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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1872
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Klamath Agency
    January 2nd 1872
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        Salem Oregon
            Sir
                I have the honor to make the following reports of operations for the month of December 1871.
    The sawmill has been employed in cutting out houses to be erected in the spring for Indians. A hospital has been established for the sick and agents.
    Work on the flouring mill has been pushed as rapidly as the number of mechanics would permit.
    The annuity goods have been issued, the flannel being cut into dresses for the old women and calico purchased for lining.
    The general condition of the reservation is good.
I am most respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. N. High
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Siletz Agency, Oregon
    Jan. 3, 1872.
Sir,
    My absence from the agency collecting fugitive Indians per your instructions prevented me from submitting my monthly report for the month of November at the proper time. I will therefore include it in this my Dec. report. Considerable sickness prevailed among the Indians during the month of November, but no deaths occurred, but in December a visible improvement in their sanitary condition was observed. Just at present, however, quite a number of chronic cases in the adults and some few cases of complaints among children exists.
    For two weeks past a greater number of Indians have been upon the reservation than at any prior time since I assumed charge. I am granting passes to quite a number to go outside & work for the whites during the winter season; also I have given employment to Indians upon the reservation to aid in farming, clearing brush land &c. at the several farms, both for the improvement of the agency and as a means of subsisting themselves and families & as encouragement for them to remain upon the agency.
    Quite a number have desired their tracts of land allotted so they could begin improvements, but as no plots or instructions have been received by which I felt warranted in making allotments, I have deferred doing so. I think, however, it will be well in a few cases to assign land so that improvements may be commenced.
    The absence of lumber or any means to manufacture it upon the reservation continues to be a very serious impediment to improvements, as we are now, since the beginning of the winter season, entirely cut off by high water from obtaining lumber and building material. It is indispensable that we have a sawmill at the agency and at least one bridge across the Siletz River, and we greatly need two bridges, one located upon route to Depot Slough & the other upon the route [to] Kings Valley at or near the upper farm. There should be an appropriation of three or four thousand dollars to aid in building these bridges, & that amount would in a few years be saved to government in lessening the cost of transportation, for with these bridges roads could be constructed that would lessen the distance of travel & open up timbered districts where rails, lumber &c. &c. could be easily obtained & in fact would greatly facilitate the entire business operations of the reservation.
    We shall require a large quantity of building material the present season. As the assignment of land is made to the Indians it will involve the necessity of building houses for most all of the families, besides nearly all of the agency buildings require repairing or must be rebuilt altogether. Nails, doors, windows &c. &c. should be purchased with reference to the character of the improvements to be made. There seems to have been but little or no uniformity heretofore in building, as the sizes of glass, sash, doors &c. comprise nearly all dimensions; hardly any two buildings are alike in this or other respects. In the event that appropriations are made by the present Congress for mills, school houses, church, agency buildings &c. it might be well to purchase under contract in San Francisco and ship to the agency direct by way of Newport instead of the tedious & expensive route by way of Portland and Corvallis.
    We are now compelled to supply quite a number of the destitute Indian families with subsistence, as many of them are without any kind of food and are unable to obtain anything with which to subsist upon.
    Several of the Indians who have raised a surplus of oats & potatoes have desired to sell them at Newport & other places as they usually do in such cases, but as the agency will need these articles I have prohibited them from carrying them away; however, the absence of funds with which to purchase their products induces them to insist upon their right to sell where they can obtain an equivalent and enable them to purchase in return such articles as they desire for winter use. I have during the winter slaughtered several head of the old and crippled cattle and issued them to the Indians as they were unfit for service, a number of them being blind & so old they could not masticate any hay and would inevitably have perished before spring, and there are a number of others that can best be used for that purpose when an emergency requires their issue.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Commissioner of
    Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Oregon Jan. 7th 1872
Gen. U.S. Grant
    President of U.S.A.
        Mr. President
            I have something to say to you concerning my people.
    I was the head chief of the Umpqua tribe, and as such I made a treaty with Supt. Palmer sixteen years ago, and in agreement with that treaty I brought my people here, and have kept my part of that treaty good up to this day.
    I lived on a good farm in the Umpqua Valley, had a good house and barn; I also had ten good horses and one fine stallion and sixty head of cattle. I gave up all my property with the agreement that the government would pay me for it all; up to this day I have never received so much as one "bit" for that property. I have now been on this reservation sixteen years, and during that time I have seen poor white men come here as officers and stay a few years and go away rich--while I and all my people have always been growing poorer. We at first had a great deal of money come here in agreement with the terms of our treaty. But my people have never got much benefit from that money. Our Superintendent and agents
have got all of it, while I have seen my people die for the want of food, just as our horses die in the winter when they have nothing to eat.
    The men you have sent here for our officers have not only stolen our money but they have violated our women and scattered diseases among us which have reduced our numbers from thousands to hundreds. Our schools have done us but little good. Our children have not learned to read and write; our young men and women have not learned to work because the persons you have appointed to attend to these things have not cared for anything but to get our money and then leave us in a worse condition than they found us. It seems like we have been a long time in a dark night; we can't see anything--a heavy cloud has settled down upon us and we seem to be lost.
    A few years ago we received a Superintendent Mr. Meacham--and he came among us--and we thought he was just like all the rest. But he called a meeting of the Indians and gave us a good talk. This was something new. When we all gathered around the council house he came out and gave us his hand and talked good to us and that made us feel like he was our friend. He stayed with us two days, and when he went way all my people talked about him and called him a good man.
    He has made us several visits and has promised us many things--and everything he has promised he has fulfilled. He promised us a mill, and now we have as good a mill as anybody. Our lands have all been surveyed. Our annuities are being issued, & we have the promise of a good school for our boys & girls--and we think we will soon see a good school going on if our present Superintendent and agent can be allowed to remain with us.
    We have a new agent, Mr. Dyar; he makes a good impression on our hearts and we want him left alone. With Mr. Meacham as Supt. and Mr. Dyar as agent we think we will have someone to show us a good road to travel. Our hearts have all grown warm with the prospect which opens before us with these officers to guide us, and we want them to remain with us until our treaties expire, and then we think we shall be able to manage our own affairs. But now just as we see a bright day dawning upon us, we are informed that we are to have a new Supt. & agent, and this brings back all our former darkness--our hearts die within us and we all feel sick. We don't want any change--we want our officers that we have now to remain with us. We want to see our children educated and living like men and women, and we know that our present officers have done more for us than all our former Superintendents and agents combined.
    This then is our constant prayer, that Mr. Meacham be left with us to the end of our treaty. If you will not grant us this request, the only one we ever made, then take the balance of our money and give it to whom you please, but don't send us any more officers as agents to suck out what little life we have, but just let us alone to die in the woods like the wolf with no friend to put a blanket around our cold bodies. We don't want any new men to come among us--keep them away, and if you will not let us have those we know and love don't give us any.
    We feel as if all hope is gone when our present Supt. is gone, and if you take him away, grant us this one request. Keep what little money is due us from the government and pay it to your cultus ["worthless"] men to stay away from us, and in a few years more your cruel treatment will have laid under sod the last blood of our race. But in the great spirit world we will see you with your unjust deeds against us.
    I will say no more. If I could write I would say a good many things, but this is enough if it gives Mr. Meacham back to us as our Supt., and if not it is no use to write. But I am the head chief of this reservation, and I speak the feeling of all my people, and that is give us Supt. Meacham or don't give us anybody.
          his
Louis X Nepissank
         mark
Head chief of Grand Ronde
   
Jo X Winchester--chief of Umpquas
Jo X Hutchins--chief of Santiams
Dave X Yats-kow--chief of Wapatos
Jim X Bruce--chief of Rogue Rivers
Jim X Pierce--Leading Man
Jo X Apperson--chief of Oregon Citys
Peter X McKay--Leading Man
Peter X Sulkey--chief of Yamhills
Henery X Kilker--chief of Molels
Jim X Rose--chief of Umpqua
James X Kinney--chief of Wapato
Sam X Patch--chief of Umpqua
   
State of Oregon      )
County of Marion   )  ss.
    I, C. H. Hall, resident physician at Grand Ronde Agency, do solemnly swear that the contents of this paper are the free and voluntary expressions of the persons whose names are thereto annexed.
C. H. Hall
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 12th day of January A.D. 1872.
Seth. R. Hammer
    Notary Public
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 218-223.
   



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 9th 1872
Sir
    In view of my threatened removal, I dare not order the allotment of land on Grand Ronde Reservation. Thompson is ready and willing, but it would compromise me at this juncture and hence I must abandon the idea for present, and perhaps forever. You will explain to your Indians that it is not our fault, that we regret the delay, but will (if not removed) have it done at an early day.
    My to be successor, T. B. Odeneal, has called on me and talks well, says he will do the best he can, should he be appointed to help the Indian along.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
L. S. Dyar Esqr.
    Acting Commissary
        Grand Ronde Agency Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 652.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 25th 1872
Sir
    Enclosed please find petition from citizens of Jackson County, Oregon, for removal of Modoc Indians.
    I would respectfully ask that the said Indians be removed to Yainax Station, Klamath Reservation, by the military force now at Fort Klamath. I would also suggest that sufficient force be sent on this mission to ensure success, say 50 men. I have ordered arrangement made to subsist the Modocs of the place above named, and have instructed I. D. Applegate, commissary at Yainax, to confer with commander of post and to accompany said expedition if agreeable to your dept. Now if it is not consistent with your views on this subject to comply with the above request, I would respectfully ask that a military force of the number designated be placed subject to requisition of Commissary Applegate for the purpose above stated. Winter is the only time to successfully operate against those Indians.
    I regret very much the necessity of this action, but the peace and welfare of white settlers and Indians demand that it be done promptly.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Canby
    Comdr. Dept. Columbia
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 655.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 438-439.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 27th 1872
Sir
    I would respectfully call attention to matters pertaining to Modoc Indians. In my third annual report previously, a full history of the trouble had been submitted to your office.
    The case now stands that the Modocs, numbering 300 souls, belong by treaty to Klamath, but have not resided within the limits of the reservation except perhaps three months, beginning of '70.
    They were ill treated and abused by the Klamath Indians, and the sub-agent failing to protect them, they vacated. Peace has been disturbed and danger seems imminent, and on a strong petition of the white settlers of the Modoc country I have made a requisition on the commander of the Dept. of the Columbia for assistance--copy of which is herewith transmitted.
    If my action is not approved, it would seem necessary to countermand by telegraph, otherwise the attempt to arrest the leaders will be made and war may ensue.
    I have suggested in my annual report an alternative, but it has not received any attention known to this office. I should regret bloodshed, but I am powerless to prevent it without I was authorized to locate these people on a new home.
    They steadily declare their determination to resist any effort to remove them.
    I had a consultation with Hon. F. R. Brunot on this subject and had hoped to avert any serious actions until the whole matter could have been adjusted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 657.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 435-437.  A copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 709-710.



Department of the Interior,
    Office of Indian Affairs,
        Washington, D.C., Jany. 27th 1872
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge receipt, by your reference of the 10th instant, of a letter from Messrs. Wagner, McCall & Co., concerning their account for 7500 pounds flour delivered at the Klamath Agency, Oregon in 1869, amounting to $525.00.
    In reply I have to say that the voucher has been examined and found to be correct, but at present there are no funds on hand that can be spared to pay it. When the next appropriation for the Indian Service in Oregon shall have been made, steps will be taken to have the amount due on said voucher paid without unnecessary delay.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        F. A. Walker
            Commissioner
Hon. H. W. Corbett
    U.S. Senate
        Washington
            D.C.
   

Ashland, Oregon
    June 19th 1872
To Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Sir
    Enclosed we send you a communication from yourself to Hon. H. W. Corbett, with his endorsement. The communication explains itself.
    If the appropriation is available please forward draft for the amount to our address, Ashland, Oregon.
We have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servts.
            Wagner, McCall & Co.
   
Messrs. W. & McC. & Co.
    Gents
        Send this letter about the 1st June to the Comr. Indian Affairs and they will remit you a draft for the money. I regret that it must be delayed until then. I am confident it will then be paid.
Yours truly
    H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 752-756.


Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 29th 1872
Sir
    I have this day made requisition upon Surveyor Genl. Odell for a "tracing" of exterior boundaries of Klamath, and will forward the same immediately on receipt thereof.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Canby
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 657.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Jany. 29th 1872
Sir
    I find no authority for marrying white men to Indian women and could not authorize such action. It would be taking too much risk. If you choose to grant license it is on your own judgment.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Joel Palmer
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz, Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 659.



Yoncalla, Oregon
    Feb. 1st 1872
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
Dear Sir:
    I presume upon the urgency of the case as my excuse for again troubling you about the Modoc Indians now living on Modoc Lake.
    I am, as you know, much in favor of treating Indians with forbearance and humanity, and as there were some just grounds for the discontent of this band of Modocs, I fully approved of your purpose last summer to place these Indians on a reservation to themselves. But it seems such an arrangement has even more difficulties in, and objections to, its execution than was then considered.
    If these Indians were of the quiet, orderly disposition that the majority of Oregon Indians are, these difficulties would not exist; there would be less opposition to the measure from the white settlers of that country, and they would in the end become reconciled to it. But that they are not obedient, quiet and orderly is proven by their absence from the reservation assigned them.
    Having broken away from the reservation in defiance of the agent and the military, and conciliatory means alone resorted to to induce them to return, they have misunderstood your forbearance and humanity, and think your policy dictated by weakness and fear, and the impunity with which they commit aggressions and levy "blackmail" upon the settlers encourages and confirms that belief.
    From advices from that quarter, their arrogance and impudence have been greater than ever before, and the patience and forbearance of the settlers most inclined to peace is well-nigh exhausted. The Indians help themselves to what they want when by intimidation they fail to obtain permission. Instead of a more friendly feeling growing up between the races, the hatred of the one and the assurance of the other is by this conduct continually intensified, and open hostilities may at any day commence between them. This state of things discourages new settlers and keeps those in the country in a feverish state of uneasiness and alarm, and instead of their increased numbers driving the Indians into better behavior, the numbers of Indians are being constantly recruited by the bad and discontented fleeing to them from the neighboring reservations, and they being concentrated in a body, they actually hold the settlements on Lost and Link rivers at their mercy, and, being perfectly aware of this fact, they use it to their own advantage.
    Those Indians sold the country they now forcibly occupy, and years ago received their part of the payment. If the humanitarians who now control Indian Affairs have no regard for the lives of white men, women and children, there are reasons for the removal of these Indians to their reservations which may be in accordance with their tender sympathy for the welfare of the Indians themselves. While a body of independent and defiant Indians makes a "city of refuge" within a day's travel of two reservations, it will scarcely be possible to introduce or enforce the discipline so necessary and proper a preliminary to the pious and innocent life the Indians are to live under their auspices.
    "Moral suasion" may not be a sufficient restraint upon the vicious red, any more than upon the vicious white, man; some kind of physical punishment must be the penalty of crime, at least until the moral lessons have had time to bear fruit; such impious characters, until they learn to be "meek under chastening," will fly to the "city of refuge" rather than quietly submit to lie hanged, whipped or otherwise punished for their crimes, hence those most in need of the lessons of the moral teacher will be out of his reach.
    Poets and moralists agree that the "untutored savage" is also a "wild man," and like other wild animals they chafe and fret under any kind of restraint; they will prefer the liberty and license of the "city of refuge" to even the mild restraints of a pious life on the reservation, and the consequence will be that the "city of refuge" will overflow with inhabitants and the reservations desolate.
    The people of the city of refuge, like those of other cities, must be fed and clothed. The white settlers in its vicinity, having by their stock and farming operations diminished the spontaneous productions of the land, will have to pay tribute to the city. The collectors of the tax may be rude, rough men (red though they be) who are not likely to observe those formalities which reconcile "tame" people to be robbed in the name of the law.
    Some settlers, not having the fear of God before their eyes, nor appreciating the just right of the red man to rob them, may try to prevent the tax collector from driving off their horses or butchering their cattle. This will cause strife between the red man and the white, and both wicked white and innocent red men also may come to grief in the scuffle.
    In tenderness, therefore, to the poor Indians, they had better be removed out of harm's way, and the city of refuge on Modoc Lake broken up.
    If this is not done before spring opens it cannot be done this year. As well expect to collect the coyotes out of that region of rock, mountain and morass, as the Indians in the summer season.
    No kind of force can pursue as fast as they can retreat, and the military force on the Pacific is insufficient to hunt them out and rout them from their fastnesses. And as it would be with the red man a struggle for life and liberty, many of their valuable lives might be unavoidably taken in the struggle, and some white man may be killed who are not deserving of our sympathy, or in as much need of being under the benign influence of the gospel of peace as the Indians themselves.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Jesse Applegate
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 710-716.




Grand Ronde, Or.
    Feb. 2nd 1872
Hon. H. W. Corbett
    U.S. Senator
        Sir
            I have just learned through Mr. T. B. Odeneal of your kind interest in my behalf resulting in my appointment as sub-agent at Klamath. I am very much gratified to know that you are not unmindful of the manner in which I have been bandied about for the last few years. Allow me to tender you my sincere thanks. I hope in some measure to be able to cancel the obligation under which this places me.
    If it is not presuming too much, I would call your attention to the propriety of making Klamath a full agency, in view of its being one of the most important on the coast.
Yours respectfully
    L. S. Dyar
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 77-78.



Department of the Interior,
    General Land Office
        Washington, D.C. Feb. 2nd 1872.
Hon. Francis A. Walker
    Commsr. of Indian Affairs
        Sir:--
            I have the honor to transmit herewith an account amounting to $2,283.60 in favor of David P. Thompson for surveys executed in the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, Oregon, under contract dated July 8, 1871, payable out of the appropriation of $4000--act of March 3, 1871.
    I also send herewith copy of copy of a letter dated Oct. 2, 1871 addressed to the Sur. General of Oregon by A. B. Meacham, Supt. of Indian Affairs, in which he recommends an increased allowance per mile for establishing section lines. The contract on our files stipulates that Mr. Thompson shall receive $10 per mile for such lines.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        Willis Drummond
            Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 246-248.



Office Siletz Indian Agency
    February 5th 1872
Sir,
    Since
my last report, nothing of importance has transpired upon the agency worthy of mention. The Indians are peaceable and well disposed and for the past month have occasioned me no great amount of trouble, although it is very tedious settling their little difficulties.
    During the month of January I divorced two couples of the Indians when there were plurality of wives, and two couples have been married in accordance with the laws & customs of the whites. I anticipate less difficulties in inducing the great majority of the Indians to content themselves with one wife than formerly, as none of them are obtaining a plurality of wives & many who now own more than one woman are willing to dispense with them when they have the assurance that they will have them located near them, where they can look after and provide for them when land is allotted them in severalty.
    I am happy to state that the sanitary condition of the Indians is much better than for any month since my assuming charge, considering the number of Indians on the agency; but little sickness has prevailed among them, and but one death has occurred, and that a child.
    I am inducing quite a number of the Indians to make preparation for the coming allotment of lands, and when the weather will permit they are making rails, clapboards &c. & cleaning up brush & stump lands, and to such as are so engaged and are destitute of provisions I am issuing flour, potatoes & other provisions.
    Although the past month has been exceedingly stormy, but one animal perished from starvation, and that an ox too old to masticate dry food. One milch cow was accidentally killed from being tangled in a rope, being tied in a barn and sheltered from the storm.
    Owing to the great fall of rain, we are unable to begin our spring plowing, the ground being full of water.
    We are greatly in need of mills & bridges, but I deem it unnecessary to reiterate my suggestions so frequently made in regard to appropriations for these purposes.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Or.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Siletz Ind. Agency Feb. 5th 1872
Dear Sir
    I desire to call your attention to the subject of appropriations for the Indian Service in the Oregon Superintendency. It appears to me that the amount intended for each agency should be set forth specifically and not embodied in one general fund under the head of incidental expenses. There are several agencies in Oregon provided for under treaty stipulations, and others provided for under the head of incidental expenses. From this fund is also drawn large amounts to cover expenses incidental to those agencies where treaties exist, and emergencies often arise demanding the expenditure of large sums unprovided by treaty, and when drawn from this fund leaves that amount less to be disbursed upon those agencies relying wholly upon that appropriation. Such seems to have been the case the past season for instance. A general council was held at Salem lasting for eight or nine days. [See entry of October 10, 1871.] The benefit if any applicable alike to all the agencies and sub-agencies, for three delegates and the agent from each were instructed to be in attendance. The expense of which was taken from this fund, so also the expense of collecting vagrant Indians, many of whom were not members of the Oregon tribes. We are informed that there are no funds on hand applicable to the disbursements upon this agency, and we are considerably behind in meeting liabilities incurred in the service, and I think no impartial persons familiar with the condition of these Indians and their surroundings will charge us with extravagance.
    I have no means of knowing the amounts allotted in this agency during the past years, but from the dilapidated condition in which I found it, the amount must have been limited, for we have no sawmill that can be used, no flouring mill, no office, no school houses, no church, no council house, and the buildings are all old and dilapidated. Teams and as a general thing tools are broken down and worn out. Nearly all the fencing requires rebuilding. The fields are more than ordinarily foul; much of it has been thrown open to common [use], and its cultivation abandoned on that account. Very little of it could be plowed without first mowing and removing a heavy growth of sorrel, weeds and briars. The Indians have very little stock that can be put to service, nor have they wagons or tools to any extent. Nor have we on hand the requisite number of teams or farming implements to meet the demands of the service.
    This of course is not the proper channel through which to present estimates for appropriations. I do not know the amount asked for by Supt. Meacham. I know that I omitted to set forth clearly all the requirements of the service at this agency in my annual report. I do not expect to obtain all that we ought to have, but I do hope that the amount may be set forth in such form that it cannot be applied elsewhere.
    We desire that there should be a specific amount for building a sawmill, flouring mill, office, council house or church. The establishment of a manual labor school, buildings for three day schools, the erection of agency dwelling, the erection and repairs of agency buildings. The erection and support of a hospital, a tin, harness and saddler and shoe shops with the necessary material and fixtures. The purchase of grain thresher and farming implements, the purchase of teams and stock for Indians. The construction of two bridges across the Siletz River and a general incidental fund to meet the exigencies of the service. If the amount for the agency were to be aggregated we might expend the amount upon those objects for which we stand in greatest need.
    With liberal appropriations for the foregoing objects we could in a few years make the agency self-sustaining.
I am sir very
    Respectfully yours
        Joel Palmer
            Ind. Agent
Honl.
    H. W. Corbett
        U.S. Senator
            W.C. D.C.
   

Washington Mar. 7, 1872
Hon. Comr. Indn. Affairs
    I enclose a letter just recd. from Genl. Palmer, agent at Siletz. The Indians upon this reservation are dependent upon our government. Treaties were made but not ratified, I believe. I think they ought to have an appropriation for this agency and ask you to make such recommendation as you think right. Their saw and grist mill have become almost useless, and the agency buildings are a perfect shame.
Yours truly
    H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 79-84.



Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon February 7th 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco Cal.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit for the information of the Major General commanding the Division a copy of the correspondence in relation to the reported troubles with the Modoc Indians referred to in my report of the 3rd instant. The first is the complaint of J. M. True and Andrew J. Barrett, transmitted by the commanding officer at Fort Klamath, with copies of the letters to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and to the commanding officer [at] Fort Klamath, and the second is a communication from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, enclosing a petition from citizens of Jackson County, Oregon and asking for a force to compel these Indians to return to the reservation, with copies of letters to the Superintendent and to the commanding officer at Fort Klamath.
    The treaty with the Klamaths, Modocs and Yahooskin Snakes was made on the 14th of October 1864 and approved by the Senate with certain amendments on the 2nd of July 1866, but not finally ratified until the 10th of December 1869. This long delay made the Indians who were parties to the treaty very suspicious, and I have been informed by the Superintendent that when the treaty as amended by the Senate was interpreted and explained to them, Captain Jack, the present leader of the troublesome Modocs, protested that it did not represent what they had agreed to. He was, however, convinced by the testimony of the other chiefs and finally assented to it. When they were established on the reservation, they went to work with a good deal of interest to build cabins and enclose ground for cultivation, but were so much annoyed by the Klamaths that they complained to the local agent, who, instead of protecting them in their rights, endeavored to compromise the difficulty by removing them to another location. At this point the same difficulties recurred and a third selection was made. The Modocs then abandoned the reservation, alleging that the last point selected was a trap to place them in the power of their enemies, the Klamaths. These changes were made without the concurrence of the Superintendent, and I believe did not come to his knowledge until after the Modocs had fled from the reservation. All subsequent attempts to induce them to return have failed.
    In the summer of last year and in consequence of complaints against these Indians the Superintendent sent commissioners to confer with them (see my reports of September 2nd and November 3rd 1871) who authorized the Modocs to remain where they then were until the Superintendent would see them. This has been understood as a settlement of the questions until some permanent arrangement could be made for them, and unless they have violated some subsequent agreement, I do not think that the immediate application of force as asked for would be either expedient or just. They should at least be notified that a new location has been selected for them and provision made for their wants. They should also be allowed a reasonable and definite time to remove their families and fully warned that their refusal or failure to remove to the reservation within the appointed time would be followed by such measures as may be necessary to compel them.
    I am not surprised at the unwillingness of the Modocs to return to any point of the reservation where they would be exposed to the hostilities and annoyances they have heretofore experienced (and without adequate protection) from the Klamaths, but they have expressed a desire to be established upon Lost River, where they would be free from this trouble, and the Superintendent informed me last summer that he would endeavor to secure such a location for them.
    In no other respect are the Modocs entitled to much consideration, and although many of the complaints against them have been found to be greatly exaggerated, they are, without being absolutely hostile, sufficiently troublesome to keep up a constant feeling of apprehension among the settlers.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        E. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
   

Endorsement.
Hd. Qtrs. Mil. Div. of the Pacific
    San Francisco Feby. 21st 1872.
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General concurring in the opinion of Genl. Canby that no action should be taken toward a forcible removal of the Modoc Indians until the question of their permanent location is settled.
J. M. Schofield
    Major General Commanding
   

Enclosure 1.
Link River Oregon
    2nd January 1872.
Maj. Jackson
    Comdg. Fort Klamath
        Sir:
            The bearer of this is Mr. Charles True. Mr. True resides on Lost River near the Modoc rendezvous, and owns a land claim with stock. The Modoc Indians that have been formerly so troublesome to the settlements in that vicinity have of very recent date attempted to impose on Mr. True, and also others in that immediate neighborhood to my certain knowledge. If you can render us any service in having those threatening marauders removed, we would be under great obligations. We all feel an equal interest in having those Indians removed from our settlements and placed upon the reservation, where they belong. Any statement that Mr. True makes I will vouch for, as I am personally acquainted for several years with him and know him to be a man of his word.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Andrew J. Burnett
   

Enclosure 2.
State of Oregon       )
County of Jackson   )  ss.
    Personally appeared before me the undersigned this 3rd day of January A.D. eighteen hundred and seventy-two one J. M. True, of Lost River, Oregon, who deposed and says that certain Indians of the Modoc tribe came to his (True's) house and knocked down the fences which enclosed his hay stacks and turned their ponies onto the hay and also took hay away to their wigwams, and also fed hay to their ponies, carrying it away nightly for several nights. They also stole household utensils from Mr. Doten and halters from Mr. Whitney; both of the aforesaid parties living near Mr. True. They also ordered Mr. True not to take away any hay belonging to him (True) and demanded money from Mr. True. Captain Jack, chief of the Modocs, threatened the lives of several white men, among others Messrs. Ball and Blair, living near Lost River, Oregon. Mr. True also believes that there is a likelihood of those threats being carried into effect.
    Sworn to and subscribed before me at Fort Klamath, Oregon, this 3rd day of January 1872.
J. M. True
W. L. Clark
    1st Lieut. 23rd Infantry Adjutant
   

Enclosure 3.
Headquarters, Fort Klamath, Oregon
    January 10th 1872.
A. A. A. General
    Dept. of the Columbia
        Portland Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to forward herewith enclosed affidavit of Mr. True in relation to Indian disturbances, also letter of Mr. Burnett.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            G. G. Hunt
                Major 1st Cavalry
                    Comdg. Post
   

Enclosure 4.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon January 25th 1872
The
    Commanding Officer
        Fort Klamath Oregon
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 10th instant, transmitting affidavit and letter relative to depredations committed by Captain Jack's band of Modoc Indians, and to ask if you have any further information regarding the report.
    The Commanding General desires that in forwarding papers of this character you add such information as you may have as to the reliability of the statements and all facts connected with them.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A. A. A. G.
   

Enclosure 5.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon January 25 1872
The
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        State of Oregon
            Salem Oregon
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to enclose for your information a copy of a letter from the commanding officer Fort Klamath, forwarding statements relative to depredations committed by Captain Jack's band of Modoc Indians, and to ask you to please furnish him, if you can, a tracing of the recent survey of the Klamath Reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A. A. A. G.
   

Enclosure 6.
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon
        January 25, 1872.
General Canby
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
        Portland, Oregon
Sir:
    Enclosed please find petition from citizens of Jackson County, Oregon, for removal of Modoc Indians.
    I would respectfully ask that the said Indians be removed to Yainax station, Klamath Reservation, by the military force now at Fort Klamath. I would also suggest that sufficient force be sent on this mission to ensure success, say, 50 men. I have ordered arrangements made to subsist the Modocs at the place above named and have instructed E. D. Applegate, commissary at Yainax, to confer with commander of post, and to accompany said expedition, if agreeable to your department.
    Now, if it is not consistent with your views on this subject to comply with the above request, I would respectfully ask that a military force of the number designated be placed subject to requisition of Commissary Applegate for the purpose above stated. Winter is the only time to successfully operate against these Indians.
    I regret very much the necessity of this action, but the peace and welfare of white settlers and Indians demand that it be done promptly.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
   
Enclosure 7.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
General Canby
    Commanding Dept. Columbia
    We, the undersigned citizens of Lost Link River, Klamath, and Tule Lake country, after suffering years of annoyance from the presence of the Modoc Indians, who, through the delay of the Indian and Military Departments, have not been removed to the reservation, as required by the treaty stipulations of 1865, entered into by the authorized agents of the government and the chiefs of the Modoc Indians, by which all their lands were ceded to the United States except those embraced in the reservation, as stipulated in said treaty, but notwithstanding all the conditions of said treaty have been faithfully performed on the part of the government, it is a well-known fact that a factious band of the Modocs, of about three hundred, who were parties to that treaty, have, through the influence of citizens of an adjoining state, who have been engaged in an illicit traffic with them, been instigated to set the authority of the government at defiance and to utterly refuse compliance with their treaty stipulations by not going on the reservation, and since there is no longer any conflict between the Indians and Military Department, such as prevented Sub-Agent Applegate from bringing these Indians on the reservation, we therefore make this earnest appeal to you for relief, knowing you have the cavalry force we petitioned to be sent to Fort Klamath two years ago for this specific purpose at your command. We ask you to use for the purpose for which it was procured that the departments, both civil and military, have not been kept ignorant of the fact that we have been repeatedly on the verge of a desolating Indian war with this band of outlaws who, by your delay to enforce the treaty, have been led 'to despise rather than respect the authority of the government; their long-continued success in defying its authorities has emboldened them in their defiant and hostile bearing until further forbearance on our part would cease to be a virtue, that in many instances our families have become alarmed at their threats to kill and burn until we were compelled to remove them for safety across the Cascade Mountains, thereby suffering great loss of time and property. That the agent at Klamath and commissary at Yainax, during this long delay growing out of this unfortunate conflict of departments, have done all they could to prevent war and bring about an amicable adjustment of our troubles we have no reason to doubt, but we ask now, since so much conflict exists, shall a petty Indian chief with 20 desperadoes and a squalid band of three hundred miserable savages any longer set at defiance the strong arm of the government, driving our citizens from their homes, threatening their lives and destroying their property?
    Their removal to the reservation in the winter season may be easily accomplished by anyone acquainted with them and their country and will not require more force than can be furnished from Fort Klamath. We recommend Com. A. D. Applegate of Yainax to the consideration of the Department as a suitable man to take charge of any forces or expedition looking to their removal. His long connection with the Indian Department and thorough knowledge of them and their country, and all facts connected with this whole Modoc question, and, as a stock raiser equally interested with us in their removal, point him out to us as the right man in the right place in charge of this much-needed expedition for the removal of this band of Modocs to their reservation, for which we, your petitioners, will ever pray.
Signed by
    J. N. Shook Simpson Wilson
Samuel Colver Thomas Wilson
James H. Callahan Frank Hefling
David P. Shook James Vinson
I. J. Brattain G. S. Miller
H. Duncan Edwin Crook
D. C. Eligor A. C. Modic
Joseph Langell O. H. Swingle
C. A. Miller Willis Hall
I. C. Turnidge E. Hall
G. B. Van Ripser H. Hall
P. H. Springer I. T. Heart
J. V. Kulm Joseph Seeds
H. Berlmam John E. Naylor
Thomas Callan George Vuen
G. W. Rambo Edward Overton
Drury Davis William Roberts
W. Dingman John Gotbrod
John Clear W. Hicks
W. H. Miller O. A. Stearns
Isaac Harris O. L. Stearns
George Thomas John Fulkerson
   
Enclosure 8.

Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon February 5 1872
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon
        Salem Oregon
Sin:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of January 25th in relation to the Modoc Indians, and also of the sketch of the Klamath Reservation as recently surveyed, which reached me on Saturday.
    Referring to the report of the commissioners appointed by you to confer with the Modoc chiefs and transmitted in your letter of August 25th 1871, I find it stated as the result of that conference: "Under the circumstances we did not think it advisable to talk very much with them further than to advise them not to do anything that would have a tendency to cause any collision between them and the settlers, to remain where they were until they saw you, not to resist the military under any circumstances, and to pay no attention to the talk of irresponsible parties." This has been understood as a temporary settlement of the question, and as authorizing them to remain for that time at the point where they were found by the commissioners. Unless some different arrangement has since been made, I think that it would not. be expedient or politic to send a military force against these Indians, or at least until notified of the determination of the government of the point at which they are to be established, and fully warned that they will be treated as enemies if within a reasonable and specified time they do not establish themselves as required. I shall be pleased to hear from you fully upon this subject, and as early as may be convenient, and in the meantime will send a copy of your communication to the commanding officer at Fort Klamath, to take all necessary measures to protect the settlers against hostilities from the Modocs, and to be prepared to aid in their removal to the point indicated in your communication, should forcible means become necessary.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
   

Enclosure 9.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon February 6th 1872
The
    Commanding Officers
        Fort Klamath Oregon
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to enclose for your information a copy of a communication from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, in relation to the Modoc Indians, and of the General's letter to him in reply thereto. He is not disposed to use military force, as desired by the Superintendent, until satisfied of its full necessity, and after all other proper means have been resorted to and failed to accomplish the desired result, and in relation to which you will hereafter be instructed. In the meantime he directs that all necessary measures be taken to protect the settlers in the vicinity of your post from the hostilities of these Indians, if any such are threatened, and that any complaints of depredations or other acts of hostilities committed by these Indians be at once, and as fully as possible, investigated and the results reported.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A. A. A. G.
Adjutant General's Office
    Washington March 11, 1872
        Official copies
            E. D. Townsend
                Adjutant General
To the Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
   

War Department
    Washington City
        March 19, 1872.
To the Honorable
    The Secretary of the Interior
Sir:
    This Department is in receipt of reports and a voluminous correspondence in relation to apprehended and reported trouble with the Modoc Indians forwarded by the Commanding General of the Department of the Columbia, in which arises a question as to their removal from their present location to another and more permanent one.
    Copies of all the papers bearing upon this matter have been prepared and are herewith enclosed for your information and with a view to be enabling the proper officials to take intelligently such action as seems to be demanded in the interest of the government and of the Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. W. Belknap
            Secretary of War
   

Enclosures
Headquarters Fort Klamath Oregon
    February 18, 1872
A. A. A. General
    Dept. of the Columbia
        Portland Oregon
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of Feby. 6, 1872, enclosing copy of letter of Hon. A. B. Meacham to Genl. Canby, and the General's reply relating to the Modoc Indians.
    At present these Indians are not disturbing the settlers or giving any trouble. The instructions as given in your letter I will make every effort to carry out. If any complaints of depredations or other acts of hostility are committed by these Indians I will at once fully investigate them and report the result.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant,
            G. G. Huntt
                Major 1st Cavalry
                    Comdg.Post
   

Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon, February 19, 1872
Sir:
    Gov. Grover has this day called on me and is very solicitous about Modoc matters. I have no further official information, but from private letters learn that the white settlers are making preparations for self-defense. I can only renew my recommendation that the Modoc chief and its headmen be placed under arrest at Ft. Klamath.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. E. R. S. Canby
    Commanding &c.
        Portland, Ogn.
   

State of Oregon
    Executive Office
        Salem Feby. 20 1872
Maj. Genl. Ed. R. S. Canby
    Commanding Dept. Columbia
Sir:
    I have the honor to enclose herewith a petition from the citizens of the Link River country in Jackson Co., Oregon, referring to the disturbed condition of the Indians in that region and asking my influence to assist them in procuring relief from threatened Indian hostilities.
    It appears to me that there is ground of serious difficulty with the Indians in that quarter, and I confidently trust you will be impressed with a like view of the matter.
    The Superintendent of Indian Affairs at this place agrees with me that something should be done to arrest the present tendency to disturbance and to let the Indians feel that a restraining hand is over them.
    I therefore solicit your attention to be given to the subject of this petition, which is composed, to my knowledge, of names of reputable citizens.
I am, sir, most respectfully
    Your obt. servant,
        L. F. Grover
            Governor of Oregon
   

Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, February 21 1872
To His Excellency
    The Governor of Oregon
        Salem Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday, enclosing a petition from citizens of Jackson County for protection against the Modoc Indians, and to state for your information that on the 16th instant instructions were sent to the commanding officer, District of the Lakes, to establish a sufficient cavalry force in that neighborhood to give protection to the settlers. Instructions had previously been sent (February 6, 1872) to the commanding officer at Fort Klamath to take all necessary measures for the protection of the settlers in Jackson County.
    It is believed that the presence of the troops will be sufficient to restore confidence and restrain the evil-disposed among the Indians until arrangements can be made for carrying out the determination of the Indian Department in relation to them.
    Until the questions which have been submitted by the Superintendent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs have been decided, it is obviously our duty while giving protection to the settlers to prevent a war if possible. If that cannot be done, all the force that may be needed for its suppression and for the protection of the inhabitants will be applied, and the commander of the district has been so instructed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
   

Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Ogn. February 22, 1872.
I. D. Applegate, Esq.
    Commissary in charge
        Portland Ogn.
Sir:
    Enclosed herewith find copy of correspondence with the Military Dept., from which you will learn the present status of things in general.
    If the commander of the Dist. of the Lakes should decide to locate a cavalry station at Yainax, you will furnish such shelter, supplies and forage as may be at your command without doing injustice to the Dept. or Indians, and otherwise cooperate with the Military Department. My opinion as to the proper location of a cavalry station has been expressed to Genl. Canby, and reasons given therefor.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
   

Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Ogn., February 22, 1872.
Genl. E. R. S. Canby
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
        Portland, Ogn.
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of 17th inst.
    In reply would respectfully suggest Linkville or Langell's Valley as a more eligible point from which to operate with cavalry against the Modocs than Yainax.
    Reason 1st. The first two named places are situated within four or five hours' ride of the Modoc camp, without mountains or other impediments to travel. Yainax is distant some fifty or sixty miles from the Modoc camp, with mountains intervening.
    2nd. I doubt whether shelter, supplies or forage can be furnished at Yainax, while doubtless all these indispensables can be readily obtained at Linkville or Langell's Valley.
    No protection is asked for by Commissary Applegate at Yainax, and I believe the presence of a cavalry force at Linkville or Langell's would intimidate and hold in subjection the Modocs, and give assurance to the white settlers of protection, which it would not if stationed at Yainax.
    Having only a sincere desire to preserve the peace and do equal and exact justice to all interested parties, I venture the suggestion founded on personal knowledge of the country and circumstances.
    If, however, it shall be decided to establish a cavalry station at Yainax, the Ind. Dept. will cooperate with and furnish such shelter, supplies and forage as may be available.
    A copy of communications to Commissary Applegate on this subject is herewith transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Adjutant General's Office
    Washington, March 23, 1872
Official copies
    E. D. Townsend
        Adjutant General
For the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
   

War Department
    Washington City
        March 27, 1872
The Honorable
    Secretary of the Interior
Sir:
    In connection with previous papers on the subject, transmitted to you on the 19th instant, I have the honor to enclose herewith, for your information, copies of further papers received at this Department in relation to the threatened difficulties with the Modoc Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
            Wm. W. Belknap
                Secretary of War
   

Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon, February 20 1872
Assistant Adjutant General
    Military Division of the Pacific
        San Francisco California
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit, for the information of the Major General commanding the division, copy of the instructions given the commander of the District of the Lakes in relation to the apprehended trouble with the Modoc Indians, and also of the correspondence upon the same subject with the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state. I have considered this necessary in order to prevent collisions between the settlers and the Indians, and the presence of the troops will allay the apprehensions of the whites (often the cause of the trouble we wish to avoid) and will exercise a salutary influence over the evil-disposed of both classes.
    It will be seen by the papers transmitted by the Superintendent that the question of providing a new location for the Modocs has been submitted by him to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and as I am fully satisfied that the Modocs will gladly settle at any point where they can be protected from the hostilities of the Klamaths, I consider it very important [end of letter lost or not filmed]
   

Enclosure 4.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon February 16, 1872
The Commanding Officer
    District of the Lakes
        Camp Warner Oregon
Sir:
    The relations between the settlers on Link and Lost rivers and the Modoc Indians are, as you will see by the papers heretofore and herewith transmitted to you, of such a character as to lead to serious apprehensions of collisions that may result in hostilities, and in order to avert this result and to give protection to the settlers, the Commanding General directs that you at once establish a force of fifty or sixty cavalry at the point in that section of the country which you may consider best calculated to secure those ends. He desires that you will take this force in nearly equal proportions from the cavalry companies at Fort Klamath and Camp Warner in order to avoid delaying the movement of the companies of the 23rd Infantry or the alternative of leaving those posts without garrisons if orders for their movement should be received before the duty now directed is completed. The point to be selected should of course be the one most convenient for any military operations that may become necessary, but all possible considerations must also be given to the question of sheltering the men and animals of the command employed on this duty. Yainax station on Sprague River is suggested by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in his communication of the 25th ultimo, and if there be unoccupied buildings at that station, it is possible that arrangements may be made with the Indian Department for the necessary storage and shelter, if that point be suitable in other respects.
    The supplies for the use of this command will be drawn either from Camp Warner or Fort Klamath as may be most economical and convenient, but preferably from the latter post, as the surplus on hand is greater at that post than at Camp Warner. It will probably be more economical to purchase the forage for the animals than to transport it from either post, and if you find it expedient to adopt this course you will cause the necessary arrangements for the payment to be made in accordance with the provisions of General Order No. 13, Military Division of the Pacific, 1871.
    A statement of the quantity of subsistence stores on hand at Fort Klamath by the last return is herewith transmitted.
    You will of course limit the supplies to what is indispensable for the health of the command and efficient service in the field.
    As the command will probably be obliged to operate by detachments, it should be as fully officered as possible, and you will select them from those of known energy and discretion.
    You will be careful to impress upon the commanding officer that the object in view is not to make war upon the Modocs, but if possible to avert war by preventing collisions between them and the settlers, and taking such other measures as may be necessary to keep the peace and secure the settlers from depredations and hostilities.
    The knowledge that troops are in the neighborhood and to be employed for this purpose will restore confidence among the settlers and impress the Indians with the importance and necessity of good conduct.
    The enclosed papers will show you that the question of selecting a new location for the Modocs has been submitted to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs by the Superintendent for Oregon, and until that question is determined it is not intended that forcible measures should be resorted to unless the hostile attitude of the Indians should leave you no alternative, but you will cooperate with the agents of that department in their efforts to bring these Indians in and establish them at the point that has or may be selected for that purpose, and it is believed that by proper communication and representation this may be done quietly and peaceably and that the Modocs will be very willing to remain at that place until the question of their ultimate location is determined. The Commanding General considers this point of so much importance that he desires that you will, as far as possible, give it your personal attention, as he relies greatly upon your experience and your knowledge of these Indians to bring about so desirable [a] result.
    In conclusion he desires me to say that a depredation or robbery committed by an individual Indian is not to be taken as evidence of the hostility of the entire tribe, although all proper efforts will be made to arrest the offenders and bring them to trial and punishment, but if hostilities should actually be commenced or be inevitable, the most prompt and energetic measures must be adopted to suppress and punish them, and to this end all the resources in men and material at the posts in the District of Lakes will be at your disposal, taking the precaution, if it should be necessary to use the infantry at any of those posts, that they should not be committed to any duty that would interfere with the contemplated transfer.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A. A. A. G.
   
Enclosure 5.
Extract from statement of subsistence stores in rations remaining on hand at posts in the Dept. of the Columbia December 30, 1871.
December 31, 1871.
Fort Klamath, Oregon
    14,394 Pork
7,937 Bacon
Contract Fresh beef
58,777 Flour
3,081 Hard bread
44,959 Beans
14,428 Rice
63,842 Coffee
16,000 Tea
71,321 Sugar
45,700 Vinegar
77,680 Candles
63,100 Soap
92,053 Salt
75,000 Pepper
W. H. Pell
    Capt. & C.S. U.S.A.
   
Enclosure 6.
Confidential.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon February 17, 1872
The Commanding Officer
    District of the Lakes
        Camp Warner Oregon
Sir:
    Although you are probably aware of the general facts, I think it proper to invite your attention to the complication in the affairs of the Modoc and Klamath Indians growing out of the attempts that have been or will be made to secure a portion of the lands reserved for them under claims for settlement, grants for military and railroads or as swamp lands. The treaty was made on the 14th of October, 1864, but was not finally ratified until the 10th of December 1869, and proclaimed by the President on the 17th of January 1870. In this interval a portion of the reservation (in Sprague River Valley) was surveyed, opened for sale and settlement, and grants for military and railroad purposes were made by Congress. It is claimed that these are operative within the limits of the reservation as well as elsewhere, because the grants were made before the final ratification of the Treaty.
    It is also understood that draining operations are in contemplation which, although they are to be carried [out] on the outside of its limits, will have the effect of destroying the value of large portions of the reservation for the purposes for which it was reserved.
    The determination of these questions does not in any way belong to the military authorities, and they are brought to your notice as giving a possible motive for some of the complaints against these Indians and as an additional reason for careful investigation before taking any positive action against them.
    It appears to be conceded that the Modocs and Klamaths cannot live together in peace, and the Superintendent has suggested a new location for the Modocs. Pending the action upon this suggestion this difficulty has come up, and while it is clearly the duty of the military to protect the settlers from the depredations or hostilities of the Indians, it is equally their duty to avert any collision that may prevent or delay the quiet and peaceable settlement of this question. Our duty is, if possible, to keep the peace until it is settled.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brig. General
                Comdg. Dept.
   
Enclosure 7.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland Oregon February 17 1872
The Superintendent of Indian Affairs
    State of Oregon
        Salem Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 8th instant and to state for your information that these papers will be submitted to the division commander in connection with the correspondence which preceded it, and which has already been forwarded. In the meantime I have instructed the commander of the District of the Lakes to establish a cavalry force of fifty or sixty men at some point in that section which is most suitable for the protection of the settlers. Yainax station has been suggested and will probably be selected by him for this purpose, and I have to request that you will instruct the agent to give the commanding officer any facilities in sheltering and supplying his command that may be given without embarrassment to the operations of your department, and if there be any forage or other supplies not needed for your own use you will authorize its transfer, to be paid for by the proper departments of the army.
    The commanding officer has been advised that the question of new location for the Modoc Indians has been submitted by you to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and that pending the decision of this question, force will not be used by the military to compel the return of the Modocs to the reservation, but that he will cooperate fully with the agents of your department in any efforts that may be made to establish them peaceably at any point that may be selected and to keep them there until the question is settled. He has also been instructed to give as complete protection as possible to the settlers, and that while robberies and depredations committed by individual Indians are not to be taken as determining the hostile attitude of the tribe, every proper effort will be made to arrest and punish the offenders.
    The present duty of the military is to protect the inhabitants and, if possible, to keep the peace until these questions have been decided by the authority to which they have been submitted. If this cannot be done, the commanding officer is instructed to use all the means in his district for the prompt suppression of hostilities and punishment of the guilty.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
Adjutant General's Office
    Washington, March 14, 1872
Official copies
    E. D. Townsend
        Adjutant General
For the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.  A copy of the February 7 letter and many of the attachments is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 688-741.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Feby. 8th 1872
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5th inst. In reply in part [I] submit herewith the copy of letter to Commissioner on this subject.
    Further would state that I had in my annual report for 1871 recommended that a small reservation be made for the Modoc Indians at the north end of Modoc Lake. No action has been had by the Dept. that I am aware of.
    My reasons for asking assistance are set forth or rather suggested by the petition forwarded to you, otherwise I would have deferred action until such time as instructions might be forwarded from Washington City. Since my letter to you I have received a communication from Hon. Jesse Applegate on this Modoc question, a copy of which please find enclosed herewith. I have also learned from I. D. Applegate, commissary in charge of Yainax, and from J. N. High, sub-agent of Klamath, that hostilities were imminent. I am of the opinion that any attempt to arrest the chief and his "bodyguard" will be resisted by them and serious consequences may result; nevertheless the white settlers must be protected.
    In your letter you refer to the agreement made with commissioners sent by this Dept. last July, and suggested that no action be had until they were notified to place themselves on the reservation.
    That council was held at "Clear Lake" some 60 miles southeast of Modoc Lake, where they are now located. Since your presence they have not kept their part of the agreement and have forfeited any claim they might have had to forbearance.
    I do not realize that there is any unjustifiable breach of our part of the compact of July last by compelling them to go onto the reservation. Had they behaved honestly and on their part maintained peaceable relations with the white settlers, they might have remained at Modoc Lake undisturbed. Such has not been the case, and much as I regret the necessity for forcible arrest and [omission?] returned to the reservation, I can see no other way to secure peace and mete out justice.
    I would respectfully recommend that the commander at Fort Klamath be instructed to arrest the chief and five or six of the headmen and hold them in confinement until some further orders shall have been received from Dept. at Washington City.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Ed. Canby
    Comdg. Dept of the Columbia
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 659-660.  Copy on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 716-718.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Feby. 22nd 1872
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of 17th inst. In reply would respectfully suggest Linkville or Langell's Valley as a more eligible point from which to operate with cavalry against the Modocs than Yainax.
    Reason 1st. The first two named places are situated within four or five hours' ride of the Modoc camp without mountain or other impediments to travel. Yainax is distant some fifty or sixty miles from the Modoc camp with mountains intervening.
    2nd. I doubt whether shelter, supplies or forage can be furnished at Yainax while doubtless all these indispensables can be readily obtained at Linkville or Langell's Valley.
    No protection is asked for by Commissary Applegate at Yainax, and I believe the presence of a cavalry force at Linkville or Langell's would intimidate and hold in subjection the Modocs and give assurance to the white settlers of protection, which it would not if stationed at Yainax.
    Having only a sincere desire to preserve the peace and do equal and exact justice to all interested parties, I venture the suggestion found on personal knowledge of the country and circumstances.
    If however it shall be decided to establish a cavalry station at Yainax, the Ind. Dept. will cooperate with and furnish such shelter, supplies and forage as may be available.
    A copy of communication to Commissary Applegate on this subject is herewith transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. E. R. S. Canby
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
        Portland
            Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 662.



Camp Yainax Oregon
    February 29th 1872.
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit this, my report for the months of January and February. I made no report for January from the fact that during that month I was absent under orders to report at your office. On my return on Feb. 3rd I found the affairs of this agency in good condition, the employees busily engaged in repairing fences and buildings, providing for the Department stock, assisting the Indians in procuring wood &c. The Snake Indians have behaved remarkably well, have been easily managed and are very well pleased, have but little if any complaints to make. The Klamath band are also in very good spirits and full of energy, no trouble to amount to anything having arisen among them. The Modocs were during my absence frequently visited by men from Captain Jack's band of desperadoes, and through misrepresentations, threats and so on were induced to leave this camp and move to Lost River. The continued success of this desperado band of Modocs in setting at defiance the authority of the government has emboldened them to an extent truly to be feared.
    They are now very diligently at work with a view of creating disaffection among the Snakes against the authority of law and ultimately inducing them to unite with them in a savage war against the white settlers. Since my return I have carefully examined into this affair and made all the arrangements in my power to defeat such a dangerous scheme. I feel safe in saying that if the Snake Indians are properly managed and instructed they will never unite with the Modocs, even should they break out in actual hostility. During this month, the weather being very bad and my force of employees having been greatly reduced at the end of last quarter, but little more than caring for the Dept. stock, providing wood &c. has been done. The ground being now free from ice, I have all the force at my command employed in cutting ditches and draining of the field preparatory to planting early spring grain.
    The amount of subsistence allowed with what wheat was produced last year has enabled all the people to pass the winter without suffering from hunger, and as the fish are already running and the country very near free from snow and ice, all feel safe and hopeful.
    Since my return home I have opened communication with the Modoc Indians who left during my absence and have arranged to meet them at Lost River now in a few days. I have strong hopes that I will be able to induce them to return peaceably to the reservation. I will inform you of the result of my interview at as early a day as possible. I hope it will be in your power to visit this station and talk to the people here early this spring. They need encouragement more than they have had if possible. They are growing more anxious every day for the establishment of schools. The successful growing of grain last year has had a very wonderful influence over them. They can hardly wait for seed time, they are so anxious to commence planting. I feel greatly encouraged and believe I will be able the coming spring and summer to carry on farming operations with Indian labor without cost to the Dept. on quite an extensive scale. Many Indians have already located farms for themselves and are pushing forward such improvements as they are able to make with commendable energy.
    The Department animals have been wintered with care and, notwithstanding we have had a very severe winter, are now in splendid condition for spring work.
    Aside from the old vexed Modoc question, everything looks encouraging, and we only wait more favorable weather to begin extensive farming operations with full faith that the coming summer will produce a full supply of grain for the wants of all our people.
Very respectfully
    Your humble servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge
Hon.
    A. B. Meacham
        Supt. Indian
            Affairs for
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Corvallis, Oregon, March 12, 1872
Sir
    Yours of the 23rd of January last, notifying me of my appointment as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the state of Oregon, was received on the 5th inst.
    I accept the appointment and herewith enclose my official bond and oaths.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Washington
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 499-500.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        March 14th 1872
Sir
    I transmit herewith two contracts made and entered into by myself on the part of the United States and Solomon Hirsch.
    The necessity for making these contracts was that articles purchased in San Francisco could be delivered at either Siletz or Alsea at a much less expense to the government than if purchased in the Willamette Valley, for at that season of the year from two to four cents per pound was the lowest for which transportation could be had.
    Another advantage in purchasing potatoes in San Francisco, it procured a change of seed, which was absolutely necessary as the old varieties have run out, and the crop [was] a failure last season.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. B. Meacham
            Supt. Indn. Affrs. in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commsr. &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
[itemized invoices and contracts not transcribed]
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 457-464.



Siletz Agency
    March 15th 1872
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit this, my report for the month of February.
    In common with other portions of this coast, the month has been noted for high winds, heavy & continued rain storms, and consequently high waters. Though no damage has been realized strictly upon the agency, but little could be done towards putting in the spring grain.
    The arrival of the schooner Elmora with agency supplies from San Francisco involved the necessity of transporting supplies of flour, potatoes &c. at great inconvenience from Newport to this agency, the Siletz River being too high to ford, and the Department having no ferry except small boats, we could seldom swim pack horses across the stream with safety & much of the packing line of necessities done by persons on foot, and a considerable proportion of the goods yet remain at the depot mill.
    The severity of the winter has required a larger amount of feed for stock, consequently our supply for spring consumption is very limited. A number of the Indians' horses have perished & two work horses & one ox belonging to government have died during the month.
    But little plowing has been done this spring as yet. The fall-sown wheat looks favorable for a fair yield.
    Considerable sickness prevailed among the Inds. during the past month, and three deaths have occurred since my last report.
    The absence of suitable buildings has prevented the establishment of schools, though notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, our Sabbath schools have been well attended and give encouragement to hope for beneficial results, both among children & adults. On the 20th of this month I left the agency for Salem & Portland to procure funds & purchase additional teams, tools, spring wheat & garden seeds & material for repairing wagons, plows &c. & farming implements generally. There being no funds in the hands of the Supt. applicable, I failed to obtain means but deemed it best owing [to] the emergency of the case to purchase two teams, one of mules & one of horses, together with harness &c. to be paid for when funds were received applicable to the payment of such accounts & it is hoped that funds will soon be received to liquidate these & other liabilities!
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agt.
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Wash., Mar. 18, 1872
Hon. Comr. Indian Affairs
    My Dear Sir
        Will you please inform me what has been done in the case of D. P. Thompson's a/c for survey of Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, to which I called your attention for additional allowance. I have just recd. a letter from him dated the 5th inst. saying he has not recd. his money.
H. W. Corbett
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 93-94.



Yainax March 31st 1872
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following report for the month of March.
    During the month the Klamath Indians of this place together with about one hundred and fifty Snakes went with permission to Lost River, where they have caught and dried a very large supply of fish, the Ocheho or Piute band remaining here.
    A short time ago I met on Lost River the chief and headmen of the Modoc band which left this station while I was in Salem, and was very successful in my mission. I soon discovered that they had been induced to remove to Lost River on account of sickness among them, which they believed to be the work of Klamath medicine men. After a careful, earnest talk to them, they consented to return without delay and have since made their camp with the Snakes and Klamaths at the fishery on Lost River and will return with them to this place as soon as their fish are sufficiently dry to admit of packing.
    Big-foot, a somewhat prominent man of Ocheho's band, killed a steer, the property of J. W. Brown, a stock raiser in the upper Sprague River Valley. This occurred about the 10th instant. The act was soon discovered by Mr. Brown, who lost no time in reporting the fact to me. I called in Chief Ocheho, who on learning the facts immediately brought in the guilty party and asked that on payment being made to Mr. Brown for the steer, that he (Ocheho) be allowed to deal with this man. I allowed this settlement to be made, not however without using this circumstance as a subject of a very careful lecture.
    On the 23rd instant Col. Elmer Otis with a detachment of 30 cavalry arrived here en route to Fort Klamath, from which post he will take 30 additional men and proceed to the Modoc country to hold a council with "Capt. Jack." Col. Otis wishes me to accompany his expedition, and as my instructions would rather indicate that such would be proper, and as some good might be derived from my intimate knowledge of these Indians and their country, I have arranged in company with Mr. J. N. High, sub-agt. at Klamath, to accompany this expedition, which will leave Klamath on the 1st of April.
    The ground has been too wet this month to admit of plowing. The few employees I have have [been] busily employed in repairing buildings, finishing up the house designed for church, school house and council room, repairing fences and making preparations for putting in an extensive grain crop.
    The "Piute" band of Snake Indians seem quite anxious to be located in the Warner or Steens Mountain country, as the greater part of their tribe are still there, and they have lost all hope of their ever being located here.
    The Indians under my charge all seem much encouraged by their success of last year and hope to produce an abundant crop of grain and vegetables this summer.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Klamath Agency
    Apl. 5th 1872
Sir
    I have the honor to make the following report for the month of March 1872.
    The work on the flouring mill is progressing.
    Farming operations have been commenced, thirty-five (35) acres of rye being already sown.
    There is nothing which I would call to your special attention except the Modoc band of Indians under Capt. Jack.
    These people are off the reservation I believe with your permission on the condition that they behave themselves.
    Their conduct has been such that a military force is now in their country to protect the settlers. The proximity of Capt. Jack's band to this reservation has a most demoralizing effect upon the Indians here. His camp affords a safe retreat for refractory ones who desire to avoid being punished by the agent for their bad conduct.
    I would most respectfully suggest that your permission for them to remain on Lost River until their permanent location be determined be revoked and that they be brought onto this reservation to await such permanent disposition of them as the Department may see fit to make.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. N. High
            U.S. Indn. Sub-Agt.
Hon. A. B. Meacham
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Siletz Agency
    April 10th 1872.
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit this, my report for the month of March.
    The destitute condition of many of the Indians upon the agency has rendered it necessary to issue large supplies of subsistence, as they had no means to sustain life, and fearing that an omission to put in crops early in the season might again subject us to the great expense of purchasing supplies outside the reservation and transporting them over a mountainous road, I incurred considerable expense in purchasing a number of teams in consideration of the above necessities, together with plows, seed, grain &c., and am of the opinion we will by this means be able to get in a sufficiently large crop to supply the demands of the agency and thus save a large sum annually expended for subsistence.
    There is great detention and expense in the transportation of all kinds of freight to the reservation and especially so during the winter season, but we hope to be able to remedy this to a great extent by the opening of roads & construction of bridges the present season. This however will necessarily depend much upon our receiving an appropriation for the erection of a sawmill, which is indispensable to the successful operation of every department of the service.
    Considerable dissatisfaction is expressed among the Indians on account of the delay in the allotment of lands, and it is hoped that instructions may be received at an early day to carry out this project.
    The sanitary condition of the Indians is now improving, yet there are many cases of chronic syphilitic infections that must ere long terminate fatally. Had we the means to establish a hospital, very much suffering could be relieved & much good accomplished. The casual observer can form no idea of the real condition of many of these people, and whilst our physician may & does labor untiringly to improve their condition, he cannot owing to their present surroundings permanently improve their health in many cases.
    The interest in the Sabbath school I am pleased to state still manifests itself among the Indians, and during the few days of pleasant weather large congregations assembled each Sabbath to attend the Sabbath school & listen to preaching.
    The Indians as well as employees are now generally engaged in putting in crops and making garden, but the demands for teams, tools &c. is greater than the supply, and some time must elapse before all can be accommodated.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Headquarters, Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, April 13, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco, Cal.
Sir:
    Major Otis, commanding the District of the Lakes, and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state are of the opinion that there will be some trouble with the Indians in Southern Oregon unless they can be collected and permanently established on a reservation during the coming season. The former Superintendent (Mr. Meacham) also concurs in this opinion.
    It is presumed that appropriations will be made by Congress to carry out the recommendations heretofore made for the establishment of these Indians upon a reservation within the territory reserved for that purpose by the executive order of March 14, 1871, but the subject is regarded as of so much importance that I have the honor to recommend that it be again brought to the notice of the War Department.
    If this arrangement can be carried out, it will not only give greater security against Indian troubles, but will materially diminish the expense of the military establishment in that part of the country.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 747-749.



Hdqrs. District of the Lakes
    Portland, Oregon, April 15, 1872
Assistant Adjutant General
    Department of the Columbia
        Portland, Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to make the following statements and recommendations with reference to the Indians included in the District of the Lakes and vicinity.
    I have been stationed where I have had intercourse with a large portion of these Indians since October of 1867. The Piute band of Snake Indians are now scattered all the way from the headwaters of the Owyhee River to the west end of Klamath Reservation, on an east and west line, and on a north and south line from the headwaters of John Day and Malheur rivers on the north to the Truckee River on the south. I do not mean that they occupy the whole of this country, but that they range through it
    The principal bands are as follows:
    First. Weahwewa's band, principally roaming on the headwaters of the Malheur River and Steens Mountain country. This is the largest of all the bands, probably numbering from 500 to 800 souls. Weahwewa I consider the head of the Piute nation.
    Second. Ocheho's band, numbering a little over 200 souls.
    Third. Chocktoot's band, numbering a little over 100 souls. The last two bands are now on the Klamath Reservation. Ocheho's band is very much dissatisfied where it is. Last fall I had to order Ocheho back to his reservation, or he would not have gone, and I do not believe that he will go on another winter without serious trouble. In the fall of 1869 he went on the reservation willingly, but the promises held out to him by Mr. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon at that time, in council have not all been fulfilled. This has rendered them dissatisfied, and they would much prefer coming back to their old country in the vicinity of Warner Lake.
    Chocktoot's band are as far as I know tolerably well satisfied where they are. They are near the country they formerly inhabited, have intermarried more or less with the Klamaths, speak the same language, and it might be well to allow this band to have their choice to stay where they are, or go with the remainder of the Piutes in the recommendations and final disposition I am about to recommend, provided they could obtain their pro-rata of the appropriation of the Klamath Reservation.
    Fourth. There is a band of Piutes at Camp McDermit, in Nevada, within three miles of the Oregon state line. This band numbers probably within the vicinity of 200 souls and formerly ranged on the headwaters of the Owyhee River and Quinn River country and a hundred miles each side of McDermit; of this band and Weahwewa's band are small scattering bands through the country about Steens Mountain, the country of the Owyhee and in constant intercourse with the Piutes on the Truckee Reservation.
    Fifth. On the Truckee Reservation is a band of Piutes numbering about 300 souls. This band are certainly not satisfied where they are, judging from those that I see at Camp Warner.
    They are having constant intercourse with the Indians of Ocheho's band, and many of them are scattered through Surprise Valley, creating more or less difficulty with the settlers.
    It will be seen that at least one half of these Indians are on no reservation, but are allowed to scatter through the country as they please. There are certain signs that would indicate that they are far from being satisfied with their present situation. It is well known that Indians when once dissatisfied do not get better, but worse. This condition of things may, and is likely to, lead to serious difficulty in time, and it is in my opinion that unless something is done for them they are not likely to remain on their present friendly terms much longer. They may break out within a year; perhaps it may be two years. Besides, it is not the policy of the government to leave them in this condition, but put them on a reservation and keep them there, instructing them to cultivate the soil, raise stock, and in time become self-supporting.
    In view of these facts I would strongly recommend that all of these different bands enumerated above (except perhaps Chocktoot's band) be established on a reservation somewhere on the headwaters of the Malheur River, the Steens Mountain country, or the country about either Warner or Harney lakes, and that the reservation be tolerably large, as much of the country is a barren waste and must necessarily be large to obtain sufficient land for tillable purposes. The waters of the Malheur contain at times of the year plenty of fish, and there is much land capable of tillage in that vicinity. In the country about Steens Mountain and Harney and Warner lakes are spots capable of tillage. Besides, this is a country which these Indians have inhabited, that they know, and where the majority desire to stay. Weahwewa's band in council with the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, in the fall of 1869, at which I was present, peremptorily declined to remove from that country, and I have no idea that they could be removed without a strong force of troops involving a war. This country is also taken out of market until the 16th of September next, as I am informed by ex-Superintendent Meacham. To take advantage of this country before it relapses into market, it is necessary to act at once, in order, if possible, to have at least a portion of the Indians on the reservation by the coming fall, satisfy them and prevent serious difficulty. The immediate point necessary to act at once is to have an appropriation made of about $2000 to locate the reservation. This information I have from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs Odeneal at Salem. He gives it his hearty cooperation. It is in fact the only solution of the Indian Affairs that will ever be accomplished in the country spoken of without much trouble and bloodshed. This also has the merit of being able to concentrate five military posts into one from the fact that the Indians will be removed from the vicinity of the posts and consequently avoid their necessity, viz: Camps Warner and Harney in Oregon, Camp Bidwell in California, and camps McDermit and Winfield Scott in Nevada. It will probably also do away with the necessity of an Indian reservation on the Truckee River in the vicinity of Pyramid Lake. Also by removing the two bands of Piutes from the Yainax Agency on the Klamath Reservation, or removing only Ocheho's band will give plenty of room for the Modoc Indians. They signed a treaty in October 1864 to go on the Klamath Reservation. They came on the reservation in the fall of 1869; a portion of them under the old chief still remain. But Captain Jack (Indian name unknown), who signed the treaty in 1864, became dissatisfied soon after coming on the reservation, and in February of 1870 formed a band numbering now probably about sixty (60) warriors, and left the reservation, going to Lost River and Tule Lake. Last fall, Superintendent Meacham promised to allow them to remain where they are until he could see if a small reservation could not be set aside for them on the north end of Tule Lake. These Indians are still in this country and are insolent and insulting in many instances to the white settlers, and the latter generally deem this band of Modocs unsafe to both life and property. If a military force was present they could probably be removed peaceably to the Yainax Agency on the Klamath Reservation, and by removing the Piutes now there, would leave them houses and a farm for their cultivation. I am of the opinion that if left where they now are it will probably lead to serious outbreak in time.
Very respectfully your obedient servant
    Elmer Otis
        Major 1st Cavalry
            Commanding District
                Headquarters Department of the Columbia
                    April 19, 1872
Official copy
    Louis V. Caziarc
        1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery A.A.A.G.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 5-12.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 17, 1872
Sir
    I herewith return the petition and letters in relation to the relinquishment to a portion of Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon.
    After a careful examination of the maps and records of this office, I find that no part of said reservation is within the county of Tillamook.
    The petition doubtless intended to refer to the "Coast Reservation," which embraces the south half of said county. Assuming this to be the case, I have to say that the relinquishment of this reservation to the extent asked for would include nearly one half of the best farming lands (now in cultivation) at Siletz Agency, which is partly in Tillamook County.
    It is the desire of the Grand Ronde Indians that no portion of the reservation be relinquished until after their lands have been surveyed and allotted to them. The Surveyor General of Oregon several months since let the contract for surveying some twenty sections of land at the mouth of Salmon River on the Coast Reservation, which is to be subdivided and allotted to Indians now at Grand Ronde Agency.
    In view of all the facts, I would respectfully recommend that all action relative to the petition be suspended until the surveys aforesaid are completed and the allotments made. After this is done I think there may be some lands on the Coast Reservation which might be restored to market without injury to the Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 676.



Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, April 17th 1872
The Assistant Adjutant General
    Military Division of the Pacific
        San Francisco, California
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit a copy of Major Otis' report in relation to the Modoc Indians, with an abstract of the proceedings had at a conference with Captain Jack, and also of the testimony collected by him in relation to the conduct of these Indians.
    I propose to hold the Modocs under quiet supervision for the present by keeping a detachment of cavalry at the point selected by Major Otis for the purpose of exercising a salutary restraint upon the Indians, and preventing any collision between [them] and the settlers. The temper of both parties is such that a very slight cause may give rise to serious consequences.
    The reservation which these Indians desire and which the former Superintendent promised that he would endeavor to secure them is outside of the limits of the present reservation, and the project of establishing them there will meet with serious opposition from the settlers in that neighborhood, and under present circumstances probably will not be advisable.
    If however the Piutes, who are now on Sprague River, can be gratified in their wish to be established on a reservation in their old country, it would leave an opening that would be acceptable to the Modocs and far enough from the Klamaths to secure them from the annoyances they have heretofore experienced.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
Enclosures
   

Hdqrs. District of the lakes
    Portland, Oregon, April 13, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon.
Sir:
    I have the honor to report that in compliance with Hdqrs. Dept. Columbia, dated Portland, Oregon, February 16th 1872, I started from Camp Warner, Oregon, March 15th 1872, with a detachment of two officers, Capt. D. Perry, 1st Cavalry, and 2nd Lieut. J. G. Kyle, 1st Cavalry, stationed at Camp Bidwell, Cal., Actg. Assistant Surgeon L. L. Dorr, chief packer Mason McCoy, guide and interpreter Donald McKay, twenty-seven (27) enlisted men and a pack train of twenty-five (25) mules en route to the Modoc country via Fort Klamath, Oregon, at which point I arrived on the 24th ultimo after a most tedious march.
    The roads were in a most horrible condition from mud and snow. The whole country to four miles west of Yainax Agency appeared to be perfectly soaked with water, making it necessary to frequently unpack the pack train and carry the cargo by hand. From the head of Drews Valley to Round Grove, a distance of ten miles, we encountered heavy snow partially melted and frozen with a crust on top sufficient to bear a man but insufficient to bear a horse most of the way. Where the horses did not break through, the pack train did, which rendered the advance exceedingly tedious. From Yainax bridge four miles west across Sprague River the road was solid and good.
    On my arrival at Klamath, our animals of the pack train were so worn out and jaded that I thought it advisable to remain there a week for recuperation.
    On the 30th of March I started guide and interpreter Donald McKay with four Indians whom I had employed temporarily to invite the Modocs to a conference ten miles from Link River east, on Lost River at a place called the Gap, without any troops on my part.
    On the 1st of April, the command started for Link River, consisting of a detachment for Camp Warner except Acting Assistant Surgeon L. L. Dorr, who was detached to accompany the company moving from Camp Harney to the C.P.R.R. in compliance with instructions from Hdqrs., Department of the Columbia, dated Portland, Ogn., March 8, 1872. The detachment taken from Fort Klamath consisted of Lint Moss, Acting Assistant Surgeon C. W. Knight, twenty-three (23) enlisted men, and ten (10) pack mules.
    The command arrived at Link River on the 2nd instant where I met the scouts returned from the Modoc band. They reported that Captain Jack had sent to me a messenger who accompanied my scouts, also a second messenger who had overtaken the first a few miles out. I informed these messengers in substance that I was very sorry that Captain Jack would not come to see me, that I had sent for him for his own benefit, that I should move my troops immediately into his country, and that I should go to see Captain Jack. The second messenger, after some talk, then informed me that Captain Jack was very much afraid, but that he would come and see me tomorrow (the 3rd instant) at the Gap, if I would not take my troops. These were my first conditions and I accepted them and accordingly took with me Mr. High, sub-Indian agent, Klamath Agency, and Mr. I. D. Applegate, commissary at Yainax Agency, guide and interpreter McKay, and the Indian scouts and proceeded to the Gap.
    About noon Captain Jack with some thirty-five or forty Indians made his appearance, all armed. He left some of his arms on the opposite side of the river and we proceeded to council with him, and about thirty-five of his warriors. Some of the adjoining neighbors--settlers of the vicinity--also made their appearance. The report of the council is herewith enclosed. It may not be worded exactly as uttered, but it is in substance.
    The white settlers in the neighborhood of the Modocs appear to be considerably alarmed and consider that both their lives and property are in danger.
    In the report of the council it will be seen that Captain Jack denies many of the allegations against him and promises good behavior in future. This certainly will be assured as long as the troops are in their vicinity, and probably his conduct will be much improved by the visit of the troops, as he was much frightened when he heard that the troops were coming. He had apparently been of the opinion that no troops would be sent against him or any number sent in his country.
    Captain Jack and his band are now occupying the country at the north end of Tule Lake, at the place proposed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs as their future reservation, but scatter all through the country from Yreka to the Yainax Agency. At the end of the council I considered that I had matters of sufficient importance to justify my journey to this place and lay the whole before the General commanding, which will be made the subject of a future report.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Elmer Otis
            Major 1st Cavalry
                Commanding
Official copy
    Louis V. Caziarc
        1st Lieutenant, 2nd Artillery
            A.A.A.G.
   
Abstract of proceedings of conference between commanding officer District of the Lakes and Captain Jack, chief of the Modoc Indians, 3rd April 1872, and of testimony taken at the conference and at Linkville, Oregon, regarding the conduct of these Indians.
    On the 3rd of April 1872, Major Elmer Otis, 1st Cavalry, held a talk with Captain Jack, chief of the Modoc Indians, at "the Gap" on Lost River, Oregon. Mr. High, sub-agent of the Klamath Agency, and Mr. Applegate, commissary at Yainax Station, and about 35 men of the Modoc tribe were present.
    Major Otis informed Captain Jack that settlers complain that his band frighten women and children at their homes during the absence of the men, by going about armed and demanding food, that the Modocs have stolen cattle and hay for their horses, have broken down fences and turned their animals in to graze or have trampled down the grass in hayfields while in the pursuit of game, that these acts are charged as committed during the past winter and still continued.
    Captain Jack was warned that he must restrain or punish his men, or the whites would do it. He was reminded that the country in which he lives does not belong to his tribe, having been ceded by the Klamath Treaty which the Modocs signed, that his band were only suffered to remain where they are until the President can determine the propriety of giving them a suitable portion of land to live on apart from the Klamaths, and he was warned that he must control his men thoroughly and prevent their further molesting the settlers and that troops would for the present be kept in the neighborhood to secure their quiet and good order.
    Major Otis demanded of Captain Jack that he keep his Indians apart from the settlers except when they desired to work, that when in need of food they should go to Camp Warner for supply, but under no circumstances go armed among the settlers to demand food or to steal it.
    Captain Jack at first denied these charges and throughout the talk evaded as far as possible direct answers to specific charges against his band. He endeavored to convey the impression that if these thefts had been committed at all, they were the acts of the Klamaths (to which tribe the Modocs are hostile) or of other Indians, and that his own disposition and that of his tribe was friendly.
    The evidence collected by Major Otis consists of the testimony of Messrs. Orr, Bull, G. S. Miller, Chas. Monroe, George Morrill, George Nurse, Drury Davis, Joseph Seeds, Hudson, Applegate, Forsythe and Tripp.
    These witnesses now reside in the vicinity of Linkville, Oregon. They assert that in 1870-71 they were either settled or seeking suitable sites for ranches in the Lost River country or in the neighborhood of Tule Lake. That after leaving the Klamath Reservation in 1870, the Modocs claimed the entire country in that locality and demanded compensation for ranching or for hay cut from off it. That their constant visits, their thefts of provisions and cattle, their demands for compensation and their generally hostile attitude excited such fear for the safety of their property, and in a few cases for life, as to drive them from the country.
    This testimony is opposed to Henry Miller and Mr. Ball who now reside respectively 10 and 6 miles from Captain Jack's headquarters. Both of these witnesses accompanied Captain Jack to meet Major Otis and to testify to the peaceable attitude of the band.
    Mr. Miller has resided over two years in their country as a stock-raiser. He employs Indians of this band as herders. He has never paid for his right to settle in their country and does not believe such demands are made of other settlers. He believes that Captain Jack wants a reservation set apart for his tribe of about 1000 acres only.
    He testifies that the Indians are not more insolent to whites than whites are to whites. He was absent from his ranch from July 1870 to February 1871 because of rumors that Indians were destroying cattle and that troops were out after them, rendering it impossible for him to get herders. He has heard that cattle were killed by the Indians, but from their pony trails believes the Klamaths guilty. He has no family. His testimony is based upon the Indians' conduct towards him and his observation of them.
    Mr. Ball has resided for ten years near this tribe and since last October (1871) within six miles of them. He does not apprehend any danger to settlers from Captain Jack's band. He resides about six miles from Charles Monroe's ranch. Monroe has had trouble with the Modocs regarding some hay. Has heard Monroe's and the Indians' stories and believes that Monroe by special agreement settled upon land claimed by Captain Jack and was to compensate him for hay--but failing in the full payment, the Indians fed a portion of the hay to their animals to make up the deficiency.
   

Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, April 18th, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco, Cal.
Sir:
    I have the honor to submit for the consideration of the Major General commanding the Division a communication from Major Otis, 1st Cavalry, in relation to the Indians in Southern Oregon.
    So much of the subject of this report as related to the Modoc and Piute Indians of Oregon has for a long period been under consideration, and the suggestions and recommendations made therein are fully approved. The disposition to be made of the Modocs and Piutes as recommended I regard as the only solution of that question without the application of force. Of so much of the report as relates to the Piutes of Nevada and California I have only to remark that the proposition to embrace them in the arrangement for their kindred in Oregon seems reasonable and proper and that any plan of concentration that will diminish the cost of maintenance, supervision and control will be to the interest of the Indians and to the advantage of the government. Major Otis' knowledge of these Indians and an experience of several years in that section of the country entitles his opinions to weight, and they are respectfully commended to the favorable consideration of the Commanding General.
    In my opinion the Indians of the Payette and Weiser valleys of Idaho should also be included in the same general arrangement. They belong to the same family and will affiliate with the Piutes. The country and its resource of food is similar to that which they now occupy, and it will suit them much better than the Fort Hall reservation. The lands on the Payette and Weiser have been surveyed and brought into market. They are being rapidly occupied by settlers, and the end of another season will probably find them without homes and without food. The same considerations apply to some other fragmentary bands which have no direct relations or intercourse with each other, but as they are more or less intimately connected with the Shoshone family and speak the same language, there will be no difficulty in collecting and establishing them upon the same reservation.
    The recommendations made by Major Otis looking to changes in the military posts in that part of the country should be considered in subjection to the changes that may be made by the Department of the Interior in the location of the Indians. Anticipating however that the action indicated by the executive order of March 14, 1871 would be taken at an early period, a good deal of information has been collected in relation to the country embraced in the proposed reservation. This information points to the country drained by the Malheur River as supplying the requisites for an Indian reservation more fully than any other part of the tract specified in the executive order, and the forks of the Malheur as the best point for a military post for the supervision and control of the Indians that may be established on the reservation.
    If the Indians are collected as has been proposed and is recommended, Camp Warner and Fort Boise in this Department will be unnecessary and may be abandoned. The question with regard to Camp Harney should be determined after the comparative advantage of the two points have been determined by careful reconnaissance and a careful examination of the cost of making the change and the expense of maintaining the post in the new location. In view of the anticipated change in the station of the 1st Cavalry I wish to avail myself of the experience of the officers of that regiment to make this reconnaissance before they leave the Department and had proposed to employ Major Otis upon that duty as soon as the season is sufficiently advanced to permit it to be done thoroughly.
    I am of the opinion now that if the proposed reservation should be established on the headwaters of the Malheur (and our present information points to that locality as the best) Camp Harney will be near enough, and no change in its location will be necessary or desirable. The proposed concentration of these Indians will permit the concentration at one post of three companies of infantry and two of cavalry without any addition to the force now in this Department, and the abandonment of two posts (in this Department) which will then be unnecessary. Any arrangement which admits of the concentration of troops diminishes the cost of maintaining them, increases their efficiency and improves their discipline, and with the present reduced strength of companies these considerations are of more than usual importance.
    I transmit herewith copies of some papers that may be of interest from their bearing upon this question, and also a sketch of the country in which the proposed reservation is located.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 26-40.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        April 23rd 1872
Sir:
    Herewith I return the petition and letters in relation to the restoration to market, as public lands, of a portion of the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation in Oregon.
    I would state that no part of said reservation is within the county of Tillamook.
    The petitioners evidently intended to refer to the "Coast Reservation," which embraces the southern portion of said county. Assuming this to be the case, I have to say that a relinquishment to the extent asked for would include nearly one-half of the best farming lands (now in cultivation) at Siletz Agency.
    The Surveyor General of Oregon, several months since, let a contract for surveying some twenty sections of land at the mouth of Salmon River, on the Coast Reservation, which is designed to be subdivided and allotted to Indians now at Grand Ronde Agency. The Indians are very much opposed to any relinquishment before the lands to which they claim to be entitled shall have been surveyed and allotted to them.
    After the surveys are completed and the allotments made, it may be deemed practicable to restore the remaining lands to market without injury to the interests of the Indians, but I would respectfully recommend that no portion of said reservation be relinquished at the present time.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 509-511.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. April 27th 1872
Sir
    I have this day written to I. D. Applegate Esq., commissary in charge at Camp Yainax, relative to the removal of the Modoc Indians to Klamath Reservation in pursuance of instructions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    Should he desire your cooperation he is directed to call upon you, and you are requested to act in concert with him.
    I refer the matter to him for the reason that he is more intimately acquainted with the Indians than you are and can therefore probably do more toward the attainment of the desired end.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
L. S. Dyar Esq.
    U.S. Sub-Agt.
        Klamath
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 679.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. April 27, 1872
Sir
    I am instructed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs "to have the Modoc Indians removed if practicable to the Klamath Reservation, and to see that they are properly protected from the Klamaths."
    In regard to the practicability of this proposition I desire your opinion, which you will please communicate fully at your earliest convenience.
    If possible for you to communicate with them it might be well for you to endeavor to persuade them to return. Assure them that they shall be protected from any injustice which the Klamaths may incline to do them.
    In the event you cannot persuade them to go upon the reservation please give me your opinion relative to the practicability and propriety of having the principal leaders arrested and kept in custody by the military, and the probable effect which this course would have upon the other Modocs.
    Should you be of the opinion that they cannot be removed to the reservation aforesaid, please give me your views as to the practicability of treating them at some other point, giving me the natural boundaries of a reservation which should be set aside for them. Give description and boundaries of all suitable places, with your views as to which you consider best.
    I have this day written to Agent Dyar to act with you in the matter herein referred to you, should his cooperation be desired.
    I should go at once to Klamath if the condition of my health would admit of my making the journey.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
I. D. Applegate Esq.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 679-680.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Apl. 27, 1872
Sir
    Yours of the 26th instant is received. In answer I would say that I know of no reason why you should not employ a teacher at once and open a school at your agency.
    When at Grand Ronde I told the Indians I should return there about the 1st of May, but owing to the bad state of my health I have been unable as yet to go to Siletz and Alsea, where I will have to go before I visit you. Say to the Indians I will be there as soon as I can come and will stay a few days with them.
    Hereafter please write your official communications on paper of the size of this sheet.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
P. B. Sinnott
    U.S. Indian Agt.
        Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 680.



Klamath Agency Ogn.
    April 30th 1872.
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following as my report for the month of April.
    The farm laborers and mechanics have during the month been energetically engaged for the best interests of the service, the former in putting in as large a crop of grain as possible with the means at hand, and the latter in building a couple of houses for Indian employees, in weatherboarding and painting the mill, and in making and repairing agricultural implements &c.
    The Indians have been peaceable, quiet and industrious, and seem encouraged with the hope of eventually becoming like the white people.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. N. High
            U.S. Sub-Indn. Agent
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Yainax Ogn. Apl. 30th 1872
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following as my report for the month of April.
    The Indians under my charge, with the exception of a few employed in farming, have during the month subsisted themselves. They have been quiet and peaceable, and when permitted to leave the reservation to hunt, fish or gather roots, they have been very careful to intrude in no way upon the white settlers, and not a single complaint has been made of any misconduct on their part while off the reservation.
    The Modocs who remain loyal to chiefs Schonchin, George and Charley Riddle are conducting themselves well and will under any circumstances that may arise remain perfectly faithful and reliable. The Ocheho band of Snakes or Piutes are now encamped in upper Sprague River Valley and are somewhat unsettled in mind. A great many of their people yet remain in Harney and Warner valleys, with whom they would like to be located, and yet they do not like to lose their labor here and will continue to improve their land at this place if so directed by the authorities. I earnestly hope that the question of the permanent settlement of this extensive tribe of Piute or Snake Indians will receive the early attention of the Department.
    The Summer Lake band of Snakes under Chief Chocktoot and Kilo-to-ik are decidedly in favor of remaining permanently here and take much interest in the progress of farming operations and in improvements generally. The Sprague River band are also well contented, and many of them are now busily engaged in opening up small farms of their own, and the only complaints made by them are of the scarcity of tools, farming implements &c. Much could be done for these Indians were the means furnished for their benefit ample, but they have been promised more than it is likely the government will do for them and as a consequence are hard to satisfy, yet I am happy to say that they are full of energy and that they are beginning to realize the importance of civilization. They take a deep interest in domestic animals and are very anxious to possess cattle, hogs and sheep.
    Plowing and seeding we commenced here on the 18th inst., since which time I have kept my whole available force in the fields and have now in good order 30 acres of wheat, 10 acres of oats and 8 of rye. I am now running five plows and confidently hope to get in a larger crop of grain and vegetables by far than was ever before put in here.
    Before concluding I would suggest the propriety of organizing here at as early a date as possible a manual labor school, feeling confident that at this place under proper management it can be made a success.
    In conclusion I would say that the Indians here have the very best feeling toward the government and that they are all anxious to see the new Superintendent and be assured by him of the government's intentions to continue to improve their condition and eventually to make them civilized people.
    I would be happy to receive full orders and instructions from your office at your earliest convenience in regard to operations here.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Siletz Indian Agency.
(From the Statesman)
    This agency is now in charge of General Joel Palmer, and under the discipline of the Methodist Church. The Indians on the reservation number about seven hundred, and are all peaceably disposed toward the whites, although they occasionally have a little fracas among themselves. They manage to raise most of their own food, such as it is, but as a general thing it is not much sought after by the whites. Fish abound in great quantities and furnish them with meat. They raise considerable grain, oats especially. Wheat does not flourish well on the grounds now under cultivation, but certain portions of the thousands of acres on the reservation can be made productive for this grain. In regard to educational advantages they have been rather limited heretofore, consisting only of such opportunities as were given them in the Sunday school, and such teachings as they might receive from the white employees, who are all engaged on certain days of the week to render this assistance. But arrangements are now completed by which a permanent school will be started about the middle of next month. It is to be under the supervision of Miss Woodworth, formerly a student of the university of this city. There are some ten or twelve white families residing on the reservation, all in the employ of the government. Mr. Chapman recently endeavored to teach the Indians the game of baseball, but they couldn't see the fun in it and abandoned it for their long-established game of "coho." Some thirty or forty of them will choose sides, and, forming in two lines a short distance apart, with clubs formed like our "shinny clubs," will endeavor to knock a ball, about the size of one of our baseballs, over the line of their opponents, which, when done, wins the game. Sore shins are abundant at all times. This is a splendid place for trout fishing, and should any of our citizens wish to take a summer excursion they will be well entertained at Siletz. Mr. Chapman is engaged in business connected with the agency, and will return in a few days. It is gratifying to hear such a good report from this portion of our state. All under Mr. Palmer's employ, as well as the Indians in his charge, speak very highly of him, and the affairs of the reservation were never in a more prosperous condition.
Oregonian, Portland, April 30, 1872, page 2



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    May 1st 1872
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th ult. directing me to render monthly reports of the condition and progress of the Indians of this agency. In compliance therewith I submit the following.
    Entering upon my duties as agent the 1st ult. I found the Indians just recovering from a winter of extraordinary severity by which they suffered great loss of stock, and having used their grain for food they were entirely dependent upon government aid for seed grain. I have purchased and issued during the month about seven hundred bushels. There has been a larger extent of ground plowed and more grain sown than ever before.
    The encouragement they have had of the early allotment of their land has stimulated them to labor, and the result is a general improvement in their houses, barns & fences. The exposures & privations incident to the severe winter has caused much sickness; under the now favorable weather they are rapidly recovering.
    I found my predecessor had in contemplation the building of a new school house and had considerable lumber sawn for that purpose. I am carrying out his plans & will soon have it finished. I have made many needed repairs upon Department buildings.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        P. B. Sinnott, U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Salem Or.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Siletz Indian Agency Ogn.
    May 3rd 1872
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit this, my report for the month of April.
    Every effort has been put forth to complete our spring work in due season, but owing to the stormy weather and limited number of teams we have not been able to finish, though we are closing up rapidly. The very few work horses owned by the Indians forces us to supply almost the entire team work upon the reservation. The government animals are very much worn down, as our supply of feed has been limited. Having recently purchased a number of work animals, we have been enabled to put in a large surface, much of the seed for which has been purchased in the Willamette Valley and transported at great cost over these mountain roads. The early sown wheat and oats look favorable for a good crop; our fall wheat also looks well. The great difficulty is in furnishing forage for animals and food for the Indians. The flour shipped from San Francisco is already exhausted. One hundred lands [sic--tons?] among so many people is a limited supply for the season, but if we can secure funds for the erection of a flouring mill, this difficulty will be obviated.
    The potatoes shipped from San Francisco have been of great relief to us, and we have reserved a large portion for planting, much of which is already done. Quite a number of Indians have finished their spring work, and I have given them passes to go out to the valley, where they can obtain food.
    There has been more than an ordinary amount of disagreement and quarreling among the Indians during the month. This is partly owing to the arrival on the agency of a notorious thief and murderer by the name of Jonas.
    This Indian ran away from this agency some two years since and went to Smith River and Crescent City, California, where he so conducted himself as to be forced to leave that neighborhood, finally returning to his old home upon the reservation.
    Upon his arrival here he made great promise to reform, and I was disposed to receive him and to encourage him in well doing. My good treatment and kindness has been of no avail. He has conducted himself so badly and his example has been so pernicious that I have been compelled to arrest him and keep him chained to the floor in the guardhouse. He has threatened, in my presence, to take the life of persons on the reservation and persisted in the threat in so boisterous a manner as to intimidate the people, and owing to the fact that he has several times been wounded with gunshots, [he] takes advantage of their superstitious ideas and tells them that he cannot be killed, and by so doing lures them into conforming with his own notions of things.
    As we have no secure place to confine such characters here without the expense of guard, and the chances of his escape are so many (as he has escaped several times before), I would respectfully suggest that arrangements be made with the state authorities whereby he can be placed at service in the Penitentiary, so long as it may be deemed necessary to confine him.
    The sanitary condition of the Indians has not materially changed since my last report. Two deaths have occurred during the month, both infants, one of which was accidentally killed.
    The entire absence of funds to meet current expenses for the past six months has precluded the possibility of establishing school, consequently we have none, which fact has given rise to a great deal of complaint among a portion of the people.
    I have in view the starting of our school under the charge of the Rev. Mr. Howard, a teacher. Mr. Howard has heretofore been reported as supt. of farming and gunsmith.
    The interest in our Sabbath school is still maintained, yet no particularly successful effect seems visible in a religious point of view, nor can such be hoped for until the people are more comfortably situated.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joe Palmer
            U.S. Indian Agent
To the
    Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.  Like many of the Superintendency letters, this was transcribed by Palmer's clerk from his manuscript, explaining the likely lands/tons confusion.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    Oregon May 4th 1872
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit this, my report of the condition of the Alsea Ind. Sub-Agency for the month of April 1872.
    I am pleased to state that the Indians in this agency are in a healthy and flourishing condition. They are fast tending towards civilization and improving in the art of agriculture, and with the proper care and instruction they will soon take rank among the best Indians on this coast.
    The month of April was a very busy one, all being engaged in planting and sowing spring crops and garden seeds.
    So far the farming has been thoroughly done. Great pains have been taken in teaching the Indns. the importance of working the land well. Each family have sufficient potatoes planted to do them the coming season, also good gardens &c. Those who have horses have good fields of oats sowed, which will yield an abundance to do them next winter.
    During the month I have had a road opened to a prairie about ten miles up the Zahautz Creek and inland from the coast, which I believe will be of great advantage to these people.
    I have caused to be planted there corn, beans, oats, wheat, potatoes &c. in sufficient quantities to test the propriety of seeding extensively on said prairie next season.
    I have also had long lines of fencing built dividing the farm into separate fields, and taking in more pasture lands &c. and shall continue so to do and thereby convince these people under my care that improvement of this kind is essential to success, and industry the sure road to wealth.
    I would most respectfully call your attention to the necessity of a school on this agency. These Indians have never had the advantage of either church or school. Therefore under the present humane policy of the government it is but reasonable to hope that these two great influences of civilization may be placed within their reach. These people are all anxious that their young should be educated, and I am positive that a school could be kept up that would result in great good. I have on this agency under my care I think some twenty-five or thirty who are of a suitable age to attend school.
    Such a number could be provided for at a small expense. Education and Christianity must be introduced among these people before we can hope for a great reformation. Church and school is the power required to change the minds of these people and elevate them to a standard of respectability.
    I am discouraging the custom of the purchasing of women, of the plurality of wives &c. and am pleased to state I am prospering finely. These Indians have promised that if the government will survey these lands for them and secure to them a good title, as proposed on other agencies, they will abandon all their Indian laws and customs, break up their tribal relations and adopt our laws and customs. Therefore I would most respectfully recommend that provisions be made for the speedy completion of such survey. This done, a church and school established, and I am convinced that I can lead these people up the grade of civilization to a respectable elevation and soon make them an independent and self-sustaining people.
Your most obt. servt.
    Samuel Case
        Commissary in charge
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Camp Yainax May 8th 1872
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem Ogn.
            Sir
                Your
communication of April 27, relative to the Modocs and their permanent location has been received, and I reply with no little embarrassment, for this is an old and vexed question, and one upon which there is much difference of opinion; in fact any solution of the question will have its opponents.
    In regard to moving the band to Klamath Reservation and protecting them from the Klamaths, I give it as my opinion that the plan is not only practicable but is really the only policy that can be adopted with any hope of success, but it is reasonable to believe that they will not come on to the reservation peaceably while their present leaders are in power, at any rate not until they are convinced that the military will be used against them in case of refusal. I feel confident that in winter they could be removed quite easily by the troops stationed at Fort Klamath, but at this season an attempt to bring them by force might be attended with considerable danger to the settlers now in that country. Yet I am inclined to the opinion that a positive order to remove to the reservation, made when a force of fifty or sixty cavalry can be at hand in their country ready for immediate action, would have the desired effect, and that most if not all the Modocs would obey, and even this plan of action might lead to a very destructive war, for the Indians, of whom there are at least fifty active, well-armed warriors, might go into the mountains adjacent to the scattering settlements, do a great deal of damage, and really be almost invincible until hemmed in again by the snows of next winter. They are well armed and clothed, well supplied with ammunition, and are undoubtedly encouraged by certain white men in Siskiyou County, who perhaps profit by their trade.
    The proposition to arrest the leaders is one worthy of serious consideration, and in this plan may lie the solution of the problem, but under the present understanding between the departments, both Indian and military, and the chief, Captain Jack, the arrest would no doubt be regarded by the Indians as an act of treachery on our part, and might hereafter destroy their confidence in the Indn. Dept. to great extent, and the military might be averse to taking any action while they consider the agreement made with Capt. Jack by the late Supt., A. B. Meacham, is still in force. The nature of which agreement was--as you will see by records in your office--that until the matter of setting apart a separate reservation for them should be adopted or disapproved, and the matter of their permanent location be positively determined by the Dept., they should remain unmolested in the Modoc country, they, on their part, "doing nothing that would have a tendency to cause a collision between them and the settlers."
    In a communication addressed to Supt. A. B. Meacham, under date of Febry. 17, 1872, Gen. E. R. S. Canby says, "The commanding officer has been advised that the question of new location has been by you submitted to the Commsr. of Indian Affairs, and that pending the decision of this question force will not be used by the military to compel the return of the Modocs to the reservation." Unless assured that the new-location idea is abandoned, perhaps the military would not give the order to arrest those men.
    If it could be arranged, it is my opinion that the arrest of Capt. Jack, Black Jim, Scar-faced Charley, Boston, and En-choaks--the medicine man--would settle all trouble, and I am satisfied that if properly planned and managed with great caution it can be done with no very great risk and with a comparatively small force. Only for the appearance of being a breach of faith on the part of the Dept., it could have no bad influence on the other Indians.
    As to their location elsewhere than on the Klamath Reservation, I must say in all candor that I cannot consider such plan is either right or practicable. Allow me here to give a few reasons for so thinking.
    The Modocs, as parties to the treaty of Oct. 14, 1864, ceded to the United States the very country over which they are now roving. Their right being thus extinguished, the country was thrown open to settlement. Much of it has been located as state land, and nearly every foot of it fit for cultivation has been taken up by settlers, whose thousands of cattle, horses and sheep are ranging over it. The country where these Modocs are is a pastoral region, not an agricultural country, and to undertake to maintain them on a small reservation there would probably cost more than to provide for them and the Klamaths on this reservation, which is so well fitted by its various resources as a home for them.
    These Modocs really are only a fragment of the Klamath nation, having common sympathies, speaking the same language, and being closely intermarried with the several bands on the reservation, and if located on a new reservation a constant and annoying intercourse would be the effect, and their success in being located there in violation of treaty stipulations would have a demoralizing influence on the other Indians. The white settlers are very much opposed to establishing a new reservation for this band of desperadoes, and their determined opposition would keep up a continual conflict, even though the location should be made, and likely would be sufficient to make the thing a failure in the end.
    Chief Schonchin, formerly recognized as chief of all the Modocs, now an old man, still remains here with over a hundred of his tribe, still faithful to his obligations, and still anxious and hopeful that his people who have been led away by Capt. Jack will be brought back where they belong. Through Schonchin's people I shall immediately send word to Capt. Jack, asking him to meet Mr. Dyar and I without delay on Lost River, and the result of the council will be reported to you as soon as possible after it occurs.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in Charge
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 544-549.



Yainax May 16, 1872
Sir
    Under date of May 8th I wrote you in answer to your letter of inquiry in regard to the Modoc matter, and I would now most respectfully report further that on the 14th inst. in company with Mr. L. S. Dyar, agent at Klamath, I met the chiefs and headmen of all the Modocs, both those under Schonchin and Capt. Jack, at the military camp on Lost River. I used every argument to induce them to return peaceably to the reservation, telling them that this was the desire of the Department, that such action would ensure them all the rights and privileges now enjoyed by the other Indians on this reservation and that they would have perfect protection against the Klamaths.
    I did not think it warranted by my instructions, nor was it in my judgment prudent, to demand of them to return or even to say to them that they would have to come considering that at this season hostilities would certainly result in great loss of life and property. I was not willing to make any issues but thought it best to leave the matter of their final settlement still open, feeling satisfied and still hoping for success based on their good conduct. They will be more likely to remain peaceable. I asked Capt. Jack if he would obey the order to come onto the reservation, but he did not answer pointedly. While he hesitated, Black Jim and several others told him in their own language that it might be dangerous to say no. Jack then said that he would not answer the question, for it would make a "dispute." Considering all things I did not think it best to press the question further. Jack's speech was substantially as follows.
    "We are good people, and will not kill or frighten anybody. We want peace and friendship. I am well known and understood by the people of Yreka, California, and am governed by their advice. I do not want to live upon the reservation, for the Indians there are poorly clothed, suffer from hunger, and even have to leave the reservation sometimes to make a living. We are willing to have whites to live in our country, but do not want them to locate on the west side and near the mouth of Lost River, where we have our winter camps. The settlers are continually lying about my people and trying to make trouble."
    I feel quite safe in saying that there is not much probability of any serious trouble from these Indians as matters now stand, but if the cavalry force is ordered away before winter there will be great danger of open hostility. Any action against them in the summer will be attended with more or less danger.
    One very bad feature in the matter is the fact that there is a very bitter feeling among the settlers against these Modocs. The delay in removing them has made some of the settlers almost desperate, and it is hard to reason with such people and keep them from doing some act that might bring on a general massacre, and yet it would perhaps be safest to risk this and let the matter rest till winter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in Charge
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Salem, Ogn.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 541-544.



Camp Yainax Ogn.
    May 31st 1872.
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit the following as my report for the month ending with the above date.
    Farming operations have been pushed forward energetically. By the 10th inst. 40 acres were sown in wheat, 5 in rye, 35 in oats. The grain is now all up and promising a splendid crop. Since the 10th two employees (Indians) with teams have been assisting other Indians who are opening farms of their own in hauling rails and putting in grain and garden vegetables, and the two mule teams have been kept at work breaking up new ground and are still so employed.
    When not engaged in repairing plows and doing other work in the shop, the blacksmith has been detailed as a teamster and farm laborer and has rendered very efficient service. In view of the importance of putting in a good grain crop here and of assisting such Indians as were opening farms for themselves, I felt compelled to employ some Indian laborers, which I have deemed it proper to discontinue since the rush of putting in a spring crop is about over.
    The farmer, blacksmith, teamster and interpreter are the only employees now remaining, and I sincerely hope you will sanction the continuance of them all, as they all seem necessary to the success of operations here.
    All the Indians under my charge are now off the reservation on 30 days pass hunting game and digging roots in the mountains between Clear Lake and North Goose Lake Valley. They are very well contented and perfectly peaceable.
    The Modocs under Capt. Jack seem to be conducting themselves very well. They are evidently on their best behavior, hoping thereby to be permitted to remain in their old country. There does not seem to be any alarm among settlers now.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ivan D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Klamath Agency Or. June 1 1872
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    U.S. Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
        Sir
            I would respectfully submit the following report as sub-Ind. agt. at the Klamath Ind. Agency for month of May 1872.
    On May 1st I took charge, since which time the usual business of the agency has been transacted--nothing new of importance having been attempted.
    In accordance with your order and the request of Mr. I. D. Applegate, commissary at Yainax--to whom the business was committed on account of his intimate acquaintance with the Indians--I accompanied him on a visit to Lost River on the 14th inst. to meet the Modocs to ascertain the possibility of bringing them peaceably upon the Klamath Reservation. The result of the meeting he has reported to you in full. I read his report before it was transmitted to you and will say that I fully concur with him in his opinion in the matter.
Your obt. servt.
    L. S. Dyar
        U.S. Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency June 5th / 72
Sir:
    I have nothing of special interest to report concerning the operations of this agency for the month of May. The favorable weather has enabled me to have all available ground sown with wheat and oats and plant potatoes and vegetables. The present prospect indicates a much greater yield than ever before here.
    As the Indians desired to have a school opened, the delay in building the new school house induced me to fit up a room suitable for temporary use. The school is now in successful operation with an average attendance of twenty pupils.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Indian Agent
To
    Hon. T. B. Odeneal
        Supt. of Ind. Affairs
            Salem
                Or.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Alsea Indn. Sub-Agency
    June 6th 1872
Sir,
    I have the honor to transmit my report of the condition of Indians &c. in the Alsea Indian Sub-Agency Oregon, for the month of May 1872.
    During the first part of the month all were engaged in finishing up the planting and sowing, which we did on the 16th. Early planted potatoes look fine and are sufficiently large to admit of first hoeing.
    The crop in general looks well. Indians quiet and prospering. Many of them are preparing for a hunting and fishing expedition for a short time.
    During the month have had five small comfortable board houses built for some of the most destitute of these people. I have had new lands enclosed on the north end of the prairie and seeded to oats, potatoes, turnips and beans. The field contains about ten acres. Stock looks well and everything in general prosperous.
    Several Indians have left the reservation without permission and returned to their former homes on the Coos and Umpqua rivers. I succeeded in capturing and returning a portion of them; others are yet out. Some twenty or thirty of the Indians belonging to this agency are and have been absent at Coos and Umpqua for the last three years. They are desirous of remaining there, they say, from the fact they can make a better living there than on the reservation.
    They are quiet and give no trouble to the whites, therefore I have allowed them to remain.
    I now call your attention to the fact that I have under my charge in this agency some twenty-five very old and helpless Indians who have no way of subsisting only by the aid of the government. Therefore it will be necessary to issue subsistence to them for a few months until the crop matures, as our last season's stores are all exhausted.
    These old people are living in small huts, and very poor at that, therefore I would most respectfully recommend that they have small board houses built for them, that they may live comfortable and be well sheltered the coming winter.
    I would also again call your attention to the necessity of a school and church on this agency at as early a date as possible.
    These people have been neglected in comparison with other agencies, and now I hope and trust something better is in store for these people. They are all anxious for school, that their children may grow up in knowledge and truth, and I am desirous of seeing one established at as early a day as possible.
    Hoping the above suggestions may meet your hearty approval,
I remain your
    Most obdt. servt.
        Samuel Case
            Commissary in charge
To
    Hon. T. B. Odeneal
        Supt. of Indn. Affairs
            Salem
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 6, 1872
Sir
    In answer to your letter of the 14th March last addressed to late Supt. Meacham I have the honor to state that upon inquiry I find it has been customary in this Superintendency to pay teamsters and loggers eighty dollars per month. For like service individuals pay as I am informed from fifty to sixty dollars per month, in coin and board. After deducting his subsistence Chapman would realize only about sixty dollars per month in currency--equal to fifty-four dollars in coin. The labor performed by him was that of driving a team and delivering logs to the agency sawmill. Such labor commands higher wages than ordinary teamster. I do not consider the amount ($80 per month) excessive.
    In regard to the employment of two commissaries at Grand Ronde I will state the reasons as I understand them.
    It seems it was difficult to get a commissary combining the qualifications necessary to enable him to keep the books, accounts etc. properly, and at the same time conduct and control the business pertaining to the duties of an agent. An agent cannot attend properly to the duties of his office if required to transact the business of commissary and vice versa.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 687-688.



Empire City, Oregon
    June 8th 1872
To the Sec. of Interior Washington D.C.
    Sir
        Will you please inform me whether any treaty has ever been made with the Coos Bay tribe of Indians of Oregon by which the said Indians' title to their lands was released to the government of the U.S.? I think there was some attempt at a treaty in 1854, but [it] was not ratified by the Senate. Please give me what information you can from the records. The said tribe is located in Coos Co., Oregon.
Yours respectfully
    Siglin & Watson
        Empire City
            Coos Co., Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 679-680.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 10, 1872
Sir
    In answer to your letter of the 23rd of April last in which you state that the "employment of A. J. Brown and John Hanley as teamsters" at Klamath Agency "each at $80 per month are regarded as excessive in salary, and approval thereof is suspended to await my report" I have the honor to say that from all the information I have been able to obtain in regard to the matter, I have arrived at the conclusion that said salaries are not in excess of what is ordinarily paid for such service in that part of the state.
    In your letter of 7th Dec. last addressed to my predecessor I observe that the employment of the men above named as laborers and William A. Chapman as teamster each at $80 per month was approved.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 688.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 15, 1872
Sir
    I would respectfully call your attention to the subject matter of the enclosed copy of a letter just received at this office from Mr. Ivan D. Applegate, commissary in charge of Camp Yainax. It would seem there is reason to apprehend serious trouble with the Modoc Indians in consequence of the recent removal of troops from country they now occupy.
    I would respectfully request that you adopt and cause to be carried out such measures as you may deem necessary to protect the lives and property of citizens and prevent hostile proceedings on the part of said proceedings [sic].
    I am satisfied that complete subordination cannot be expected of these Indians until four or five of their leaders shall have been arrested and removed to some place where they can be safely kept remote from their followers. But I doubt whether this is practicable at this season of the year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Gen. E. R. S. Canby
    Comdg. Dept. Columbia
        Portland Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 691.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        June 17th 1872
Sir:
    In answer to your letter of the 12th of April last, enclosing copies of papers from the Hon. Secretary of War in reference to the hostile attitude of, and apprehended trouble with, the Modoc Indians, I have the honor to report that in pursuance of your instructions therein contained, I at once directed Agent Dyar, of Klamath Agency, and Ivan D. Applegate, commissary in charge of Camp Yainax, to meet the chiefs and headmen of said tribe of Indians and endeavor to persuade them to go upon the Klamath Reservation, authorizing the assurance to be given that they should be fully protected.
    A council was held with said Indians on the 14th ultimo, and the result thereof is contained in the report of Mr. Applegate, a copy of which is herewith enclosed. I referred the matter to the gentlemen named for the reason that Mr. Applegate has for many years been intimately acquainted with these Indians, speaks their language fluently, and possesses their confidence to an extent greater than anyone else.
    The leaders of these Indians are desperadoes--brave, daring and reckless--and their superior sagacity enables them to exercise full and complete control over the rest of the tribe. They have for so long a time been permitted to do as they please that they imagine they are too powerful to be controlled by the government, and that they can with impunity defy its authority. This, in my opinion, is the whole secret of their insubordination. They must in some way be convinced of their error in this respect by such firm, decided action as will leave no doubt in their minds in regard to the fact that we intend they shall be obedient to law and faithful to their treaty obligations. This need not, and with proper management will not, require the use of force. When they shall have been thus convinced, we can, with reasonable hope of success, commence the work of civilizing and Christianizing them and transferring them into peaceable, self-controlling and self-supporting men and women.
    Unless the leaders shall
in this way be restrained from pursuing the reckless, defiant course they have heretofore been permitted to pursue, all theories in regard to their advancement in civilization must fail, and there is reason to apprehend serious trouble, and perhaps war at no distant day.
    As well might we expect our own youth to grow up in the practice of Christian virtues under the tutorship of the "road agents" of Montana or the "guerrillas" of Mexico, as to think of instilling any good into the minds of the Modocs while under the exclusive control, as they have been, of their present leaders.
    I think the most effectual way to bring about a solution of these troubles, and maintain peace, is to take the headmen into custody and hold them at some point remote from their tribe until they shall agree to behave themselves. We deprive white men of their liberty as a reformatory measure, and it certainly could not be considered less humane to adopt the same course with these chiefs.
    Not long since I had a conversation with Major Elmer Otis, who was in command of the troops in the District including these Indians, in which he expressed the opinion that all trouble with them could be settled by arresting the leaders and compelling the others to go upon Klamath Reservation. His opinion, as well as that of Messrs. Applegate and Dyar, is that Camp Yainax, on Klamath Reservation, is the best place in that whole country for the Modoc Indians; that they will be as well contented and as easily kept there as at any other place that could be selected. I agree with them in this, and therefore respectfully report against the propriety of locating them elsewhere.
    I do not believe it practicable to remove them to the Klamath Reservation at this season of the year without using the military for that purpose, and then if they should resist, I doubt whether there is sufficient force in that vicinity to compel them to go. Major Otis stated in the conversation I had with him that the peremptory order for them to go upon the reservation should not be made before the last of September, for the reason that it would be difficult to enforce such [an] order before the commencement of winter.
    It is the opinion of Major Otis, and other military officers and citizens, that a reservation should be selected on the headwaters of Malheur River, or in the Steens Mountain country, on which the Piutes (or Snakes) should be located. I believe this practicable and advisable, but await orders from you in regard to it. It is estimated that there are 500 Piutes on the headwaters of the Malheur River who have never been on any reservation and 200 more at Yainax who desire to go back to where their people are in the Malheur country.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 534-540.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 18, 1872
Sir
    In answer to your letter of the 12th of April last enclosing copies of papers from the Hon. Secty. of War in reference to the hostile attitude of and apprehended trouble with the Modoc Indians I have the honor to report that in pursuance of your instructions therein contained I at once directed Agent Dyar, Klamath Agency, and Ivan D. Applegate, commissary in charge of Camp Yainax, to meet the chiefs and headmen of said tribe of Indians and endeavor to persuade them to go upon the Klamath Reservation, authorizing the assurance to be given that they should be fully protected.
    A council was held with these Indians on the 14th ultimo and the result thereof is contained in the report of Mr. Applegate, a copy of which is herewith enclosed. I referred the matter to the gentlemen named for the reason that Mr. Applegate has for many years been intimately acquainted with these Indians, speaks their language fluently, and possesses their confidence to an extent greater than anyone else.
    The leaders of these Indians are desperadoes--have daring and recklessness--and their superior sagacity enables them to exercise full and complete control over the rest of the tribe. They have for so long a time been permitted to do as they please that they imagine they are too powerful to be controlled by the government, and that they can with impunity defy its authority. This in my opinion is the whole secret of their insubordination. They must in some way be convinced of their error in this respect by such prompt decided action as will have no doubt in their minds in regard to the fact that we intend they shall be obedient to the law and faithful to their treaty obligations. This need not, and with proper management will not bring about a collision or cause any blood to be shed. When we have thus convinced them we can commence the work of transforming them with some hope of success into self-controlling men.
    Unless the leaders shall in some way be restrained from pursuing the reckless, defiant course they have heretofore been permitted to pursue all theories in regard to their advancement in civilization must fail. I know of no way to do this so effectually as to arrest and hold them as prisoners at some point (I would suggest Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory) remote from their tribe until they shall agree to behave themselves. The great body of the tribe cannot reasonably be expected to become peaceable and law-abiding while they remain under the influence and almost supreme control of these outlaws.
    Not long since I had a conversation with Col. Elmer Otis who was in command of the troops in the district including those Indians, in which he expressed the opinion that all trouble with them could be settled by arresting the leaders and compelling the others to go upon Klamath Reservation, but it was his opinion that positive orders should not be given them to this effect until about the last of September, so that in the case of refusal the military could compel obedience. His opinion, as well as that of Messrs. Applegate and Dyar and all others  from whom I have obtained any information, is that Camp Yainax on Klamath Reservation is the best place in that whole country for the Modocs, that they will be as well contented and as easily kept there as at any place that could be selected, and I agreed with them and therefore respectfully report against the propriety of locating them elsewhere.
    Major Otis and the gentlemen above named are of the opinion that a new reservation should be selected and established on the headwaters of the Malheur River or in the Steen Mountain country, on which the Piutes (or Snakes) should be located. I think this both practicable and advisable and await further orders in regard to it.
    It is estimated that there is 500 Piutes now on the headwaters of Malheur River who have never been on any reservation and there are some 200 more at Yainax, who are much dissatisfied and wish to go back to the Malheur country.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commsr. &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 692-693.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        June 18th 1872.
Sir:
    The surveys of lands on Indian reservations in this state having been approved, I have to ask for instructions in relation to the allotment thereof.
    The Indians, especially those at Grand Ronde, are very anxious to have their lands allotted to them so that they may erect houses and make other improvements thereon before winter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 527-528.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. June 19, 1872
Sir,
    While on a recent visit to Alsea Sub-Agency I was surprised with the fact that those Indians have not heretofore received the consideration and attention to which they are entitled by reason of their merit and the circumstance which surround them. They are quiet, peaceable and submissive, capable of rapid advancement in civilization if supplied with proper facilities. They have never been at war with the whites and no treaty has ever been made with them. Notwithstanding they have had but little done for them. They are inferior to no Indians I have visited. With their own poor, half-starved teams, and the old nearly worn-out plows and farming implements they have this season sown and planted extensive crops, which will subsist them next year provided the yield shall be as good as the prospects now indicate.
    No Superintendent had ever before visited them. They were very glad to see me and had a great many things practicable and impracticable to talk about. That which they seemed the most interested in was a school. Among them I saw some thirty or forty unusually bright and intelligent-looking boys and girls for whose education their parents and friends manifested a great desire, and they argued that they were as much entitled to the benefit of a school as the children at other agencies. The object of this letter is to propose a plan for the gratification of this laudable desire.
    As you are aware this agency has for more than a year been under the immediate supervision of this office, and in charge of Samuel Case as commissary, whose salary has been paid out of the incidental fund (which is insufficient to meet the many demands upon it), while the fund to pay the salary of a sub-agent has been accumulating.
    Now I would respectfully request and urge that a sub-agent be appointed to this agency and that I be allowed to use the salary ($1000) fund appropriated to pay a sub-agent for the year ending June 30, 1872 for the purpose of establishing a manual labor school. This fund with the amount we can spare from the incidental fund, if a sub-agent shall be appointed, will be sufficient to erect a building and keep up such school for a year at least.
    I have no desire to interfere in any way with the churches in the selection of agents, but as an act of justice to one who has performed his duties well I will say of Mr. Case that he is a man of good moral and industrious habits (though not I believe a member of any church). He is well liked by the Indians and would advance them as rapidly and care for them as well perhaps as any person who could be found willing to isolate himself entirely from the society of white people, which anyone will have to do who accepts the office. It is not a desirable place to live. And few men possessing the necessary qualifications for an agent would like to stop there very long. Mr. Case is not however averse to living there and says he would be pleased to receive the appointment.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, pages 693-694.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 529-533.



Department of the Interior
    Washington D.C. June 19th 1872.
Sir:
    Your report dated the 12th January last, in relation to a tract of land on the Willamette River in Oregon, which was purchased in 1851 for Indian purposes of Wm. S. Torrence, a claimant under the Donation Act of Sept. 27th 1850, and sold by order of the Department on the 7th March 1864 to Lloyd Brooke for $200.00, was forwarded to the General Land Office on the 7th July last for consideration.
    A copy of the report of the Commissioner dated the 4th inst. is herewith transmitted for your information.
    In view of the facts presented in this case, I am of opinion that Mr. Torrence possessed no legal title to the land in question, that the Indian Department did not therefore acquire any in the purchase from Torrence, and that there was no authority of law for the sale of the land to Mr. Brooke; the said sale, therefore, should be annulled, and the purchase money refunded to him as recommended by you.
    The Commissioner of the Genl. Land Office has been informed that the order of this Department dated the 6th May 1864 requiring a patent to be issued to Lloyd Brooke is revoked.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        C. Delano
            Secretary
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 236-240.



Yainax Oregon
    June 30th 1872
Sir
    I would most respectfully submit this, my report for the month ending with the above date.
    The prospects are very good for a fine grain crop. The prospects are good also for a fair yield of turnips &c.
    The Indians are feeling greatly encouraged, consequently are easily managed and are contented. They are mostly in the mountains gathering roots, hunting game &c.
    The Modoc band under the lead of "Capt. Jack" are now in the Clear Lake country. Fears are entertained by other Indians that they mean trouble this summer. Since the withdrawal of the troops from the Modoc country, the settlers are very much alarmed, I think justly so. The Snake and Piute bands seem to have no idea of committing any acts of hostility, and with proper management there is little or no danger of trouble from them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        I. D. Applegate
            Commissary in charge
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. &c.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Klamath Agency Or.
    July 1st 1872
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        Sir
            I hereby submit my report for the month of June.
    On my return from your office at Salem I found that heavy frosts about the 1st had killed some 20 or 30 acres of late-sown oats on the agency farm, and all the turnips and carrots, of which quite a large extent of ground was planted for the Indns., were entirely destroyed by insects. The indications now are that all the crops at this agency will be very light this season, so that the Indians will be obliged to depend for their subsistence the coming winer upon what camas and wocus they can gather and what little can be furnished to them directly from the annuity fund.
    The more I become acquainted with the resources of the reservation, the more thoroughly I am convinced of the absolute importance of paying more attention to the raising of cattle for the use and support of the Indians. Agriculture on the reservation has been thus far--and must always be--on account of the great altitude (4600 ft. above the sea) very uncertain because of frequent frosts, and therefore very discouraging especially to Indians, while the reservation possesses almost unlimited advantages for stock raising--both pasturage and meadow for hay. Could a few thousand dollars be expended for cows now, in a very few years--if judiciously managed--the Indians would be entirely self-supporting and in my opinion quite wealthy.
    The employees have been busily engaged at their usual work, the farm laborers in moving a large pile of slabs from the sawmill--the accumulation of nearly two years--cutting and hauling logs to the mill &c. &c., while the mechanics have been at work most of the time at building the flouring mill and a few days in fitting up agency buildings for the convenience of the families of employees lately moved in.
    Nothing new of importance has been inaugurated during the month.
Respectfully submitted
    L. S. Dyar
        U.S. Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 2nd 1872
Sir
    In further answer to your letter of the 14 of March last relative to employees at Grand Ronde Agency, I have to report that the persons therein referred to were appointed and discontinued service at the date below given, to wit:
Names Appointed Discontinued
L. S. Dyar, Commissary Decr. 1st 1871 March 31, 1872
Susan, Cook and Laundress Novr. 1st 1870 June 30th 1871
W. R. Dunbar, Teacher     "       "       "    "        "        "
George Tillotson, Millwright May 23rd 1871 Feby. 8th 1872
J. Monroe, do. June 27, 1871 Novr. 30, 1871
Stephen Tillotson,       do.     "    11,     " Oct. 31,       "
Frank Quenelle, laborer Sept. 16,    " Sept. 30,      "
Dave Sam,    " June    "      "     "      "        "
S. D. Reinhart, Commissary Aug. 23,     " Nov.   "        "
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 695.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        July 3rd 1872
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st ult., enclosing official copies of papers (which I herewith return to you) in reference to the Modoc and other tribes of Indians in Oregon.
    In addition to my report of the 17th ult., relative to the same subject, I have to say that I fully concur with Maj. Otis in his views and opinions, and endorse the recommendations contained in the aforesaid papers in regard to the selection of a new Indian reservation in Southeastern Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 556-557.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency
    July 10th 1872
Sir:
    I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of this agency for the month of June.
    Many of the Indians, as has been the custom for a long time at this season of the year, have gone outside of the reservation to work. The men obtain employment as farm laborers, wood choppers &c., and the demand for labor is such that all who will, and are able, can procure work at fair wages. The labor of women is also in demand for washing, housework &c. The only objectionable feature is that in their visits to the small villages [it] brings them in contact with unprincipled white men who furnish them with liquor [and] debauch their women, the result of which is disease and a manifest demoralization of the Indians.
    Until measures are adopted to keep them on the reservation, the foregoing is a serious impediment to their advancement.
    Owing to the long continued drought the crops of wheat, oats & hay will be a failure, and unless there is rain soon the supply will be entirely inadequate to the demands of the agency, and the purchase of large supplies in the fall for winter use will be necessary.
    I have to report the continued success of the school & the rapid progress of the pupils in their studies.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem, Or.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. July 11th 1872
Sir
    Your letters in relation to the killing of Tututni Jack were duly received by hands of Harney, and I immediately sent Brown to Portland with a letter to the district attorney stating facts in regard to the prisoner mentioned as having sold or given liquor to Indians, and requesting that action be taken at once to bring them to justice. I presume a complaint has been made and a warrant issued for their arrest, as I have just received a telegram from Marshal Young that he would be up today and wanted Harney to be ready to go with him. They leave here today at eleven o'clock. You will see that the witnesses are sent out without delay.
    A gentleman from Corvallis informs me that Boyle gave bail when he arrived there for his appearance at court. I have instructed Harney to explain the matter to Depot Charley.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Genl. Joel Palmer
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Siletz Ogn.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 699.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. July 16, 1872
Sir:
    You will please prepare and submit to me for signature a commission for the appointment of Samuel Case as sub-agent for the Alsea in Oregon.
Very respectfully &c.
    C. Delano
        Secty.
The Commissioner
    of Ind. Aff.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 241-242.



Headquarters Department of the Columbia,
    Portland, Oregon, July 17, 1872.
The
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Salem, Oregon.
Sir;
    For some time issues of subsistence stores have been made to Indians at Camp Harney and Warner and Fort Klamath, but as these issues are now prohibited by General Orders No. 54, Adjutant General's Office, 1872, the Commanding General instructs me to furnish you a copy of that order, that you may be advised of the prohibition and may anticipate their needs and make provision for them.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A.A.A.G.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 618 Oregon Superintendency, 1873, frames 961-962.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Or. August 9, 1872
Sir
    Sub-Agent Dyar reports the following changes of employees on Klamath Reservation since June 30th 1872.
Names Office When Appointed When Discontinued
A. I. Nicklin Physician July 1st 1872
Chas. Brown Farm Laborer    "      "      "
Joseph Waller Interpreter at Yainax    "      "      "
John Loosley Miller    "      "      "
John S. Scranton Millwright    "      "      "
I. D. Applegate Comsry. at Yainax May 15, 1869 July 31, 1872
O. C. Applegate Teacher Sept. 9, 1870     "    "        "
O. C. Applegate Comsry. at Yainax Augst. 1, 1872
Mr. M. T. Dyar Teacher      "      "      "
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
                by C. S. Woodworth Clerk
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissr. &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 704.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Augst. 17th 1872
Sir
    Agent Sinnott Grand Ronde Agency reports the following changes in employees, to wit:
August 6th Wm. Lawrence, logger, discharged
      "        "   Wm. Lawrence appointed to run thresher at $2.00 per day
      "        "   Henry Huffer            "               "          "        "  $2.00   "     "    
      "        "   Henry Winslow        "               "          "        "  $2.00   "     "    
      "        "   Jack Smith                "               "          "        "  $1.50   "     "    
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
                by C. S. Woodworth clerk
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissr. &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 708.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        Sept. 4, 1872
Sir,
    I have the honor to enclose herewith a report dated the 22nd ultimo (& accompanying map) received from T. B. Odeneal, Esq., Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon, reciting the action taken by him relative to the establishment of a proposed reservation on the headwaters of Malheur River in that state for the Snake or Piute Indians under instructions contained in [the] letter to him from this office dated the 6th of July last.
    Supt. Odeneal defines the boundaries of the tract of country selected by him for the proposed reservation as follows. "Beginning at the mouth of the north fork of the Malheur River, thence up said north fork including the waters thereof to Castle Rock, thence in a northwesterly direction to Strawberry Butte, thence to Soda Spring on the Canyon City and Camp Harney road, thence down Silvies River to Malheur Lake, thence east to the south fork of Malheur River, thence down said south fork, including the waters thereof, to the place of beginning (to be known as Malheur Reservation), including all lands within said boundaries, excepting so much thereof as may have been granted for military or wagon road purposes."
    I respectfully recommend that the tract of country embraced within the foregoing limits be set apart and reserved as an Indian reservation and that the President be requested to issue an executive order accordingly.
    It is also requested that the papers enclosed be returned to this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        F. A. Walker
            Commissioner
The Hon.
    Secretary of the Interior
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



CHARLES E. MIX & CO.
General Claim Agents
Office, 809 E Street North, bet. 8th and 9th West
Washington, D.C., September 5th 1872
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir,
            We endorse two affidavits in behalf of Joseph Rockburn, of Oregon, who claims pay as interpreter for the Rogue River Agency during the period of his imprisonment by the Indians of that agency, about five months.
    1. The affidavit of claimant sets forth that he was appointed interpreter by Benjamin Wright, or Right, agent for the Rogue River Indians, in September or October 1856, that while on duty as said interpreter he was taken prisoner by those Indians who retained him as prisoner about five months, for which period of time he claims pay; that the agent agreed to give him five dollars per day or one hundred & thirty dollars per month; that all he received from the agent was five dollars; that the agent was killed by the Indians shortly after that, since which time he has been in the mountains at the mines which is the reason he did not apply sooner for his pay, and that he appointed McLellan & Bell as his attorneys to collect this claim & do all things in his stead as if personally present--affidavit before C. M. Carter, notary public for Oregon, on 24 April 1872.
    2. Affidavit of Joseph Rogueburn [sic] & Margrette Rogueburn, who represent that they are acquainted with Joseph Rockburn [sic], who was Indian interpreter in the Rogue River country for Benjamin Wright or Right during the fall of 1856; that he was taken prisoner by the Indians, and that said Indian agent was killed by the hostile Indians. Affidavit before C. F. Ray, justice of the peace for Marion County, Oregon, 22nd April 1872.
    We submit the affidavits at the request of Messrs. McLellan & Bell, attorneys, and respectfully solicit that you will act upon the claim at your earliest conveneince & inform us of the result.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svts.
        Charles E. Mix & Co.
   
State of Oregon             )
County of Multnomah   )  ss.
    Joseph Rockburn upon oath says that on about the month of September or October 1856 he was appointed Indian interpreter by Benjamin Wright or Right, agent for the Rogue River Indians, in Southern Oregon; that while on duty as said Indian interpreter he was taken prisoner by the hostile Indians (Rogue River) and retained as prisoner about five months; that he claims pay for his services as interpreter for this five months during his imprisonment; that the agent agreed to give him five dollars per day or one hundred and thirty dollars per month; that all he received from the agent was five dollars; that the agent was killed by the Indians shortly after; that since which time he has been in the mountains at the mines is the reason he did not apply sooner for his pay; that he appoints McLellan & Bell as his attorney to collect this claim & do all things in his stead as if personally present.
Joseph Rockburn
   
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 24th April 1872.
C. M. Carter
    Notary Public
        for Oregon
   
State of Oregon      )
County of Marion   )  ss.
    Joseph Rogueburn Seignor and Margret Rogueburn say that they are well acquainted with Joseph Rockburn, who was Indian interpreter in the Rogue River country for Benjamin Wright or Right during the fall of 1856; that he was taken prisoner by the Indians, and that said Indian agent was killed by the hostile Indians.
            his
Joseph X Rogueburn Seignor
           mark
                 her
Margrette X Rogueburn
                mark
   
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 22nd day of April 1872.
C. F. Ray
    Justice of the Peace
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 487-493.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, D.C. Sept. 12, 1872
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit herewith a communication dated the 4th instant from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, enclosing a report (with map) of T. B. Odeneal, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, and recommending that a reservation on the headwaters of the Malheur River in the state of Oregon--the boundaries of which are set forth in the Commissioner's letter--be established for the Snake or Piute Indians.
    The recommendation of the Commissioner meets with the approval of this Department, and I respectfully request that the President direct the same to be carried into effect.
I have the honor to be
    Your obedient servant
        W. H. Smith
            Acting Secretary
To the President
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Executive Mansion
    Sept. 12, 1872
    Let the lands which are fully described in the accompanying letter of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs be set apart as a reservation for the Snake or Piute Indians, as recommended in the letter of the Secretary of the Interior of this date.
U. S. Grant
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



A Bill
for the removal of certain bands of Indians from the Coast Range Indian Reservation in Oregon, now known as Siletz and Alsea reservations, and of their establishment upon a portion of the same.
    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in congress assembled,
    That the Secretary of the Interior be and hereby is authorized to remove all bands of Indians now located upon the Alsea and Siletz Indian reservations set apart for them by Executive Order, dated Nov. 9, 1855 and not restored to the public domain by executive order of Dec. 21, 1865 and to locate said bands of Indians upon the following described tract of country, viz:
    Beginning at a point two miles south of the Siletz Agency, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, thence north along said ocean to the mouth of Salmon River, thence due east to the western boundary of the eighth range of townships west of the Willamette Meridian, thence south with said boundary to a point due east of the place of beginning, thence west to the place of beginning, which is hereby set apart as a permanent reservation for the Indians now occupying the same, and to be hereafter located thereon.
    Section 2nd. That the Secretary of the Interior be, and hereby is, authorized to expend for the removal of these Indians as herein provided and for their establishment thereon, and for saw & grist mill and other improvements, the sum of fifty thousand dollars.
    Section 3. That the Secretary of the Interior be, and hereby is, authorized to have surveyed into [blank] acre tracts the above described tract of country, or so much thereof as may be necessary, and assign to each head of a family, single person or otherwise that may desire to have lands therein assigned them in severalty such quantity of land as he may deem proper, and may cause patents to issue therefor with such restrictions upon the power of alienation that he may deem advisable necessary to impose advisable.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Sept. 19, 1872
Sir
    I have the honor to submit this, my first annual report of the condition of Indian affairs in this Superintendency.
    Within the short space of time which has elapsed since I took charge, it is not to be expected that much progress could be made in the work of advancing the Indians in the arts and pursuits of civilized life. Believing that what has been done is now of less importance than that which may be done, I shall confine myself mainly to a brief statement of such matters as pertain to future operations.
    The amount of liabilities outstanding when I took charge of the office on the first of April last was very large. I have disbursed but little money except in payment of "certified vouchers" of my predecessor. The annuity funds of some tribes will be thus exhausted, and the consequence will be a cutting off of their regular annual supplies. No explanation will be sufficient to satisfy them that this is not delinquency on the part of the government, and an omission to comply with treaty stipulations. Purchasing supplies on credit, in advance of appropriations, embarrasses the service, brings about dissatisfaction among the Indians, and greatly retards the advancement of the humane policy of the government toward this needy and dependent race. Every effort has been made to economize and make the appropriations as nearly equal to the emergency as possible.
    Considering the immense sums of money expended by the government during the score of years last past, it is somewhat strange that the Indians are not further advanced. None of them possess the most ordinary common-school education. Where one can read, there are probably two hundred who do not know the letters of the alphabet. The school funds have in many instances been paid to persons reported as teachers, whose time has been devoted to clerking, farming or some other employment foreign to the duties of a school teacher. It seems that the principle that "appropriations are made to put money in circulation" has been acted upon. The government may have lost nothing by this diversion, but the children were thereby deprived of the instruction which it was intended they should receive when the appropriations were made.
Hospitals
    In order that the sick of all ages, but more especially the old people, may receive the benefits designed to be derived from the attentions and prescriptions of a physician, a hospital is needed at each of the agencies. Indians do not seem to have proper respect for the old and helpless, and they cannot be depended upon to nurse and give medicines to the sick. When such articles of food as are usually kept for the purpose are issued to the sick, the well and able-bodied take and appropriate them to their own use. The agent cannot be always present to prevent the practice of this injustice. Two thousand dollars for each agency would be required to erect and furnish the necessary building and pay a person to attend to it one year. I know of no other way by which so small an amount of money could be made to do so much good.
Grand Ronde Agency
    The affairs of this agency have been well managed, considering the great deficiency in funds necessary to conduct operations and pay outstanding liabilities. The final report of late Superintendent Meacham shows that the school funds in his hands on the first of April last, belonging to this agency, amounted to over ten thousand dollars, no part of which has as yet been placed in the possession or at the disposal of this office or the agent. With this amount of money and the current appropriations, a first-class manual labor school, with all the appurtenances and appliances necessary to make it a success, could be established and kept in operation for several years, provided a house of sufficient capacity, conveniently and comfortably arranged and furnished, could be erected. Fifteen hundred dollars will, I believe, cover the expense of building such a house, and I would respectfully recommend that this amount be appropriated for the purpose.
    I was present yesterday when the agent commenced allotting lands to these Indians. For this event they have looked forward with much interest. They are highly elated and evince a commendable desire to have homes they may call their own and to adopt the social and industrial customs and pursuits of white people. Their prospective destiny is looked forward to with pride, and they seem fully determined to persevere with renewed energy until they become worthy, useful citizens. In order to give them a proper start in the right direction, as they now enter upon this new era and place them upon a self-sustaining basis, it is very important that they be at once supplied with the means necessary to enable them to build, move and repair houses, barns and fences and get such farming implements as they now need. For this purpose I would respectfully recommend that an appropriation of eight thousand dollars be made. To aid them now in building and finishing houses suitable for the habitation of civilized people will prove a stimulus of inestimable value and hasten the time when they can dispense with all government aid and become self-supporting. This amount should be in addition to their annuities and for the special purpose aforesaid. At least one-half, and perhaps two-thirds, of the lots of land which will be assigned in accordance with the survey have no buildings upon them. Most of the houses, which have been built in clusters, will have to be moved, and in order to do so many of them will have to be torn down and rebuilt. Quite a large number will have to build new houses, and all of them will have to do more or less fencing. This, of course, will cost them much labor and some money. The labor they can perform, and they say they are willing to do it, but the money they have not, and without it their labor is nearly useless. Believing it to be the most economical thing the government can do for them and knowing that it will best subserve the interests of the Indians, I take the liberty of urging the importance of making the appropriation aforesaid.
Umatilla Agency
    The affairs of this agency are in a prosperous condition financially, there being no liabilities which there are not funds to meet. In regard to all matters connected with these Indians, I deem it unnecessary to add anything to the full report of Agent Cornoyer. I second his recommendation in regard to the removal of the mill and the erection of a hospital and employee buildings. I think his estimate of the amount of money necessary to make these improvements is not too high.
Klamath Agency
    Agent Dyar's report contains about all that could be said without needless repetition. Your order to put the Modoc Indians on this reservation will be executed next mouth. Two hundred of the Snake heretofore at Yainax, but now in the vicinity of Camp Warner, wish to go back to the Malheur country, and if the selection of the new reservation in that locality shall be approved, I think they should be removed there, as it is their old home, and they will be better satisfied. This will give more room for the Modocs, make them better satisfied when they are taken to the reservation and render it less difficult to keep them there.
Siletz Agency
    There are no special appropriations for these Indians, except a few hundred dollars for the Rogue River tribe, only a fraction of which is at this agency, the remainder being at Grand Ronde. There are nine other tribes, numbering in the aggregate over eight hundred, wholly dependent upon the general incidental fund to supply their many needs. The demands upon this fund are so numerous and being frequently greater one year than they are another, the amount which can be given them is necessarily very uncertain. There is a large amount of indebtedness against this agency, and the funds of the third and fourth quarters are about exhausted. Besides these liabilities, there will be other unsettled demands against the incidental fund amounting to thousands of dollars. Nearly all of this fund not transferred to agents has gone to pay debts contracted prior to the date of my taking charge of the office. I speak of these matters to show the necessity of at least twenty thousand dollars [additional] to the usual appropriation for general incidental expenses in this Superintendency. I have waited until the last moment, in the hope that I should receive a full report from Agent Palmer of the condition and affairs of this agency. He informs me that his report will be ready to forward within a few days. Money sufficient to build a saw and grist mill and school house and to establish a manual labor school and repair agency buildings, is indispensable to the comfort and improvement of the Indians. There is an abundance of the best of timber, which is useless without a sawmill. The wheat they raise cannot be converted into flour without a grist mill, as there is no mill nearer than thirty miles of the agency and that can only be reached by pack animals. The agency is so hemmed in by mountains and remote from settlements that the only way to supply them with the necessary amount of lumber and have them realize the benefit of their grain crops is to make these improvements on the reservation.
Alsea Sub-Agency
    As these Indians really merit much more than they have ever received, I think it a duty the government owes to them to provide for the erection of a building and the establishment of a manual labor school. I will here say that I am fully satisfied that it is useless to spend money for any other kind of school at any of the agencies. Many of the children are kept away from school because they have no clothes suitable to wear and not enough food to be able to take their dinner with them. They should be neatly and cleanly clad and their appetites satisfied with wholesome food, kept away from their people at least five days out of the seven, and then we may expect to make some headway toward cultivating their minds, with some hope in time of making useful citizens of them.
Indians Not on Reservations
    The Clatsops, Nestuccas, Tillamooks and Nehalems, with whom no treaty was ever made and who have received but little assistance or attention from the government, number in the aggregate about two hundred. They are now in Tillamook County, some thirty miles from Grand Ronde Agency. By the report of Agent Sinnott, it appears that they desire to have lands allotted to them and be allowed to send their children to school at that agency. I think these benefits and privileges should be extended to them.
    In Wallowa Valley, in the eastern part of the state, there are about two hundred Nez Perces, who claim that they were not parties to the treaty made with their people several years ago; that the valley belonged to this tribe at the time of making this treaty; that they have lived there ever since; that this has always been their country, and they oppose its settlement by the whites. Having been directed to inquire into the facts in reference to these Indians and ascertain their needs, I will make this matter the subject of a special report.
    The Indians mentioned by Agent Cornoyer in his report as being now on the Columbia River, numbering in his opinion two thousand, are a source of considerable annoyance to the agents at Warm Springs and Umatilla. They have a new and peculiar religion, by the doctrines of which they are taught that a new god is coming to their rescue; that all the Indians who have died heretofore and shall die hereafter are to be resurrected; that as they then will be very numerous and powerful they will be able to conquer the whites, recover their lands and live as free and unrestrained as their fathers lived in olden times. Their model of a man is an Indian; they aspire to be Indians and nothing else. About four hundred of them belong at Umatilla Agency, one hundred at Warm Springs and the remainder in the Territories of Idaho and Washington. I understand that repeated ineffectual efforts have been made to induce them to return to their reservations. It has not been practicable for me to confer personally with them. It is thought, by those who know them best, that they cannot be made to go upon their reservations without at least being intimidated by the presence of military force.
    The estimates of the number of Snake Indians not now on any reservation range from 600 to 1200. A now reservation was recently selected for them on the headwaters of Malheur River, but the selection has not been approved as yet, and the Indians are still roaming over the vast scope of country which they claim as their own. Their wants have heretofore been fully presented to you, and it is not necessary that I should now repeat anything contained in my recent report of their condition.
Warm Springs
    The annual report of Agent Smith has not reached this office, and not having visited this agency I can give no information in regard to those Indians not contained in his monthly reports. It is sufficient, perhaps, to say that these reports represent affairs on this reservation as being in a prosperous condition.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commsr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 714-718.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 581-593.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        September 28th 1872
Sir:
    On the 21st March last you addressed me a letter in reference to a contract entered into by and between my predecessor and George Nurse to furnish 30,000 lbs. of fresh beef at Camp Yainax, Klamath Reservation, and enclosed said contract for correction. The beef had all been furnished, as I am informed, prior to the date of your letter, notwithstanding which, however, I called the attention of the parties to the defects you mentioned, which they have failed to correct. They have given me the enclosed vouchers, which I forward for your action. These show that the price to be paid was nine cents coin, net weight. I am informed this price does not exceed that paid by the military at Fort Klamath, while men who had beef cattle in that vicinity say they would have furnished it for less had they been advised of the letting of the contract. As the beef had been delivered, I deemed it unnecessary to have a bond executed.
    No advertisement to furnish said beef was published. There were no other bids. The contract is herewith returned. I also enclose account of G. C. Litchfield for approval.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Indian Affrs. Oregon
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 594-596.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Ogn. Octr. 2nd 1872
Sir
    I have to say in answer to your letter of the 26th of August last that the dwelling house at Alsea Sub-Agency is a very old, rudely constructed, dilapidated log cabin, and unfitted for the habitation of anyone. To spend money in making repairs would be in my opinion like throwing it away.
    Six hundred dollars in addition to the labor which would be bestowed by employees would build a new house.
    The large amount of debts against the incidental fund and the numerous current demands upon it render it impracticable to appropriate any part thereof to the erection of said building.
    I think two hundred dollars of the fund in "Buildings at Agencies and Repairs" could be spared for the purpose aforesaid. My opinion is that a new dwelling should if possible be built before winter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affairs in Ogn.
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commsr. &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 721.  Original on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 601-603.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs,
    Salem, Oregon,
        October 15th 1872
Sir:
    I herewith transmit an estimate of the funds required to complete surveys of Indian reservations in this Superintendency.
    If "Malheur" is designated to be a permanent reservation, it will be necessary to survey it sometime, and as its establishment will induce the settlement of contiguous vacant lands, conflicts will be unavoidable unless the boundaries are definitely fixed by actual survey.
    The Indians at Alsea Sub-Agency are desirous of having their lands allotted to them in severalty. If the government intends that they shall remain permanently where they are, I think their desire should be gratified.
    A sufficient quantity of land has not been surveyed at Siletz, Warm Springs or Umatilla to meet the requirements of the Indians at these agencies.
    When I addressed the communication to the Surveyor General, to which you refer in your letter of the 16th of August last, I was on the eve of starting upon the expedition to select "Malheur" Reservation, and had not time to obtain from agents the information which would enable me to make a correct estimate of the funds required; I therefore mentioned the sum of $20,000, knowing that that amount would be sufficient, and that any overplus would revert to the Treasury. I will further state that my letter to the Surveyor General was addressed to him at his request, and I therefore supposed that to be the way to get the funds.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 612-614.



Siletz Ind. Agency Nov. 14th 1872
My dear friend
    Your letter of 5th inst. in reference to the probable success of securing the Rev. E. F. [illegible--Henry? Hemby?] as teacher &c. came to hand yesterday, and I shall be glad if your efforts are crowned with success. But, Brother Parrish, I am disheartened and utterly discouraged
in this work. The odds are now greatly against me. This hue and cry in the church against us has so opened the field for those who are opposed to the whole policy that their opposition has become effective among the Indians themselves, for whilst a large majority of them have confidence in [me] and desire me to remain, there are enough who are flattered and hoodwinked by that element to keep up a constant turmoil and excitement, and without going into detail the effect of this blowout is visible at every turn, and the sooner I can get away from here the better. I have become so fully satisfied of this that yesterday I sent my resignation to the Superintendent's office and expressed a hope that I might be relieved at the earliest possible moment. I suppose the Supt. cannot relieve me until he is informed by the Department that my resignation has been accepted unless, indeed, someone has already been appointed in my place, which is highly probable, for your communication could not have been received until long after Mr. Roberts, and if the party to whom it was sent acted promptly, yours would have been too late. At all events, it opens the door for distrust and enlarges the field of opposition; besides it is in the mouth of every scalawag in the country, white & Indian, for its publication in the Advocate* appealed directly to the Christian portion of the community, and it is pointed at by the opposition as an evidence of unfaithfulness on my part, and wireworking and intrigue on the part of others.
    I am beginning to feel that Howard was right when he represented to some of my friends that I was in my dotage and could not succeed, for if I had acted as my better judgment dictated at the time, I would have scattered and crushed the elements of discord at once, but instead was so weak as to nurse a thorn until it has finally penetrated to the bone. Now under all the circumstances will it not be better for me to go home and attend to my own affairs? But I am by no means willing to admit that the policy is a failure, but upon the contrary that it can be made a success--but to effect it, those having the charge of the missionary work upon the agencies must have an object in view beyond the almighty dollar. There must be labor, hard, untiring labor, to prepare these people for the change. It is useless to preach Christian conversion to a starving man--first feed him--but 'tis well to practice the Christian virtues whilst preparing the meal.
    I am ready to admit that I have made some mistakes in selecting employees. It takes time to prove these things, and you are correct in supposing that the remedy would be applied as soon as possible. Those drawing a comparison between the condition of the Indians upon this reservation and those upon the Yakama Reservation must remember that Father Wilbur has been in charge some ten years or thereabouts with the material and surroundings wholly dissimilar. Besides, The two native divines upon his agency, if I mistake not, had the benefit of the improving work of Mr. Perkins & others at the Dalles nearly thirty [years] ago and continuously since, whereas to these here it is a new theme.
    The want of funds has been a serious drawback. The entire Superintendency, under the class of accounts from which we draw our supply, is largely in arrears. This agency in particular The former agent here, instead of turning over to me the funds in his hands as directed, turned over to Mr. Meacham four thousand three hundred and eighteen dollars, and Mr. Meacham is due the Department over twelve thousand dollars according to his own books.
    We had to raise a crop and necessarily to go in debt to do so. A hue and cry is raised among creditors, particularly members of our church, and I believe they were urged on by Howard. I am sorry we could not pay them, but we have produced a crop. But enough of this. I shall be in Corvallis on the 4th Monday of this month with Indians to prosecute Boyle for the killing [of] Chief Jackson 5th July last. I may possibly come to Salem. I would be glad to see you, for I rejoice in the reflection to know that I have one friend of sufficient boldness to speak out, one too who all know acts from pure motives. 
    If you see proper, confer with Mr. Cook and show him that, for I have always esteemed him as a friend and a true man. I have no wish to raise a noise or to make a great ado about a little thing, but I do feel greatly aggrieved about the publication in the Advocate, but let it go; it is now too late to recall. I suppose Mr. Roberts did not know how great a wrong he was doing me in its publication.
God bless you
    Your friend
        Joel Palmer
To Rev. J. L. Parrish
    Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.  *As distressing as Palmer found the Advocate article, no other newspaper seems to have found it of sufficient import to reprint. The relevant issue of the Advocate is apparently lost.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Nov. 20, 1872
Sir
    I transmit herewith for approval contracts made by me Oct. 29, 1872 with the following named parties, to wit: Solomon Hirsch, J. B. Congle, Rogue River Woolen Manufacturing Company, Beaver Hosiery Manufacturing Company, each accompanied by bids, copy of advertisements &c.
    These supplies were purchased upon requisitions from agents. I tendered the contract to Goldsmith & Co. to furnish the articles when their bid was lowest, but they declined to accept.
    The Rogue River Woolen Manufacturing proposed to furnish only two pair of blankets, so that I had to reward the contract to Hirsch for the balance.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Indian Affairs
Hon. C. Delano
    Secretary of the
        Interior
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 735.



Copies.
Camp at Crawley's Ranch
    Lost River, Oregon, December 2, 1872.
Major John Green, 1st Cavalry
    Commanding Fort Klamath, Ogn.
Major:
    I sent you two days ago a hasty report
of operations in the field. I have now the honor to submit a detailed report of my operations since I left Fort Klamath, Oregon.
    In compliance with your order No. 93, of November 28th, I moved from Fort Klamath, Oregon, at 11 a.m., with Lieut. Boutelle, Doctor McElderry, thirty-six men of B Troop in column, and four with the pack train. Guided by Mr. Ivan Applegate, we marched all day and night, through a heavy rain storm, and arrived at the principal camp of the Modoc Indians about daylight. Forming line, I moved down on the camp at a trot, completely surprising the Indians and creating great commotion among them. Halting just at the edge of the camp, I called to them to lay down their arms and surrender. I also got Mr. Applegate to interpret to them my intentions and ask them to comply with the orders of the Indian Dept. Some of them seemed willing to do so, but "Scarface Charlie," "Black Jim" and some others kept their guns and commenced making hostile demonstrations against us. After repeated demands on them to lay down their arms and surrender had been unheeded, and seeing that the hostile Indians were getting more numerous and determined, I directed Lieut. Boutelle to take some men from the line and arrest the leaders, if possible. This order was followed by firing on the part of the Indians, and a general engagement immediately ensued. I poured in volley after volley among their worst men, killing most of them, capturing the camp, and driving the Indians to the refuge of the brush and hills, from whence they kept up a desultory fire for some little time. I lost during the engagement, and almost at the first fire, one man killed and seven wounded, and one horse killed.
    After driving the Indians out of range it became necessary to take care of my wounded, to prevent the squaws remaining in camp from killing and mutilating them. Leaving a slight skirmish line in charge of Lieut. Boutelle, I took what men could be spared and had the dead and wounded carried to the river bank, and from there canoed across the river and carried to Crawley's ranch, about a half mile below.
    I then dismantled the camp, capturing Captain Jack's three rifles and his two saddles. All Indian guns found in the camp were broken up or thrown in the river.
    At the same time that I moved on the main camp of the Modocs, a smaller camp on the north side of the river was attacked by ten citizens, among them Mr. Oliver Applegate, Mr. Brown, Mr. Jack Burnett, Mr. Dennis Crawley, Mr. C. Monroe, Mr. Thurber, Mr. Colwell and others; they also demanded the surrender of these Indians, which was not acceded to, and when the firing commenced in the main camp they opened on the citizens, and the citizens on them. One citizen (Mr. Thurber) was killed, and it is believed several Indians were killed and wounded. The citizens, after the first attack, retired to Mr. Crawley's ranch and kept up the fight at long range, preventing the Indians from crossing the river and attacking my flank or rear.
    Two citizens coming up the road, not knowing of the fight, were shot, one mortally and the other dangerously wounded. Soon after the fight Mr. Applegate, Mr. Brown, Mr. Burnett and some others left to warn citizens in other places of danger, leaving but a small force at the house where my wounded had been sent, and where a family resided. Mr. Crawley rode up and asked for protection at the ranch, stating that the Indians were preparing for a new attack.
    I mounted my command and moved out at a trot for the ford, some eight miles up the river, sending Lieut. Boutelle with a skirmish line to clear the Indians out of the sagebrush, which he did effectually. It was between three and four o'clock when the troop arrived at the ranch, where we took post to await supplies and care for the wounded. While moving around to the ranch, some straggling Indians collected on the other side of the river and burned a hay stack and house belonging to Mr. Monroe. After this they moved out down Tule Lake for their refuge in the caves and rocks south of the lake. One band from the north side of the river, who had been fighting the citizens, moved down on that side of the lake during the fight and commenced killing the unwarned inhabitants of Tule Lake Valley.
    It was not until the next morning after the fight, while sending the wounded away in charge of the surgeon, that I learned there were any inhabitants near the scene of conflict, or that they had been unwarned of approaching danger. I immediately sent a detachment with Mr. Crawley to ascertain the condition or fate of these people. He visited the first place (Mr. Boddy's), about 3½ miles below his (Mr. Crawley's) ranch, and found the house deserted, but everything in order, no sign of attack or murder, no tracks around the house, a dog tied to the door step, and animals in the corral. Thinking from appearance that the family must have had warning and fled, and believing that the warning had been carried down the valley, he came back and so reported.
    That evening, November 30th, I moved to the ford to meet the supply train and prevent its being intercepted by prowling bands of Indians. The pack train came up at midnight, and the next morning, December 1st, the command was moved back to Crawley's ranch for station until such time as supplies sufficient for a campaign could be collected. The evening of the 1st December, two citizens, residents of Tule Lake Valley, came in and reported that the men of the Boddy family had been murdered right after or during the fight by the band of Indians who had escaped, and that the women of the family had not been molested, but had walked across the mountains to Lost River bridge, and were then at Linkville. Lieut. Boutelle with a detachment was sent down with these men this morning, and some of the bodies of the Boddy family [were] found in the timber, quite a distance from the house, where they had been cutting and hauling wood. The detachment was proceeding on down the valley when they were met by Mr. Ivan Applegate, Mr. Langell and some others, who had come up the valley, visiting the ranches on the north side of the lake. They reported the killing of the men of the Brotherton family (3), two herders and Mr. Henry Miller. Mrs. Brotherton with her two little boys had fought the Indians away from the house, wounding some of them. She, with her three children, two boys and a little girl, came up with the party of citizens and soldiers and are now at this station. Quite a party of citizens have collected here.
    Tomorrow quite a large force will move down the valley to hunt up the remains of the murdered inhabitants. I send you a list of those known or supposed to have been killed:
    Mr. William Boddy, Rufus Boddy, William Boddy Jr., Nicholas Shearon, Wm. Brotherton, W. K. Brotherton, Rufus Brotherton, Christopher Erasmus, Robert Alexander, John Tober, ------ Collins, Henry Miller.
    I have sent a detachment to Clear Lake for the protection of Mr. Jesse Applegate's family, and will move the infantry you send me into Langell Valley and Clear Lake, the only places now threatened.
    A company of Klamath Indians, thirty-six in number, commanded by Captain Ferree of Klamath Indian Agency, came in today and will go out on the trail of the Modocs tomorrow to hunt them up and keep them from raiding, until the troops can move on their hiding places.
    I think it will be necessary to make a depot of supplies at this point, as beyond this, in the direction the Indians have gone, wagons cannot be moved any distance, and the troops will have to depend on a pack train for supplies.
    The troop behaved splendidly under fire, although a number of the men were raw recruits. Dr. McElderry was present on the field during the fight, and I take great pleasure in commending him and Lieut. Boutelle for coolness, gallantry and efficient service.
I am, Major,
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            James Jackson
                Captain 1st Cavalry
                    Comdg. "B" Troop
----
Endorsements.
Headqrs. Fort Klamath, Ogn.
    Decr. 7, 1872.
    Respectfully forwarded to Department Headquarters. Captain Jackson is entitled to great credit for making the march he did, and so completely surprising the Indians. He and the officers under him, as well as the troop, behaved most gallantly in this affair, and faithfully carried out my instructions.
    Assistant Surgeon Henry McElderry is also entitled to great credit for his care of the wounded and devotion to them.
    Lieut. Boutelle I know to be a gallant and brave officer deserving all the praise Captain Jackson gives him.
    It is gratifying to be able to add that during the fight no Indian women or children were killed, except one child accidentally shot.
John Green
    Major 1st Cavalry
        Commanding
----
Headqrs. Dept. of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, Dec. 21, 1872.
    Official copy respectfully furnished the Asst. Adjutant General, Mil. Div. Pacific, for the information of the Division Commander.
Ed. R. S. Canby
    Brig. General
        Commanding
----
Headquarters of the Army
    Washington, Jan. 16, 1873.
    Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, for his information.
    At this distance it is impossible to judge of the steps necessary to maintain the peace of the frontier; but Genl. E. R. S. Canby is in actual command of all the troops and resources of the country and will doubtless bring this matter to a satisfactory end.
W. T. Sherman
    General
----
Copies.
Headquarters District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        December 5, 1872--
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon
Sir:
    For the information of the general commanding the Department, I have the honor to submit herewith copies of my correspondence with T. B. Odeneal, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, of reports received from Major Green, 1st Cavalry, commanding Fort Klamath, including Captain James Jackson's report of his fight with the Modocs; also copies of my instructions and orders to commanding officers at Fort Klamath, Camp Bidwell, Cal., and Harney.
    By this correspondence it will be seen that every available soldier at my disposal is now in the Modoc country.
    Indian runners from Yainax assure me that Captain Jack was killed by the troops soon after he opened fire on them at his camp, his supplies and camp burned, and his stock captured by the troops.
    If this is the case, I do not believe we need anticipate a continued resistance from this little band of Modocs. Of course, unless other instructions are received, field operations against the hostile parties of the Modocs will be continued until their submission is complete, and until they obey the Superintendent's orders.
    The best-informed officials at Klamath and Yainax had assured me Captain Jack would not resist military authority, and his defiant attitude and ultimate firing on Captain Jackson's force, killing citizens and soldiers, was as unexpected as it was deplorable.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Frank Wheaton
            Lieut. Col. 21st Infantry
                Commanding District of the Lakes
----
Headquarters District of the lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        November 14, 1872
Commanding Officer
    Fort Klamath, Oregon
Sir--
    I am directed by the commanding officer District of the Lakes to inform you that instructions just received from the general commanding the Department state that an effort will be made during this month, by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs f»r Oregon, to remove Captain Jack and his band of Modoc Indians to the Yainax Reservation.
    Though the Superintendent does not anticipate any difficulty in accomplishing this without the aid of troops, still it may possibly be necessary to use, or at least make a show of, military force.
    You will please render the Superintendent every facility in your power, if called upon to do so, and report at once whether in your opinion a larger force than you now have will be required to accomplish the desired removal.
    You will please report by courier anything of importance or interest that you may learn concerning the Modocs, or the movements of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, and send your reply to this letter by courier at an early date.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Q. Adams
            1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
                A.A.A.G.
----
Headquarters Fort Klamath Oregon
    November 25, 1872
Acting Asst. Adjt. General
    District of the Lakes
        Camp Warner, Oregon
Sir,
    In reply to your communication of November 14, 1872, I have the honor to report that matters remain very much as they were when the district commander was at the post.
    There has been no effort made, as far as I know, to remove the Modocs; however, I learn the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon came up with Major Eggleston this evening, but he has made no request of me as yet, and of course could not in so short a time.
    I sent my scout to the Modoc country, who has just returned, and states that the situation is the same as when I visited them, and it is to be seen what they will do when ordered to Yainax.
    If they refuse to go, of course the larger the force that can be brought against them the quicker the matter will end.
    I would therefore respectfully recommend that the cavalry troop at your headquarters be kept in readiness to join that at this post, if required by the Superintendent
    In conclusion, I would assure the district commander that he will be notified of any emergency so soon as I am aware of it myself.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            John Green
                Major 1st Cavalry
                    Commanding
----
Oregon Superintendency
    Klamath Agency
        November 25, 1872
Lieut. Col. Frank Wheaton
    Commanding District of the Lakes
        Camp Warner, Oregon
Sir,
    I am here for the purpose of putting the Modoc Indians upon the reservation, in pursuance of an order from the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, a copy of which is as follows, to wit:
    "You are directed to remove the Modoc Indians to Camp Yainax on Klamath Reservation, peaceably if you possibly can, but forcibly if you must."
    I have requested the headmen of the tribe to meet me at Link River on the 28th instant, at which time I shall endeavor to persuade them to return to Yainax at once.
    In the event they shall refuse to meet me, or shall refuse to come upon the reservation voluntarily, then I shall call upon you for a sufficient force to compel them to do so.
    They have some eighty well armed warriors, and I would respectfully suggest that as large force be brought to bear against them at once as you can conveniently furnish, in the event it shall be determined that they cannot be removed peaceably.
    This will, I think, overawe them, and probably render the shedding of blood unnecessary.
    Immediately after the conference referred to, I will inform you of the result thereof, and in the meantime I have to request that all necessary preliminary arrangements be made for concentrating the forces at your command and having them ready for active operations.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        T. B. Odeneal
            Superintendent
                Indian Affairs for Oregon
----
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        November 29, 1872
Mr. T. B. Odeneal
    Supt. Indian Affairs for Oregon
        Klamath Agency
Sir,
    Your letter concerning the proposed removal of the Modoc band to the Yainax Reservation was duly received, and in reply thereto I would state that under instructions from the commanding general Department of the Columbia, the necessary preliminary steps have already been taken for the concentration of all available mounted men of the garrisons at Harney, Bidwell, Warner and Klamath, with a view to their employment against the Modocs if they will not move peaceably to Yainax.
    I trust there will be no serious difficulty in inducing these Indians to make the desired move, but if there should be you may rely upon my full and hearty cooperation to enable you to carry out any instructions you may at any time receive concerning the Modocs or other Indians in this vicinity.
    The troops nearest to Klamath will move promptly to reinforce Colonel Green's command, whenever it becomes necessary.
    I am confined to my bed with a severe attack of quinsy, but hope to be out soon.
    If you should have occasion to visit this section of the country, I shall be glad to receive and entertain you.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant,
        Frank Wheaton
            Brevet Major Genl. U.S.A.
                Lieut. Col. 21st Infantry
                    Commanding District of the Lakes
----
Headqrs. District of the lakes
    Camp Warner Oregon
        November 29, 1872.
Commanding Officer
    Fort Klamath, Oregon
Sir:
    I am directed by the district commander to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 25th instant; he desires me to say he would write you more fully were it not for his being confined to his bed with sickness; he hopes to be about again in a few days.
    Should you require the services of Captain Perry's troop, it can be sent you on a moment's notice.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            John Q. Adams
                1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
                    A.A.A.G.
----
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner Oregon Decr. 1, 1872
Commanding Officer
    Fort Klamath Oregon
Sir:
    I am directed by the commanding officer District of the Lakes to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of Novr. 28, 1872, and its enclosures, showing that Captain Jack, the chief of the Modoc band, refuses to obey the orders of Mr. T. B. Odeneal, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon.
    I am also directed to inform you that, owing to the sickness of the district commander, who has been confined to his bed for several days, he requests you to represent him in this matter, and by his direction compel the Modocs to render prompt and implicit obedience to the Superintendent's authority and orders, all the force at your command to be used to this end; it will be reinforced by Captain Perry's Troop "F," 1st Cavalry, and a detachment from Camp Bidwell, Cal., making a force of about seventy-five completely equipped cavalry.
    This, with Captain Jackson's troop, will will give you for field service about one hundred and fifty cavalry.
    You will please proceed at once with this command to Captain Jack's camp, arrest him and the headmen who deny the Superintendent's authority, and compel their obedience.
    It is not believed that more than a show of military force will be necessary to awe the 60 armed Modocs into submission, and only as a dire necessity and as a last resort will you permit the troops to engage and kill any of the Modocs, the object being to compel Captain Jack and his people to recognize Superintendent Odeneal's authority, without bloodshed, if it is possible.
    If it should become necessary, the district commander will bring the mounted force from Camp Harney, and as soon as possible join you in the field.
    The Modocs must be brought to terms if it takes every soldier in the district, or more, to accomplish it.
    Captain Perry will leave Camp Warner with his detachment on Tuesday morning, Decr. 2, 1872, with orders to report to you at Klamath; he will obey any orders you may send him while he is en route to your post.
    You are authorized to employ such interpreters, scouts, guides, packers and expressmen, temporarily, for this special service as may be necessary.
    You will please keep the district commander fully and promptly advised of the situation, and immediately communicate with Superintendent Odeneal, showing a desire to sustain and aid him.
    Should the presence of Captain Jackson's force of cavalry in the Modoc country already have accomplished all that Mr. Odeneal desires, and Captain Perry's reinforcement not be required, you will please direct its return to Camp Warner.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Q. Adams
            1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
                A.A.A.G.
----
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        December 3, 1872.
To
    Captain R. F. Bernard
        Commanding Camp Bidwell, Cal.
Sir:
    By direction of the commanding officer District of the Lakes, I enclose you a copy of Captain Jackson's report of his recent fight with the Modoc Indians, near Crawley's ranch, Tule Lake, about 36 miles from Klamath.
    In order to protect the road between Lake City and Linkville, and in order to prevent any depredations by the Modocs between Dorris Bridge and Tule Lake, you will, with the least possible delay, send or take all your available force, leaving at your post only such men as may be absolutely necessary as a guard, to Crawley's ranch, about 96 miles from Bidwell, where Captain Jackson is now supposed to be, in order to cooperate, if it is necessary, with Captain Jackson's troop from Klamath, or with Captain Perry's troop from Warner.
    Captain D. Perry's command, including Lieut. Kyle's detachment, leaves Riggs' ranch, at north end of Goose Lake Valley, tonight, and makes forced marches via Yainax to Crawley's ranch to join Captain Jackson.
    Captain Perry's wagons do not accompany him, hut will be moved to Klamath for supplies.
    Moving by the route indicated, you will open communication with Captain Jackson or Captain Perry at the earliest date. If Major Green is with either command, report to him for further instructions; if he is not, cooperate with either of the two troops until you receive orders from Major Green, who will be notified by courier of your intended route, etc.
    Unless Major Green should consider it essential, the detachment ordered from your post will not be detained any length of time in the Modoc country; it is believed that Captain Jackson and Captain Perry's troops, and Lieut. Kyle's detachment, will be a sufficient force for present operations against the Modoc band, said to be 70 strong, and the movement herein ordered is mainly as a protection to the road above indicated, and to reassure settlers in that region.
    In order to comply promptly with these orders,you are authorized to employ, temporarily for the trip, such guides, packers, etc., etc., as may be necessary.
    The detachment herein ordered should be supplied with not less than eight days' rations.
    By command of Lieut. Col. Frank Wheaton, comdg. District of the Lakes.
John Q. Adams
    1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
        A.A.A.G.
----
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner Oregon
        December 1, 1872
Special Orders
No. 16
    The commanding officer of Camp Harney, Oregon, will send, without delay, to report at these headquarters, a detachment consisting of one commissioned officer, 4 noncommissioned officers, and 30 enlisted men from the cavalry troop serving at that post.
    The necessary transportation for carrying supplies as far as Camp Warner will be provided, and the detachment will be mounted on the best available horses.
    It is possible that this detachment will be needed in the force required to place the Modoc Indians on the reservation at Yainax, where they now defiantly refuse to go.
    The detachment should be armed with carbines and pistols, with only the amount of ammunition carried in the cartridge boxes; a further supply, if required, can be furnished from the ordnance storehouse at these headquarters.
    By command of Lieut. Col. Frank Wheaton
John Q. Adams
    1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
        A.A.A.G.
----
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon.
        December 5, 1872--
To
    Major Green 1st Cavalry
        Commanding Fort Klamath
            Oregon
Major,
    I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of Decr. 1, '72, enclosing Captain Jackson's report of his attack on the Modoc Indians, Novr. 29, 1872, after the Modocs had opened fire on his command.
    Now that Captain Jack's band of Modoc Indians have commenced hostilities, killed and wounded citizens and U.S. soldiers, they must of course be treated like other hostile savages who refuse to go upon a reservation, and be hunted and pursued until their submission to the government is complete.
    Captain D. Perry with his troop "F," 1st Cavalry, and Lieut. Kyle's detachment from Camp Bidwell was en route to Riggs' ranch, when they met the courier bringing the dispatch referred to above.
    Captain Perry has been authorized to open any communications "en route" to district headquarters; he reports that he will make forced marches from the head of Goose Lake Valley to join Captain Jackson, via Yainax, sending his wagons to Klamath for supplies. He was directed to send an Indian runner from Yainax to notify you when he reached and when he left that point.
    Enclosed you will please find a copy of orders sent Capt. R. F. Bernard, 1st Cavalry, commanding Camp Bidwell, Cal. Bernard's movements toward Klamath via Lake City, pass Dorris Bridge and Hesse's ranch to Crawley's ranch. Tule Lake will be important to reassure settlers on these roads, and if the Modocs have not already come to terms, by the time he enters their country from the rear, and unexpectedly, his presence will have a good effect, and you may find use for his command if Captain Jack's band has scattered to elude pursuit.
    Should you have moved the troops from the vicinity of Crawley's, please send Captain Bernard your orders by special courier; he is ordered to report to you.
    You have under your direction every man that can be mounted from Warner, Bidwell and Klamath.
    The district commander has detained your couriers until this morning, to send you accurate information of Captain Bernard's movement; he left Camp Bidwell at 10½ a.m. yesterday, December 4, 1872, with a detachment of 24 men, no pack mules or wagons, 5 days' rations on his saddles; he will make forced marches to join Captain Jackson as soon as practicable; a wagon of supplies follows him to Dorris Bridge.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        John Q. Adams
            1st Lieut. 1st Cavalry
                A.A.A.G.
----
War Department
    Washington City
        January 27th 1873.
To the Honorable
    The Secretary of the Interior
        Sir:
            I have the honor to transmit for your information copy of the report of Capt. James Jackson, 1st Cavalry, of the fight with the Modoc Indians, at Lost River, Oregon, November 29, 1872, together with copies of correspondence between the commanding officer, District of the Lakes, and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. W. Belknap
            Secretary of War
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 618 Oregon Superintendency, 1873, frames 1025-1058.



Copy.
The Western Union Telegraph Company
Dated San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 3, 1872.
Received Washington, D.C. 5:30 p.m.
    To Adjut. Genl. U.S. Army
        Washn. D.C.
Unofficial dispatches report a conflict between the troops and Modoc Indians at the mouth of Lost River, arising from the orders of the Indian Dept. to remove the Modocs to their reservation. Genl. Canby does not apprehend serious trouble, he having provided sufficient force to compel obedience to the orders of the Dept.
J. M. Schofield
    Maj. Genl. Comdg.
Wm. M. Wherry
    Brevt. Col. A.D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 52-53.



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, D.C. Dec. 6th 1872
Sir:
    I have received by your forward the resignation of Joel Palmer as agent for the Indians at the Siletz Agency in Oregon.
    Be pleased to inform him that the same has been accepted.
Respectfully &c.
    B. R. Cowen
        Acting Secretary
The Commr. of
    Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 244-245.



    The following is from the Statesman of the 28th: "Gen. Joel Palmer, Indian agent at the Siletz Reservation, passed through Salem yesterday en route for Dayton, Yamhill County. He had come out to Corvallis to attend the session of the circuit court, bringing with him a number of Indians, witnesses in the case of Boyle, charged with the murder of Tututni Jack last summer. The General informs us that the grand jury of Benton County ignored the bill and Boyle was discharged; so as far as the prosecution of the case is concerned there is an end of it. But Gen. Palmer expresses grave fears that the trouble connected with it will not end so readily. The Indians, of course, think there is no justice done unless they have the blood of the murderer, or some equivalent. They have been clamorous for revenge, and it was with much difficulty they were restrained from proceeding on their own account last summer against Boyle. They were finally induced to wait patiently for the trial by the white men. Now that the grand jury has dismissed the case without a trial, and by means of which the Indians are ignorant, the latter are hyas sullix ["very angry"], and it is feared there may be further trouble. Gen. Palmer will return from Dayton today and hasten back to the reservation. He expects to find the Indians in a ferment."
Oregon City Enterprise, December 6, 1872, page 2


THE OREGON INDIAN WAR.
Massacre of All the Settlers on Link River by the Savages.

    SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., Dec. 3.--Reports from the scene of the uprising of the Modoc Indians state that all the settlers on Link River have been massacred, and that eighty warriors are in the field, with only thirty-five soldiers from Fort Klamath to fight them. Companies are organizing in the northern part of the state to take the field.
    Later news from Ashland, Oregon, says that the settlers are showing great activity now in their war against the Modocs. Fifty Klamath Indians, well armed, and under the command of Capt. Terra, are on the war path against the Modocs. Fourteen whites, also well armed, and under the command of Capt. Kelly, have joined in the pursuit. No further murders of settlers are reported.
Chapinville, Litchfield Co., Conn.
    Dec. 7--1872
Hon. R. B. Cowen
    Dear Sir
        I have just read in the New York Times the enclosed slip in regard to a war upon the Modoc Indians. Permit me to ask whether it would not be just and proper for government to stop that war until the facts in the case are fully known.
    I ask this question because I have had much personal and painful experience with the class of men who get up Indian wars in that section of country. I located within three miles of "Ashland" (the place mentioned in the slip) in 1853 and soon became acquainted with the horrible cruelties practiced upon the Indians.
    In 1855 three men came to my house with a paper for my signature to the effect that the Indians were robbing and murdering the settlers and appealing to the government to allow a volunteer company to be equipped for a campaign against them. I knew that the charges against the Indians was false, and I told the parties so; their answer was that "We can make more money by a war on the redskins than we can by digging for gold." So they got up a war and a subsequent claim on government for six million five hundred thousand dollars, which I believe has all been paid for carrying it on, although Gen. John E. Wool and Joel Palmer (Indian agent) allowed officially that it was got up by a class who were the disturbers of the peace and unworthy of the name of men.
    From that time to the present I have good reason to believe that there are living plenty of people in California and Oregon who are ready to circulate the foulest falsehoods against the Indians merely to gratify their own depraved propensities.
    I have no interest in writing this but a love of justice and a deep sympathy for the poor oppressed Indians, in proof of which I refer you to ex-Commissioner Dole of the Indian Department who allowed me an appointment which I then refused to accept because I knew that the Indian political ring was too strong for me to do any good except in an independent capacity. But relations are now changed, and as my name and position is known all over Oregon and generally throughout the country I believe that it would have a good moral effect upon all classes for me to be one of a commission to investigate the cause of this reported raid by the Indians in Oregon.
    I can give you a long list of honorable names who have more or less sympathized with me in behalf of the Indians at different periods during the last eighteen years, among whom are
Hon. Gerrit Smith
Hon. Peter Cooper of New York
And most of the members of the U.S. Indian Commission, whose records show that I originated. I had many interviews with President Lincoln, who assured me that as soon as the pressing contingency of the war was settled, "The Indians should have his first attention and that he would not rest until I was satisfied with the justice that they should have."
    Please send to my address at your earliest convenience the report of the Indian Department.
Yours respectfully
    John Beeson
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 59-62.



Copies.
Headqrs. District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon, December 8, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon.
Sir:
    For the information of the Major General commanding the Department, I have the honor to report that the band of Piute Indians under Ocheho have been concentrating in the vicinity of this post for the past ten days, and that yesterday the entire band left Warner for the reservation at Yainax.
    About two weeks since, a message was received here from Yainax, requesting that my influence be used in persuading Ocheho to take his band to that place, as arrangements had been made there for supplying them.
    I had long talks with Ocheho, and advised him to go to Yainax with his whole band, that in all probability orders would soon come compelling him to go, and that he had better take advantage of the favorable weather in moving his people at once.
    He seemed very unwilling to go, said he was doing no harm here, that this was his country, and that he wished to live and die here, and that when he laid down his arms in '67 he was in earnest and had kept his promises, that he did not want to be forced to go to Yainax, where his people would starve after March, when they ceased issuing rations and when there was no game.
    I had infinite difficulty in persuading Ocheho that he would be better treated than he had previously been there, and at last without resorting to any threats induced Ocheho to try Yainax once more, and a day or two afterwards [he] came to me and expressed his willingness to go and asked for supplies to enable him to move his people.
    In order to accomplish this very desirable object I was obliged to direct the post commissary to issue the necessary rations to Ocheho to enable him to concentrate his people and move them to Yainax, and respectfully request the department commander's approval of the issue.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant
    Frank Wheaton
        Lieut. Col. 21st Infantry
            Commanding District of the Lakes
----
Headquarters District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon, October 6, 1872.
To the
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon
Sir:
    In compliance with the Commanding General's instructions of September 3rd 1872 concerning issues of subsistence to Indians and inviting my attention to General Orders No. 54, A.G.O.C.s. 1872, I have the honor to state that no issues have been or will be made from the Camp Warner supplies except in strict conformity with the War Department General Order referred to.
    Ocheho's Piutes are frequently in this vicinity, though during the past summer they have generally been employed in hunting, digging roots and gathering eggs &c. in Warner Lake and Surprise valleys, and have been nearer to Camp Bidwell, Cal. than to Camp Warner.
    In order to furnish the data required by the Commanding General I have just had a long talk through our post interpreter with Ocheho, and learned what I could of the present condition of his people. He is unable to give any accurate estimate of their number, says they have ten camps and that they are more scattered through the country hunting, and that many of his young men have not yet returned to him from Surprise Valley, where they have been employed by ranchmen in gathering the season's crops, cutting rails, wood &c.
    At the Klamath Agency I was informed that Ocheho's people, a band of Piutes, numbered (216) two hundred and sixteen in all. Our post interpreter Donald McKay was employed last year at Yainax and indeed induced Ocheho and his band to go there. McKay thinks 216 a small estimate of the strength of the band.
    With some little assistance and occasional issues of flour, pork and hard bread, only in times of pinching want, I think that Ocheho's band will pass the winter comfortably in Warner Lake and Surprise Valley and hunting in the mountains about here which he earnestly desires to do, instead of being sent to Yainax, where he says he and his men worked hard and saw their labor was in vain, as the frost, drought or crickets invariably destroyed their crops, and where rations are only issued between December and the 1st of March. He also complains of unjust and unkind treatment by the agent, and by other Indians at Yainax and says his people could not live there comfortably. He understands perfectly that if orders came for him to go to Yainax he will have to go, though he dreads being sent there.
    We have now on hand 400 pounds left of 1600 pounds of condemned flour authorized to be issued to friendly Indians.
    Of our other supplies we have hard bread and pork in excess of our necessities; much of it has been more than four years stored at Camp Warner.
    Hard bread is very slowly consumed here, as scouting with pack trains is rarely necessary, the Indians ranging through this section being quiet and friendly. Pork is also slowly consumed, as the companies save their pork and sell it back to the A.C.S., purchasing vegetables with the proceeds.
    If Ocheho's Piutes, who are in the habit of coming here occasionally for rations, are ordinarily successful in their fall hunt, they will not need this winter more hard bread or flour than can readily be spared from our regular supplies, added to the 400 pounds of condemned flour on hand.
    No issues will be made unless the supplies can be spared and then only in small quantities as required by G.O. No. 54, A.G.O.C.s., and during the coming winter occasional issues in excess of these ordinarily made here could be furnished friendly Indians without risk of too greatly diminishing the subsistence supplies on hand for troops.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servant
        Frank Wheaton
            Lt. Colonel 21st Infty. Comdg.
----
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 26, 1872.
The
    Commanding Officer
        District of the Lakes
            Linkville, Oregon
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to acknowledge receipt of your communication of the 8th instant relative to Ocheho and his band of Piute Indians, and to state that your action in authorizing the issue of the necessary rations to enable Ocheho to concentrate his people, and move them to Yainax, is approved.
    In this connection the Commanding General instructs me to invite your attention to the enclosed copy of a letter to the commanding officer at Camp Harney (which should have been sent to you at its date) and to direct you to restrict such issues to the lowest possible limit, and to cause an account to be kept of them, distinct from the issues authorized by the Regulations (see General Orders No. 54, Adjutant General's Office of 1872) and in order that they may be regarded as a loan to the Indian Department, to be returned in kind, if the requisite authority (for which the Superintendent has applied) can be obtained.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        H. Clay Wood
            Asst. Adjutant General
----
Headquarters Dept. of the Columbia
    Portland, Ogn., Dec. 28, 1872.
    Respectfully forwarded to the Asst. Adjutant General, Military Division of the Pacific, for the information of the Major General commanding the division. The issues made by the commanding officer at Camp Warner have been approved, and he has been instructed to keep a separate account of them, in order that they may be returned in kind by the Indian Dept. These Indians have a deep-seated aversion to the Yainax Agency, and the difficulties now reported are only a repetition of what has occurred every fall for several years past.
    It is hoped that Congress will make ample appropriations in aid of the subsistence of these Indians.
Ed. R. S. Canby
    Brig. Genl. Comdg.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 618 Oregon Superintendency, 1873, frames 1069-1080.



Copies.
Headquarters Department Columbia,
    Portland, Oregon, Dec. 8, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco, Cal.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit for the information of the Major General Commanding copies of correspondence explaining the arrangements made for the protection of the part of the Modoc Indians not implicated in the late murders, and to request that the action taken may be approved.
    It is anticipated that this party will reach Jacksonville or Ashland in season to be turned over to Major Mason's command, and the necessary instructions have been given.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brig. Gen. Comdg.
----
Yreka, Cal., Dec. 5th 1872.
To
    L. V. Caziarc
        We have received the following letter:
   

"Hot Creek, Thursday
    "Dec. 5th, 5 o'clock a.m.
"To McConnell & McManus
    "Gents:
        "Yesterday p.m. Messrs. Fairchild, Dorris, Ball & Culver of Oregon started from this place with the Indians who have lived here & in this vicinity, some forty-five in number, for the reservation at Fort Klamath; when the party reached Bob Whittle's on Link River, the Indian agent met them and told them that there was a party who would mob them if they undertook to cross the river, and there were also some 8 or 10 men at Whittle's who opposed the party proceeding.
    "The gentlemen above mentioned then undertook to enter into some arrangement to run the Indians through and avoid Linkville, but the bucks became frightened and broke and are now scattered all over the country, except a few who came back with the squaws and children, in charge of Mr. Culver. The danger now to be apprehended is from a mob who are at war with all who advocate a policy of peace for their own protection. It is very probable the Indians will make towards Yreka to deliver themselves up to the civil officers, and as they have never been connected with Captain Jack in this sad affair and really desire peace and a home on the reservation, they ask protection of any white men who may meet them on their way. The agent informed Fairchild that the number of whites killed up to date is fifteen.
"Alex. McKay."
   
    Since the above was written Mr. McKay has arrived in Yreka, asking the citizens through the suggestions of Dorris and Fairchild to protect the above named Indians to see that they are safely lodged on the reservation. Capt. Jack and his band are still on a general raid. What are your orders.
McConnell and McManus
----
Headquarters Dept. of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 6th 1872.
Messrs. McConnell & McManus
    Yreka, Cal.
Peaceable Indians, not connected with Capt. Jack's band or implicated in the present hostilities, should be protected and conducted to the reservation.
    It is hoped that the citizens in your place will aid in seeing that this is done.
Ed. R. S. Canby
    Brigadier General
        Commdg.
----
Yreka, Cal., December 6th 1872.
To
    Brig. Gen. Canby
        About forty peaceable Indians, including women and children, expected here tonight. Will have to transport to reservation via Rogue River Valley with force enough to protect them. Will government be responsible for transportation & other expenses attending--answer.
McConnell & McManus
----
Portland, December 6th 1872.
To
    Messrs. McConnell & McManus
        Yreka, Cal.
Telegram received. Government will be responsible for the expenses attending the transportation and protection of the Indians referred to.
Ed. R. S. Canby
    Brig. Gen. Comdg.
----
Hdqrs. Dept. of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, Dec. 6th 1872.
His Excellency
    The Governor of Oregon
        Salem, Oregon.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit for your information copies of telegraphic dispatches received and sent this morning in relation to one of the bands of the Modoc Indians.
    Mr. Alexander McKay has been in the employment of the army and of the Indian Department and has the confidence of the officer serving in that section of the country.
    Messrs. McConnell and McManus are gentlemen of Yreka, California who are asked to keep me advised of the news from the Modoc country, and whose standing is, no doubt, well known to your excellency, and the statements made by them may, I think, be relied on.
    It has been well understood that the feeling of hostility manifested by the Modocs for several years past has been confined in great measure to that part of the tribe which is under the influence and control of Captain Jack, and the operations against these will be prosecuted as vigorously as possible until they are destroyed or captured, and all that may be captured will be turned over to the civil authorities for trial and punishment. Aside from the abstract injustice of making the Indians above referred to in these dispatches responsible for the sins of others, the only result that will attend the threatened attack upon them will be to increase the difficulties and probably add to the deplorable loss of life that has already been incurred, by making active enemies of those also who have been and are still disposed to be friendly.
    Under ordinary circumstances there would have been, of course, no necessity for troubling your excellency, but in view of the great and natural excitement in that part of the country, and the possibility that it may induce acts that are neither humane nor wise, I have thought it not improper to ask your aid, if you think it necessary, in securing protection to those Indians until they reach some point where they can be turned over to the custody of the troops.
    Of course, if any of these Indians are found to have been in any way implicated in the murders that have been committed, they will be turned over to the civil authorities for trial and punishment.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brig. Genl. U.S.A.
                Commanding
----
Salem, December 7th 1872.
To
    Brig. Gen. E. R. S. Canby
        Comdg. Dept. Columbia
            Portland
    I have telegraphed to Genl. Ross, Jacksonville--use your authority and influence to have all peaceable Indians not implicated in hostilities placed on reservation but Captain Jack's band; all implicated in hostilities with him are to be captured and crushed out, and all the murderers are to be turned over to the civil authorities for trial and punishment.
L. F. Grover
    Governor
----
Endorsements.
Hdqrs. Mil. Divn. Pacific
    San Francisco, Dec. 16, '72.
Official copies respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General, approved.
J. M. Schofield
    Major General, Comdg.
----
War Dept.
    A.G. Office, Jany. 3 / 73.
Respectfully referred to the Headquarters of the Army.
E. D. Townsend
    Adjt. Genl.
----
Headqrs. of the Army
    Washington, D.C.., Jan. 6, 73.
Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, referring to endorsement on the papers relating to the same subject "Modoc Indians" this day.
W. T. Sherman
    General
----
Headquarters Military Division of the Pacific
    San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 13, 1872.
To the
    Adjutant General, U.S.A.
        Washington, D.C.
Sir:
    I have the honor to forward, herewith, a letter from the Commanding General Dept. of the Columbia, dated Dec. 6, 1872, with its enclosures relative to existing hostilities with the Modoc Indians, also copies of telegraphic correspondence of later dates upon the same subject.
    These papers show that the fullest precaution was taken by the Department Commander to provide the Superintendent of Indian Affairs with ample force to ensure a peaceable removal of the Modocs, if that were possible. But it seems that a conflict was precipitated between the Indians and a small detachment of troops, immediately followed by the massacre of unsuspecting settlers.
    It does not yet appear whether this precipitation of hostilities, before the concentration of sufficient force to protect the settlements and enforce submission of the Indians, was due to the fault of any officer of the government. Full reports on this subject will be forwarded as soon as practicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. M. Schofield
            Maj. Genl.
----
Enclosures.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 6, 1872.
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco, Cal.
Sir:
    I have the honor to report, for the information of the Major General Commanding, in addition to the telegraphic reports already made, the following in relation to the hostilities in the Modoc country:
    I am yet without any official reports from the commander of the District of the Lakes, or of Fort Klamath, and can only conjecture that the collision was precipitated by some contingency that could not have been foreseen or guarded against, as the instructions directed the necessary precautions to be taken and the necessary preparations to be made to secure the removal of the Indians and the protection of the frontier, and in the acknowledgment of the receipt of these instructions the assurance was given that this would be done. (See papers A., B., C., D., E. and F., herewith.)
    The means placed under the control of the District Commander were regarded as entirely sufficient, but in addition the only force immediately available, two companies of the 21st Infantry, was prepared and sent forward by a special train to the terminus of the railroad, and from thence to Jacksonville, from which point the march will be determined by such information as the commander of the battalion, Major Mason, 21st Infantry, may receive, who was also instructed to report by courier to the commander of the District of the Lakes and of Fort Klamath.
    Both Fort Klamath and Warner have a reserve of small arms and ammunition and are well supplied with clothing and subsistence--but as additional precaution a supply of ammunition, clothing and of such articles of subsistence as cannot be purchased to advantage in the country will be sent up.
    It is impossible from the conflicting accounts that have been received to state the loss of life by these hostilities, but a careful comparison of the reports fixes it at fifteen--four (2 citizens and 2 soldiers) killed in the fight, and eleven citizens murdered subsequently by the Modocs.
    It is hoped, however, that some of those supposed to be killed have escaped.
    A copy of the correspondence with the Governor of the state is also enclosed for the information of the Commanding General (G., H., I. and K.).
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Comdg. Dept.
----
A.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, September 10, 1872
Special Orders
    No. 112 (Extract)
I--In view of the proposed removal by the Indian Department of the Modoc Indians to the vicinity of Yainax Station, the post of Fort Klamath will be regarded as included in the District of the Lakes for the purposes of any military operations that may become necessary in aid of this removal.
    It is not intended by this order to change the present relations between Fort Klamath and Department Headquarters, but simply to give the senior officer the power in an emergency to control all the military force and material at the several posts in that section of the country.
    The commanding officer at Fort Klamath will make such reports to District Headquarters as may be useful for the information of the District Commander or as may be called for by him.
*    *    *
By command of Brigadier General Canby.
Louis V. Caziarc
    1st Lieutenant 2nd Artillery
        Aide-de-Camp
            Acting Assistant Adjutant General
----
B.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, September 10, 1872.
The
    Commanding Officer
        Fort Klamath, Oregon.
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to transmit in addition to Special Orders No. 112, of this date, a copy of his instructions to the Commanding Officer of the District of the Lakes regarding the intent with which he has restored your post for a temporary purpose to that district.
    The General desires that by timely conferences with the District Commander, should you upon your scout among the Modocs, or thereafter, discover any signs which may lead you to believe that they will resist their proposed removal, you will be able to draw such a force as may be necessary to disarm opposition and ensure their peaceable removal under the orders that will hereafter be given.
    The enclosed orders will therefore bring to your aid in an emergency any desired portion of the force and material at Harney, Warner and Bidwell.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A.A.A.G.
----
C.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, September 10, 1872.
The
    Commanding Officer
        District of the Lakes
Sir:
    The Commanding General has been advised by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state that he has been instructed to bring in the Modoc Indians this fall and established them in the vicinity of Yainax.
    While he does not consider it probable that the Modoc will offer any resistance, or that the force at Fort Klamath will be insufficient to control them, it is possible that they may resist and require a greater exhibition of force than can be furnished from that post. To be prepared for this emergency and to enable action to be taken when the delay occasioned by reference to Department Headquarters might be injurious, the accompanying Special Order has been issued, giving the District Commander the control in an emergency of the resources at Fort Klamath, in addition to those of the posts of the district.
    No information has yet been received from the Superintendent as to the precise time when, or the manner in which, this removal is to be made, and these instructions are simply precautionary. If the military force is to be used, it will only be in aid of the Indian Department, and after peaceable means have been exhausted, but you should be prepared for the possibility that the attempt to remove them may result in hostilities, and be able to act promptly in that event for the protection of the frontier.
    Major Green will make a scout in the Modoc country in the course of this month, and on his return will probably be able to advise you as to their disposition and give you other information of value.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A.A.A.G.
----
D.
Headquarters District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        October 16, 1872.
To the
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon.
Sir:
    For the information of the Commanding General, I have the honor to report that I returned to Camp Warner from Fort Klamath on the 5th instant, and that, in the opinion of Bvt. Col. John Green, 1st Cavalry, commanding Fort Klamath, and of Mr. Dyar, the Indian agent at Klamath, little if any serious difficulty in removing the Modocs to the Yainax Reservation in December next is anticipated. I start tomorrow morning for Camp Harney, Oregon and the Malheur River country. Upon my return I will report on what has been accomplished by the several parties of troops that have been employed in repairing the road between camps Harney and Warner.
    The road between Camp Bidwell and this post is now in excellent order.
    The bridge across Deep Creek will be built in November or December next.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Frank Wheaton
            Lt. Col. 21st Infantry
                Commanding
----
E.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, October 30, 1872..
The
    Commanding Officer
        District of the Lakes
            Camp Warner, Oregon
Sir:
    The Commanding General instructs me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th inst. relative to the removal of the Modoc Indians to the Yainax Reservation and directs me to say that the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state has informed him that he proposes to go into the Modoc country about the middle of next month (November) for the purpose of removing those Indians to the Yainax Station. He does not anticipate any difficulty in accomplishing this, but if there should be a necessity for employing the military in aid of the removal he will promptly communicate with you upon the subject.
    In giving such aid as may be necessary you will be governed by your own discretion, the Commanding General suggesting only that if the intervention of the troops becomes necessary, the force employed should be so large as to secure the result at once and beyond peradventure.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Louis V. Caziarc
            1st Lieut. 2nd Artillery
                A.A.A.G.
----
F.
Headquarters District of the Lakes
    Camp Warner, Oregon
        November 14, 1872
To
    The Assistant Adjutant General
        Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt this date of your communication of October 30th 1872, conveying the Department Commander's wishes regarding the removal of the Modoc Indians and to reply that Bvt. Colonel John Green, Major 1st Cavalry, commanding Fort Klamath, has been directed to keep me fully and promptly advised by courier of any change in the present attitude of the Modoc band. If it should be found necessary or advisable I shall move into the Modoc country with every available mounted man from Harney, Bidwell, Warner and Klamath and compel Captain Jack's immediate compliance with such orders as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may have given in the case.
    A heavy snow is upon us, and I hope it may not be found necessary to move troops other than those at Klamath at this inclement season.
    The necessary arrangements will be made at once, and nothing will be permitted to delay a prompt compliance with the Department Commander's instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Frank Wheaton
            Lieut. Col. 21st Infty.
                Comdg.
----
G.
State of Oregon
    Executive Office
        December 2nd 1872
Major General E. R. S. Canby
    Commanding the Department of the Columbia
        Portland, Ogn.
Sir:
    At a late hour last night I received a telegram from Hon. A. J. Burnett, dated at Linkville, Jackson Co., Nov. 30th informing me that a serious outbreak of the Modoc Indians had occurred in the lake basin in Southern Oregon and that the settlers about Tule Lake had been slaughtered. That the regular troops in the vicinity, reinforced by citizens, had engaged the savages on the 29th and that the forces there were insufficient to save the settlements. The authority of the state was asked to raise a volunteer force to cooperate with the U.S. troops for the suppression of hostilities.
    I also received a telegram from Ashland, Jackson County, forwarding a copy of a resolution of a meeting of over one hundred of the most respectable citizens there, asking compliance with the request contained in Mr. Burnett's telegram. I answered this morning, giving authority to raise a force of volunteers to cooperate with the regular troops, sufficient to quell disturbances and to protect the settlements. I have also dispatched an order to Brigadier General James T. Glenn of the 1st Brigade Oregon Militia, resident at Jacksonville, to make inquiry into the condition of things in the Klamath country and to report the result to me forthwith, and in the meantime to take such steps as the emergencies of the case require.
    If, on full information being received, it shall appear that the outbreak is of the serious character now indicated, I most urgently solicit on behalf of our southern settlements such instant action on the part of the regular forces as you have the privilege of authorizing.
Most respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        L. F. Grover
            Governor of Oregon
----
H.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 3, 1872.
The
    Governor of Oregon
        Salem
Adjutant General Dennison showed me last night a telegram forwarded by your excellency in relation to the Indian troubles in the Modoc country. In anticipation of possible trouble with these Indians, the senior officer in that section was some time since given the control of all the troops--four (4) companies of cavalry and three (3) of infantry--for the protection of that frontier. No official intelligence has yet been received, but I have no doubt that this force is now in, or on the march to, the Modoc country. All the other force within present reach has been prepared and will be sent up immediately.
    Letter in answer to yours of yesterday, by mail.
E. R. S. Canby
    Brigadier General
        Commdg.
----
I.
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 3, 1872.
To
    His Excellency
        The Governor of Oregon
            Salem, Oregon
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday in relation to the hostilities with the Modoc Indians and to state for your excellency's information that upon being advised by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this state that he had been instructed to put these Indians upon the reservation, all the military force and material of the United States in that section of the country were placed under the control of the senior officer, Lieut. Colonel Frank Wheaton, 21st Infantry; order enclosed.
    This order embraces the garrisons at Fort Klamath, Camp Warner and Camp Harney in Oregon, and Camp Bidwell in California, in all a force of four companies of cavalry and three of infantry.
    Lieut. Colonel Wheaton was at the same time--Sept. 10th--advised that the time and manner of the removal had not been determined, but that he should be prepared for the possibility that the attempt to remove them might result in hostilities and that he should be prepared in that event to act promptly for the protection of the frontier. On the 30th of October he was notified that the Superintendent would start for the Modoc country about the middle of November for the purpose of removing these Indians, and on the 19th of November he reported in acknowledgment that the necessary arrangement would be made at once for prompt compliance with the instructions. No further reports have yet been received, but I have no reason to doubt that if not already in the Modoc country, where the hostilities commenced, a sufficient force to suppress them and give protection to the frontier was close at hand.
    I have received no reports from the commanding officer in the Klamath country in relation to these hostilities, and in the absence of such reports there is reason to hope that the difficulties are not so serious as now reported, and that there has been no loss of life among the settlers on that frontier.
    The only additional force now within reach (two companies of infantry) will be sent up, and if necessary any that can hereafter be made available will be forwarded as soon as they can be reached. One company probably tomorrow.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Comdg. Dept.
----
K.
State of Oregon
    Executive Office
        Salem, December 4th 1872.
To
    Brigadier General E. R. S. Canby
        Commanding Department of the Columbia
            Portland, Oregon
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 3rd inst. in reply to my letters of the 2nd touching the existence of Indian hostilities in the south and am gratified to acknowledge the prompt and decisive steps taken to suppress the Indian outbreak in Southern Oregon.
    On perusal of your communication and the enclosed copy of Special Order, I clearly see that the Department Commander has anticipated every contingency and made very proper disposition for the protection of that frontier.
    The demand for a surrender of the resisting chiefs in the presence of an inferior force seems to have initiated the difficulties. I have given direction for the withdrawal of the volunteers, probably not exceeding a hundred men, as soon as the regular troops take the field in force sufficient to protect the settlements.
Most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. F. Grover
            Governor of Oregon
----
Endorsements.
War Dept.
    A.G. Office, Jany. 3 / 73
Respectfully referred to the Headquarters of the Army.
E. D. Townsend
    Adjt. Genl.
----
Hdqrs. of the Army.
    Washington, D.C., Jan. 6, 72
    Respectfully returned to the Adjt. Genl. to be laid before the Sec. of War. This Modoc country lies on the border of Oregon and California, and the subject is more familiar to generals Canby and Schofield, within whose jurisdiction the reservation lies. Both are fully competent to act.
    Should it become necessary to use more troops than Gen. Canby has in his Department, Gen. Schofield can reinforce him from the direction of California, and Genl. Schofield was instructed before leaving California for the Sandwich Islands to place Gen. Canby, next in rank, in command of all the troops in the Division of the Pacific available. I doubt not Gen. Canby will fully meet the case.
W. T. Sherman
    General
====
Headquarters Department of the Columbia
    Portland, Oregon, December 10th 1872
The
    Assistant Adjutant General
        Military Division of the Pacific
            San Francisco, Cal.
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit for the information of the Major General commanding the Division copies of the following papers in relation to the hostilities with the Modoc Indians:
    1. Report of Major Green, commanding &c. Fort Klamath.
    2. Application of Superintendent of Indian Affairs for troops.
    3. Major Green's report to C.O. District of the Lakes.
    4. Post orders directing movement of troops.
    5. Captain Jackson's report of operations.
    It will be seen that the action taken was upon application of the Superintendent, and that the collision was precipitated by the opinion entertained that if the Indians could be surprised in their camp, they could be induced to surrender and go upon the reservation without further trouble.
    The execution of the orders and the behavior of the troops are entirely satisfactory, and are to be commended, but there appears to have been a want of proper precaution and preparation for the possible contingency of failure, which may be explained by fuller details, or by information from the district commander.
    I do not think that the operations will be protracted.
    The snow will drive the Indians out of the mountains, and they cannot move without leaving trails that can be followed. It will involve some hardship upon the troops, but they are better provided and can endure it better than the Indians. In this respect, the season is in our favor.
    The employment of Indian scouts will be authorized, and the commander of the district will be instructed to enlist and organize them under the provisions of the 6th section of the law of July 28, 1866, and I have the honor to request that this may be approved.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ed. R. S. Canby
            Brigadier General
                Commanding
----
Enclosures.
Hdqrs. Fort Klamath, Ogn.
    Dec. 3, '72
Asst. Adjt. General
    Dept. Columbia
        Portland, Ogn.
Sir:
    I have the honor to enclose copies of communications and orders (numbered in the order in which they should be read), which explain themselves.
    It was believed that the Modocs would submit to go on a reservation if surprised by the troops; if not the leaders were to be arrested, if possible, in the hopes that the balance would surrender. The troop made its march as expected and completely surprised the Indians and could almost have destroyed them, had it not been fair to give them a chance to submit without using force.
    The Modoc Indians have persistently defied the authority of the government of the United States, and they should have known better, as they have been a great deal with the whites, but I fear they have had some bad advisers.
    I would most respectfully request that the Dept. Commander approve of the orders which require expenditures and the employment of packers.
    I expect that the cavalry troop from Camp Warner will reach the field of operations by the 6th or 7th inst., after which, and when I hear from District Hdqrs., I expect to go to the field in person.
    If the war be prolonged (and I fear it will be) it will be necessary to have a depot of supplies at or near Tule Lake for the troops operating against the Indians. There should also be authority for the employment of fifteen or twenty scouts. In conclusion I would state that I understand the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon left Linkville for Jacksonville as soon as he heard that the troops had a fight.
    At the urgent request of citizens at Linkville, I have issued twenty muskets and ten carbines with ammunition for self-defense. I have also issued ten carbines to the Yainax Agency and ten to the Klamath Agency Agency at the request of the agents.
    I understand from Mr. Dyar, agent for the Klamaths, that he has sent thirty or forty Klamath Indians into the Modoc country.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servants
            John Green
                Major 1st Cav.
                    Comdg.
----
Oregon Superintendency
    Link River Nov. 27, '72.
Sir:
    The bearer of this, Mr. I. D. Applegate, has just returned from the camp of the Modoc Indians, and he informs me that they defiantly decline to meet me at this place in accordance with my request sent by him. They authorized him to say that they did not desire to see or talk with me, and that they would not go upon Klamath Reservation. In order, therefore, to carry out instructions from the Commission of Indian Affairs, I have to request that you at once furnish a sufficient force to compel said Indians to go to Camp Yainax on said reservation, where I have made provision for their subsistence.
    I transfer the whole matter to your Department, without assuming to dictate the course you shall pursue in executing the order aforesaid, however, that you may accomplish the object desired without shedding blood, if possible to avoid it.
    If it shall become necessary to use force, then I have to request that you arrest Captain Jack, Black Jim and Scarface Charley, and hold them subject to my order. I understand that these leaders, with only about half of their warriors, are encamped near the mouth of Lost River, and if a force could be immediately sent to that place I think they might be induced to surrender and come upon the reservation without further trouble.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servants
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Indian Affairs
                for Oregon
----
Hdqrs. Fort Klamath, Ogn.
    Nov. 28th '72.
Actg. Asst. Adjt. General
    District of the Lakes
Sir:
    I have the honor to enclose a communication from the Supt. of Indian Affairs of Oregon, received this morning at five o'clock, also copy of my post order No. 93, of this date, in compliance with which Captain Jackson left this morning at nine o'clock. Each of the above will explain itself.
    How the matter will end is yet to be seen, but in order to be prepared for any emergency I would respectfully recommend that the cavalry troop at Camp Warner be at once ordered to this post.
I am, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            John Green
                Major 1st Cav. Comdg.
----
Hdqrs. Fort Klamath, Ogn.
    Nov. 28, '72.
Orders
No. 93
    I compliance with the request of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, dated Link River, Nov. 27, '72, Captain James Jackson, 1st Cav., with all the available men of his troop, will proceed at once via Link River to Capt. Jack's camp of Modoc Indians, endeavoring to get there before tomorrow morning, and if any opposition is offered on the part of the Modoc Indians to the requirements of the Superintendent, he will arrest, if possible, Capt. Jack, Black Jim and Scarface Charley. He will endeavor to accomplish all this without bloodshed if possible, but if the Indians persist in refusing to obey the orders of the government, he will use such force as may be necessary to compel them to do so, and the responsibility must rest on the Indians who defy the authority of the government.
    Capt. Jackson is authorized to make any expenditures that may be necessary for the accomplishment of this object.
    The post quartermaster will send a pack train with supplies to follow the troop, and he is authorized to hire such packers as may be necessary.
    The troop will carry three days' rations on their saddles.
    Asst. Surg. Henry McElderry and Lieut. Boutelle, Actg., Post. Adjt., will accompany the expedition.
    By order of Major John Green.
F. A. Boutelle
    2nd Lieut. 1st Cav.
        Adjutants
----
Hdqrs. Fort Klamath, Ogn.
    Nov. 30, '72.
Orders
No. 94
    Information having just been received that Capt. James Jackson, with his troop, has had a severe engagement with the Modoc Indians, and that the citizens of that country are in danger; all the available men of Company "F," 21 Inf. (under the command of the 1st Sergt. John McNamara) will proceed immediately via Linkville to the Modoc country, to such points as Mr. Dyar, Indian agent, may designate for the defense of the people.
    The post quartermaster will furnish the necessary transportation.
    The company will be furnished with twenty days' rations.
    The post quartermaster is also authorized to employ a guide.
    When the sergeant gets to that country, he must to some extent use his own judgment as to the locality of his camps, being guided by such information as he may receive from time to time as to the necessities of the citizens.
    If possible he will communicate with Capt. James Jackson, reporting his whereabouts.
    The sergeant will leave the wagon with supplies for Capt. James Jackson's troop at Linkville, in care of Corpl. Jacob Moyer, "F" Co. 21 Inf. who will, if possible, send a message to Capt. James Jackson, reporting his arrival.
John Green
    Major 1st Cav.
        Comdg.
----
Crawley's Ranch, Lost River, Ogn.
    November 30th 1872.
Major John Green, 1st Cavalry
    Major:
        I have the honor to report that I jumped the camp of Capt. Jack's Modoc Indians yesterday morning soon after daylight, completely surprising them.
    I demanded their surrender and disarming, and asked for a parley with Capt. Jack. Capt. Jack, Scarfaced Charlie, Black Jim and some others would neither lay down their arms nor surrender, and some of them commenced making hostile demonstrations against us and finally opened fire. I immediately poured in volley after volley among the hostile Indians, took their camp, killed 8 or 9 warriors and drove the rest into the hills. During the engagement I had one man killed and seven wounded, three of the last severely and perhaps dangerously.
    The band that I attacked was on the south side of the river; another smaller band on the north side was attacked by a party of ten or twelve citizens, and their surrender demanded, but when the firing commenced in Capt. Jack's camp, these Indians opened on the citizens and drove them to the refuge of Crawley's ranch; one citizen was killed during the fight and two others coming up the road, unconscious of any trouble were shot, one (Mr. Nuss) mortally wounded, and the other (Joe Pennig) badly. My force was too weak to pursue and capture the Indians that made off, owing to the necessity of taking immediate care of my wounded and protecting the few citizens who had collected at Crawley's ranch. The Indians were all around us, and, apprehensive of a rear attack, I destroyed Captain Jack's camp, and crossed to the other side of the river by the ford, a march of fifteen (15) miles, taking post at Crawley's ranch, where I now am.
    I need reinforcements and orders as to future course. There are a number of citizens and families in the valley it will be necessary to look after and protect, if they are not already killed. Most of the Indians have retired to their caves south of Tule Lake, but I imagine will soon be out in war parties.
    From the best information I can get, Capt. Jack, Scarfaced Charlie and Black Jim are killed or mortally wounded.
    The troop behaved gallantly and deserves every praise. The fight was at close quarters, and very severe for thirty minutes. The citizens engaged did good service, I learn, and deserve much credit; but for them we would have had a fire in rear that would have been very destructive. The Indians or their leaders were determined on a fight at all hazards, and got enough of it, I think.
    The worst men among them are undoubtedly killed, not less than sixteen of them being put out of the way.
    I need more men, for the valley will have to be scouted to protect the citizens. The troop from Warner should come over immediately, if it is intended to pursue these Indians.
    Please send me instructions by courier at once. Dr. McElderry, who goes up this morning with the wounded, will give you more detailed information.
Citizens Killed Wounded
John Thurber Joe Pennig
Wm. Nuss
Soldiers Killed
Private Harris
Soldiers Wounded
Corpl. Fitzgerald, severely Private Kasshafer, severely
Corpl. Challinor Private Kershaw
Private Totten Private Gallagher, severely
Private Doyle
In haste, I am
    Respectfully, your obt. servant
        James Jackson
            Capt. 1st Cavalry
                Comdg. B. Troop
----
Endorsements.
Hdqrs. Mil. Divn. Pacific
    San Francisco, Dec. 17, 1872.
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General
    It appears evident that a serious mistake was committed in sending a small force to do what, from the defiant attitude of the Indians, would manifestly require a much larger force. Possibly, as suggested by Gen. Canby, future reports may throw some additional light on this subject.
    I recommend that the employment of Indian scouts, as authorized by the Department Commander, be approved.
    Now that the war has commenced, the quickest way to end it will be the cheapest and best.
J. M. Schofield
    Major General Comdg.
War Dept.
    A.G. Office
        Jan. 3 / 73
Respectfully referred to the Headquarters of the Army.
E. D. Townsend
    Adjt. Genl.
----
Hdqrs. of the Army
    Washington, D.C.. Jan. 6, 73.
Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, in connection with the other papers on the same subject, asking that I be authorized to inform General Canby that his action in employing Indian scouts is approved.
W. T. Sherman
    General
----
Headquarters Army of the United States
    Washington, D.C., January 8, 1873.
Major General E. R. S. Canby
    Commanding Department of Columbia
        Portland, Oregon
General--
    By direction of the General of the Army, you are hereby informed that your action in employing Indian scouts referred to in your letter of December 10, 1872 to the Adjutant General Military Division of the Pacific, is approved by the Secretary of War.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. D. Whipple
            Assistant Adjutant General
----
War Department
    Washington City
        January 14th 1873
To the Honorable
    The Secretary of the Interior
Sir:
    This Department is in receipt of reports from the Department of the Columbia of an engagement near Fort Klamath, Oregon, between the military forces and a band of Modoc Indians, whom they were endeavoring, under the orders of the Indian Superintendent, to compel to go upon their reservation, copies of which I have had prepared and transmit, herewith, for your information.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Wm. W. Belknap
            Secretary of War
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 618 Oregon Superintendency, 1873, frames  963-1024.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Dec. 16, 1872
Sir,
    I am advised by Agent Palmer of the following changes in the employees of the Siletz Agency, to wit:
-- Employed --
J. E. Peterson Assistant Carpenter Employed Oct. 27, 1872 @ 960.00
F. M. Rice Blacksmith " Nov. 13,    " " 1000.00
M. N. Chapman Commissary "    "     20,    " " 1200.00
Jas. Howard Asst. Farmer "    "     16,    " " 600.00
Discharged
Captain Indian Asst. Farmer Nov. 1st 1872
Lorenzo Palmer Supt. Farming    "     15,    "
Jas. Howard Farmer    "     15,    "
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
            Supt. Indian Affairs in Ogn.
Hon.
    F. A. Walker
        Commissioner
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 10; Letter Books I:10, page 748.



Forty-Second Congress U.S.
    House of Representatives,
        Washington, D.C. Dec. 16th 1872
Hon. Francis M. Walker
    Com. of Indian Affairs
        Sir--Will you do me the favor to inform me what permanent Indian reservations have been established in the state of Oregon since the 14th day of February 1859, the date of their establishment and the extent of each of said reservations in square miles.
    And much oblige
Your obt. servt.
    Jas. H. Slater
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 685-686.



Ashland Mills Ogn.
    December 22 1871
Hon. H. W. Corbett
    Washington D.C.
        Dear Sir
            Wagner, McCall & Co. have an account against the United States for seven thousand five hundred pounds of flour for the use of the Indian Department delivered at Klamath Agency at 7 cents per pound (currency) bought by the late Superintendent of Indian Affairs J. W. Perit Huntington.
    The purchase was made January 1st 1869 and still remains unpaid.
    When payment has been demanded we have been put off with the remark that there were no funds, and that the accounts of Supt. Huntington could not be paid until his estate was settled. Now we dislike to trouble you in the matter, but if you would be kind enough to look after the matter the favor would be duly appreciated.
Very respectfully
    Yours truly
        Wagner, McCall & Co.
            G. McCall
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 617 Oregon Superintendency, 1872, frames 68-70.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Dec. 23, 1872.
Sir:
    In your letter of the 6th of July last, you directed me to remove the Modoc Indians to Klamath Reservation, peaceably if I could, but forcibly if I must.
    For the purpose of executing this order, I left here on the 20th of November, and arrived at Klamath Agency on the 25th of the same month. Learning that Capt. Jack's band of Modocs was then camped on Lost River, I immediately dispatched messenger James Brown and I. D. Applegate to said camp with the following message:
    "Say to them that I wish to meet the headmen at Link River on the 27th inst., and to talk with them. Impress upon them the importance of their meeting me. Tell them that I entertain none but the most friendly feelings for them, and that the object of the interview sought is to advance their interests and promote their welfare, that I have made ample provision for their comfortable subsistence at Camp Yainax, on Klamath Reservation, and desire to have them go there and receive their proportion of the annuities, that if they will go with you to the reservation within a reasonable time--as soon as they can get ready--they shall be fairly and justly dealt with, and fully protected in all their rights against any injustice which other tribes might be disposed to do them. If they agree to go with you, say to them that they need not meet me as requested, and that I will see them at Yainax. In the event they decline to go to the reservation, you will say they must meet me at Link River, as I desire to and must come to a positive understanding with them."
    On the same day I addressed the following letter to Lieut. Col. Wheaton, commanding the district of the lakes:
   

"Oregon Superintendency
    "Klamath Agency, Nov. 25, 1872
"Sir:
    "I am here for the purpose of putting the Modoc Indians upon this reservation, in pursuance of an order from the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, a copy of which is as follows, to wit: 'You are hereby directed to remove the Modoc Indians to Klamath Reservation, peaceably if you possibly can, but forcibly if you must.'
    "I have requested the headmen of the tribe to meet me at Link River on the 27th inst., at which time I shall endeavor to persuade them to return to the reservation. If they shall refuse to come voluntarily, then I shall call upon you for a force sufficient to compel them to do so. They have some eighty well-armed warriors, and I would respectfully suggest that as large a force be brought to bear against them at once as you can conveniently furnish, in the event it shall be determined that they cannot be removed peaceably.
    "Immediately after the conference referred to, I will inform you of the result thereof, and in the meantime I have to request that all necessary preliminary arrangements be made for concentrating the forces at your command and having them ready for active operations.
"Very respectfully
    "Your obt. servt.
        "T. B. Odeneal
            "Supt. Ind. Affrs. Oregon
"Lieut. Col. Frank Wheaton
    "Commanding Dist. of Lakes
        "Camp Warner, Oregon"
   

    My plan was, if they could not be removed peaceably, to bring so large a force against them as to overawe them at once, and thus ensure the execution of the order without fighting.
    Lost River is fifty-five miles from Klamath Agency, twenty-three miles from Link River. On the day appointed, in company with Agent L. S. Dyar, I went to the place designated for the meeting, and there met the messengers, who reported that they had been to the camp of Captain Jack's band of Modocs, and had informed the headmen of everything contained in my instructions, and besides had used every argument in their power to persuade them to meet me or go upon the reservation, that they peremptorily declined to do either. Capt. Jack, the head chief, made substantially the following speech:
    "Say to the Superintendent that we do not want to see him or to talk with him. We do not want any white man to tell us what to do. Our friends and counselors are men in Yreka, Cal. They tell us to stay where we are, and we intend to do it, and will not go upon the reservation. I am tired of being talked to, and am done with talking."
    After fully considering and discussing the matter with Agent Dyar and Mr. Applegate, and receiving from them the positive opinion that nothing but the appearance of an armed force at their camp could have any influence whatever upon them, I concluded to call for such force, and accordingly sent Mr. Applegate to Ft. Klamath with the following letter, which I authorized him to deliver to Major John Green, commanding that post, and if he had not sufficient authority and force to act, to forward the same to Col. Wheaton, to wit:
   
"Oregon Superintendency
    "Link River, Nov. 27, 1872.
"Sir:
    "The bearer of this, Mr. I. D. Applegate, has just returned from the camp of the Modoc Indians, and he informs me that they defiantly decline to meet me at this place, in accordance with my request sent by him. They authorized him to say that they did not desire to see or to talk with me, and that they would not go upon Klamath Reservation. In order, therefore, to carry out the instructions of the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, I have to request that you furnish a sufficient force to compel said Indians to go to Camp Yainax, on said reservation.
    "I transfer the whole matter to your Department, without assuming to dictate the course you shall pursue in executing the order aforesaid, trusting, however, that you may accomplish the object desired without the shedding of blood, if possible to avoid it.
    "If it shall become necessary to use force, then I have to request that you arrest Capt. Jack, Black Jim and Scarfaced Charley, and hold them in custody subject to my order.
    "I am informed that these leaders, with only about half of their warriors, are camped near the mouth of Lost River, and if the force could be immediately sent to that place, I think they might be induced to surrender and come upon the reservation without further trouble.
"Very respectfully
    "Your obt. servant
        "T. B. Odeneal
            "Supt. Indian Affrs. Oregon"
   
    This letter was addressed to no one on the inside, but was sent to Major Green, with instructions to the bearer, Mr. Applegate, to address it to Col. Frank Wheaton, Camp Warner, in the event Maj. Green had not authority and force sufficient to enable him to act. He had told me on the 26th that he had orders to act, but I did not learn to what extent. I am informed that my letter, or a copy of it, was immediately forwarded to Col. Wheaton.
    On the 28th of November, at 5 o'clock p.m., a special messenger delivered to me a letter from Major Green, a copy of which is as follows:
   

"Headquarters, Ft. Klamath
    "Nov. 28th 1872
"Mr. T. B. Odeneal
    "Supt. Indian Affairs
        "Sir:
            "In compliance with your written request of yesterday, I will state that Capt. Jackson will leave this post about noon today with about thirty men, will be at Link River tonight, and I hope before morning at Capt. Jack's camp.
"I am, sir, very respectfully
    "Your obt. servt.
        "John Green
            "Maj. 1st Cavalry
                "Comdg. Post
   

    The impression seemed prevalent among military men and some others that, on account of the weather and other adverse circumstances surrounding the Indians, that they would surrender and go to the reservation as soon as they saw that there was a probability that troops would be used against them if they should refuse to go.
    This force was, in my estimation, too small, and as soon as I received Maj. Green's letter I sent James Brown, messenger in this office, in company with a man named Crawley, who lived within a quarter of a mile of the camp of the Modocs, to notify all settlers who could be in any danger in the event of an unsuccessful engagement with the Indians that the cavalry were coming. They notified several families, who went with them to Crawley's house--arriving there at half past 12 o'clock that night. Mr. Brown knew nothing of other settlers living below Crawley's; there were six men then with him; all well acquainted with the country; no one said anything about there being other settlers who might be in danger. Mr. Brown also says that all could have been notified easily before daylight, and if this had been done no one could have been murdered. Eleven men in all were murdered--four within three miles of where the messengers stopped on the day of the battle, four within ten miles, and three within fourteen miles the day following. I state facts only. Feeling conscious that I did everything in my power to avert all danger, and knowing that blaming others cannot bring the dead to life or relieve the anguish of surviving friends, I shall offer no words of censure against anyone for the sad results.
    Learning that the troops would not come by way of Link River, I, at 1 o'clock in the morning of the 29th, went to a point on the road which they would pass, some three miles distant, and there gave Capt. Jackson, at his request, verbal directions in substantially the following words, viz:
    "When you arrive at the camp of the Modocs, request an interview with the headmen. Say to them that you did not come to fight, or to harm them, but to have them go peaceably to Camp Yainax, where ample provision has been made for feeding and clothing them, and where, by their treaty, they agreed to live. Use every argument you can to induce them to go. Portray to them the folly of fighting. Talk kindly but firmly to them, and whatever else you may do, I desire to urge that if there is any fighting let the Indians be the aggressors. Fire not a gun, except in self-defense, after they have first fired upon you or your men."
    The troops arrived at the camp at 7 o'clock in the morning, obtained an interview, and a conversation ensued lasting three-quarters of an hour. Capt. Jackson has since informed me that he repeated to them all I requested him to say, and used every argument he could to induce them to go. All proving ineffectual, he demanded of them to lay down their arms, when one of the leaders, "Scarfaced" Charley, raised his gun, and with an oath said he would kill one officer to begin with, fired at Lieutenant Boutelle, who was in front of his men, shooting four bullet holes through his coat sleeve. The Indians all had their guns in their hands, and a general firing commenced at once on both sides. The battle lasted two hours, when the Indians escaped, but returned again in the afternoon and attacked the troops.
    The murders of the citizens were all committed by five men and one woman. All can be identified. The matter being in the hands of the military, I have of course exercised no control since the battle, further than to suggest that the terms of surrender should be that they lay down their arms and go and stay upon the reservation.
    I have requested, further, that the leaders be taken into custody and held subject to further orders, and that the murderers be taken charge of and delivered to the civil authorities to be dealt with according to law.
    A very few individuals, who can assume a very fervent enthusiasm whenever the occasion requires it, but whose motives are supremely selfish, may say (have said in fact) that this collision might have been avoided. Ninety-nine out of every hundred men in this state who know the facts would express a different opinion. The fact of their refusing to talk with me, their peremptory refusal to go to the reservation at my request, or at the request of the military, and the final and most convincing of all other facts was the opening of hostilities against men who were endeavoring to convince them that they were their friends and desired only their welfare.
    The military purpose pursuing until they capture them. I believe this [is] the only safe way to do [it]. Should the troops return to their posts, these Indians would regard it as a defeat of the government; their insolence and defiance would become still more intolerable, and a guerrilla warfare would be waged until every settler in that region would be murdered, and other Indians, now peaceable, seeing their success, would hasten to join them. And the result would be the most gigantic Indian war of modern times.
    While residing with a Quaker agent, Mr. Harvey, of Pennsylvania, in the Osage Nation, twenty-two years ago, I became impressed with the idea, and still believe, that as a general rule Indians can be governed and controlled most successfully by peaceable means. Since that time I have resided in the immediate vicinity of Indians and been familiar with the character of various tribes and nations, and I find that all of them, in their native condition, regard white men as their natural enemies. In this they are not altogether unreasonable, in view of the sentiment of extermination which is so prevalent on the frontiers. This idea is so firmly impressed upon their minds that it can be eradicated only by a policy such as the government is now pursuing, and not by this in a day or even a year. Considerable time must elapse before their prejudices can be removed and substituted by feelings of friendship and good will toward our race. It is difficult to make them forget a wrong. They will not love their enemies. They will lie to you, but you must promise them nothing you cannot give. If you should declare that you would punish them for some shortcoming and not do it, they would think much less of you, and a few repetitions would cause them to lose all faith in your promises and in you. This is a characteristic of all Indians I ever knew. They are not very truthful, but want all who deal with them to be so. They should be dealt with kindly and humanely, but more as if they were children than men, until they can be educated in the ways and habits of civilized life. The government should faithfully perform all it promises, and as a father enforces his rules and mandates, so should they be made to fulfill their promises and agreements. Believing, as I ever have, that many acts of injustice have, in the past, been committed against them by representatives of the government, as well as by individual white men, all my sympathies are enlisted in their favor when I see any attempt to trample upon or disregard their rights. I can make all due allowance for the ignorance which their habits, condition and want of opportunity to become enlightened has entailed upon them. But there are exceptions to all rules. A majority of the Modocs have for years been residing upon the reservation and demeaning themselves properly, while Capt. Jack, disregarding the counsel of the head chief, "Schonchin," has persisted in roaming whithersoever he pleased, taking as many others with him as he could persuade to go. No injustice has ever been done the Modocs, that I am aware of, though they have been bad Indians in the past, having murdered helpless emigrants passing through their country by the score. Captain Jack and other leaders of his band are not educated in books, but for good natural common sense I believe them not inferior in intellect to ordinary white men. They are educated in all the vices of our race, and have no apparent desire for any other kind of knowledge. It is not ignorance which impels them to pursue the course they do. They know better, but, like many white men, are outlaws, having no respect for the rights of others, and being destitute of all moral principle. They boast of the number of people they have killed (both Indians and whites). There are enough of them to demoralize all the Indians in that part of the state, and I believe that to subdue them now is not only the most merciful and Christian-like, but the only safe way to deal with them. For eight years they have been permitted to baffle and defy the government in the course desired to be pursued for their benefit, until many Indians on the reservation, familiar with their conduct, were becoming discontented, and soon would have fled from the restraints, as they consider them, connected with living at an agency. The good of all the Indians in that part of the state demanded that your order be executed without further delay. I tried to carry out your instructions peaceably. Persuasive measures proved fruitless. The military tried to effect the desired object, by both argument and intimidation. All failed. The Indians commenced hostilities, and now I think no terms should be made with the band which could in any way interfere with afterward arresting and removing the leaders, and the trial of the murderers. If they should consent to all go upon the reservation, and the chiefs be permitted to remain with them, there would be a repetition of these troubles at least once a year as long as there should be one of them left.
    Since you first ordered these Indians to be removed, I have received many letters from citizens, some addressed to me, and some by reference from the Governor, complaining of Captain Jack's band and asking for relief. The Indians were becoming more insolent every day. When they wanted a barrel of flour or a beef they would go and demand it of the nearest settler, who was afraid to refuse, and gave them whatever they called for. A dozen or more would go into a house, demand their supper, breakfast or dinner, and the frightened women, not daring to refuse, would prepare the meal for them, while they lounged around on the beds, or sat and smoked by the fire. The lands had been taken by settlers under the preemption law, yet the Indians claimed it and would demand and take half the hay, grain &c. as rent.
    I have sufficient evidence to satisfy me that there are a few men in Yreka, California, some 60 miles from Lost River, who are to a great extent, if not entirely, responsible for the insubordination of Capt. Jack's band, and for the present trouble with them. There are several letters in existence which go to show these men have persuaded them to remain off the reservation, making them believe that they could hold the land they claim under the preemption law, if they would stay where they were, but that if they went to the reservation they would lose all right to it. On the evening before the battle, one of the letters I refer to was given to me by a settler (who had found it with some others), and is in the words and figures following:
   

"Yreka, Sept. 19th 1872
"Mr. Henry F. Miller
    "Dear Sir:
        "You will have to give me a description of the land the Indians want. If it has been surveyed, give me the town, range, section and quarter-section. If not, make a rude plat of it, by representing the line of the lake and the line of the river, so that I can describe it.
    "Mr. Varnum, the county surveyor, will not go out, so I have to send to Sacramento to get one appointed. Send me an answer by an Indian so that I can make their papers soon. I did not have them pay taxes yet, as I do not know whether the land is surveyed and open for preemption.
"Respectfully yours,
    "E. Steele"
   
    Other letters which parties have promised to send me have been found, and are said to be more full and explicit than this.
    The friends and counselors referred to by Capt. Jack have supplied the Indians with the best of guns and an abundance of ammunition to enable them to remain off the reservation. They will, of course, find great fault with the authorities for interfering with their customers. They have evidently made a large amount of money by their illicit traffic, and their only desire was to make more, caring nothing for the ultimate fate of the Indians. E. Steele is said to be a prominent lawyer. Among others implicated is a judge of the state court. I propose to investigate this matter fully for my own satisfaction, whether it amounts to anything beyond or not.
    It is my experience that nine-tenths of the trouble with Indians in this Superintendency is brought about by meddlesome white men giving them improper advice and dealing illicitly with them. We are endeavoring to put a stop to these things as fast as we can find cases which can be successfully prosecuted in the courts.
    The latest news I have from the Modoc country is to the effect that there has been no fighting since the first battle, and no depredations have been committed since that time.
    This may be considered an inexcusably long report, but I could not give you all the facts and my views in fewer words.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. B. Odeneal
Hon. F. A. Walker
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 618 Oregon Superintendency, 1873, frames 430-454.



Siletz Ind. Agency Dec. 31st 1872
Sir
    Enclosed please find a petition, presented to me on Sunday last by the citizens of the county. I deem the application for disarming the Indians at this season of the year so unjust and unreasonable as to hardly admit of a serious thought. The apprehension of an outbreak has not the least shadow of foundation, and it is difficult finding an excuse for such a conjecture. In my opinion it is intended as a plea of justification for shooting others of them, or else to strengthen the application for abandoning this tract as a reservation. The idea of a combination of the Alseas, Siletz and Grand Ronde Indians to make war upon the whites is an absurdity. The fact is, there could be no combination among the different tribes for such an object upon this reservation or agency. The greatest labor here is to reconcile and settle difficulties among themselves, and those difficulties have existed for generations, besides they are too well informed as to the power of this government for one moment to entertain such an idea. There may sometimes be among them, as with the whites, reckless, lawless persons seeking opportunities to do wrong, but there are no recent movements among them justifying the settlers in making this demand.
    The failure even to indict J. Boyle for the killing [of] Chief Jack in July last, though troubles were apprehended, has been acquiesced in by the entire people, and in recent councils they have resolved to adopt the habits and customs of the whites and as far as possible be governed by their laws. It is possible that we might with propriety demand a surrender of their pistols, for quite a number have such weapons, but unless instructed by you to do so I shall not feel warranted in making a demand for a surrender of all arms. I have thought of calling a public meeting of the citizens of the bay, selecting the chiefs and headmen of the different tribes here and at Alsea and have a free interchange of sentiment with a view of conciliating and bringing about a better feeling between the two races. I would like your opinion as to the propriety of such a move. The meeting might be at Newport or at Toledo--perhaps the former would be best. If this idea be approved by you, please advise me at once, and if possible so arrange matters as to be present with us--Mr. Case of course would be there.
    The future welfare of the Indians, as well as the peace and quietness of the settlements, demand action, for if there be a desire on the part of a few settlers to cause trouble it may eventuate in something serious unless frustrated by some such move.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully yours
        Joel Palmer
            Ind. Agent
Honl.
    T. B. Odeneal
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem
                Oregon
    I have no time to take a copy. Please have Mr. Chapman to do so.
J. P.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 27; Unregistered Letters Received, 1870-73.




Last revised February 26, 2017