after a few years, or a few generations at most, they will be as wise and as well off as the white people. Then everybody will respect them and nobody will look upon them as degraded and worthless people. He assured them that he and all their agents were ready and would always be glad to assist them in their efforts in every way possible. He explained to them that all orders from the government come through his office and are communicated direct to the several agents. When they heard white men not officially connected with them say the government was going to take away their land or do any other bad thing they must not believe it. Such men know nothing about it. They have no way of knowing what the government is going to do. Bad men sometimes talk this way to them for the sake of making trouble. They must go to their agents when they want advice, for they alone know what kind of advice to give them in regard to such matters. He urged them to repose confidence in their agents, assuring them that President Grant is determined that they shall have good men for agents, men whom they can trust. He told them they might rely upon it that whatever mistakes had been made in the past, the government is their friend and desires to do them good. It would protect them in the possession of their lands. White men would not be allowed to [take] away their homes from them. Without this protection from the government, they would soon be deprived of their homes: hence they could see for themselves that they had a friend in the government.
    He expected they could meet again next year, and if so they would doubtless be ready to learn still more than they had learned this year.
    Mr. [blank] Allen was introduced and addressed the Indians a few moments, saying he had been a resident of the Willamette Valley for twenty-four years, had lived among the Indians through all the wars and had always found that they treated him well when he treated them well. He hoped they would all try to improve and become good and useful men so that when they die they may go to the same place with the white men who are good.
    Billy Chinook. When I came down here from the Warm Springs, I did not clearly understand what was going to be done. There were some things in my way that made me a little uneasy. I did not know but I might be asked to do something I would not want to do. Now all such things are out of the way. I have heard all that has been said and understand it well. I have learned a great deal. There has been nothing said that was not right and good, and I have a great deal to take back to my people that will make them happy.
    Solomon Riggs. Mr. President, my friends: I see you all here today and it makes my heart glad to look upon you. It is like we were all traveling the same road to some good place. We have been together for several days and no bad words have been spoken--nothing to make us feel angry or sad. Everything that has been said has come from good hearts and has fallen upon our ears like the great, clear raindrops upon the thirsty ground. Many times in the past, when I have thought of the way my people have suffered since the white people came to this country, my heart has grown heavy with sorrow and I have wondered if they would always be so poor, so ignorant and so cast down. It seemed as if they could not help themselves and as if they had no friend among the white people to help them. I think we have friends now who will help us, and I feel like a new day had begun with fewer clouds and a brighter sun. It makes me feel very happy now to see so many white people interested in the welfare of my people and to see their hearts reach out in sympathy with us. I almost forget that our color is so different, that we are red and they are white. They seem so much like brothers to me now that I can believe the good book which says we are all children of the same father. I think more of myself now and more of my people. We are not dogs and beasts but men and women and someday our children may be able to live in good houses, to have good farms and good churches and maybe able to make law and preach the gospel. I thank the Superintendent very much for bringing us here. We have learned more about each other and about the white man than we could have learned in a year by any other means. We will not forget it but will keep it close in our hearts, and when another year comes around if you should send for us again you will find that we have grown wiser and better and will be able to learn faster and more than we do now. It has been so pleasant to be here to listen to our good friends talk that it makes me feel sad now that we are about to part. We look upon you, Mr. Meacham, as a good friend. You stand in the relation to us of a father to his children. You have given us a great deal of good advice and now we have strong affections for you. You have talked to us every day here and taught us our duty so that we now understand it well. You have said just such things as we wanted to hear and it makes me feel very glad to hear such counsel given to these people. I think our hearts are larger than they were before. We have been shown what to do, what road we should travel. Our eyes have been opened to see new things, and we feel like we had run a race and won it. We will now do all we can to follow your advice. If our agents will help us as I think they will we will get along very fast. When we first came over here we did not know what was to be done. My people, the Umpqua people, were afraid and at first they blamed me for coming here. I told them I did not start the thing, that I only came as a delegate. But now they see it is all right and they are glad we came. I think if I had had this instruction and encouragement seven years ago I would have been much further along than I am.
    Another thing. I am very glad to hear the Superintendent tell me how it is about the things he receives from Washington City, that the instructions in regard to the Indians all come through him. Now when I want to learn the truth about such things I will know where to go and get it. If we could have known this before we would have been saved a good deal of annoyance. If my people could have had all this good advice when they first went on the reservation they would have been much further advanced than they are. My people are not wild people. They all live in families in houses like white people. All that I have seen and heard I will tell them, and they will understand it. I do not know whether they will all believe it or not. It is so wonderful they may not. But I will do what I can to convince them. I believe in all the advice you have given me. I believe your word, and I want you to believe me; what I say is true. It would make me feel very happy if I could have all my people receive your laws. But whether I can or not, I shall receive them in my own heart and keep them.
    There is another thing I want to talk about now. Some of my people are very poor. I don't know what they are going to do. I understand this matter a little, and some of the agents understand it. When I go back I want a school house built upon my own ground, the Umpqua ground. And if I can have a school house built upon the Umpqua ground I will try and have all the Umpqua children go to school. There is a school house on the reservation, but it is not well attended.
    This is all I have to say now. I am very glad to be here and to hear such good advice.
    Mr. Meacham urged the importance of avoiding the advice of bad men. He also called attention to the fact that there are so few children among the Indians--more women than men and more men than children. This he attributed [to] the bad way of doctoring. The white man's way of living into which the various tribes are gradually falling will not admit of the Indian way of treating diseases. The remedy is to give up the Indian medicine men and use the white doctor's medicines. He urged the delegates to carry back to their people all the advice they had received and to make strong and unremitting efforts to prevail upon them to accept the change proposed.
    At 12 o'clock m. the convention closed with an appropriate prayer by Rev. C. C. Stratton.
A. B. Meacham
    President
J. A. Waymire
    Secty. & Official Reporter
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 348-427.



(Telegram)
Salem Oregon Oct. 12th 1871
J. N. High
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent.
        Ashland
            Go on with the mill. Two thousand dollars yet on hand.       
A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 604.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. Oct. 14th 1871
Sir:
    I transmit herewith a commission from the President for the appointment of Leroy S. Dyar of Oregon to be agent for the Indians of the Grand Ronde Agency in Oregon.
    You will please cause said commission to be delivered to Mr. Dyar when he shall have filed the proper bond and oath of office.
Very respectfully &c.
    J. H. Delano
        Chief Clerk
The
    Acting Commissioner
        of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 684-685.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        Octr. 18th 1871
Sir
    By referring to the Indian appropriation bill for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1872, I find that the sum of two thousand ($2000) dollars was appropriated "for repairs at Grand Ronde Agency," said amount I asked for in my requisition of May 22nd 1871.
    As the buildings at said agency are in a dilapidated condition, unfit for winter use, I would again respectfully ask that the above-named amount be placed to my credit at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indn. Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. H. R. Clum
    Acting Commsr. &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 918-919.


    From the Salem Statesman we learn that the Indian Convocation in that city last Friday was attended by 300 Indians. "One of the Indian speakers was Joe Hutchins, of Alsea, who told how he saw the first missionaries arrive. They were poor when they first arrived, hadn't horses and came in a canoe. He was glad to see them and treated them well, and felt sorry for them. He went on to say that he didn't understand how it was that they all grew rich and he grew poor, and he proposed to learn the way it was done and begin at this late day to practice the same things that made the white man prosper. Joe Hutchins gave the audience to understand that this site of Salem was his original home, the property of his tribe. His recital of early incidents and his impressions concerning civilized life were interesting. There were several other Indian speakers, but they were hardly as eloquent as Hutchins."
States Rights Democrat, Albany, October 20, 1871, page 2


    At the Indian Council held in the M.E. Church, Salem, last Saturday, Hon. George H. Williams addressed the Indians, making a profound impression. Prof. L. L. Rogers, also addressed them, and others. They were advised by Superintendent Meacham to go to church the next day, first taking pains to comb their heads and put on clean shirts. This they promised to do, if he would furnish the latter garments.
"Pacific Coast News," Albany Register, October 21, 1871, page 2



[Annual Report]
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Oct. 25th 1871
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit my third annual report of the condition of Indian affairs in Oregon.
    It will be observed that the agents on every reservation have been changed within the year. These changes have produced confusion, and consequently we have some excuse for not accomplishing all we designed. I believe that every man now in charge of Indians in Oregon has his heart in the work.
Umatilla Reservation
N. A. Cornoyer, agent
    The condition of Indian affairs in this agency has been somewhat unstable for several years, owing to the great pressure of outside parties to obtain possession of the lands of this reservation.
    In compliance with instructions from Commissioner Parker, a council was called to meet August 7th at Umatilla Agency, to ascertain on what terms the Indians would consent "to remove to some other reservation" &c.
    N. A. Cornoyer, U.S. Ind. Agent, Umatilla, and Hon. John S. White, together with myself, constituting commissioners on the part of the United States; all the chiefs and headmen of the three several tribes belonging to the reservation, on the part of the Indians; Hon. Felix R. Brunot, Chairman of Congressional Executive Committee, and Thomas K. Kree, his secretary, honored the council.
    A fair and plain statement of the several propositions was made and duly considered, and after six days' council the Indians unanimously rejected any and all propositions "to sell and remove or to take land in severalty."
    This virtually settled the question as to the permanency of these people. It now becomes the duty of the Indian Dept. to make such arrangement and improvement for them as will prepare them for citizenship.
    But few years will elapse until all treaty provisions expire. They are comparatively wealthy, but, when unprotected by an United States agent would fall an easy prey to the sharpers who hang around Indian reservations.
    The agency buildings are worthless and should be rebuilt. The flour mill is eligibly located and efficient. The sawmill should be removed to the immediate vicinity of the timber.
    This agency has been assigned to the Catholic Church, under whose supervision a school is being kept, though not a very efficient one. I think the church is preparing to enlarge its facilities for taking care of and teaching the Indian children. This will probably meet the wants so far as the children of Catholic parents are concerned, but at least one-half the Indians on the reservation are very much opposed to the Catholic religion and will not consent to have their children educated in that church.
    Some liberty of conscience on this subject should be secured to the "non-Catholics." In obedience to the genus of our government, no people can be forced to accept or to reject any form of religion.
    I have confidence in the integrity and ability of Agent Cornoyer and trust that his administration may be successful, but he should be instructed to establish a school acceptable to the non-Catholic Indians.
    Some time must elapse before these people will consent to locate permanently on lands in severalty.
Warm Springs Reservation
John Smith, agent
    Unlike Umatilla, these people occupy a tract of country that nobody wants. Indeed it has but few resources to make it available as a home for Indians. The few small bodies of arable land--which are second rate, however--have been surveyed preparatory to allotment.
    The agent has found some new country on the reservation which he thinks will be available for settlement.
    This step is very encouraging to the Indians, who seem to start anew on the road to civilized life. The present season has been unusually dry, and but little has been provided on the reservation to subsist them.
    Agent Smith reports that a fair supply of Indian provisions, consisting of roots, berries and fish, has been secured, which together with such assistance as he can give will enable the people to get through the coming winter. In this connection I desire to call attention to the necessity of having a small portion of the Dalles fishery on the Columbia River reserved forever for the especial use of the Indians of Warm Springs Reservation.
    By treaty of 1855 with Genl. Palmer, acting Supt., this right was reserved by the Indians, but in a supplemental treaty with Supt. Huntington, in 1865, the right was relinquished for a small consideration, which has been paid.
    The Indians claim that they did not understand that they were selling the right to take fish at the Dalles in the latter treaty and claim the right as before. The whites deny the use of the land to the Indians for fishing.
    Now this land still belongs to the United States, and inasmuch as the fishery is an indispensable necessity for the Indians at Warm Springs, I would most respectfully suggest and insist on a reservation being made of, say, one mile on the south side of the Columbia River.
    Capt. Smith is a zealous member of the Presbyterian Church, but holds his position under the Methodist, to which this agency has been assigned.
    Some specific and well-understood rules are necessary to be made for the government of church matters on Indian agencies. This precaution should be heeded, although Capt. Smith is, so far as my knowledge extends, acceptable to both Methodists and Indians, "still he is [a] man, and man is mortal."
    The efforts of Agent Smith to civilize and Christianize this people have been in part successful, especially with the Wascoes. He has organized a Sabbath school, the results of which are good and promise much for the future. A large number of the other tribes of the confederation, however, are opposed to the Christian religion and have steadily refused to accept either religion or schools at the hands of the agent.
    They are still in "paint and feathers, following the way of their fathers" and will require peculiar treatment, largely mixed with Christian charity and human kindness, to overcome their long-taught prejudices against the white man's religion and customs.
    The schools are also but partly successful and promise but small and comparatively insignificant good for the funds expended.
    Agent Smith is now preparing to organize among them a manual labor school, the only kind, in fact, that have success in them, but the funds at his command are insufficient to establish such a school on a permanent basis.
    The agency buildings are good, flour mill efficient, sawmill is nearly worn out and should be rebuilt near the timber.
Klamath Sub-Agency
J. N. High, sub-agent
    This agency has changed the management twice within the year, Captain O. C. Knapp having been relieved by John Meacham as special commissary, Oct. 1st 1870, and he in turn by the present incumbent Sept. 1st 1871.
    Notwithstanding the confusion arising from so many changes, the people are steadily progressing and bid fair, though the youngest in civilization, to rival their red brethren of other and older reservations.
    With the present understanding this agency is under assignment to the Methodist Church.
    These Indians, having never been under any kind of religious instruction, find no fault with the arrangement, although they are slow to embrace the Christian religion, nevertheless of all the missionary field this one is the most desirable and hopeful from the fact above stated.
    They are a very peculiar people, exhibiting more enterprise than commonly found among natives. The completion of a sawmill has worked a great reformation and inspired them to extraordinary exertion to amass property of various kinds.
    Savages in skins, paint and feathers, as they were two short years since, they have donned the white man's costume, taken the ax and crosscut saw and hauled to the mill a half million feet of lumber, and today are lumber merchants with stock in trade constantly on hand, evincing shrewdness and business integrity that makes an agent's heart strong to work with and for them.
    The flouring mill is just approaching completion and will do much for their advancement, besides being a profitable source of subsistence.
    Their native food has hitherto been "wocus" and fish, of which they have unlimited sources.
    No schools have yet been established, except a sickly effort several years ago, which resulted in so little good that it was abandoned until such time as buildings could be erected suitable for a manual labor school, which with the abundance of lumber now available may be established at an early day, but can only be made successful by an increased appropriation for school purposes or by diverting annuity funds to that end.
    The exterior boundaries have been run and a sufficient amount of arable land surveyed to allot each person a home.
    This idea of permanent home on a small piece of land, with exclusive privileges, is so new to them that they are slow to comprehend, although not unwilling to accept.
    The altitude of this country being over four thousand feet, consequently the climate is cold and uncertain. The cultivated products being confined to some hardy varieties of cereals and vegetables, all of which are liable to destruction by the heavy frosts. It is safe to say that Klamath is unreliable as an agricultural country, though strangely enough it is a good grazing region.
Yainax Station
J. D. Applegate, special commissary in charge
    Located within the boundary of Klamath Reservation, on Sprague River, this settlement was made in the latter part of 1869 for the purpose of colonizing the Snake Indians with the Woll-pah-pes. Success has attended the labors of Commissary Applegate to a satisfactory extent. He has, with a few white men as employees assisting the Indians, made good and substantial improvements, consisting of a farm of 300 acres, well fenced and cultivated in part, with agency buildings, including houses for employees, barn and corrals, together with eighteen good substantial log houses for Indian families, with windows and doors to each. The lumber for this station is obtained from Klamath Mills, without other expense than that of hauling a distance of forty miles.
    This station was originally a part of the Klamath Agency, but owing to the fact that these Indians have long been at war with those at Klamath, consequently [they] are ancient enemies and still entertaining somewhat the feelings incident to such relationship, which sentiment still lingers also with the Klamaths. It seems impracticable and in fact impossible that an agent located at Klamath Agency proper could prevent the stronger from constantly encroaching on the rights of the weaker; and since the only way to secure peace and justice is that those in charge at either agency should have equal power to punish crime and protect the weaker, and since the appropriations for each were made separate and in no way connected, and these reasons being set forth by the then acting agent, O. C. Knapp, also approved by the chiefs and headmen of the Klamaths and demanded by the chief headmen of the Snakes and Woll-pah-pe tribes, believing also that the success of the Snake settlement at Yainax depended on effective measures being taken, therefore, on consent, and with a distinct understanding with all parties interested, a line was drawn north and south across Klamath Reservation at or near "Mahogany Mountain," the eastern part assigned to the Snakes and west to the Klamaths.
    The success of the movement demonstrates the wisdom thereof, and I would respectfully urge the Dept. to make and create Yainax a distinct agency, and further, that the present commissary, I. D. Applegate, should be appointed agent permanently.
    On no account should he--with his long and successful experience among Indians--be placed subject to the whims and caprices of any inexperienced sub-agent, as he was under former connections with Klamath.
    No kind of religion or church government has been introduced among these people except as the great virtues and principles of Christianity have been exemplified in the management of them by the acting commissary, Applegate and his subordinates, with "Sunday talks" and easy lessons and mild sermons, mixed with common and everyday affairs of life, which is, after all, a very successful way to inculcate correct and satisfactory principles of Christianity.
    Applegate possesses, in a satisfactory quantity, the necessary qualities of both head and heart, combined with industrious habits, uniting energy and hopeful, cheerful manner, to inspire as he has his people with confidence in him and his promises. To his adaptability to the work may be ascribed his success.
    Both Applegate and Indians are clamorous for schools. The present amount of funds appropriated for Snake Indians are insufficient for the establishment on a safe footing of a school with prospects of success.
    I have instructed him to erect, at the earliest reasonable time, a building suitable for church, school and general meeting house.
    No allotment of lands in severalty has been provided for the people at this station; first, because "The Oregon Central and Military Wagon Road Company" have located the alternate sections of land surrounding this settlement.
    In this connection allow me to call the attention of the Dept. to this subject. In few words, "the situation" is that the lines of the reservation were agreed on in council with Indians, by Supt. Huntington, before the organization of the said road company, that the road was located before the treaty was ratified, and the case stands subject to a decision as to priority of right.
    This condition of affairs was not understood by me at the time of making the settlement for Snake Indians, and it would do much damage to the efficiency of the Dept. to be compelled to abandon the location at a sacrifice of the improvements already made and still more the discouragement of the Indians, if compelled to remove, as they "come in" with the distinct understanding (which I felt justified in making with them) that this was to be their permanent home.
    Pardon me for urging on the Dept. at Washington especial attention to this subject, as the success of Yainax depends on said action.
Alsea Sub-Agency
Saml. Case, special commissary in charge
is situated on the Pacific coast and constitutes the southern portion of the "Coast Reservation."
    It is occupied by four fragmentary tribes of Indians, none of whom are under treaty. Their wants are few in comparison with those other reservations, from the fact that they mostly occupy their old homes and still retain somewhat their former modes of living. It need not, however, be supposed that they are lagging behind in civilization. Notwithstanding they are too few in number to justify the establishment hitherto of shops and schools among them, they have nevertheless shaken off many of their old ways and adopted the habits of their white neighbors.
    The present acting commissary, Case, seems to be thoroughly imbued with the most essential qualities for an Indian agent, and from his long acquaintance with these particular people, together with an enterprising pride to bring them up on a level with those of other agencies, he is doing good and substantial work and should be permanently appointed to look over and lead them up the "grade."
    No arrangements have been made to allot lands in severalty on this agency, for the reason that it was thought advisable to colonize these people with those of Siletz, in the event that sufficient land could be found in the latter reservation suitable for Indian homes. The report, however, of Dept. surveyor precludes the possibility of such arrangement, unless funds were furnished to clear up timber lands for their use. I have looked this subject carefully over and now conclude that the only just plan will be to survey and allot lands to the Alsea people on Alsea Agency and will proceed to carry out said plan unless otherwise ordered.
    These people should have a cheap sawmill, church and school house erected, and an appropriation to carry them on, and not until then will they be on equal footing with others of their race. Unless steps are taken to secure them in these necessary adjuncts to civilization they must eventually fall behind.
    The Dept. buildings are fast decaying and in a short time will become untenable. Indeed they are only temporary shanties at best.
Siletz Reservation
Genl. Joel Palmer, agent
    This agency is so fully reported that it would seem almost unnecessary to amplify.
    I do not, however, fully concur in all that Agent Palmer has said and intimated, in this: that the culture of the Indians had been entirely neglected. While it is not my business to defend all the acts of agents, it is mine to see that justice is done those who have served the Indian Dept. under my administration especially.
    The Siletz Indians have always been regarded as the most belligerent and refractory of any in this state, notwithstanding which, however, they are far removed from savage life, having acquired considerable knowledge of the common arts of civilization and, to all appearance, compare favorably with those of other reservations in intelligence and business capacity.
    Somewhere, somehow and by some means or other they have come to the "front," and it is but justice to former agents to acknowledge that fact. No man is devoid of good qualities. Neither should [it], though much has been done for these people, be expected under the old regime to find a nation of people who were steeped in degradation to be brought into all the wonderful and marvelous light of Christianity in the short space of time that they have been under the care of U.S. agents.
    It is Christian-like to forget wrong and accredit good. Deplorably true it may be that Siletz Indians are "minus chastity," but the white people who claim to be civilized have probably contributed largely to the loss of that particular virtue.
    Under the management of Agent Palmer, with his long and successful experience as Supt. of Indian Affairs in former years, together with eminent Christian virtues and heart fully alive to his work, the much-needed reformation has begun. Every facility and encouragement will be afforded him by me in this worthy labor.
    This agency has also been assigned to the Methodist Church, whose well-established reputation for successful missionary labor gives a guarantee that the Siletz Indians will have opportunity and encouragement to throw off some of the bad habits acquired by contact with vicious white men.
    The schools at Siletz have thus far been only partially successful. The cause of failure is the same assigned by all teachers of Indians, i.e., the constant intercourse of children with their parents.
    Agent Palmer is sanguine that he can arrange day schools with white female teachers at a reasonable expense to meet the wants of these people. With the failure of the past fresh in memory, I confess I have not much faith in the plan. Nevertheless, believing that almost any reasonable thing is possible with a brave and true man, I consent.
    The allotment of lands being prepared in severalty for the Siletz Indians is doing much to elevate and encourage them. Some confusion will doubtless arise in dividing these lands, but nothing serious is apprehended.
    The agency is much in need of mills; in fact, they are almost indispensable, both for the purpose of Indians and the Dept. use.
    A large house for general meetings should be built. The school house, agent's, and employees' houses all require repair, for the expense of which see estimates.
Grand Ronde Reservation
S. D. Reinhart, special commissary in charge
    Late Agent Lafollett was relieved, at his own request, Aug. 22 last, the reasons given in his letter of resignation being "the interference of members of the Methodist Church."
    This agency having been assigned to that church, some unnecessary feeling has grown out of the assignment, owing to the establishment several years ago of a Catholic mission in the agency.
    It was understood between Secy. Delano, Dr. Harris, of the Methodist Church and myself, and perhaps others, that this mission was to remain undisturbed, and to satisfy the demand of Father Mesplie of the Catholic Church, Chas. Lafollett, the acting agent, was recommended by Dr. Harris. Not being notified by the proper authorities of his responsibility to the Methodist Church and supposing that he was allowed to remain as a Catholic agent, Mr. Lafollett was unwilling to be questioned as to his official acts by members of the Methodist Church. Hence his resignation.
    The present incumbent has the necessary business qualifications and good moral character and is an efficient agent. Nevertheless, this question of agent should be settled at an early day.
    The school has been discontinued until a manual labor institution can be organized, which with the abundant supply of lumber now available may be accomplished at an early day, provided a reasonable appropriation be made for the erection of suitable building and support of teacher.
    The agency buildings are now being repaired and will require no further appropriation for that purpose. The mills are old and useless for want of motive power, the dam having washed away repeatedly and as often rebuilt at enormous expense.
    After careful examination and due deliberation, the clamor of Indians for mills, the indispensable necessity of the same, a general council of Indians, agent and Superintendent was called. The absence of funds applicable to such purpose being stated and apprehended by all parties interested, the proposition was made and fully explained to build a sawmill on an eligible site near an abundant supply of timber, with this understanding, that all machinery and mechanical labor was to be paid for out of annuity and repair funds, the Indians to perform all such labor on the mill and contingencies as they were capable and the Dept. to furnish subsistence. This plan of operations was submitted to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for his approval, which for some reason has been withheld though not countermanded.
    The mill is completed and is now making lumber and has been built at a cost of about $4,500.
    The Indians faithfully performed their part of the agreement, cutting a race of sufficient capacity a distance of six hundred yards. They are now very anxious for a flouring mill, as evinced during the council with Hon. F. R. Brunot during his late visit, and are willing that the necessary funds may be diverted from their annuity.
    Under this pressure I have ordered such parts of the old flouring mill as are available, together with such other new machinery as may be necessary, to be transferred to a building attached to the new sawmill and put in running order without delay. In this way much expense will be saved by the use of the machinery of the sawmill.
    The long prayed-for allotment of lands to Indians in severalty will be made as soon as the surveys are approved by the Dept. at Washington, to which matter I beg to call your especial attention and speedy action.
    These people fully appreciate the good work of the government in their behalf and will not prove ungrateful or unfaithful when allowed to assume the privileges and responsibilities of citizenship.
    The people of this agency are a living demonstration of the possibility of civilizing Indians and give back denial to the thoughtless and oft-repeated declaration of "Indian haters," that "good Indians are all under ground."
Indians Not on Reservations
    There are several bands of Indians scattered over Oregon that do not belong to any agency. Some of these bands have never been treated with and are the real owners of the soil they occupy or have been driven from.
    The Tillamooks and Clatsops formerly occupied that portion of the Pacific coast between the mouth of the Columbia River and the northern boundary of the Coast Reservation. Their number is not definitely known to this office, but their wrongs have been heard and must be redressed.
    White men have actually crowded them onto the beach of the ocean, not leaving them country sufficient for grazing purposes for the few horses they possess.
    There is also a small band on Salmon River and another on the Nestucca. These, however, are within the limits of the Coast Reservation and free from molestation, but are still living in old Indian style.
    It is in this case only a question of political humanity whether to attempt civilization or allow them to remain as now. They would consent to take lands in severalty and receive in full payment for their claim to the country such amounts of money as will place them on a footing with reservation Indians.
    Reference to the records of this office discloses the fact that Supt. Dart made treaties in August 1851 with these bands, together with other bands now broken up, or who have accepted benefits and protection from the government by going into agencies, thereby relinquishing all claim to the country they formerly occupied, but that said treaties were never ratified.
    It further appears that in 1855 Supt. Joel Palmer met the representatives of all the various tribes occupying that portion of country west of the summit of the Coast Range of mountains from the Columbia River to the southern boundary of Oregon, in treaty council, and that a treaty was consummated with the said Indians, though never ratified by the government.
    There is no evidence to show that any of the said Indians above referred to, to wit: Clatsop, Tillamook, Salmon River and Nestuccas, have ever received any benefits or annuities beyond a few presents at long intervals. Hence it is clear that they have never ceded to the government their country and, since the country was not acquired by legitimate conquest, it is also clear that these people have rights that ought and will someday be secured to them.
    Another band is now being oppressed and driven by white men from place to place in a small tract of country about thirty miles wide by forty long, covering the headwaters of the Umpqua River in Southern Oregon.
    I have carefully examined the records and sought all other information possible and find that these Indians were never represented in any treaty council and that the country above indicated has never been ceded by any band or tribe of Indians, nor acquired by legitimate conquest. Neither have these Indians ever acknowledged the authority of the United States, or received any consideration for their country.
    If our government intends to be just and uniform in its treatment of Indians, these people should be provided for without delay. Although they may not be the possessors of enough political power to secure to them the consideration of local politicians, they at least as original inheritors of the soil have a "God-given right' to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," and no race, however strong, under a government claiming to be established on principles of "equal and exact justice" should be permitted to trample on and exterminate a race whose misfortune it is to be "untutored and untaught," nevertheless possessing mental power and innate manhood, if once developed, superior to other races that now enjoy the great and priceless boon of freedom and protection from oppressors of every kind.
    As an officer of the United States Indian Dept., I demand, in behalf of the Indians of Oregon, that their rights be regarded and justice done them in some way, either by paying them for their lands or allowing them to locate homes in common with the white men who are making the Indian country so valuable.
    This subject is one that concerns the welfare of thousands of white people settled on the lands still claimed by these Indians. The importance of prompt action is manifest when it is known that some of them have already taken counsel of able lawyers, who give them encouragement to prosecute their claims.
    The Indians must be provided for, and the peace of the country secured as well.
    There are several bands of Indians living on the Columbia River, all of whom have been parties to treaties, but have refused to comply with treaty stipulations, and who, under the ruling of Commissioner Parker last June have thereby forfeited all right and interest in and to lands and annuities as per treaty and, having been represented in treaty council, have no claim to the country they occupy.
    If this be so, I ask what is to be done with them? They should not be allowed to remain where now located. This subject demands consideration, as also what disposition is to be made of such Indians as refuse to return to their agencies. I have before called the attention of your office to this subject, but have received no instructions.
    Snake or Shoshone Indians are living in the vicinity of Camp Harney. They were subjugated three years ago, since which time they have been under charge of the Military Dept.
    An effort was made to remove them to Yainax in 1869, but no authority being invested in the Supt. of Ind. Affairs to compel them, they persistently refused and hence the failure.
    A large tract of country has been withdrawn from sale and settlement for eighteen months, from March 16th 1871, within the boundaries of which I was instructed to locate for them a reservation. No funds having been appropriated to defray the expenses, I am compelled to await such time as funds shall be on hand applicable to such purpose. The welfare of these Indians and the public necessities suggest action on this subject.
The Modocs
belong by treaty to Klamath Agency and have been located thereon, but owing to the overbearing disposition of the Klamath Indians they refuse to remain. Unavailing efforts have been made to induce them [to] return, but they persist in occupying their original homes and, in fact, set up claim thereto.
    During the past summer they have been a source of annoyance and alarm to the white settlers, and at one time hostilities appeared imminent. The military commander at Fort Klamath made an unsuccessful effort to arrest a few of the headmen.
    Two commissioners were sent from the Indian Dept., and a temporary arrangement made whereby hostilities were arrested.
    They cannot be made to live on Klamath Reservation on account of the ancient feuds with the Klamaths. They are willing to locate permanently on a small reservation of six miles square, lying on both sides of the Oregon and California line, near the head of Tule Lake. In equity they are entitled to a portion of [the] Klamath and Modoc annuity, and need not necessarily be a burden to the government. According to ruling of Commissioner, they have forfeited these rights.
    I would recommend that they be allowed a small reservation at the place indicated above and also a pro rata. division of the Klamath and Modoc treaty funds for employees and annuities. Otherwise they will doubtless be a source of constant expense to the government, and great annoyance to the white settlements near them.
    This proposition will be strenuously opposed by persons who are endeavoring to obtain a large land interest in that portion of the state.
    Though they may be somewhat responsible for not complying with the treaty, yet to those familiar with Indian superstition, it is not strange or unreasonable that great charity should be extended to these people.
    Actual experience demonstrates the impracticability of "consolidating" tribes of Indians, although in theory it looks well, and if we seek to gratify the wishes of heartless white men it can be made a complete success, as the weaker tribes are exterminated by the stronger, despite all efforts of agents to protect them. No people are more ambitious for power, nor exercise it with more tyranny, than do Indians.
    Under the present humane policy of the government, the civilization of Indians is possible. To accomplish it, however, requires some definite, well defined and well guarded permanent regulation, based not on theory but on actual experience and executed by men selected on account of their fitness for the work, men who are thoroughly Christianized and have business qualifications, united with enlarged views of duty, brave, strong and true to the instinct of humanity, fully comprehending the whole economy of our government, fired with ambition to do good by elevating a fast-decaying race to the plane of citizenship and supported with the assurance that their term of office depends entirely on faithfully achieved success, not on the lapse of four years or the change of presidential administration.
    A new day begins with the Indian when such men are placed over them, and funds are furnished them to establish manual labor schools, where more than books is taught, where the American language is laid on Indian tongues, where religion is made a motive power in every human action, thus surely and permanently engrafting into Indian hearts and lives the great principles that govern man in the highest and best civilization of the age.
    In this way will be found the only approach to successfully combat and supplant their old superstitious ideas and practices of savage religion, medicine, marriage, merchandise of women, and the various inborn prejudices against our laws, usages and customs.
    Then, too, another great hindering cause is the existence of the chieftainship and hereditary honors. Within two years a manifest advancement has been made. These Indians have been recognized as people, consulted as to the expenditure of funds, and in no instance have they disappointed the hopes of those in charge of them by unreasonable suggestions.
    On some agencies they have abandoned the Indian mode of making chiefs on account of hereditary right and have taken pattern from white men by electing officers and making success depend on manhood. Also, the "old laws" for the adjustment of difficulties have been ignored and trial by jury instituted.
    Slavery has received an eternal quietus among them. Polygamy has been checked and the sale of women prohibited, and within one year a new and encouraging interest is manifest in church and schools, especially in the latter, on account of the introduction of a new and original series of "object charts," gotten up especially for the Indians of Oregon by myself within the last year. This experiment was proposed to Commissioner Parker and had his sanction.
    The charts were ordered from the house of Carlton and Lanahan, New York City, early in April last. The charts required, being unlike any heretofore published, required new plates and engravings, thus augmenting cost and causing delay. The original design of having ten charts lithographed in colors was abandoned in part, and on account of great expense they were reluctantly cut down to eight in number, with but one in colors, to bring them within the resources of the Superintendency.
    The total number furnished, eight hundred copies (100 each) cost--delivered at this office--$553.00,
    These charts have been submitted to the criticism of every Indian teacher in the service in Oregon and have received in commendation as often expressed in the declaration that "they are worth more for teaching Indians than all the primers and books ever invented." Professors and teachers of schools have importuned for copies of sets for use of white children. They being the property of Oregon Indians, the request has been denied, except for one set donated to the deaf-mute school of Salem.
    One copy of each chart has been furnished your office, also, one to each Supt. Ind. Affairs of Montana, California, Washington Terr. and Nebraska. Faith in the experiment and a desire to benefit the Indian race have induced me to send these samples to other Supt.s without intending to do an act of injustice to our own friends. And if they should meet the approbation elsewhere that they have with "my people," we are not losers by having contributed somewhat to advancement in this indispensable auxiliary to civilization.
    Theory alone is not sufficient to ensure success, and the almost universal report of failures in common Indian schools has been the result of attempting to introduce knowledge into the Indian mind by the same modes that white children are taught.
    It is a well-known fact to those who have been personally acquainted with Indian character that they are apt at illustration, always able to give or receive information by signs, however rude. Something tangible to the senses seems necessary, and in fact indispensable, whereby to instruct these people. These charts are so simple and plain that the mind comprehends the meaning whenever the eye rests on the object.
    An old Indian declared a few days since that he had given up all idea of learning to read, but now these new papers (meaning the charts) have come, I can steal some of the white man's sense and know what he does.
    I believe the investment a good one, the experiment successful and that a new start will be taken by all our Indian children and adults and that another and more advanced series of object charts will soon be required.
    The allotment of land in severalty, now being prepared, is perhaps the greatest boon they have yet received and has already done more to raise the drooping heads of these downtrodden people than anything that has hitherto been done for them by the government of the United States. They start anew, and with proper management the tribal relation will soon disappear and many of them come up to the level, politically, with their white neighbors.
    I would respectfully suggest in this connection that if any impediments now exist under the Constitution and law to their becoming citizens, that congressional action be had without delay to remove such barriers. Also that the laws regulating intercourse be codified and amended so that they can be understood and applied practically to the administration of justice between white men and Indians belonging to reservations and who are not qualified to become citizens, especially the liquor laws.
    The late visit of Hon. F. R. .Brunot has been very beneficial and stimulating to the Indians and especially on the three several agencies which he honored by visiting personally. His words of encouragement to these people have been remembered and treasured, and we hope for another visitation of like character. '
    Believing in the innate pride and ambition of the Indians to become white men in heart and knowing full well that these people are close observers and apt imitators, a convention was called to meet at this office October 9th, to be composed of acting agents and three Indian delegates from each agency.
    Umatilla responded in person of Agent Cornoyer; Indians Howlist-wampo, Winap-snoot and Pierce.
    Warm Springs: Captain Smith, agent; Indians Mark (head chief) Billy Chinook and Pia-noose.
    Siletz: Agent Palmer; Indians Tututni Jack, Push-wash and George Harney. 
    Grand Ronde: S. D. Reinhart, commissary in charge; Indians Louis Lipsank, Joseph Hutchings and Solomon Riggs.
    Alsea Sub-Agency: Commissary Case in charge; Indians Joe Scott, Tyee Jim and Tyee John.
    Klamath and Yainax were too distant to respond. Full proceedings will be forwarded at an early day.
    That great good was accomplished no one doubts who took part in the convention. The Indians were much encouraged by what they saw at the State Fair, then in active operation, also with the speeches made to them by distinguished gentlemen, among them Hon. George H. Williams, ex-U.S. Senator. Nearly every minister in the city, besides visitors from other parts of the state, addressed them.
    Perhaps the most appreciated lecture was delivered by Mrs. B. H. Bowman, a teacher in this city, in which many practicable ideas were advanced bearing directly on Indian civilization.
    The Indians have heretofore been adjudged by the worthless vagabonds that escape from agencies and, by lewdness and dissipation, incurred the displeasure of the better portion of society. But these Indian delegates have won the good will, respect and confidence of our white citizens and demonstrated the transforming power of civilization over savages by their manly bearing, good behavior, personal appearance and strong, logical speeches, which some of them delivered in a strange combination of Indian and American language and with Indian oratory, often winning from the audience enthusiastic applause, the agents and Indians getting more interested as the convention proceeded for seven days, each session "better than the last."
    The churches, schools, colleges and other public institutions were opened to our delegates and every facility afforded by the citizens to make these people realize that the time had come when neither color nor race were barriers to the respect and consideration of mankind.
    No event in connection with the Indian affairs of this state has ever produced so much enthusiasm, so much interest among white people, so much ambition among Indians, as has this convention, which finally culminated in a grand public meeting in the largest church in the city, densely crowded, and continued until a late hour, was finally adjourned against the protest .of the citizens who had taken so much interest in "our people."
    During the convention agents' meetings with the Supt. were held, and after comparing notes and exchanging views on the various subjects pertaining to Indian affairs, among other propositions agreed upon to be recommended was, after the present officers' time should expire, that the welfare of the Indians suggested that it would be good policy to select Superintendent and agents for their fitness for the work, they to hold office during life (subject, of course, to impeachment) and an allowance of $4000 per annum and for Superintendent and $2000 per annum and subsistence for agents, that physicians serving the Dept. should be allowed at least $1200 per annum and subsistence, that every agency should have a commissary clerk at $1000 per annum and subsistence, that agents should have the same control and power over visiting and truant Indians upon their agencies as they have over their own Indians, that tribal relations should be broken up, and the people admitted to citizenship as fast as they were qualified.
    Believing that our government intends well by these people and will do justice to them by furnishing the necessary funds to advance their interest, I would respectfully submit the accompanying statistical table, marked "A," together with estimates required to carry out the policy lately inaugurated of feeding and educating instead of killing, of building up instead of trampling down, of encouraging instead of enslaving these people. These estimates are not exorbitant, and nothing less will fully meet the demand.
    With full appreciation of the prompt support of superiors in office, and words of commendation for subordinates, and a hope for another year of progress and prosperity in the affairs of this Superintendency,
I am, most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. Comsr. Ind. Affairs
    Washington
        D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10, Letter Books I:10, pages 606-621.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 920-955.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon
        Oct. 28th 1871
Sir
    I learn from Dept. Surveyor Thompson that the survey of exterior lines and subdivision of Grand Ronde Indian Reservation into lots preparatory for allotment to Indians in severalty has been completed, and field notes and plats thereof have been forwarded from the office of Surveyor General O'Dell of this state to Commissioner of General Land Office of Washington City. I respectfully suggest that all necessary action to secure approval thereof be had at an early day. The Indians are very anxious to go to work on their homes before winter, but more especially on acct. of next year's cropping season, which begins early in March on this agency. The sawmill being completed and making lumber, these people are prepared to begin civilized life in real earnest, and sincerely hope that nothing will be left undone that can forward this great event in Indian life in Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Aff. Ogn.
Hon. Commissioner
    Indian Affairs
        Washington City
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 960-962.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        October 30th 1871.
Sir,
    J. N. High was relieved at Fort Hall Agency June 27th last, reported to my office August 3rd and relieved Commissary John Meacham in charge at Klamath, Sept. 1st 1871.
    Please instruct what time I should settle with him for.
Very respectfully &c.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. Commissioner Ind. Affairs
    Washington
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 963-964.



Yainax, Oregon, Oct. 31st, 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the month of October.
    The threshing machine was brought up from Klamath Agency, and the threshing was finished up by the 20th inst. The grain crop turned out poorly owing to the frosts which fell while the grain was in bloom. One thousand bushels were threshed, and after feeding the teams used in threshing and issuing to the Indians who assisted in running the machine stacking grain, etc., 875 bushels were stored in the granary. The turnips were gathered early in the month. This crop was heavy, amounting to about 1500 bushels. Since the threshing was finished the employees have been busily engaged in fitting up the Dept. houses, hauling lumber from the Klamath sawmill and assisting the Indians in preparing their winter quarters, getting in firewood, etc.
    During the month Chief Ocheho and a number of his people came in from Camp Warner, where they had been on a visit, and represented that they had been advised by Col. Elmer Otis, commanding that post, to leave this reservation and come to Warner at once, where he would give them abundant rations of beef and flour. I thought it proper to report the fact to you at once and did so by letter on the 27th inst. Through this influence the Ocheho Snakes have become entirely discouraged, divided and demoralized, and their confidence in the govt. in a measure destroyed. Part of them are not satisfied to leave here: families belonging to this band continued to come in, saying that rather than lose the farms and homes given them here and the labor of two years, they part from their relatives and friends who are foolish enough to throw away all to become beggars around a military post, and not only beggars but criminals and prostitutes. How much longer must the Indian Service suffer from such wicked meddling, and right, justice and virtue be outraged by such influences.
    The other bands of Snakes under Chocktoot, Skidat [Wal-aiks-ski-dat?] and Barcley, Le-lu and the Modocs under Schonchin, George and Charley are all here and doing all they can in forwarding operations.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servant
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge of
                Camp Yainax
Hon. A. B. Meacham, Supt.
    Indian Affairs in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Klamath Agency, Oregon.
    Nov. 4th 1871.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report for the month of October. During the month we have been engaged in preparing quarters for the Indians and in working on the flouring mill. The following changes have been made in employees, to wit:
Resignations   Andrew J. Brown, mill laborer Oct. 1st
John Hanley, mill laborer Oct. 1st
John Stone (Ind.), mill laborer Oct. 1st
James Long (Ind.), mill laborer Oct. 10th
Wm. H. Chapman, teamster Oct. 15th
Appointments [blank] Knight, physician Oct. 15th
Andrew J. Brown, teamster Oct. 1st
John Hanley, teamster Oct. 1st
John Stone, farm laborer Oct. 1st
John Kreitner, mill laborer Oct. 16th
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servt.
        J. N. High
            U.S. Sub-Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        in Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 5th 1871
Sir,
    Yours of Oct. 27th is received. Referring to discontent of Ocheho's people, I fully appreciate your efforts to reconcile them and understand the embarrassment you are laboring under. I will try to have a talk with Genl. Canby at an early day, and if possible arrange matters so they will go quietly.
    I have hurried McKay all summer to get the captives returned. It appears that he finds it very difficult to effect the release because of the old Indian laws about returning the pay for slaves. However, I have dispatched messenger Brown to take charge of all such prisoners or captives as he (McKay) may have released, with orders to report to you without delay.
    They have some eight or ten already and will probably leave the Dalles about tomorrow the 6th inst. which ought to take them in to Yainax by say 16th to 17th.
    I have sent per messenger Brown instructions to you to furnish subsistence to such Pit River Indians as he may have in charge.
    I think you had better issue to Ocheho and Chocktoot all the mules and horses not needed to carry on your agency business proper, taking up vouchers therefor.
    The mule teams have been out two weeks and should reach you before this letter, with blankets, flannels &c. I have ordered McCall to put in at Klamath or Link River [blank] lbs. of flour, which I suppose with your own reserves will meet your wants in that line. On your representation I have supposed a liberal supply of ammunition would obviate the necessity of any large purchase of beef. You will, however, make the best arrangement you can, taking care that you use economy in the purchase of beef. If necessary you ought to issue your work oxen before allowing your Indians to starve. Do the best you can with the means at your command.
    I am somewhat surprised that Col. Otis should still interfere with you; be careful to do your duty with the Indians and give no cause of complaint if possible to avoid.
    You can fully assure Ocheho that all the captives that could be found willing are now en route. On arrival you can issue saddles, horses, mules, ropes, blankets, powder, lead and caps and make a big feast at any cost. Keep them with you if possible.
    I have so much on my hands I do not see how I can visit you this fall. I have abundant confidence in your integrity, enterprise and goodness of heart. I feel you will do the best you can. Let me hear from you occasionally aside from regular monthly report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate, Esq.
    Commissary &c.
        Yainax Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 628-629.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 6th 1871
Sir
    Mr. Simpson proposes to furnish flour and potatoes. It would seem to be good policy to order enough of each to get you through the winter.
    Dry goods, blankets &c. are under contract and will be shipped to you from San Francisco by Mr. Simpson's vessel. Such other articles as are not under contract but on your requisition I will order from San Francisco.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Joel Palmer
        U.S. Ind. Agent
            Siletz
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 629.



Office Siletz Ind. Agency
    Oregon Nov. 6, 1871.
Sir,
    My annual report, submitted in the month of September, has been regarded a sufficient justification for writing a special report for that month.
    The unusual lateness in putting in spring crops, owing to continued rains, together with the damp atmosphere in this locality, kept back the ripening of much of our grain until past the middle of October. About fifteen acres of wheat owned by Indians had ripened and was ready to harvest at the commencement of a ten days' rain; a portion of this was cut, dried by fires, but the greatest portion sprouted whilst standing in the fields.
    As indicated in former reports a large portion of the potato crop has been killed by the early frosts. About thirty-five acres will not yield more than a quarter crop. The estimate of number of bushels in my annual report is nearly one-half too high.
    Very much of the late sown oat crop could not be cured on account of [omission] and is therefore to that extent a loss. My estimate of number of bushels of oats in my annual report is also too high. Anticipating a limited supply I have prohibited the sale of oats by the Indians outside the reservation; a number have a surplus, and as they desire to purchase various articles, claim that I must either purchase at once or allow them to sell elsewhere, but as we have a supply for winter use on hand, I have thus far omitted to purchase any quantity. Considerable feeling is manifested among the Indians on account of the delay in allotment of lands, as quite a number desire to build, but I have discouraged them from doing so until we can designate the particular tract [to] which each can lay claim. Another subject in which they feel much interest is the opening of a wagon road from the agency to Kings Valley, a distance of about twenty-five miles. Kings Valley, you are aware, is in the direction of the Superintendency and the point from which we are now compelled to pack or haul our supplies of flour, and if hauled by the nearest wagon road now accessible, not less than fifty miles.
    The route over which it is proposed to open a road is practicable and not more difficult than other mountainous districts; in fact there is but one mountain to cross and that by no means very difficult.
    If the government will furnish tools, subsistence and superintendents the Indians will do the work. If this road was opened it would very materially lessen the expense of transporting material goods, supplies &c. for this agency; to make it thoroughly effective we ought to have a bridge across the Siletz River at the upper farm, not exclusively on account of this road, but the success of the reservation demands a bridge at this point, for the upper farm is on the south and the agency or home farm is on the north side, and the pack trail to Kings Valley crosses at this point, and for several months in the year this stream is unpassable on account of high water; besides, the current in this mountain stream during the winter renders it dangerous crossing even in small canoes, and a wagon ferry boat would be exceedingly hazardous. At the period of commencing improvements upon this reservation, sixteen years since, a road was opened along this same route so as to admit the passage of ox teams loaded with tools and supplies, but it has been permitted [to] grow up with brush and fill with fallen lumber &c. until but little trace of the road is now visible. I hardly feel warranted in incurring the expense of feeding these people whilst opening the road unless directed so to do, but I regard it of so much importance to the welfare of these Indians and advantage to the government that I do not hesitate recommending its construction at the earliest day practicable.
    In accordance with your instructions I propose starting on Thursday next to collect and bring to the reservation the runaway Indians from this agency, many of whom it is said has been absent several years.
    The petitions and correspondence from citizens along the coast and on our southern boundary forwarded by you seem to demand prompt action, and no time will be lost in making this expedition. I have no means of arriving at an accurate estimate of the number of Indians in that district, but it has been estimated at about two hundred, and among them not a few desperate characters, quite a number who have been brought here several times in vain and who are reported as being determined to resist to the last all efforts to move them to the reservation. I hope however for better results. The season is unfavorable for such removal, and I anticipate great hardship and suffering among these people coming up the coast at this season of the year. We have not the animals on hand to transport them and their effects, nor have we the means to procure transportation, and of course the trip of two hundred miles along the rough coast trail on foot is not likely to be an easy task.
    We are now engaged in putting in our fall or winter wheat. It has been somewhat difficult obtaining the different varieties of seed desired, but I have finally secured the quantity deemed essential, though at considerable expense. The wheat cost one dollar and twenty-five cents per bushel coin, transportation to Elk City one dollar coin per hundred pounds, thence by steamboat to Toledo, thence by rowboat to the depot and from thence by agency teams. We hope by cultivating winter varieties to secure a crop that will ripen earlier than spring wheat, then by securing a flouring mill upon the agency we will be able to bread these people with more regularity and at much less expense than heretofore.
    In selecting seed it has been an object to obtain different varieties so as to test that best suited to climate & soil.
    Since returning from the Indian council at Salem we have collected our people, and each of the delegates attending that council explained to them the object and gave to them a detailed statement of events and impressions, with which all appeared highly pleased, and there is every reason to believe it will eventuate in great good to the Indians, giving them new hopes and more comprehensive views of the advantages of civilization over barbarism.
    The idea of schools is being fully discussed among them. At our council it was resolved to build four school houses, and if lumber could not be obtained to erect frame houses they would build of logs, and were it not for this coast trip, I should proceed at once to carry out that resolve. The council also took action in regard to this Kings Valley road, resolving that if the govt. would feed them, they would do the work. They elected three jurymen to hear & determine differences among themselves, the agent presiding & acting in the capacity of judge, the court at present to meet on each Saturday. Upon the whole, I feel encouraged in the hope of being able to effect a reform among these people, if we can obtain means to give visible evidence of our intentions.
I am sir
    Very respectfully yours
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affrs
        Salem
            Oregon

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 11th 1871
Sir
    I find it will be impossible for me to visit you this fall or to keep the appointment to meet the Modocs. I desire you to meet Capt. Jack at such time and place as you may arrange and say for me, in behalf of the Dept.--
    1st. That he and his people must keep the peace with citizens and not beg and annoy them or by unlawful acts incur the penalties of law.
    2nd. That I have represented the case fairly and impartially to the Dept. at Washington and asked instructions in regard thereto, but have received no answer.
    3rd. That I have recommended to the Dept. to allow them a home at or near the mouth of Lost River (see diagram) with the understanding that they would consent to locate permanently thereon, and become like other reservation Indians. And with the further understanding and agreement on their part that they are to acknowledge the authority of the government and obey its agents or representative.
    I have proposed for the Modocs to be allowed a pro rata of the employee and annuity funds still due on Klamath and Modoc treaty.
    4th. That I will probably visit Washington this winter and will insist on the foregoing propositions, provided I am assured that they (the Modocs) will accept the terms offered and that providing the said action on part of the government they are to remain in present or winter quarters, and not in any way interfere with white settlers. And further, in case of failure to secure homes for them on Lost River, they are to remove either to Klamath or Yainax, or to the new reservation to be made for Snake Indians between Warner and Harney next spring.
    5th. You can assure them of my friendship and sympathy and also my determination to locate them at Modoc Lake if possible, but if not there then on some one of the other three places proposed, that they must and shall have a permanent home somewhere.
    You can make them understand that while the government moves slow, it will do whatever it undertakes. You will say to them that whenever they refuse to obey the officers of the Indian Dept. they are liable to the military authorities, that I saved him last summer by sending yourself and John Meacham to see them. The soldiers were all ready to take them by force and only desisted on my earnest solicitation to try "once more" to settle their troubles without military power.
    No action being ordered on Capt. Jack's case, perhaps none will ever be had. In the matter of Capt. Jim breaking open Mr. Bull's house, he is liable to arrest by the civil authorities and should be examined before a justice of the peace and bound over to next term of court when he would be sent to the state prison for a term of years.
    I leave this matter to your own judgment and discretion. I have no doubt from Jesse Applegate's statements that Capt. Jim ought to and could be convicted; the offense being committed off an agency is amenable to the civil courts.
    You can explain this matter to Capt. Jack, and should you conclude not to arrest Jim you can at least leave it hanging over him.
    It would seem proper for you to invite Sub-Agent High to accompany you and be present at your council and with you make report of the result. You will say to him that I have given this matter in your charge from the fact of your personal knowledge of the whole subject and not intending in any way to slight him or his office. If, however, Mr. High does not find it convenient to go, you will proceed to execute the mission and report the result to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
    Commissary in charge
        Yainax
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 630-631.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 11th 1871
Sir,
    I have this day instructed Commissioner I. D. Applegate to hold a council with the Modocs and also to invite your cooperation. I have given this mission into the immediate charge of Comsy. Applegate for the reason that he is personally acquainted with the Modocs and all the facts and embarrassment attending the whole thing from the beginning, and knowing full well the intricacies connected therewith, is perhaps the only man that can manage these refractory people. You will, I trust, not feel that any slight to you or your position is intended, but if convenient, give him whatever assistance he may require within your power.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
J. N. High Esq.
    U.S. Ind. Sub-Agent
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 631-632.



Springfield, Nov. 13th 71
Mr. Secretary
    Sir
        I take the liberty to write to you to inform you that an Indian came to see me & told me that a Boston man had killed an Indian & that all the Indians all over the state are going to make a break next spring or in the summer. He says the Snake River Indians are making fire & getting [ready] to burn & kill; he says no Boston man knows it & he does not dare to tell it around for they will kill him if they know it. There has been a large immigration here for the past two years of poor people. They are without arms or any [means] of protection. Is there is no military force here of any amount to protect the people. There is one white family that is intimate with the Indians & will join the Indians when they make a break. The woman told me this story also. So I wished to have it published in the papers, but she said they would [hurt] her for telling it & put myself in danger. You will excuse my writing to you, for we are strangers here in Oregon & poor & without a gun of any kind or means to leave & that is the way with the most of the people that have left California to come here. Chinamen have made white people poor. I hope you will pay some attention to this or send some word to the agents.
With respect
    Mrs. Mary Whitton
        Springfield
            Lane County
                Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 1020-1022.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 25th 1871
Sir,
    You will proceed to Grand Ronde Indian Agency as soon as practicable and take charge of the property and business of the Ind. Dept. at said agency.
    Your duties will be those of agent. You will report the condition of affairs at least once per month, and oftener if should matters of importance arise requiring advice.
    Commissary Reinhart, now in charge, has this day been instructed to turn over the affairs of said agency to you.
    No changes in employees need be made at present. If Reinhart desires work, employ him as carpenter.
    Your pay will be $1500 per annum with subsistence at the rate of 75¢ per day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
L. S. Dyar Esq.
    Salem
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 637.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 25th 1871
Sir,
    You will send to Salem without delay one four-horse team for the purpose of conveying agent-elect L. S. Dyar to your agency together with such effects as he may desire.
    You will also proceed to put the Hall house in condition for his use. You will be instructed to transfer the change of all affairs to him on his arrival.
    If you desire to remain in government employ as mechanic you will place yourself subject to Mr. Dyar's orders. He is not agent, but commissary, and until such time as he shall be commissioned will simply act as commissary in charge.
    Give him your counsel and explain the plans for future improvements of building. I will visit your station at an early day and put things in shape.
    Col. Thompson will take charge or at least assist acting agent in making allotment of land. Hoping you may have more peace and pleasure in your future connections with the Ind. Dept. than you have had in the past,
I am, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
S. D. Reinhart, Esq.
    Commissary &c.
        Grand Ronde Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 637-638.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Nov. 27th 1871
Sir
    You will not issue plows or harness to any Indian who has plows or harness now or to others unless a pressing necessity demand it, neither goods of any kinds except cases of actual need until further orders.
    You will arrange for allotment of Indian lands as per treaty, but make no allotment in fact. Col. D. P. Thompson, U.S. Deputy Surveyor, has been employed to assist in making this allotment. You will provide subsistence &c. for him.
    If possible get the bridge up at an early day. Commissary Reinhart has the run of things and will post you up.
    Mr. Woodworth has been instructed to purchase stores &c. for you. You will confer with Thompson about what time he can go to Grand Ronde and arrange to send team for him to avoid expense.
    Allow me to say to you to be agent. Tillotson will finish up the sawmill. You will afford him required assistance and have logs furnished for mill, building and repair of homes. Put Reinhart to work as carpenter if he is willing. I propose visiting you about 8th or 11th inst.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
L. S. Dyar, Esq.
    Commissary &c.
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 638.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    Nov. 30th 1871
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
        Sir:
            I would very respectfully submit the following report for the month of November:
    Work has been vigorously pushed forward during the month; great exertion has been made to get in a condition to meet the rapidly approaching winter. P. W. Caris [and] R. H. Lee, with ox team, and assisted by several Indians, have been busily at work at Klamath hauling saw logs, assisting in running the mill &c. Sub-Agent High has rendered every assistance in his power and done what he could to enable me to get a supply of lumber.
    The eight-mule team arrived with goods on the 15th, since which time both teams have been hauling lumber. With one employee and the help of Indians I have finished up several Indian houses, built a wagon shed, made four thousand boards, repaired the quarters, erected one dwelling house and two stone chimneys and put in eight acres of fall or winter wheat.
    On the 27th messenger Brown arrived with Snake and Modoc captives, thirteen in number. His train was caught in the snow and lost four mules and one horse, reaching here with 14 mules and 2 horses. The whole party were in a suffering condition. Snow commenced falling on the 25th. The whole country is now under snow to the depth of eight inches in the low valleys and one foot to one and one-half foot on high grounds. The Snake Indians are all in. "Ocheho's" band are in a very destitute condition. Not a pound of flour has yet reached this camp. I am afraid of suffering from this delay.
    In accordance with instructions from your office, I sent a special messenger to "Capt. Jack," asking him to set a day to meet me at some white man's house in the Modoc country. The messenger returned with the answer that if I wanted to see "Capt. Jack," "I must come to his camp at Modoc Lake." However after several days spent in sending and receiving messages, "Capt. Jack" agreed to meet me at the Lost River fishery, provided I would bring no white men with me, and would come next day in company with the three messengers he sent to me. I could not regard these demands otherwise than unjust and insolent, yet as it seemed to be the best that could be done under the condition of affairs, early on the morning of the 29th in company with the three messengers I started on my mission. At the fishery I was met by "Capt. Jack" and "Black Jim" with twenty of their young men, nearly every man armed with gun and revolver. I lost no time in opening the council, carefully explaining to "Capt. Jack" all your instructions. After I had concluded I asked him to speak in answer to the several propositions, which he proceeded to do as follows:
    "I want to live in my own country. I will live on the east side of Lost River. People in Yreka tell me this is my country. Through you I want to talk to the President. I and all my people only want to be let alone. My father died here. I will die here. We do not want to kill whites. Soldiers kill for pay. They are not men with hearts. We do not want to live on any reservation. We want no lines drawn around us. We do not want to see your diagram giving us a small place; that place is covered with cattle. We want our country from Pit River to Lower Klamath Lake. White men may have timber, grass and cold water, but the fish, ducks, roots and warm springs we want; we will keep these. This is my talk. I am a good man and never tell a lie."
    He then said, "I am glad you talk about opening farms in our country" & here I ask him if his people will all stay upon a reservation if established in his country. At this time he becomes excited; all his men are talking at once. After a little while he answers that he "wants the freedom of all his country; we want to live in this country, to travel and camp anywhere in it, to live among our white neighbors."
    "Black Jim," carrying his gun around, acted decidedly insolent; he charged white men with accusing the Indians with running cattle into the swamps and killing them for beef.
    The council lasted about three hours; every proposition was answered throughout with about the same speech: "We want to live here in our own country." At the close "Capt. Jack" and all his men firmly promised to keep the peace, to intimidate no one, to maintain at any price a perfect peace with the whites. While this band of desperadoes are allowed to remain in this country and successfully to put at defiance the authority of law, serious danger may be apprehended at any moment. At this season of the year their removal to the reservation could be, comparatively speaking, done with little danger; this whole country is now under snow, the mercury indicating 5 degs. below zero. Allow me to urge upon you the importance of their removal at as early a day as possible.
Very respectfully
    I. D. Applegate
        Commissary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Ashland, Oregon.
    Nov. 30, 1871
Hon. H. W. Corbett
    Washington D.C.
        Dear Sir,
            Seven sets of certified vouchers covering debts incurred during my administration as U.S. sub-Indian agent, unpaid for want of funds, were forwarded last winter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs by Supt. Meacham, who hoped thereby to secure their payment. A copy of the letter which accompanied them is transmitted herewith, also a list of the vouchers. You will observe that most of these debts were contracted from three to four years ago, and the persons to whom these sums are due are of course very anxious for their payment, and I feel satisfied that if you will mention this matter to the Commissioner, and ask that funds be placed to Supt. Meacham's credit for the payment of the said claims, that he will not delay in doing so. If you will be so kind as to attend to this matter you will confer additional obligations on
Your friend and humble servt.
    Lindsay Applegate
   
List
of certified vouchers issued by L. Applegate, U.S. sub-Indian agent for Klamath Agency, unpaid by him for want of funds (triplicate copies sent to Commissioner in Jan. 1871).
       Date     Name       Expense         Amt.
1868, Sept. 30 H. E. Rockfellow For labor $    75.00
Sept. 30 Dave Hill Services as interpreter 291.66
Nov. 20 A. G. Rockfellow Flour 750.00
Sept. 30 O. C. Applegate Services as interpreter 125.00
Dec. 31 Jo. Hood Services as interpreter 125.00
Dec. 31 John Gotbrod Services as farmer 625.81
1869 June 9 O. C. Applegate Traveling expenses     70.00
Total     $2062.47
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 608-611.



Klamath Agency
    December 1st 1871
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir,
            I have the honor to make the following as a report for the month of November 1871.
    During the month we completed four (4) box houses for Indians who had farming lands.
    The work on the grist mill was pushed as rapidly as the force here would admit.
    The annuity goods and supplies arrived and were highly satisfactory.
I am most respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. N. High
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Dec. 19th 1871
Gents
    Please forward to Dayton marked Ind. Dept. Grand Ronde the following
5 doz. handled axes 3½ to 4½
4   "     S. and J. 26 in. hand saw
10 kegs 6d. nails
  3    "     4d.  do.
  1    "     8d.  do. finishing
135 ft. ½ in. rope with one single and one double block 10 in. pat. shears with straps
½ doz. good door locks with different keys
½    "    large ox yokes with bows and keys
1     "        "      "   bows and keys
1 set Spaulding inserted teeth No. 6 for 48 in. saw
30 feet ¼ inch chain for turning logs in sawmill
3 sets of common bench planes
1 spirit level
1 oilstone
1 pr. dividers
1  "   large compasses
2 compass saws
1 bbl. lime
2 whitewash brushes
    Send one bill to "Agent Grand Ronde" and one to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Messrs. Corbett Failing & Co.
    Portland
        Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 647.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Decr. 19th 1871
Sir
    Col. Thompson, surveyor, has been employed me to assist you in making the allotment of lands on Grand Ronde.
    Herewith find the only instructions furnished this office, which together with the copies of treaties in your office, it is hoped may be sufficient guide in making the allotment.
    As arranged during my late visit all matters of dispute about priority of right &c. must be settled by a board consisting of Commissary L. S. Dyar, Col. D. P. Thompson and W. P. Eaton or any other you may designate, if Mr. Eaton is unable to act, and on request of the Indians you will add to said board three Indians who are not interested parties in any matter under consideration by your board.
    Great patience will be required in settling the differences that will arise, and I trust that you will at all times bear in mind that you are laboring for a race who are docile and reasonable at all times when they are made to fully understand the whyfor &c. of any proposition.
    I regret that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs has not furnished this office with more specific instructions in the premises.
    This order to make allotment is in anticipation of orders from the Commissioner, which I have no doubt will be forwarded at an early day; at all events the necessity of immediate action is obvious.
    July 20 last Wm. B. Dunbar was instructed to enroll all the Indians of Grand Ronde Agency, including those of Nestucca and Tillamook.
    Mr. Dunbar reported the enrollment completed, a copy of which you will find in your office.
    It is possible that some changes have occurred in the arrangement of families of which you will take note and correct the same in making statement of allotment.
    You will also be particular to see that the original and present name and tribe together with sex, estimated age and relationship to family with whom they are residing at time of allotment be identified with the number of the particular tract allotted to such person or family.
    In this connection it is necessary in cases of plurality of wives that each man shall designate one woman to be his legal wife and all others to be members of his family, with the privilege of forming other marriage relations, taking with them the lands allotted in their respective names.
    Orphan children who are attached to families must have the same right.
    It would seem proper that so far as possible these people should be allowed to retain their present homes, and to adjust their respective rights among themselves, but it will be necessary in some cases to assume control and adjudicate differences.
    Inasmuch as there are several treaties in force with the Grand Ronde Indians and the complication arising therefrom, I would advise that the treaty with Willamette Valley Indians be adopted as a guide without regard to the other treaties.
    Let the allotment be uniform to all persons entitled to land as per instructions of Commissioner in reply to queries and above referred to.
    Should any number of your people elect to remove to Nestucca and then take lands in severalty, it would seem right and proper to do so. Land will be ordered surveyed at the place above referred to, and possibly also at Salmon River.
    I do not know of any other instructions or laws to guide you except this. In absence of law, do justice fairly and impartially. Law is supposed to be in harmony with justice and common sense, and it is not good law if it is not.
    Fully realizing the difficulties in your way in fulfilling this order, and having confidence in your integrity and ability, I can only say in conclusion push this matter through and furnish this office--at an early day--full report of your doings, together with statistical table of allotments made under the rules and instructions furnished you.
    It may be observed by reading the several treaties that the amount of land stipulated to be allotted differs somewhat in the amounts specified.
    From surveyor's reports it appears that there is some deficiency of lands suitable for Indian settlement, and since the several tribes are mixed up and to avoid confusion I have indicated the treaty with the Indians of the Willamette Valley as the proper one to govern your action.
    Now if the question should be raised by the Umpquas, and they refuse to accept the amount named in the treaty referred to (Willamette Valley), you will propose to the Umpquas to have the excess claimed by them set off to them of timber lots, or otherwise let the whole matter stand for further instructions. Should the question come up at an early day, please [omission] and notify me, and if possible I will go in person and adjust the matter.
    I think however that if you make the proposition to the Indians to settle it before allotment, they will agree to the Willamette treaty, and I will arrange for the acknowledgment on their part of the fulfillment of treaty on the part of the government thereafter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
L. S. Dyar Esq.
    Commissary in charge
        Grand Ronde Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 637-639.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn.  Decr. 21st 1871
Gents
    You will please furnish the castings designated in your letter of 19th inst., viz.: spur gear 2 ft. 5 inches 1¾ inch pitch with pinion to match 14⅝ inch diameter.
    You will please get them out as soon as possible and ship [addressed to] L. S. Dyar, Grand Ronde Agency to Dayton, unless countermanded by Geo. Tillottson, millwright.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs per Woodworth, clerk
Oregon Iron Works
    Portland Ogn.
P.S. You will advise Mr. Dyar at Grand Ronde of shipment when made.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 639.



Department of the Interior,
    General Land Office
        Washington, D.C. Dec. 27, 1871
Hon. Francis A. Walker
    Commsr. of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            I transmit herewith an account for $3121.97 in favor of George Mercer for surveys executed with the Klamath Indian Reservation, Oregon, under his contract of May 2nd 1871. Said amount is payable out of the appropriation of $444,480.00 per act of July 15, 1870.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        Willis Drummond
            Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 616 Oregon Superintendency, 1870-1871, frames 705-706.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    December 30th 1871
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir,
            I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month of December.
    Heavy fall of snow early in the month made it impossible to continue the teams longer on the road hauling lumber from the Klamath mill, leaving at Klamath lumber ready cut for three houses complete, 16 by 24 feet, also near ten thousand feet of assorted lumber.
    All the teams, also the pack mules, were next employed in hauling and packing flour from Link River, bad weather continuing. Near the end of the month the roads became entirely impassable, not, however, until we had delivered at this place near thirty-three thousand pounds of flour.
    Early in December I found it necessary to commence issuing rations of flour and beef to the Piute Snake band of Indians. Making a careful count of Indians destitute of means of support, I found I will be driven to the adoption of the most stringent economy in order to pass the present winter.
    Finding the Klamath and Modoc band with still a small supply of Indian provisions on hand, I have not up to this date issued to them.
    As a matter of economy as well as humanity I have put in good, comfortable condition a building for the old and destitute men and women, those who are unable to make their own support, and who have no people to take care of them. The care of these old people, though an act of humanity, does not seem entirely to please the Indians, as they have always looked upon the old and destitute as not at all worthy of their care and attention.
    The issue of horses, mules, blankets, cloth &c. has given very general satisfaction. All seem much pleased and encouraged. The "pictorial charts" seem to please them very much and excite among them not a little curiosity.
    The arrival of the Snake captives and return to their people was celebrated with a five days' dance and many other demonstrations of joy.
    All are clamorous for a school. I tell them I will urge with all my might upon the Dept. the importance of this matter. I have caused a building to be erected and put in readiness for this purpose, to be used also for council house and church. I hope this subject will receive the early attentions of the Department.
    Reports continue to reach me of acts of insolence and threat of violence from the band of Modoc Indians under "Capt. Jack" and "Black Jim." All peaceable means have so far failed to bring them under control. If you could visit them in person it is thought something of good might be the result.
I am with high respect
    Your humble servant
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary at Camp Yainax
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.





Last revised January 15, 2017