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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Biographies of Jo Lane

For Joseph Lane's autobiography, see here.

Joseph Lane Campaign Ferrotype, 1860
Joseph Lane campaign ferrotype, 1860


From the Indiana State Sentinel of Dec. 24th.
GEN. JOSEPH LANE.
    How many associations in the mind of every Indianian cluster around the name of Joseph Lane--a man who has been identified with the fortunes of the state for more than thirty years, and in all his relations has appeared as one of God's noblest works--a warm, generous, true-hearted friend--an honest man.
    A man possessed of the sterling worth and character of General Lane will ever be the idol of his fellow citizens, wherever his lot may be cast. This has been fully realized in all the varied scenes of his life's history. We first find him as an humble woodchopper on the banks of the Ohio about the time the first steamboats ascended the Mississippi River, freighted with the products of the sunny South. We next see him a regular trader to New Orleans--the commander of a flatboat--the means at that time used, almost exclusively, for the transportation of our commodities to market, and here it was that for a series of years he developed those admirable qualities that so well fitted him for a commander on the battlefields of Mexico.
    It was on this theater that he learned the true history of man, in all the varieties of his character. No braver man ever lived than Joe Lane, but at the same time none were more generous, so long as truth and honesty were pursued on the part of those around him. He was ever found on the side of the oppressed, and at his voice injustice and oppression hid their deformed faces.
    There are many anecdotes related showing the perfect control he had over the wild and sometimes lawless men of our western waters. His voice was sufficient to stay oppression, or stop the wild promptings of the reckless mob.
    It is now nearly a quarter of a century ago since we saw him in the councils of the state, as the representative of the people, and we find amongst his first public acts a report of much force and power in favor of a graduation and reduction in the price of our public lands--exhibiting thus early how ardently he sympathized with the early pioneers of the West.
    General Lane never was ambitious of public office. He served for a number of years in both branches of the Legislature but was always called, unsolicited, from his farm to a seat in our public councils. Had he been ambitious of public life, he might, on several occasions, have obtained a seat in Congress, but he never consented to serve his fellow citizens except when he thought he could be of service to his constituents and the state. Although residing in a Whig county, when the arrangement of our state debt was contemplated General Lane was singled out as one of the men to accomplish the work. He was a member of the [state] senate when war was declared as existing by the act of Mexico, and he had just succeeded, with others, in effecting our state debt arrangement, having been called from the farm to aid in that work by the united voice of the people of his district, without distinction of party. The honor and fame of Indiana were ever dear to his heart. The charge of repudiation he determined should never be urged against us, and his voice had great weight in the halls of legislation.
    His senatorial term had not expired when with other patriots he rallied around the standard of his country. He did not do like others--express a willingness to go to the field as officers--but he entered the ranks and enrolled his name as a private soldier. He was taken from the ranks and elected the first colonel of the second Indiana regiment--every private soldier having a right to vote. Soon after his election as colonel, he received a commission, unsolicited and unexpected on his part, of brigadier general from the President of the United States. There were those who knew the man and were willing, unsolicited, to vouch for his character as a soldier.
    With great distrust in his own abilities he assumed his new station, and early and late he labored to qualify himself to command. What a striking commentary does his character exhibit of our free institutions, and the alacrity with which the denizens of our western forests can be transformed into the bold defenders of their country, when actuated, as in the case of General Lane, by a pure and ardent patriotism.
    It has been said of General Lane that he was born a hero and a soldier, and the bloody battlefield of Buena Vista is a witness to his cool and self-collected patriotism. At an early period of the action he was wounded by a ball passing through is arm, and when most other men, similarly situated, would have retired, at least for medical relief, that bloody arm was seen amid the fire and the smoke of the conflict, until victory perched upon our standards. It was then, and not till then, that he hastened to his physician.
    But it was on the Vera Cruz line, when returning with fresh troops from Indiana and Ohio, that as commander-in-chief, in which he was engaged, he won for himself the proud title of the Marion of the  Mexican War. We here witnessed a series of bold and daring achievements that have scarcely a parallel in history, exhibiting those rare natural qualifications that fit a man for almost any emergency. In one of these, at Huamantla, with a small force, he met, out-generaled and defeated Santa Anna [against] an army of more than five times his number. He drove the enemy out of Puebla and opened up a communication with Gen. Scott's army. He was several months constantly in the saddle. No difficulty seemed too hazardous to undertake, and on one occasion was within an hour's time of catching Santa Anna in his bed.
    In fine, it may be said with pride to Indiana, and the West, that General Lane, in the last acts which concluded the Mexican War, by his gallantry and bold exploits, succeeded in chasing Santa Anna out of Mexico, dispersed the accumulating forces of Paredes, and hunted down and completely destroyed the power of the robber-chief Jarauta, whose depredations had been so fatal to our troops and trains. In all these movements no charge of rapine and pillage is urged against him, with the exception of suffering some of his officers to keep, as trophies, Santa Anna's coat and cane, which that runaway officer had left behind him in his flight.
    He was appointed Governor of Oregon when he had just returned from the battlefields of Mexico, and almost on the instant tore himself away from friends, from home, from wife and children--and not fearing the snows of the Rocky Mountains, although later in the season than almost any other man would have dared to venture--rushed at once to the scene of his duties--arrived in time to aid in saving the Territory from the ruthless savages, established treaties with almost all the Indian tribes, and in his various messages to the Legislature of Oregon showed that he was a statesman as well as a hero--and his public acts have been approved by an almost entire vote of the people.
Western Star, Milwaukie, April 24, 1851, page 2

Biography of Gen. Lane.
    We have received a pamphlet copy of this publication. It is a brief but well-written history of the life of this distinguished man, who is the favorite of Indiana for the Presidency. The following is the dedication:
    To the Delegates to the National Convention of the Democratic Party, about to assemble in Baltimore, June, 1852, and to the Democracy at large of the United States, the following brief biography of Joseph Lane, Brevet Major-General in the late war with Mexico, late Governor of Oregon Territory, and now representing said Territory in Congress--is respectfully dedicated.
By Western.   
*      *       *
    MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH LANE, the subject of this memoir, is descended from revolutionary parents. His father, John Lane, and his mother, Elizabeth Street, were natives of North Carolina, and no two names of private and unpretending citizens will be found longer enrolled and doing better duty among the patriots of the Revolution than those of Lane and Street.
    Joseph, the second child, was born in North Carolina, in 1801. In 1804 the family emigrated to Kentucky, and settled in Henderson County, where General Lane was educated. At an early age he commenced life on his own account, in the employment of Nathaniel Hart, clerk of the county court, and of the subsequently celebrated John J. Audubon. He divided his attention between selling goods in the store and writing in the clerk's office.
    He was advantageously situated in youth to imbibe lessons of patriotism, as many of his elders had participated in the struggles of the Revolution, and from them he heard many tales of British atrocity, well calculated to awaken that burning patriotism which nerves his arm and steels his soul whenever his country has wrongs to redress. In 1821 he married, and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in Vanderburgh County, Indiana, where his family continue to reside. As a neighbor and man of enlarged hospitality, Joseph Lane has had no superior. His position on the Ohio put the last quality to trying tests. Near his dwelling the river has a bar, which never fails at low water to collect [a] small fleet of boats detained by this obstruction. A general invitation was ever extended, to one and all, to come to his farm and help themselves to provisions or whatever else he had. Never would he consent to receive remuneration, though hundreds have partaken of his store. Any boatman on the river felt himself at liberty to take away any of his boats, for temporary use, without asking. Such was Joseph Lane in his homestead. Acquaintance with river life made him a good pilot of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers; as such he is acknowledged among the "river men," by whom he is universally respected.
    As a citizen of Indiana, he divided his time in the discharge of his avocations of farmer and produce dealer, and in representing his district in the state legislature, until the Mexican War called him to the field of battle. In 1822, barely of legal age, he was elected to the state legislature, in one or the other branch of which he continued, with slight intermission, to represent his district until called to more important trusts.
    In politics General Lane is a Democrat of the Jefferson and Jackson school, and is thoroughly acquainted with the history and politics of his country. His retentive memory and quick, active intellect enable him to turn to immediate and effective use the more important facts and incidents connected with our institutions. Hence his argumentative illustrations are strong and forcible. He is, however, more a man of action than of words; more practical than theoretical; and presents himself to us with a mind formed rather by a study of things than of their mere names. While some may be more elegant in diction, he is more eloquent in ratiocination and eminently practical in life. He has written with his plow and sword, and spoken by his deeds. Without the ornaments of rhetoric and literature, he is, nevertheless, a strong, nay, a powerful orator. His native powers of debate, and his intimate acquaintance with facts and records have enabled him at all times, in political and presidential conflicts on the stump, to overwhelm the opponents of Democracy. He supported Jackson in 1824, '28 and 1832, Van Buren in 1836 and 1840, and Polk in 1844. In 1848 he had no opportunity to support General Cass, as he was on his route to Oregon, to assume the gubernatorial duties of that far-off and important Territory.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, May 20, 1852, page 1


    BIOGRAPHY OF GEN. LANE.--We have received by this mail a very neat copy of a pamphlet edition of 40 pages, containing a biographical sketch of our distinguished Delegate, Gen. Joseph Lane--whom the people of Oregon have ever been so firmly attached, and ever proud to honor. It is written by "Western." We have as yet only had time to turn over its pages--but shall speak of it hereafter. The following is a truthful extract from the dedication:--
    "Governor Lane comes up fresh from the great and pure fountain--the PEOPLE. He is identified with every class--has risen by his own exertions through every grade of useful toil; and now stands preeminent among the highest in the land, as one who, soon as opportunity offered, showed the 'ring of true metal.' He is indeed a fitting and noble commentary on the freedom of our institutions."
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, July 10, 1853, page 2


Biography of Gen. Lane.
    From the biography of this distinguished general we extract the following, which took place since General Lane left Oregon a year ago.
    Last fall, at the invitation of the Democracy of Hamilton County, General Lane visited Cincinnati, for the purpose of helping out the good cause. The meeting on the wharf in Cincinnati to welcome him was described in the newspapers of the day as most numerous and enthusiastic. Such was the effect of his speech and presence that in the election then pending, the Democracy increased their hitherto large majority, nearly two thousand votes.
    While in that city, and a guest of General Moore, a German citizen ushered himself into the presence of General Lane, amid the guests in the drawing room. He asked if General Lane was in? The General rose and answered in the affirmative. The German, with emotion, asked, "Do you know me, General?" "I do not," said the General, "recollect you." German: "Well, sir, I recollect and thank you, and will recollect and thank you to the last day of my life. I will never forget you. You saved my life. Do you remember when, after the fight with the guerrillas at Manga de Clavo, in which we routed the scoundrels so finely, you found a soldier dying by the wayside, exhausted by the heat of the sun and the exertions of the day, and dismounted from your horse and placed him on it, walking by his side until you reached the camp, where you did not rest till you saw him well taken care of?"
    The General replied that he recollected the circumstance very well.
    "Well," said the German, "I am the boy, and by that act of kindness you saved my life. I am here to thank you. How can I ever forget or cease to pray for you? God bless you! You were, indeed, the soldier's friend!"
    The General, abashed by the laudation so profusely showered upon him, could only stammer out that it was but an act of duty he had performed, which every officer owes his men.
    Those present, as may be supposed, were deeply affected by the grateful German's emotion.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, July 17, 1853, page 2


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GEN. JOSEPH LANE.
DELEGATE TO CONGRESS FROM OREGON.
    Major General Joseph Lane was born in North Carolina in 1801. In 1804 the family removed to Kentucky, where he received his education. In 1821 he married and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in Vanderburghh County, Indiana. As a neighbor and man of enlarged hospitality, Joseph Lane has no superior. As a citizen of Indiana, he divided his time in discharge of his avocations of a farmer and produce dealer, and in representing his district in one or other other branches of the legislature, until the Mexican War called him to the field of battle.
    In politics General Lane is a Democrat of the Jefferson and Jackson school, and is thoroughly acquainted with the history and politics of his country. His retentive memory and quick, active intellect enable him to turn to immediate and effective use the more important facts and incidents connected with our institutions. He is, however, more a man of action than of words; more practical than theoretical; and presents himself to us with a mind formed rather by a study of things than of their mere names. He has written with his plow and sword, and spoken by his deeds. Without the ornaments of rhetoric and literature, he is, nevertheless, a powerful orator. His native powers of debate, and his intimate acquaintance with facts and records have enabled him at all times in political and presidential conflicts on the stump to overwhelm the opponents of Democracy. He supported Jackson in 1824, '28 and '32, Van Buren in 1836 and '40, and Polk in 1844. In 1848 he had no opportunity to support Gen. Cass, as he was on his way to Oregon as Governor.
    The necessity for observance of brevity precludes a further detail of Joseph's Lane career up to 1846. During that year a call was made on Indiana for volunteers for the Mexican War. General Lane was a member of the State Senate when this requisition was made. He immediately resigned his seat and entered as a private under Captain Walker, who, it will be remembered, fell while gloriously sustaining the Stars and Stripes at the battle [of] Buena Vista. The companies, having rendezvoused at New Albany, selected Joseph Lane as their Colonel; and a few days after he received from Washington, as a further testimony to his worth, the commission of Brigadier General, which he accepted and immediately proceeded to Mexico with all his troops.
    At Buena Vista, in which he was the third in command, General Lane had the honor to open the battle on the plain, on the left, where he was attacked by a force of four or five thousand, infantry, artillery and lancers, under Ampudia; and also closed it again in the evening. During the battle, General Lane could be seen far in advance of the line, waving his sword with an arm already shattered by a musket ball, streaming with blood, and mounted on a charger, which was gradually sinking with the loss of blood from five distinct wounds.
    Space will not permit us to record at this time all the acts of bravery and heroism performed by General Lane during the Mexican campaign; suffice it to say that he acquitted himself with great honors and was held in the highest estimation by his brother officers and soldiers, who not inappropriately styled him "The Marion of the Mexican War."
    General Lane's campaign, though so pregnant with events, lasted but about ten months. About August 1, 1848, he reached Indiana, where a succession of public receptions were tendered him. On the 18th of August he was commissioned Governor of Oregon. On the 28th his appointment reached him, and on the 29th he set out for his post, via the Plains. He left Fort Leavenworth on the 10th of September, with twenty-two men including guides &c., and after encountering hardships and privations almost unendurable--snow storms of eight days' continuance--often where neither grass nor timber for fuel were to be had--he arrived safely in Oregon City, on the 2nd of March, 1849.
    On his arrival in Oregon, General Lane found no organized government, the provisional one having ceased its functions; Indian affairs were in a troubled condition. His first care was to set the government in motion. He immediately ordered a census, preparatory to the election of a Legislature. He quickly perceived the necessity of quieting the Indian tribes, in order to secure prosperity to Oregon. Accordingly he left for the Cayuse country, in April, accompanied only by an interpreter and Dr. Newell. He visited the various tribes along the route, with all of whom he made peace. By superior address, without war or bloodshed, General Lane effected what neither could do.
    In June the Legislature convened. After the delivery of his message, and leaving the Legislature in session, he started on a tour among the Coast Indians in Southern Oregon. General Taylor's administration came into power about this time, which went to the extreme of proscription, and among the proscribed was General Lane, without cause, then or since alleged, other than his Democracy. He received a notice of his removal in April, 1850, but his successor had not arrived. He had concluded treaties with all the Oregon Indians, except the Rogue River Indians. These were a warlike tribe. Private interests would have dictated that he should retire at once, but he felt it his duty to complete peaceful relations with these Indians if possible. Supposing he could do this by the 18th of June, he returned his commission to Washington, notifying them that his duties would cease on that day. He did not conclude the treaty until the middle of July, but expected no pay for services beyond June 18, 1849. His successor did not arrive till August, 1850.
    In 1851, he was nominated by the Democratic convention, for the same office, against Judge A. A. Skinner, the Whig nominee. The result of the vote was: Lane, 4,529; Skinner, 2,959. General Lane's majority, therefore, was 1,570.
    In 1855, he was once more nominated by the Democratic Party, against Maj. J. P. Gaines, the Whig and Know-Nothing nominee. The result of the vote upon that occasion was: Lane, 6,178; Gaines, 3,943. General Lane's majority was 2,235.
    We now leave General Lane in the halls of Congress, sent there three times by the almost unanimous voice of the people. Were there nothing else, this tribute alone would distinguish him for administrative talent.
Oregon and Washington Almanac, 1856, page 26


GEN. JOSEPH LANE,

DELEGATE TO CONGRESS FROM WASHINGTON TERRITORY.
    In Europe, where the popular mind is weighed down, its energies and aspirations crushed under the incubus of hereditary nobility; where the avenues to greatness are closed to all except the privileged few; where commissions in the army are bought and sold as articles of merchandise; where legislators owe their elevation to the accident of birth or a servile dependence on a rotten oligarchy; the subject of the following sketch perhaps would have lived in obscurity, and died as unknown, except to a limited circle of acquaintances and friends, as any of the nameless millions around him. In France, at the close of the eighteenth century, the revolution having unsettled the foundations of society and swept king and nobles into a common grave, unshackled the popular mind, long torpid from inactivity, roused the dormant spirit of the people, and diffused everywhere an energy and activity unknown through centuries of oppression, to the subjects of a hoary monarchy and depraved aristocracy, a new order of men arose. The road to preferment being open to all, amid the crowd of competitors, merit was the passport to popular favor. Men fresh from the people took the lead in the national assembly, enacted laws, regulated the internal police of the nation, or were sent on foreign embassies to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce. In the army, privates rose to the rank of general. Again the government of France became a monarchy, under the imperial sway of the great Napoleon, but it was the energy and spirit of Republican, not Imperial France, which, guided by his mighty genius, carried her victorious eagles to every capital in Europe, and enabled her, single and alone, to cope with a world in arms. The same result which followed the temporary overthrow of monarchy in France was, and to the present day has continued to be, one of the natural consequences of the separation of the American colonies from Great Britain. Under the peaceful and benign operation of our democratic institutions, no obstruction is offered by artificial and arbitrary distinctions in society to genius and worth struggling up from the humble ranks of life to high places of honor and of trust. The young aspirant may strive for a place in the halls of legislation, on the bench, in the cabinet, without obstruction from legal and constitutional barriers thrown in his way by the jealousy of nobles and the pride of kings; while in the army our noble volunteer system opens the way for the humble private to the rank of lieutenant-general.
    In the following sketch, we propose to present a few of the most important incidents in the life of one whose career in the civil and military service of his country admirably illustrates the genius and spirit of our institutions, and demonstrates the beneficent influence of those institutions in shaping individual as well as our national character; at the same time, taking the subject of this sketch as the representative of a large class who, self-taught and unaided by the advantages of birth and fortune, have risen to distinction, we shall, by examining his motives and incentives to action, as developed in his character and conduct, be led to discover the true springs and sources of our national greatness.
    Joseph Lane was born in North Carolina, on the 14th of December, 1801. In 1804 his father migrated to the west, and settled in Henderson County, Kentucky. Thence, in the year 1816, his son went into Warwick County, Indiana, where he became a clerk in a mercantile house, a position in which he remained some years. Having married and fixed his abode, as he then thought, for life, in Vanderburgh County, young Lane soon gained the confidence and esteem of the people, and at the election of 1822 was chosen by the voters of that county and Warwick a member of the Indiana Legislature. He was barely eligible when he took his seat, and though at that early age "a man of family," he seems, from the accounts of his contemporaries, to have presented at his entrance into public life the appearance of quite a juvenile legislator. Hon. Oliver H. Smith, for several years a United States Senator, and a political opponent of Gen. Lane, in a work recently published, thus described his appearance at the opening of the Legislature, of which body he himself was also a new member. "The roll calling progressed as I stood by the side of the clerk. 'The County of Vanderburgh and Warwick,' said the clerk. I saw advancing a slender, freckle-faced boy, in appearance eighteen or twenty years of age. I marked his step as he came up to my side, and have often noticed his air since; it was Gen. Joseph Lane, of Mexican and Oregon fame in after years."
    The youthful representative of Vanderburgh and Warwick was subsequently frequently re-elected by the voters of those counties, and continued to serve them, at intervals of one or two years, in one or the other branch of the Legislature, from the year 1822 to 1846, a period of twenty-four years. To anyone who knows the fidelity of General Lane to the high and responsible public trusts confided to him during the last twelve years, it is needless to say that as a member of the Indiana Legislature he was vigilant, active and efficient. Tenacious of the rights, and zealous to promote the interests of his constituents, he was at the same time just and liberal in his views on all questions affecting the rights and interests of other portions of the state. At a time when it was thought that Indiana, overburdened with debt, would be compelled to repudiate, he labored untiringly to save the state from this deep disgrace, and had the satisfaction at last of seeing his efforts crowned with success. Always capable of expressing his views clearly and forcibly on every subject of legislation, Gen. Lane justly thought that too much of the time of all legislative bodies was consumed in idle and unprofitable debate. He accordingly did not obtrude his opinions on the body of which he was a member, on all occasions, whether suitable or unsuitable; but strove to discharge his legislative duties in a way which, if not quite so ostentatious, he well knew was far more creditable to himself and useful to his constituents.
    An ardent supporter of the administration of Gen. Jackson and Martin Van Buren as long as the latter followed "in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor," Gen. Lane took an active part in the struggles between the Democratic and old Whig parties, and by his great weight of character, and frequent and laborious canvassing, he infused a spirit like his own into the Democracy of his state.
    In the spring of 1846 the war commenced between the United States and Mexico, and a call was made upon Indiana for volunteers. Among the first to respond to this call was Joseph Lane. Without waiting for a commission from the President, regardless of every consideration of self-interest or self-aggrandizement, looking only to the fact that his country required his services, he enlisted as a private in Captain Walker's company 2nd Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. His fellow soldiers, however, had no idea of permitting to remain in the ranks one whom nature had so obviously endowed with the qualities of a commander. He was accordingly, on the completion of the regiment, unanimously elected Colonel. Soon after, on the recommendation of the Indiana delegation in Congress, and without any solicitation on his part, President Polk sent him a commission of Brigadier-General.
    The first service, if service it can be called, required of Gen. Lane after his arrival in Mexico, was extremely irksome and disagreeable. Stationed by order of the commanding-general, with his brigade, in a swamp on the banks of the Rio Grande, he was compelled to remain inactive several months. Here, under the sweltering heats of a tropical sun, his troops were decimated by the diseases peculiar to that pestilential climate. He himself was almost the only man belonging to the brigade who was not prostrated at some period during their long confinement on that fatal spot. At length the welcome order came to advance to Saltillo, of which place, on his arrival, he was appointed by General Butler civil and military governor. Here, however, he was not long permitted to remain, being ordered, with his command, after the battle of Monterey, to join Gen. Taylor.
    On the 22nd and 23rd of February, 1847, was fought the great battle of Buena Vista, which in nothing save the number of the combatants falls short of the most famous of modern times. The disposition of the American troops by the commanding general was such that, during the engagement, the brigade of Gen. Lane was in the hottest of the fight from the beginning to the end. The hostile operations of the opposing armies, resulting in the great battle of the 23rd, commenced on the heights around Buena Vista on the 22nd. On the afternoon of that day, the Mexican lines being sufficiently advanced, a shell thrown from a howitzer, by order of Santa Anna, was the signal for the attack. Immediately a heavy fire, in continued rolling volleys, was opened by the Mexican light troops under Ampudia upon the American skirmishers on the opposite ridge of the mountain. The Americans replied with spirit, and the firing was kept up with much animation on both sides, but without any definite result, until darkness put an end to the combat, and both parties retired, to await a renewal of the strife on a more extended scale on the following day.
    On the morning of the 23rd the battle was renewed and raged with the greatest fury throughout the day. The first movement of Santa Anna was to turn the left flank of the Americans. Four companies, under Major Gorman, were dispatched by Gen. Lane to
intercept this movement. Soon after, three companies of the 2nd Illinois, and three of Marshall's Kentucky regiment, were sent to Gorman's assistance. While these troops were engaged with the enemy on the brow of the mountain, a large body of Mexicans, six thousand strong, advanced to the plain, towards the position held by Gen. Lane. He immediately formed his little band, now reduced to 400 men, into line, to receive the onset of this immense force. Hardly was this movement completed when the Mexicans opened a tremendous fire from their entire line, which was returned by the Americans with promptness and good effect. "Nothing," says an eyewitness, "could exceed the imposing and fearful appearance of the torrent of assailants, which at this moment swept along towards the little band of Lane. The long lines of infantry presented a continued and unbroken sheet of fire. But their opponents, though few in number, were undismayed, and defended their position with a gallantry worthy of the highest praise. Several times I observed the Mexican lines, galled by the American musketry and shattered by the fearful discharges from O'Brien's battery, break and fall back, but their successive formations beyond the ridge enabled them to force the men back to their position, and quickly replace those who were slain."
    Thus commenced the battle on the plain of Buena Vista on the morning of the 23rd, and [it] continued to rage with unabated fury and varying success to the close of that memorable and eventful day. In proportion to the violence and impetuosity of the assaults of the Mexicans on the American lines was the steady and unshaken firmness with which those assaults were received. If at any time a regiment, overcome by superior numbers, was compelled to give way, another quickly advanced to the rescue, drove back the enemy, and enabled it to regain its former position. In this way the Mexican general was kept at bay, his strength defied, his most skillful combinations and maneuvers baffled and defeated by his vigilant and active foe. Late in the afternoon, finding stratagem and force alike unavailing, the day drawing to a close, and no chasm yet opened for his legions in the ranks of the enemy, Santa Anna determined, by assailing the weakest part of the American line with an overwhelming force, to make a last desperate effort to win the day. Collecting all his infantry, he ordered them to charge the Illinois and Kentucky regiments. These brave troops made a gallant resistance against the fearful odds opposed to them; but, seeing their leaders fall, and overpowered by vastly superior numbers, they gave way and began to fall back. Gen. Laue, at this critical moment, hastened forward with his brigade, and opening a destructive fire upon the Mexicans, checked their advance, and enabled the retreating regiments to form and return to the contest. This was Santa Anna's last struggle on that hotly contested and bloody field. Night spread her mantle over the scene of conflict. The weary Americans sank to repose on a gory bed, expecting a renewal of the strife on the following day. Morning came--but no enemy appeared. Silently during the night, Santa Anna with his shattered legions had retired, leaving the victorious Americans masters of the field.
    Gen. Lane, having been transferred in the summer of 1847 to the line of Gen. Scott's operations, reached Vera Cruz in the early part of September. On the 20th of that month he set out towards the City of Mexico with a force of about two thousand five hundred men, consisting of one regiment of Indiana and one of Ohio volunteers, two battalions of recruits, five small companies of volunteer horse, and two pieces of artillery. This force was subsequently augmented at Jalapa by a junction with Maj. Lally's column of one thousand men, and at Perote its strength was further increased by a company of mounted riflemen and two of volunteer infantry, besides two pieces of artillery. Several small guerrilla parties appeared at different times on the route and attacked the advance and rear guards, but were quickly repulsed; and the column continued its advance unmolested along the great road leading through Puebla to the City of Mexico.
    At this time Col. Childs of the regular army, with a garrison of five hundred effective troops and one thousand eight hundred invalids, was besieged in Puebla by a large force of Mexicans commanded by Santa Anna in person. This general, notwithstanding his many defeats, with a spirit unbroken by misfortune, and an energy that deserves our highest admiration however much we may reprobate the cause in which he was engaged, had collected the remnant of his beaten army, determined, if possible, to wrest Puebla from the grasp of the American general, Scott, and thus cut off his communications with the seacoast. The gallant Childs well understood that the maintenance of his post was of the utmost importance to the success of the campaign. Every officer and soldier under his command seemed also to comprehend the immensity of the stake; and both officers and soldiers exhibited the loftiest heroism, and the most unyielding fortitude, in meeting the dangers and enduring the fatigues and privations of a retracted siege. Aware that a strong column, under Gen. Lane, was marching from Vera Cruz to their relief, the great object to be gained by the garrison was time. Santa Anna, also aware of Gen. Lane's approach, redoubled his exertions to carry the place by storm, superintending the operations of the troops in person, directing the guns to such parts of the defenses as appeared most vulnerable, and watching with intense anxiety the effect of every shot. Convinced at length by the obstinate resistance of the besieged, and the lessening distance between him and his advancing and dreaded foe, that he must abandon his position and encounter the "Marion of the War" in an open field, he silently and cautiously withdrew, and with the main body of his troops moved in the direction of Huamantla, intending, when Gen. Lane had passed that point, to make an attack upon his rear, while another strong force should assail him at the same time from the direction of Puebla. Gen. Lane, being informed of Santa Anna's movements, at once penetrated his designs. With the promptness of decision displayed in all his military operations, he divided his force, leaving the Ohio volunteers and a battalion of recruits, with two field guns, to guard the wagon trains. With the remainder of his column [he] marched, by a route diverging from the main road, directly towards Huamantla.
    On the morning of the 9th of October the people of Huamantla were startled and dismayed to behold the formidable and glittering array spread out over the neighboring hills. White flags were immediately hung out in token of submission, and the place seemed to have surrendered without a blow from its panic-stricken inhabitants. But suddenly the advanced guard, under Capt. Walker, having entered the town, was assailed on every side by volleys of musketry. He immediately ordered a charge upon a body of 500 lancers, stationed with two pieces of artillery in the plaza. A furious and deadly combat ensued. Gen. Lane, advancing at the head of his column, encountered the heavy reinforcement ordered up by Santa Anna, who had now arrived with his whole force. Soon the roar of battle resounded through every street, and street and plaza were reddened with blood and covered with heaps of the slain. The Mexicans, for a short time, combated their assailants with the energy and fury of despair. But the steady and well-directed valor of the soldiers of the "republic of the north" bore down all opposition. The Mexican ranks were broken and thrown into disorder; the order to retreat was given; and the American flag waved in triumph over the treacherous city of Huamantla.
    This was the last field on which Santa Anna appeared in arms against the United States. This remarkable man, universally acknowledged to be an able and active, was never a successful commander. Whether this want of success is to be ascribed to the superior generalship of the leaders, and prowess of the troops opposed to him, or to his own instability of purpose in the very crisis of battle, when vigor and decision are most required, we will not stop to inquire. Having, during the progress of the war, collected several large armies, and led them to defeat, he had determined with that which remained to him to make a last effort to retrieve his fortunes, and Huamantla was selected as the Waterloo where his waning star should shine out in cloudless effulgence, or sink to rise no more. If he did not encounter a Wellington on that field, he encountered one who, with Wellington's courage, united many of the higher qualities of a military commander. Perhaps he relied upon Gen. Lane's want of experience; but the courage and conduct of the latter at Buena Vista should have admonished him of the hopelessness of a contest in an open and equal field with such an officer, at the head of troops comparatively fresh, in high spirits, with full confidence in the will and courage of their leader, and burning to rival the heroic deeds of their countrymen at Chapultepec and Cerro Gordo. Although Santa Anna from this time withdrew from an active participation in the contest between the belligerent nations, the bloody drama in which he had played so conspicuous a part was not yet closed. Much remained to be done to complete the conquest so auspiciously begun on the banks of the Rio Grande, and prosecuted with such vigor by Scott in the valley of Mexico. Many bloody fields were yet to be won; many desperate bands of guerrillas yet to be defeated and dispersed; to render the subjugation of the country complete.
    Defeated at Huamantla, the remnant of the Mexican force fell back on Atlixco, where, on the 18th of October, a large body, with munitions and supplies, and two pieces of artillery, were collected, under the orders of Gen. Rea. General Lane, hearing of the concentration of the enemy's troops at that point, hastened with the small force at his disposal to attack them. After a long and fatiguing march on a hot and sultry day, he encountered the enemy strongly posted on a hillside, within a mile and a half from Atlixco. The Mexicans made a show of desperate resistance, but being vigorously assaulted by the cavalry, closely followed by the entire column, they gave way and fled in confusion towards the town. It was not until after nightfall that the whole command of Gen. Lane reached Atlixco, having marched ten Spanish leagues [about 25-30 miles] since eleven o'clock in the forenoon. Disposing his troops in such manner as to command the approaches by the main roads, he opened a vigorous cannonade from a height which commanded the town. The guerrillas, however, had fled, and the authorities having soon after surrendered the place into his hands, his wearied troops entered the town and sought the repose they so much needed.
    It is impossible, within the limited space allotted to this sketch, to present a detailed account of all Gen. Lane's military operations at this period. In authentic histories of the war and official documents filed in the archives of government, the reader will find the record of his achievements--his long and toilsome marches by night and by day over a wild and rugged country, full of narrow defiles and dangerous passes; his frequent surprises of the enemy; his sudden incursions far away into remote valley and plain; his fierce combats and glorious victories. At Tlaxcala, Matamoros, Galaxa, Tulancingo, Zacualtiplan, as at Huamantla and Atlixco, Mexican valor yielded to the force of his impetuous and well-directed assaults. On every field the ranks of the enemy went down before the thundering charge of his cavalry, the fierce onset of his resistless infantry. The fame of his achievements soon spread through Mexico, and the terror with which the enemy was inspired by his death-dealing blows and almost ubiquitous presence was equalled only by the unbounded confidence and enthusiasm infused into his followers by his gallant bearing and the prestige of a name ever relied on by them as the sure guarantee of victory. For one quality as much as any other, perhaps more than even his dauntless courage, Gen. Lane was distinguished throughout the war--humanity to the vanquished. His bright fame was unsullied, his escutcheon untarnished by a single act of wanton outrage or cruelty during the whole time he bore a commission in the American army. When the fight was over, and the victory won, the field of carnage, where a short time before foeman had met foeman in deadly conflict, presented the spectacle of stern and swarthy warriors, imbued with the humane spirit of their leader, bending over the heaps of the dying and the dead, selecting now a friend, and now a foe, from whom the vital spark had not yet fled, staunching his wounds, and if the sufferer had not yet passed beyond the power of human aid to save, restoring him by their kind ministrations to life and health, family, home and friends. An officer thus distinguished for courage and humanity; unyielding fortitude under the severest privations; an originality and promptness in the formation of his plans, surpassed only by the boldness and rapidity of their execution; a celerity of movement which annihilated time and distance; with a power of endurance that defied hunger and thirst, heat and cold--such an officer, never for a moment relaxing his exertions, and daily adding some new name to the list of his conquests, could not fail to attract the attention and excite the admiration of the army, and win the approbation and applause of his countrymen in all parts of the United States. There was a tinge of romance in his exploits, which possessed an irresistible attraction, and captivated the imagination of all classes of admirers. But imagination has had little to do with the final judgment which his countrymen have pronounced upon his conduct. The parallel traced at the time between his deeds and character, and those of an illustrious hero of the Revolution, suggested to his countrymen a suitable way of testifying their appreciation of his services and admiration of his character; and they have, with a unanimity which shows that the parallel is not altogether imaginary, bestowed upon him a title prouder than any ever conferred by a patent of nobility from prince or potentate--the title of "The Marion of the Mexican War."
    On the 10th of March, 1848, the treaty of peace between the United States and Mexico was ratified by the Senate. General Lane remained some months in Mexico after peace was concluded, directing the movements, and superintending the embarkation of troops returning home.
    Returning to the United States in July, a few days after he reached home he was appointed by President Polk Governor of the Territory of Oregon. This appointment, entirely unsolicited, Gen. Lane, against the wishes of many of his friends, concluded to accept; and, having made the necessary preparations, started across the plains in September, with an escort of twenty men. After a journey across the plains and mountains, full of peril and hardship, he arrived in Oregon in March, 1849, and immediately organized the territorial government.
    Of the ability with which he performed the duties of Governor, no better testimony could be given than is furnished by the fact that when superseded by Gov. Gaines on the accession of Gen. Taylor to the Presidency, he was elected by the people of Oregon Delegate in Congress, a position in which he has remained to the present time.
    The military career of Gen. Lane did not close with the termination of hostilities between the United States and Mexico. In Oregon he was destined to add other laurels to those already won. The Indians of that territory gave the whites much trouble, destroying lives and property, and thereby greatly impeding the progress and retarding the settlement of the country.
    In 1853 occurred a formidable outbreak on Rogue River in the southern part of Oregon. Gen. Lane immediately collected a force, composed of settlers, miners, and a few officers and soldiers of the regular army, attacked the Indians near Table Rock, and after a desperate conflict, in which he was severely wounded, drove them from their position. Following up this success with great vigor, he administered such chastisement that they soon gave up the contest, and were glad to accede to any terms of peace.
    An extended biography of Gen. Lane, if ever written, will present many interesting incidents in his career, necessarily excluded from this brief sketch. But enough is here narrated to serve the purpose with which we set out, which was to present him as an exemplification of the simplicity and vigor of our democratic institutions. What he is as an individual, the Republic of the United States is as a nation. Let none "despair of the Republic," so long as the national character reflects that of the individual, and the individual can trace his rise from an humble position to the highest, to the operation of the same causes, the beneficent influence of the same institutions which elevated a few colonies, by nature vigorous and strong, but enfeebled and depressed by foreign aggression and wrong, to their present proud preeminence among the nations of the earth.
    To Oregon we extend our congratulations that she has in the national councils a guardian of her interests so watchful and faithful and true to his high and honorable trust. We congratulate her that though so remote, there are many ties that bind her to the rest of the Republic, not the least of which is the pure character and well-earned fame of her honored delegate.

United States Democratic Review, May 1858, page 377


General Joseph Lane, Senator from
the New State of Oregon, a Representative Man.

    The advent of Oregon into the Union placed in the Senate of the United States, as one of her representatives, General Joseph Lane, one of the most remarkable men of the age, whose career is a fine illustration of the genius of our institutions, and demonstrates that the high places of honor and distinction are accessible to all who possess ability, energy and perseverance.
    General Lane descended from revolutionary ancestors, was born in the state of North Carolina, was reared and educated in Kentucky, emigrated to Indiana and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in the county of Vanderburgh, where, without the adventitious aid of fame, family or fortune, he worked his way from a humble plowboy and flatboatman on the Mississippi to the high position of a distinguished soldier and statesman. At the age of twenty-one, when barely eligible, he was elected a representative in the legislature of Indiana, and continued to represent his people, at intervals of one or two years, either in the house or the senate, for about a quarter of a century. Possessing a clear, strong and practical mind, he took a liberal and correct view of all questions meeting state or national interest, which he enforced with an eloquence and power which placed him in the front of the ablest men in the legislature.
    His name is indissolubly connected with some of the most important measures which developed the resources, advanced the prosperity and improved the finances of the state, especially his successful efforts to preserve untarnished the public faith and to prevent the repudiation of the public debt, which was boldly advocated by some of the strongest men in Indiana.
    When the Mexican War broke out, Gen. Lane was a member of the state senate, and when a call was made upon Indiana to furnish volunteers for the war, with that devoted patriotism which has ever characterized him, he immediately resigned his seat and volunteered as a private in Captain Walker's company. When the company rendezvoused at New Albany, he was elected from the ranks as their colonel, but he was permitted to hold the commission but a very few days. That sagacious statesman, James K. Polk, then President of the United States, discerning in General Lane the qualities to make a successful warrior, sent him a commission of brigadier general, a compliment as unexpected as it was solicited by him. The opponents of the Administration and of the war, throughout the state, denounced and ridiculed the appointment, declaring that he might make a good general of flatboatmen on the Mississippi, but that the idea of Joseph Lane, who had never commanded a company in his life, taking command of a brigade in war was simply ridiculous, that he would disgrace himself, his state and the nation. Never did a man's achievements in war more completely falsify the predictions of his enemies and realize the most sanguine expectations of his friends or more triumphantly vindicate the wisdom of the appointment.
    In less than three weeks after the receipt of his commission, he was at the seat of war, with all his troops. In communicating his arrival to General Taylor he wrote thus--"The brigade I have the honor to command is generally in good health and fine spirits, anxious to engage in active service."
    The indomitable energy, the self-sacrificing spirit, the sound judgment and firm purpose which he displayed in the active service of civil life were eminently conspicuous in the stirring scenes of battle, blood and carnage through which he passed, illustrated by a daring bravery and heroism, which placed him among the most distinguished heroes of that memorable war. To recount the battles in which General Lane was engaged, the dangers to which he was exposed, the brave deeds he performed, the skill and judgment with which he planned his battles, and the unvarying success with which he fought them, would consume more space than we have to spare. Such was the celerity of his movements, the skill and stratagem of his plans, the boldness and rapidity of their execution, and the enthusiasm and courage with which he inspired his men by his impassioned appeals to their valor, as they visited the most fearful slaughter upon the enemy, the name of Lane struck terror to the Mexican heart, and by common consent he was styled "the Marion of the Mexican War." Of all battles fought in Mexico, the battle of Buena Vista was the severest and most hotly contested, and one of the most remarkable in the annals of the world. There the American army, consisting of about five thousand, mostly raw militia, met twenty thousand of the chosen troops of Santa Anna in deadly conflict, and after a protracted struggle of two days achieved a glorious triumph.
    In that battle General Lane performed a most important part. No officer contributed more by his gallantry and generalship to win the fortunes of the day. Upon the left wing of the American army, which General Lane commanded, Santa Anna directed his most obstinate and deadly assaults. With but 400 men, General Lane repulsed a large body of Mexicans, six thousand strong. While nothing could exceed the fearful array of the assailants, as they moved towards the little band of Lane, with their long line of infantry presenting a continued sheet of fire, nothing could surpass the undaunted firmness and bravery with which Lane and his men maintained their position and poured their volleys of musketry into the advancing columns of the enemy, which made them break and fall back. Throughout the varying fortunes of that trying day, General Lane, with his little band of heroes, maintained his position and repulsed the enemy at every point. On the second day of the battle, Santa Anna finding his strength defied and his most skillful maneuvers defeated, as the day was drawing to a close [he] determined to make a most desperate effort to turn the tide of battle in his favor. Collecting all his infantry, he made a charge on the Illinois and Kentucky regiments. Gallantly did those brave troops resist the onset until seeing their leaders fall, and overpowered by numbers, they began to waver and fall back. At this critical moment, the eagle eye of General Lane observed the movement, when he hastened with his brigade to the rescue in time to enable the retreating regiments to form and return to the contest and drive back with great loss the advancing column of the enemy. This was Santa Anna's last struggle. On that bloody and hotly contested field night soon closed over the sanguinary scene, and when the morning sun arose, it shone on the battlefield deserted by Santa Anna with his shattered legions, while the star-spangled banner waved in triumph over the American army.
    No officer went into the American war with less pretensions than General Lane; none came out of it with a brighter fame--the testimony of eyewitnesses, historians and official records attest the fact. The New Orleans Delta of May 2, 1847 recorded the popular estimation in which General Lane's conduct was held in the battle of Buena Vista as follows:
    "BRIGADIER GENERAL LANE.--The bearing of this gallant officer in the battle of Buena Vista, as described by persons who were present, was in the highest degree gallant, noble and soldier-like. When his brigade, composed of the two Indiana regiments, was exposed to a murderous fire from the Mexican batteries on their flanks, and a front fire from a large body of the enemy's infantry--when the grape and musket shot flew thick as hail over and through the lines of our volunteers, who began to waver before the fiery storm, their brave General could be seen fifty yards in advance of the line, waving his sword with an arm already shattered by a musket ball, streaming with blood, and mounted on a noble charger, which was gradually sinking under the loss of blood, from five distinct wounds. A brave sight, indeed, was this!"
    This brave man, whose cheek never blanched with fear or eye quailed amidst the hottest conflicts of battle, has a heart of tenderness which melts at human woe. His solicitude and care of the sick, the wounded and the dying was manifested on many occasions. Numerous incidents and anecdotes are narrated illustrating his kindness and tenderness in relieving their sufferings and administering to their comfort in the hospitals and on the battlefields, which so endeared him to his troops that it made him always invincible when their leader. On his return home, wherever he stopped, citizens of all classes vied to do honor to the distinguished hero. Whilst in the city of Cincinnati, the guest of Gen. Moore, an incident occurred illustrative of his native kindness and tenderness, and the gratitude of the recipient. A German citizen ushered himself into the presence of Gen. Lane, amidst the guests in the parlor. He asked if Gen. Lane was in. The General arose and answered that he was. The German, with emotion, asked--"Do you know me, General?" "I do not," said the General. German--"Well, sir, I recollect and thank you, and will recollect and thank you to the last day of my life. Do you remember, after the fight with the guerrillas at Mango de Clavo, in which we routed the scoundrels so finely, you found a soldier dying by the wayside, exhausted by the heat of the sun and the exertions of the day, and dismounted from your horse and placed him on it, walking by his side until you reached the camp, where you did not rest until you saw him well taken care of?" The General replied that he recollected the circumstance very well. "Well," said the German, "I am the boy, and by that act of kindness you saved my life. I am here to thank you. How can I ever forget to cease to pray for you? God bless you, you were indeed the soldier's friend."
    In his own state of Indiana, it was a perfect ovation wherever he went. The masses--the hardy sons of toil--turned out from all the country, and from every hamlet and village, to welcome and do honor to the man of the people. He was feasted and toasted, and congratulatory addresses were made to him in the name of the people by the most distinguished men of the state. He bore all the honors and compliments showered upon him meekly and with characteristic modesty, claimed for himself nothing more than having tried to do his duty. In his emphatic language he said--"To the brave volunteers under my command I feel that the honor is justly due; without their aid I could have done nothing. 'Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war.'"
    A few days after General Lane reached his home, he was called to a different scene of duty, where he could exercise his sound judgment and practical knowledge in organizing and putting in operation a civil government, on the shores of the Pacific, for a remote people who had been long neglected and uncared for. In August, 1848, he received a commission as Governor of Oregon Territory, another compliment as unexpected as it was unsolicited from Mr. Polk. In less than one month from the time he returned to the bosom of his family from the stirring scenes of war, he was en route for the distant shores of the Pacific, with hardships, perils and privations to encounter in crossing the Rocky Mountains at that season of the year to reach his post of duty which required an energy, hardihood and self-reliance to overcome which few men possess. Col. Fremont, who followed him in a few weeks afterwards, taking a different route across the mountains, lost almost his entire party, amid the cold and snows in the gorges and defiles of the mountains, and nearly perished himself.
    A narrative of the hardships and sufferings endured, and the perils encountered, by Gov. Lane and his party in crossing the Rocky Mountains would fill a volume. We can now no more than quote from a speech made by Mr. Voorhies of Indiana last winter to the citizens of Washington, who had assembled to congratulate Gen. Lane upon the admission of Oregon into the Union, and himself into the United States Senate as one of her Senators. He said:
    "There is a history of events connected with the pioneer movements of Gen. Lane to Oregon not generally known to the American people. On the 11th of September, 1848, at the foot of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, with a commission from President Polk as Governor of Oregon Territory in his pocket, he, to whom you tender the honor of this demonstration, gave evidence to his country and to the world, of a will and a courage in the discharge of duty surpassing that which Napoleon displayed in his immortal passage of the Alps. The great hero of Austerlitz and Marengo was told by his guide that the route was barely passable, and the order came from that bold spirit to set forward immediately. Gen. Lane, in consultation with Col. Dougherty, a mountaineer of twenty years' experience, was told that the passage of the Rocky Mountains at this season of the year, with the certainty of spending the winter in their midst, was a human impossibility. 'We will set forward in the morning,' was the reply of the American hero and patriot, who never knew fear in the achievement of public duty. He and his little band [started] moving in the morning, and for five weary and desolate months were lost and buried amid the gorges and defiles and snows of the mountains. Fancy may paint, but the tongue cannot sketch even the faint outlines of that expedition. On the 3rd of March, 1849, Gen. Lane reached the capital of Oregon, and before he slept put the Territorial government in operation and started a communication to the President, informing him of the fact."
    In the discharge of the duties of Governor of the Territory of Oregon, and ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Gen. Lane evinced the highest order of ability. His messages to the Territorial legislature abound in sound and practical views relative to the wants and interests of the Territory, and in recommendation of wholesome and judicious measures calculated to develop the resources and promote the prosperity of the people. He found the Indian affairs in a most troubled condition--the troops disbanded, the various tribes in a hostile attitude to the citizens--[they] had committed depredations upon their property and murdered several families--the murderers unpunished and no restitution of property. As soon as he put the government in operation, without any troops he proceeded to the scenes of depredations, robbery and murder, and by his superior address, tact and judgment he quelled all disturbances, had the murderers arrested and punished, and without war or bloodshed accomplished what both had failed to effect. An incident occurred in Lane's talk with the Rogue River Indians, a warlike and predatory tribe, which illustrates his remarkable self-possession, coolness and judgment in imminent peril. He entered their country with twelve or fifteen men; these Indians had fiercely rejected all attempts by the whites at conciliation terms of war and peace. Gen. Lane chose the latter; with difficulty he succeeded in assembling four or five hundred warriors in council. During this interview, one of his company recognized a couple of horses stolen from him, in possession of the Indians, and two pistols then in the belts of the two chiefs. The Governor demanded restitution of the property, which restored, he said, would evince their willingness to treat and preserve peace. The head chief ordered restitution, but the possessors refused. The Governor then stepped forward and took one of the stolen pistols from the Indian's belt and gave it to the owner, and was about to take the other pistol when the Indian who had it presented his gun and raised the war-whoop. Instantly four or five hundred guns were pointed at Gen. Lane and his small party.
    A single false step would have led to the most disastrous results, but Gen. Lane's coolness and promptness was equal to the crisis. He said, "I have come here to make a treaty of peace, not to have a fight," and promptly stepping to the side of the principal chief, with his firm eye fixed on his, pistol in hand, he told him [that] if a drop of blood of any of the whites was shed, it would be avenged by the destruction of the entire tribe. This well-timed move had the desired effect. The chief told his warriors to cease their demonstrations. The Governor then advanced among the foremost, took their arrows from their bows and returned them to their quivers, and uncocked their guns and knocked the priming from their pans.
    Gen. Lane did not hold the office of Governor of Oregon more than about fifteen months before he was removed by President Taylor. He "who had no friends to reward or enemies to punish," as he declared before he was elected President, signalized his administration by proscribing his former companion in arms, who stood by him so firmly on the field of battle, and contributed so largely by his gallantry and generalship to win the battle of Buena Vista, which placed him in the Presidential chair. Whereupon the legislature of Oregon passed resolutions expressive of their high sense of the energy, ability and success which characterized his administration as Governor of Oregon and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and their "sincere regret that the President of the United States has deprived the Territory of Oregon of the future services of one so eminently useful, and whose usefulness was enhanced by the unbounded confidence of the people over whom he was placed." The people whose representatives they were seconded those resolutions by selecting him by an almost unanimous vote their delegate to represent them in the Congress of the United States.
    Upon the eve of Gen. Lane's departure from Oregon to the National Capitol, as their Delegate to Congress, the people, without distinction of party, held a mass meeting to tender "him a public expression of opinion in regard to his distinguished talents and services." Among other things they resolved "that as friends of Jos. Lane, without distinction of party, we tender him our hearty and entire approbation of his acts as Governor of Oregon Territory," and that from "the ability, energy, fidelity and purity of purpose which have characterized all his public acts among us, it is but fitting that we express our approbation and admiration of his course," and "that Gen. Lane came to us covered with military glory, and leaves us, upon the business of the Territory, clothed with our confidence and attachment."
    That confidence and attachment the people of Oregon have ever since manifested towards him by continuing him as their Delegate in Congress until the Territory was admitted as one of the states into the Union last winter, when, in obedience to the unanimous vote of his party, he became one of the Senators from that state.
    All the responsible positions to which Gen. Lane had been called were unsolicited and unexpected by him, what but few public men can say, and he has filled them with signal ability and success. Endowed with a strong and practical mind, stored with the most useful knowledge acquired by extensive reading and accurate observation, sound, liberal and conservative in his views of the policy and principles of our government, he combines personal traits of character eminently calculated to win the popular heart with a warm, generous and manly spirit, with a kind, frank and social disposition, with a demeanor so modest and unpretending that he excites no one's envy; he has acquired an influence and popularity which few men attain.
    In Indiana, in the legislature, and with the people, he was universally popular and one of the leading men of the state, and styled "her favorite son." On the battlefields of Mexico the soldiers viewed him as invincible, and he was the pride of the officers of the army. In Oregon his name is a tower of strength. In the halls of Congress his popularity and influence are unsurpassed; indeed, it was chiefly owing to his influence and exertions that the bill to admit Oregon into the Union passed the House at the last session. The passage of that bill was attended by great excitement. It was violently opposed by the ultra men North and South--the abolitionists and fire-eaters.
    When the final vote was taken a breathless silence reigned through the hall and the crowded galleries, broken only by the emphatic answer of yes or nay, as the members answered to the call of the clerk for their vote; as the vote was being taken, members were to be seen in all parts of the hall keeping count of the vote, and when Felix K. Zollicoffer responded to the last call, parties from all parts of the hall surrounded Gen. Lane with their warm and hearty congratulations, which indicated the result, and when formally announced by the speaker from the chair, round after round of applause arose from the members in the hall, which was caught and repeated by the crowded galleries of anxious spectators, with waving of handkerchiefs by the ladies and clapping of hands by the sterner sex, which showed that "he lives in the hearts of his countrymen."
    When the news of the passage of the bill, and that a seat in the Senate was thereby secured to Gen. Lane, spread through the city, there was a general rejoicing by the citizens, and the demonstrations of honor paid to Gen. Lane at his lodgings that night were of the most enthusiastic character. A band of musicians serenaded him with the most delightful music, the people assembled in crowds, the strong men of the nation were there and made congratulatory speeches from the portico of Brown's Hotel, which were received with the enthusiastic cheers of the assembled masses, which made the welkin ring. Gen. Lane appeared and responded to the unexpected compliment in a chaste, appropriate and eloquent speech, then opened his rooms and his heart to receive his friends, and gave them the best cheer that could be provided at so short a notice.
    The past history of Gen. Lane is a guarantee that he will ably and faithfully represent the interests of his state in the Senate of the United States, and uphold and support, by his judicious counsels and effective aid, "the Constitution and the Union, the richest political blessings which Heaven has ever bestowed upon any nation."
    The life of Gen. Lane will stand out prominently in history as that of a remarkable man, illustrating the fact that the humblest individual may, under free and liberal institutions, attain the highest point of distinction by perseverance, zeal and industry, and will furnish an example to incite ardent and ambitious minds to the cultivation of their noblest faculties, with the confident assurance of the most triumphant success.
New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, Concord, New Hampshire, September 14, 1859, page 1


    At the cost of much labor we lay before our readers today an extended biographical sketch [below] of Gen. Jo Lane, of Oregon. It is certainly more full and complete than any yet published, as it embraces all that has heretofore been given to the public, with many additional facts.
    As Gen. Lane is destined to occupy a conspicuous place among the prominent men of the nation, everything concerning his early history should be read; we therefore trust the reader will give the sketch which we publish today a careful perusal. The events of Gen. Lane's life, as recounted in our short biographical sketch, will at once convince the reader that he has more of the elements that constituted the character of Gen. Jackson than any man now living. He is as simple and unostentatious as a child--unpretending--brave as Caesar, and as determined and firm as adamant. He has a strong, good sense--he is unornamental, but useful. His sense if of the cast-iron kind--not shining, but solid, and altogether practical. He is the least showy and unartificial of any prominent man in the Republic, but he has a power and an influence over men, whether individuals or armies, that is irresistible. He is remarkable for his sincerity and straightforwardness. Intrigue and combination are foreign to his whole nature, and if he should be nominated as the Democratic candidate for the Presidency, such a result may be a tribute to his merit and not to his management. His frank and manly mind and hearty disposition have ever rendered him, while solicitous for the good opinion of his fellow citizens, thoroughly averse to the arts of the trickster and the small ways of smaller men. Warm in his friendships, just in his opinions, and full of manly kindness and generous to his foes, few are more beloved. His amiable disposition sheds a warm and genial halo on all around, making him a favorite of the social circle.
    Gen. Lane is a sound and unflinching Democrat. Without variableness of change or shadow of turning he has been a leading and fearless advocate of all the great measures which have marked the progress of our party since the days of Jackson. Eminently honest and sincere in all his purposes, calm and deliberate in judgment, his principles are based upon the conviction of a clear and discriminating mind now in its full meridian.
    Such is Gen. Lane, our candidate for the Presidency. He is eminently qualified for the station, and possessing all the elements of success and popularity, he is unquestionably the strongest man that the Charleston Convention could nominate. We conclude our notice of Gen. Lane by giving a few additional extracts showing his popularity in the South. The Democrat, published at Somerville, Morgan County, Alabama, thus speaks:
    GENERAL JOSEPH LANE.--The popularity of Gen. Lane is increasing every day, and his prospects for the nomination of the Charleston Convention is decidedly more favorable at this time than those of any man in the Union. The strict faith which he so sternly keeps with his country, his party and his fame, the scrupulous adherence which he gives to the tenets of Democracy, the promptness which he evinces in securing every citizen in the Union in the enjoyment of his rights, the sacred inviolability in which he holds the Constitution, together with his decision of character, excellent practical sense and sound judgment, has made him prominent before the country. The Southern Democracy is flocking to his standard as if by acclamation, and the strong probability of his being the standard bearer of Democracy in 1860 renders it necessary to examine his record. We copy the following from the speech which he made in the Senate touching the Territorial questions, which have been elaborated so much upon by Douglas.
    The Echo, published at Brownsville, Ark., thus speaks of Gen. Lane:
    "We confidently believe Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, [is] the man of all others the most available, and would be elected with the least effort on the part of his adherents.
    "It is not solely for services rendered, but from an honest and consistent past public life, that the people have a guarantee of Gen. Lane's future political honesty. There is no inconsistency in his acts, no deviation from honest purposes, no wavering in true devotion to his country, no dark spot on the bright escutcheon of his fame. The latitudinal doctrine that 'the Union is the paramount political good' is his creed to all intents and purposes. While upon one hand this one has his 'peculiar doctrine,' and another one an 'odious doctrine,' no section can find an insuperable objection to his principles. In him center the strongest elements of a national party. He has none of those immiscible components in his character that allows a man to profess patriotism by word, and at the same time toss the apple of discord among his fellow citizens or immolate the blood-bought rights of the people on the altar of sectionalism. The belief in his impartial justice--looking neither to the North nor to the South--but to the right, and to the welfare of the whole country, is what constitutes in him an element of strength and popularity possessed by few names in the country, and that he has ever shown himself worthy of this grateful confidence cannot be denied.
    "It takes the upstart professor or the pedant reasoner to take up a political intricacy and clothe it in gorgeous imagery, and festoon it with a redundancy of epithets and publish it in some periodical, to have the gratification of hearing himself called by critics and admirers a Solon, a Lycurgus, a Justinian or a Mansfield, but it takes, on the other hand, a statesman of practical knowledge to march straight up to a litigated point or diplomatic question and divest it of all superfluous garb and reduce it to plain simple truth, and apply this knowledge to the elucidation of the clouded point. This promptness of action, we believe, would characterize the administration under such a man as Gen. Lane.
    "Gen. Lane is a self-made man, emphatically a 'tribune of the people.' By his own exertion and energy he has raised himself from a humble position to the distinguished rank of U.S. Senator, and in every public capacity in which he has been tried, he has served with distinction to himself and honor to his country. If the Convention wishes to nominate a man that would be invulnerable to the combined assaults of opposition factions--one with a cordon of political defenses around him--they could not do better than to nominate Senator Lane of Oregon."
Memphis Daily Avalanche, Memphis, Tennessee, December 5, 1859, page 2


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
--OF--
GEN. JOE LANE, OF OREGON.
    We begin today the publication of a sketch of the life and services of the distinguished Senator from Oregon, for whom we have constantly expressed [for] about twelve months our preference as a candidate for the Presidency in 1860. The developments which have followed this announcement of our choice have strengthened the conviction that we were right, and the memoir which follows and the facts given, thorough hurriedly prepared for the press in the midst of the arduous duties incident to the position of an editor of a daily newspaper, will satisfy any unprejudiced mind that Gen. Lane, of Oregon, is the man for the times, and one who can be supported with equal ardor by all true Democrats both of the North and of the South. We may remark, incidentally, that though Mr. Buchanan was the nominee of the Northern Democracy, Mr. Pierce was the choice of the Southern Democracy, so with Mr. Polk, and with a sound national man like Gen. Lane presented to the Charleston Convention, the question will never be raised whether his home is on the lakes, amid the hills and valleys of New England, in the distant Northwest, or on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.
    Joseph Lane was born in North Carolina in 1801. His father, John Lane, and his mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Street, were natives of North Carolina. No two names of private and unpretending citizens will be found longer enrolled and doing better duty among the patriots of the Revolution than those of Street and Lane.
    In 1804 the father of the subject of this sketch migrated to Kentucky and settled in Henderson County. There Joseph received the rudiments of an English education. At an early age he found employment in the office of Nathaniel Hart, clerk of the county court. He also sold goods some time in the store of the afterwards celebrated John J. Audubon, his time being divided, during this period of his life, between selling goods in the store of Mr. Audubon and writing in the clerk's office.
    In 1821 he married and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in Vanderburgh County, Indiana, where his family continued to reside until he moved them to Oregon in 1853. Robert Dale Owen, who resided in an adjoining county, and well knew his habits of life, says: "As a neighbor and a man of enlarged hospitality, Joseph Lane has had no superior. His position on the Ohio River put the last quality to the most trying tests. Near his dwelling the river has a bar which never fails at low water to collect a small fleet of boats detained by this obstruction. A general invitation was ever extended to one and all to come to his farm and help themselves to provisions and whatever else he had. Never would he consent to receive remuneration, though hundreds have partaken of his stores. Any boatman on the river felt himself at liberty to take away any of his boats for temporary use without asking. Such was Joseph Lane in his homestead." Acquaintance with river life and his hospitality to the "rivermen" made him a great favorite with that class of persons. On his farm he had a woodyard where wood was sold to the steamboats. It was a common remark among the captains that they always got the worth of their money at Jo. Lane's, and they usually regulated their purchases at the yards above and below so as to arrive at his empty. Hardly a boat made a trip without "wooding" at Jo. Lane's.
    In 1822 he was elected to the state legislature, in one or the other branch of which he continued, with an occasional intermission of a session, to represent his district until called to more important trusts.
    His character as a legislator has been well described by the writer already quoted. He says: "In politics Gen. Lane is a Democrat of the Jefferson and Jackson school, and is thoroughly acquainted with the history and politics of his country. His retentive memory and quick, active intellect enable him to turn to immediate and effective use the more important facts and incidents connected with our institutions. Hence his argumentative illustrations are strong and forcible. He is, however, more a man of action than of words, more practical than theoretical, and presents himself to us with a mind formed rather by the study of things than of their mere names. While some may be more elegant in diction, he is more elegant in ratiocination, and eminently practical in life. He has written with his plow and his sword, and spoken by his deeds. Without the ornaments of rhetoric and literature, he is nevertheless a strong, nay a powerful, orator. His native powers of debate and his intimate acquaintance with facts and records have enabled him at all times, in political and Presidential conflicts on the "stump," to overwhelm the opponents of Democracy.
    The necessity for brevity, and the fact that this period of Gen. Lane's life presents few incidents worthy of note, precludes any further detail of his actions in the double capacity of farmer and member of the state legislature.
    In the year 1846 the Mexican War commenced, and a call was made upon Indiana for volunteers. Gen. Lane was at that time a member of the state senate. He immediately resigned his seat and entered as a private in Capt. Walker's company. He chose Walker's company on account of the high opinion he entertained of that officer's capacity and courage. This opinion was well justified by the gallant captain's conduct at Buena Vista, where he fell gloriously sustaining the stars and stripes.
    The companies of volunteers, having rendezvoused at New Albany, selected Joseph Lane from the ranks as their colonel. He soon after received from President Polk the appointment of brigadier general--an honor unsought and unexpected by him. Having accepted the appointment, we find him on the 24th of July, only two weeks after the receipt of his commission, at the Brazos, with his command (the three Indiana regiments) ready for active service. He immediately wrote to Gen. Taylor announcing his arrival, and asked that his troops might be permitted to engage at once in active service. This request not being complied with, he wrote on the 20th of August to Gen. Butler a communication in which he used these words: "I am certain you will do all in your power to place the whole of your command, of which this brigade is a part, in a position in which they can do honor to themselves and to render valuable services to the country. The apprehension among my troops is so great that the whole brigade will be left in the rear to garrison towns or to guard provisions and military stores, whilst the regular army and the volunteers already advanced on to Camargo will have the honor and the pleasure of being engaged in more active service, that I can do no less than to write to you in this urgent manner."
    From this and other letters of Gen. Lane, addressed to Generals Taylor and Butler, it will be seen how great was his anxiety for active service. He was, however, compelled to remain in a state of inactivity until the close of the year 1846, when he was ordered forward with his command to Monterey.
COMMANDANT AT SALTILLO.
    Being appointed commandant at Saltillo, he established a vigilant police to protect life and property, and built a strong fortification to defend the place against the threatened attack of Santa Anna. He also, by constant drilling of his troops, sought to impart to them the great possible efficiency. Shrinking from no labor or hardship himself, he taught his troops by his example how to endure with patience the privations and toils of a soldier's life. It is well known to all who served under his command that, throughout his military career, he initiated the example of the great Frederick of Prussia, visiting each picket guard nightly, not retiring until a late hour, and sometimes, when the danger was imminent, not at all. At Saltillo he was the first to learn and to communicate intelligence of the capture of Maj. Gaines' command. This information he was able to give by the aid of confidential spies whose services he secured by liberal pay out of his own means. It may be here remarked that throughout his career Gen. Lane has been remarkable for refusing to receive from government any reimbursement of sums of money advanced by him to facilitate the public service. No man engaged in the public service ever cost the government so little. Throughout the Mexican War he subsisted his troops at less cost than any others engaged in the same service. He made large captures of public property belonging to the enemy and surrendered to the government every dollar thus captured. He paid his own outfit when sent by President Polk as Governor of Oregon, and defrayed the expenses of himself and his escort through the whole route to that distant region. He refused compensation for expenses incurred by him in negotiating treaties with the Indians in Oregon. Elected Senator from that new state, he refused constructive mileage, to which under the law he was entitled. To this self-denying, self-sacrificing spirit must be ascribed, in a great degree, that wonderful success which has attended all his enterprises, and the unbounded confidence which all feel in the ardor and patriotism and in his incorruptible integrity.
    On the 22nd and 23rd of February, 1847, was fought the great battle of Buena Vista, which in nothing save the number of the combatants falls short of the most famous of modern times. The disposition of the American troops by the commanding general was such that, during the engagement, the brigade of Gen. Lane was in the hottest of the fight from the beginning to the end. The hostile operations of the opposing armies, resulting in the great battle of the 23rd, commenced on the heights around Buena Vista on the 22nd. On the afternoon of that day, the Mexican lines being sufficiently advanced, a shell thrown from a howitzer, by order of Santa Anna, was the signal for the attack. Immediately a heavy fire, in continued rolling volleys, was opened by the Mexican light troops under Ampudia upon the American skirmishers on the opposite ridge of the mountain. The Americans replied with spirit, and the firing was kept up with much animation on both sides, but without any definite result, until darkness put an end to the combat, and both parties retired to await a renewal of the strife on a more extended scale on the following day.
    On the morning of the 23rd the battle was renewed and raged with the greatest fury throughout the day. The first movement of Santa Anna was to turn the left flank of the Americans. Four companies, under Major Gorman, were dispatched by Gen. Lane to intercept this movement. Soon after, three companies of the 2nd Illinois, and three of Marshall's Kentucky regiment, were sent to Gorman's assistance. While these troops were engaged with the enemy on the brow of the mountain, a large body of Mexicans, six thousand strong, advanced to the plain, towards the position held by Gen. Lane. He immediately formed his little band, now reduced to 400 men, into line to receive the onset of this immense force. Hardly was this movement completed when the Mexicans opened a tremendous fire from their entire line, which was returned by the Americans with promptness and good effect. "Nothing," says an eyewitness, "could exceed the imposing and fearful appearance of the torrent of assailants which at this moment swept along towards the little band of Lane. The long lines of infantry presented a continued and unbroken sheet of fire. But their opponents, though few in number, were undismayed, and defended their position with a gallantry worthy of the highest praise. Several times I observed the Mexican lines, galled by the American musketry and shattered by the fearful discharges from O'Brien's battery, break and fall back, but their successive formations beyond the ridge enabled them to force the men back to their position and quickly replace those who were slain."
    Thus commenced the battle on the plain of Buena Vista on the morning of the 23rd, and [it] continued to rage with unabated fury and varying success to the close of that memorable and eventful day. In proportion to the violence and impetuosity of the assaults of the Mexicans on the American lines was the steady and unshaken firmness with which those assaults were received. If at any time a regiment, overcome by superior numbers, was compelled to give way, another quickly advanced to the rescue, drove back the enemy, and enabled it to regain its former position. In this way the Mexican general was kept at bay, his strength defied, his most skillful combinations and maneuvers baffled and defeated by his vigilant and active foe. Late in the afternoon, finding stratagem and force alike unavailing, the day drawing to a close, and no chasm yet opened for his legions in the ranks of the enemy, Santa Anna determined, by assailing the weakest part of the American line with an overwhelming force, to make a last desperate effort to win the day. Collecting all his infantry, he ordered them to charge the Illinois and Kentucky regiments. These brave troops made a gallant resistance against the fearful odds opposed to them, but, seeing their leaders fall, and overpowered by vastly superior numbers, they gave way and began to fall back. Gen. Lane, at this critical moment, hastened forward with his brigade and, opening a destructive fire upon the Mexicans, checked their advance and enabled the retreating regiments to form and return to the contest. This was Santa Anna's last struggle on that hotly contested and bloody field. Night spread her mantle over the scene of conflict. The weary Americans sank to repose on a gory bed, expecting a renewal of the strife on the following day. Morning came--but no enemy appeared. Silently during the night, Santa Anna with his shattered legions had retired, leaving the victorious Americans masters of the field.
    Gen. Lane remained encamped near the battlefield till June, when he was ordered to New Orleans with his brigade, which was there disbanded, their term of service having expired. After a short visit to his family he returned to the theater of war, and with a new brigade was dispatched by Gen. Taylor to Gen. Scott's line of operations. On the 13th of September 1847, he sailed from Brazos Santiago with his command for Vera Cruz, where he arrived on the 16th.
    On the 20th of that month he set out towards the City of Mexico with a force of about two thousand five hundred men, consisting of one regiment of Indiana and one of Ohio volunteers, two battalions of recruits, five small companies of volunteer horse, and two pieces of artillery. This force was subsequently augmented at Jalapa by a junction with Maj. Lally's column of one thousand men, and at Perote its strength was further increased by a company of mounted riflemen and two of volunteer infantry, besides two pieces of artillery. Several small guerrilla parties appeared at different times on the route and attacked the advance and rear guards, but were quickly repulsed, and the column continued its advance unmolested along the great road leading through Puebla to the City of Mexico.
    At this time Col. Childs, of the regular army, with a garrison of five hundred effective troops and one thousand eight hundred invalids, was besieged in Puebla by a large force of Mexicans commanded by Santa Anna in person. This general, notwithstanding his many defeats, with a spirit unbroken by misfortune and an energy that deserves our highest admiration, however much we may reprobate the cause in which he was engaged, had collected the remnant of his beaten army, determined if possible to wrest Puebla from the grasp of the American general, Scott, and thus cut off his communications with the seacoast. The gallant Childs well understood that the maintenance of this post was of the utmost importance to the success of the campaign. Every officer and soldier under his command seemed also to comprehend the immensity of the stake, and both officers and soldiers exhibited the loftiest heroism and the most unyielding fortitude in meeting the dangers and enduring the fatigues and privations of a protracted siege. Aware that a strong column under Gen. Lane was marching from Vera Cruz to their relief, the great object to be gained by the garrison was time. Santa Anna, also aware of Gen. Lane's approach, redoubled his exertions to carry the place by storm, superintending the operations of the troops in person, directing the guns to such parts of the defenses as appeared most vulnerable, and watching with intense anxiety the effect of every shot. Convinced at length by the obstinate resistance of the besieged, and the lessening distance between him and his advancing dreaded foe, that he must abandon his position and encounter the "Marion of the War" in an open field, he silently and cautiously withdrew, and with the main body of his troops moved in the direction of Huamantla, intending when Gen. Lane had passed that point to make attack upon his rear, while another strong force should assail him at the same time from the direction of Puebla. Gen. Lane, being informed of Santa Anna's movements, at once penetrated his designs. With the promptness of decision displayed in all his military operations, he divided his force, leaving the Ohio volunteers and a battalion of recruits, with two field guns to guard the wagon trains. With the remainder of his column he marched, by a route diverging from the main road, directly towards Huamantla.
    On the morning of the 9th of October the people of Huamantla were startled and dismayed to behold the formidable and glittering array spread out over the neighboring hills. White flags were immediately hung out in token of submission, and the place seemed to have surrendered without a blow from its panic-stricken inhabitants. But suddenly the advance guard, under Capt. Walker, having entered the town, was assailed on every side by volleys of musketry. He immediately ordered a charge upon a body of 500 lancers, stationed with two pieces of artillery in the plaza. A furious and deadly combat ensued. Gen. Lane, advancing at the head of his column, encountered the heavy reinforcement ordered up by Santa Anna, who had now arrived.*
    *For many paragraphs in this sketch we are indebted to Jere Clemens, whose facile pen and glowing fancy have adorned every subject they have touched. He places this language in the mouth of a Texas Ranger who addresses himself to a Mexican prisoner on the way to Gen. Lane's camp:
    "Make yourself easy, lieutenant, 'Old Lane' is as clever a fellow as ever trod shoe leather, and though I don't know what he wants with you, I'm dead sure he'll treat you according to Gunter. A fellow that's tied and gagged must feel mighty uncomfortable, I know, but you ain't the first one that ever was fixed that way, when no great harm was meant to him. The old general has got a soft heart in that rough carcass of his, and it's seldom he's hard on anything but a thief or a coward."
    If any evidence were wanting as to Gen. Lane's genius, skill and daring as a soldier, it would be found in the fact that the most accomplished scholar and writer of our day, Jere Clemens, has made the hero of his splendid story, Bernard Lile, a friend and follower of Gen. Lane throughout the Mexican War. The conduct and career of no other general officer furnished facts on which to rest so delightful a fabric of fancy and fiction.
    When the Mexican general drew out his force into the plain before Huamantla, he found himself suddenly confronted by the American troops. Confessedly unable to cope with his enemy on an equal field, he labored under the additional advantage of being forced into a battle under circumstances amounting to a complete surprise. In such a contest victory could not be a moment doubtful. He was quickly beaten at all points and forced to take refuge in the mountains. Now came the hour of retribution for the treacherous city. The sacred emblem of peace [the white flag] had been stained with blood, and the usages of all wars gave up the offenders as "prey to the spoiler." It is fearful to see a soldiery fevered with victory turned loose to pillage and to slay. Then, and then only, the red demon of war is clothed in all its horrors. Vengeance, lust, hate and rapine walk abroad unrestrained, and the air is tortured with a mingled discord of horrible sounds that might shame the builders of Babel into silence. The dull grating noise of the sharp steel, as it bites through skull and brain--the vengeful shout of the slayer--the despairing shriek of the agonized victim--the clatter of muskets and pickaxes--the crash of falling doors and windows--the ringing shot and muttered curse, are fit accompaniments to deeds the furies might look upon and envy.
    All day, through that fair city, the work went on. All day the fierce license of the soldiery was unrestrained, and yell and groan and prayer and curse--the death shot--the shriek of the virgin and the wail of the infant rose mingling up to heaven. The sun went down, and now the wild notes of a solitary bugle pealed shrill and clear upon the air. Then from each regiment, battalion and corps the hoarse drum sent forth its summons. The blood hounds were called from their prey. The lawless passions of the hour before were stilled at the stern mandates of an iron discipline. The feast of death was at an end. The last mellow tints of the golden sunset melted from the sky; star after star came forth, and it was night at Huamantla. A night of strange and fearful contrasts; of beauty, and of desolation. Without the walls, thousands of homeless wretches--old men, women and children--were shivering in the night air, while near at hand a horde of hungry wolves were feasting on the dead bodies of the slain. The savage growl of the ferocious animals mingled horribly with the low groans of the wounded. At intervals a sharp cry of agony would rise above all other sounds as a ravenous beast fastened its fangs upon some unfortunate being in whom the vital spark was not yet entirely extinct. Within the walls whole streets were literally macadamized with broken glass, china and gilded porcelain. The costliest furniture, shivered to pieces, was scattered everywhere around, and groups of soldiers were cooking their suppers or washing off the stains of carnage by the light of fires fed with mahogany and rosewood which had adorned palaces that morning. Here and there a smoldering mass of ashes, a blackened wall, or a smoking rafter marked where a stately mansion once stood, and a happy family gathered about the hearthstone. In other quarters, the red glare of still-burning houses revealed, with horrid distinctness, the mangled bodies of the dead and shed a sickening light upon the dark pools of blood that dotted the ground. Occasionally a faithful dog would crawl out from his hiding place and, smelling around the dead carcass of his dead master, send up a long and mournful howl, but beyond this, no living thing was moving in Huamantla, save the fierce soldiers who had made it a desert.
    So passed the first hours of the night. Again that solitary bugle sounds its piercing signal, and from each separate command the beat of the "tattoo" proclaims that it is the hour of silence and of rest. Strange power of discipline! There was not one coward in all that host. Not one, who, under the eyes of his comrades, would not have moved on certain destruction with an unfaltering step. Not one who would have obeyed the order of a monarch on his throne. Not one who had not that day done deeds at the bare recital of which the blood run cold. Yet there was a spell in the mandates of that stirring music that bent every feeling to instant obedience. Its last notes had scarcely died away before every sound was hushed and every soldier had thrown himself upon the soft couch the day's plunder had procured. With his hands dyed red with blood--among the homes he had desolated--in the very midst of the ruins he had wrought, he laid himself down to dream of his own peaceful home. He who had that day made widows and orphans by the score murmured a blessing upon his own wife and little ones far away in his native land, and his last waking thoughts were the joy and gladness his return would impart.
    Slumber spread its mantle over the conquerors. The armed tread of the sentry, ringing on the stone pavement or crashing sharply as it crushed to atoms some costly article of luxury, alone broke the stillness of the night. And now from the garret and cellar, and secret hiding place, stole forth the frightened citizens who had escaped the day's violence, vainly hoping, under cover of darkness, to escape beyond the walls and join their countrymen in the mountains. Along the dark alleys, close in the shadows of the houses, over the dead bodies of their kindred, through puddles of blood, slowly and painfully they crawled along. At each opening the clear starlight revealed the form of a sentry on his post, and the startled fugitives shrank back to try another, and another avenue, and be again and again disappointed. Poor fools! You cannot pass that Argus line, nor would it profit you to do so. You would only escape from the company of the dead, whose own woes leave no room for sympathy with yours. Be still and you are safe. No one will harm you now. The fever in the blood of the victors has subsided, and the most pitiless of that host would share with you the contents of his haversack, or cover you with his blanket. With the first light of the morning, the American general was on his march.
    This was the last field on which Santa Anna appeared in arms against the United States. This remarkable man, universally acknowledged to be an able and active, was never a successful commander. Whether this want of success is to be ascribed to the superior generalship of the leaders, and prowess of the troops opposed to him, or to his own instability of purpose in the very crisis of battle, when vigor and decision are most required, we will not stop to inquire. Having, during the progress of the war, collected several large armies and led them to defeat, he had determined with that which remained to him to make a last effort to retrieve his fortunes, and Huamantla was selected as the Waterloo where his waning star should shine out in cloudless effulgence or sink to rise no more. If he did not encounter a Wellington on that field, he encountered one who, with Wellington's courage, united many of the higher qualities of a military commander. Perhaps he relied upon Gen. Lane's want of experience, but the courage and conduct of the latter at Buena Vista should have admonished him of the hopelessness of a contest in an open and equal field with such an officer, at the head of troops comparatively fresh, in high spirits, with full confidence in the skill and courage of their leader, and burning to rival the heroic deeds of their countrymen at Chapultepec and Cerro Gordo. Although Santa Anna from this time withdrew from an active participation in the contest between the belligerent nations, the bloody drama in which he had played so conspicuous a part was not yet closed. Much remained to be done to complete the conquest so auspiciously begun on the banks of the Rio Grande, and prosecuted with such vigor by Scott in the valley of Mexico. Many bloody fields were yet to be won; many desperate bands of guerrillas yet to be defeated and dispersed, to render the subjugation of the country complete.
GEN. LANE AT THE CITY OF MEXICO.
    An anecdote is related of Gen. Lane, at the City of Mexico, which strikingly illustrates his republican simplicity. The rich merchants of Mexico live in a style of princely magnificence to which there is no parallel in the United States. Gen. Lane had his quarters assigned him at the home of one of these "merchant princes." The suite of apartments to which he was introduced was gorgeously furnished. The General, on taking possession, looked around, and turning to his interpreter said that all these articles must be removed. The Mexican proprietor inquired if he wished them replaced by others more costly. "No," said Gen. Lane, "they are already too fine. Remove your mirrors, couches, ottomans and damask curtains and silk coverlets; let me have my own camp bed and covering, and I can rest as becomes an American soldier." His host, surprised at the contrast between Mexican and American generals, obeyed his orders and had his rooms more plainly furnished. With his family he remained during his stay in the city, and became much endeared to them. The lionhearted soldier was often seen in his hours of leisure lying at length on the carpet with the then-little daughter of his host in playful sport about him. In connection with this incident it may be mentioned, as the experience of those about him, that throughout his campaigns Gen. Lane was noted for the republican simplicity of his mode of life and purity of morals.
ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE SANTA ANNA.
    While awaiting orders at the City of Mexico, Gen. Lane asked and obtained leave to take some mounted men and scour the country from the city to Vera Cruz, to put an end, if possible, to the depredations of guerrillas who had succeeded in capturing a large amount of property. The great object of his expedition was the capture of Santa Anna, who was at that time at Tehuacan with five hundred men as a guard. The expedition was well conceived and admirably executed. Traveling at night, so as to elude observation, Lane, with his command, consisting of three hundred men, rapidly traversed two hundred miles and arrived within forty miles of Tehuacan at a hacienda near Santa Clara, where all the Mexicans were seized to prevent their giving the alarm. Unfortunately, Gen. Smith had given a passport to a Mexican, a paper which Gen. Lane was bound to respect, and this Mexican, being permitted to pass, doubtless conveyed intelligence to Santa Anna of the impending danger. Lane hastened forward to Tehuacan, but the bird had flown. He, however, seized all Santa Anna's military property. Among other trophies was that chieftain's wooden leg. So closely pressed had the Mexican general been that he was compelled to leave behind him this important adjunct of his person. The rich plate and furniture, and a great variety of the most costly clothing which fell into the American general's hands, were turned over by him to the alcalde of the place. While he replenished the coffers of his country by the capture of public property to an extent unparalleled, he never failed to respect the private property of individuals, and by example and precept he inspired the troops under his command with the same feeling. The only exception to this rule was in not including the wooden leg of Santa Anna among the articles surrendered to the alcalde. This being a part of Santa Anna's person, he treated [it] not as private property, but rather in the light of a dismembered prisoner of war.
    The Mexican army, beaten before Huamantla, was too much disorganized to be again reassembled. It was scattered to the four winds of heaven. A considerable detachment having taken refuge in Atlixco, General Lane resolved, if possible, to surprise it, or failing in that, at least to capture the munitions and supplies there collected. It was near sunset when, after a long and fatiguing march, his column appeared in sight of the town. The hurried ringing of bells, and other notes of preparations, indicated that a desperate resistance was contemplated. Ignorant of the nature of the defenses, and willing moreover to give his wearied army the repose they so much needed, the American general determined to delay the assault till the following day. Disposing his little force in such a manner as to command the approaches by the main roads, the men were ordered to lie down upon their arms and await the reappearance of daylight. In the meantime the citizens were in a state of the most dreadful apprehension. Believing from the disposition of the American army, and the known character of its commander, that a night assault was intended, sleep fled from their eyelids, and hurrying feet and moaning cries gave token of the wild disorder within. The garrison exhibited a weakness almost as abject. Afraid even to trust a patrolling party beyond the walls, they resorted to the expedient of throwing out fireballs at brief intervals to light up the space around them and enable them to detect an approaching foe. The invaders did not fail to notice these evidences of unmanly fear, and augured rightly that the morrow's work would be a light one.
    The Mexicans had kept up the amusement of throwing out fireballs upon the plain until near midnight; by that time the little courage they possessed had completely oozed out. First, one or two at a time, then larger groups slunk off along the narrow sheep paths and made their way into the country. At daybreak not a soldier remained in the town. Without firing a gun, General Lane marched in and took possession of the public property they were too much terrified to destroy. Affairs had by this time assumed such a shape in the valley of Mexico as to remove all immediate necessity for additional troops, and Gen. Scott ordered Gen. Lane to assume the governorship of the department of Puebla and establish his headquarters in that city of mobs and pronunciamentos.
    The seventeenth of February, eighteen hundred and forty-eight, was a stirring day in the City of Mexico. For some time rumors had been afloat that the general-in-chief was about sending an expedition upon some secret service, the nature of which none knew, but the character of the officer to whom the command was assigned gave assurance of new dangers to be encountered and new honors to be won. In a large army, a report of the kind never fails to excite the liveliest emotions. Situated as the American forces then were, these emotions acquired a degree of intensity seldom equalled. The hardy veterans, who had waded through fire and blood to the capital of Mexico, wearied with a "dull repose," were burning for new opportunities to wear the laurels of war, while their less fortunate countrymen, who had been denied participation in the great battles of the preceding campaign, were hurrying from the Sociedad to Paoli's and from Paoli's to Laurent's, vainly endeavoring to ascertain if at last there was "a chance" for them.
    On the morning of the 17th, it was made known that the detachment was to consist of the Rangers, under Col. Hays, part of the Third Dragoons, and one company of mounted rifles, under Maj. Polk, and a few officers from different corps, who had obtained leave to join the expedition as volunteers, Gen. Lane having the chief command. There is less of selfishness in the character of the American soldier than in that of any other living thing. Those who expected to be detailed for the service, and were disappointed, naturally gave vent to their feelings in a few deep and bitter curses, but the next impulse was to hurry up and congratulate their fellow soldiers. In giving and receiving these congratulations, together with the cordial interchange of friendly sentiments, the time passed gaily enough till the hour of parting arrived. Then came clustering memories of hardships and perils encountered together, of kind words spoken, and of good deeds performed through all the changeful drama of a soldier's life. Hands, joined they might be for the last time, lingered in each other's clasp. Bold hearts felt an inward sinking, and cheeks were blanched that had never paled at the cannon's flash, as injunction after injunction was laid upon those who remained, to send this or that article to a mother, or a sister, or a wife, if the chances of battle should cut off its owners, and his body be left to moulder beneath a foreign soil.
    The parting cup was pledged, and many a fervent "God bless you" mingled with the bugle notes that sounded the "advance." The gallant troops filed into the street leading into the "great causeway" through the garita of El Piñon, and were soon lost to view. For the purpose of deceiving the Mexican spies, or at least leaving them in total uncertainty as to his intended route, Gen. Lane moved steadily along the road to Vera Cruz as far as the hacienda of San Felipe. Returning upon his footsteps during the night, he made a dash to the right, hoping by forced marches to surprise the town of Tulancingo, at which place Paredes, Almente and Padre Jarauta were then understood to be arranging some plan of operations against the American forces. Early on the morning of the 22nd he entered the town without resistance, the enemy having by some means obtained information of his approach, and hurriedly evacuated the place. The bed in which Paredes had slept was still warm, but the bird had flown. Allowing a brief rest to recruit his men and horses, the indefatigable partisan was in the saddle on the night of the 23rd moving with his accustomed celerity on Zacualtiplan, a town to the northward of Tulancingo, whither Padre Jarauta with his force of lancers had retired. A night march over a mountainous country is decidedly the most distasteful duty in a soldier's career. The light laugh and the free jest, or the gay notes of a joyous song, which rob the day of a portion of its fatigues, are all wanting now. Everything catches from the night its somber hues, and the muttered imprecation, as a clumsy horse tumbles to his knees, or a hanging branch scratches unexpectedly across the face, is almost the only sound that breaks the stern silence of the riders. Darkly through that wild region toiled on the warriors of the States, now clambering the rough sides of a lofty mountain, now skirting the edge of a dark chasm, where one misstep would plunge horse and rider into an abyss of unknown depth, now recoiling from the brink of a deep barranca which the darkness had hidden from view, and painfully searching for a crossing place among stones, brush and thorny cactus; now sliding down a sharp descent and anon moving at a quick trot along a level space, the curses of the troops and the snorting of the frightened horses giving place to the jingling noise of the steel scabbard striking against spur and stirrup. In the midst of such impediments and discomforts slowly wore away the night. At daybreak the General seized upon a mountain hacienda and, placing strict guard over every inmate of the establishment to prevent them from spreading a report of his movements, gave the order for rest and refreshment. With the night the toilsome march was resumed, over a country even more wild and rugged than that they had already crossed with so much labor and peril, but obstacles to men like them are only incentives to greater exertion, and when the light streaks of dawn began to appear in the east on the morning of the 25th, they were in full view of the town. It had never entered the head of Jarauta that so small a force would venture so far in the interior, over roads impracticable for artillery. His lancers were for the most part unarmed and watering their horses in the little stream near the town when Gen. Lane came in sight. The alarm soon spread, and preparations were rapidly made to receive the adventurous Americans. Entering at a gallop at the head of his command the General was saluted by a heavy fire from a cuartel on the right, which proclaimed that the famous guerrilla chief, though surprised and taken at advantage, was determined to dispute the ground with his usual desperate courage. Detaching a company of Rangers to engage and destroy this outpost, the General passed on, side by side with the daring Hays, into the heart of the town. From the housetops, from the doors and windows on each side of the street, a storm of bullets was poured upon them. Returning the fire of the Mexicans only by an occasional shot when some eager assailant incautiously exposed his person, the Americans pushed forward with unabated rapidity for the main plaza. Here they were encountered by a body of lancers under Jarauta in person, but as well might a feeble barrier of sand be expected to stay the mighty Mississippi. On went the Rangers, neither sword nor lance in the right hand, but lieu thereof the terrible revolver, ready poised for its bloody work. A little nearer, and without a word of command, without a signal save the example of their leader, they poured in their deadly fire and, with a wild shout, burst with irresistible fury on the Mexican ranks. Down went horse and rider--down went lance and guidon. Like a tempest, the men of the States swept over them, and the gay uniforms of the lancers, their red bonnets and gaudy plumes, carpeted the stone pavements of the plaza. For the success of this charge Gen. Lane and Col. Hays had relied on the bone and muscle of their horses even more than the dauntless intrepidity of their men. The enemy once broken and scattered, the battle became a succession of single combats in which man after man went down before the fire of the revolvers with appalling rapidity. Not a single lancer was unharmed. Jarauta himself was twice wounded and, finally, after doing all that courage and conduct could effect, made his escape almost by a miracle.
    In the meantime Major Polk was not idle. Dismounting his rifles, he entrusted to them the duty of storming a cuartel where a party of the enemy were quartered, and charging himself with the remainder of his command along the street beyond the plaza, encountered and cut to pieces a body of the enemy in that direction. Here the sharp saber did its silent work, and the track of the dragoons could be distinctly traced by the mangled bodies that lined the way. At one place a lancer, cloven through bonnet and skull, cumbered into the street--close by him was stretched a comrade with his head nearly severed from his body, and the blood gushing in dark torrents from the veins and artery through which the keen blade had glided. A little further on, a horse cut down by a saber stroke was gasping his life away, while his master was groaning in concert from a ghastly wound passing through breast to back. Along the whole street the fierce horsemen had left blood tokens of their presence. In another part of the town four or five others were slowly driving before them a Mexican force of more than ten times their number. These were old Rangers of the prairie and mountain, to whom a deadly conflict was an everyday occurrence, and whose perfect coolness enabled them to take advantage of every post, stone and door facing. Armed with revolvers they had a fearful advantage in the narrow street over the escopetas of the foe, and fearfully did they use it. Thirty-one Mexicans, killed or wounded, attested the fatal accuracy and efficiency of their weapons. Pressing the enemy into a yard surrounded by a high stone wall, and entering with them, with the daring confidence of men who had tried each other in a thousand scenes of carnage, steadily and coolly they gathered in the harvest of death. The enclosure proved to be the stable yard of a posada in which were piled up large stacks of straw for the use of the muleteers of that mountain region. Both parties sought to avail themselves of the protection these stacks afforded, and the consequence was that the combustible material was soon ignited by the flashes of the firearms. In the midst of the fierce conflict a posada took fire. Rapidly the flames were communicated to the thatched roofs of the adjoining buildings. The most dreaded of the elements had come to the aid of man in his work of destruction, and vast volumes of flame leaping over alleys and streets rolled on from house to house. Women and children lost their terror of the Americans before this new and remorseless enemy, and throwing open their doors and windows rushed wildly into the streets. The mother with her babe clasped to her breast, the young girl with her long hair floating over neck and shoulders, the little child bareheaded and its feet dabbled in blood, it might be that of a father--with shrieks and tears and prayers for mercy fled before the devouring element. Silently the stern warriors to whom death was a plaything gave way before the distracted throng. Silently they let the helpless human tide pass on to seek shelter in the neighboring haciendas. All felt that any offer of protection, or any effort at consolation, would be a mockery, but many a heart unused to pity swelled to the very throat, and many a bloody hand instinctively put away the weapons of war as the piteous crowd swept by.
    The business of the day was over--Jarauta's band were dead or captive, and Zacualtiplan fast crumbling into ashes. Collecting his scattered troops in the main plaza, around which the stone buildings with their tiled roofs were impervious to fire, Gen. Lane made his dispositions for a day of repose. The town burned on--heavy mases of smoke hung in dark clouds above--the dying and the dead were around, but amid all the soldier threw his tired limbs upon his bed of blankets, and slumber, sweeter than an infant's in its cradle, chased away all memory of the carnage and the strife--all thought of the living wretches whose homes were ashes.
CLOSE OF THE WAR.
    The combat at Tehualtaplan was the last scene in the bloody drama known in our history as the "Mexican War." Peace was soon after declared, and the American soldiers retired from the land of the Aztec, which for three years had been the theater of an unbroken series of the most brilliant triumphs and achievements, unmarked by an act of cruelty [!], and yet more brilliant than those of Cortez and Pizarro. No one had repaired to the theater of war with greater alacrity than Gen. Lane, and none returned with greater joy to the bosom of his family. "I left my plow," said he, "to take the sword with a thrill of pleasure, for my country called me. I now go home to resume the plow with as sincere joy." This sentiment, spoken with the sincerity of an honest heart, is the language of one who, having participated in the triumphs of his country's arms, returned like the Roman Cincinnatus and our own Washington to share with his comrades in arms the glory, and together enjoy the peace their valor had won.
APPOINTED GOVERNOR OF OREGON.
    A very brief repose was granted Gen. Lane after his return from Mexico. On the 1st of August he arrived at home; on the 28th he received from President Polk the appointment of Governor of Oregon.
    His journey to that distant region, performed mostly in the severest part of winter, is perhaps the most remarkable portion of his remarkable career. Probably no other man would have undertaken or could have accomplished an enterprise attended with so many perils under circumstances so unfavorable to his success. But President Polk had requested that he would proceed to his destination without delay, and he determined to brave every obstacle and danger in executing the President's wishes. A great object with the President was to put the Territorial government of Oregon in operation before the expiration of his term of office. This could not be effected if the Governor delayed his departure till the following spring.
    Arriving at St. Louis, General Lane applied to Gen. Kearny for an escort of troops, ordered by the President. Gen. Kearny represented to him the impossibility of performing the journey across the plains and mountains at that advanced season of the year. He, however, finding all remonstrance and persuasion in vain, gave him an order on the officer in command at Fort Leavenworth for the required escort. Arriving at Fort Leavenworth he found the officers and men of the detachment ordered to accompany him very unwilling to engage in an enterprise so hazardous, if not impracticable. He succeeded, however, in finding twenty-two men willing to go. With these he set out on the 10th September, 1848, from Fort Leavenworth on his perilous journey.
    The trip across the plains and mountains to the Pacific, though comparatively easily and safely performed in summer, is attended with much hazard and privation in winter, so great indeed that some of the most daring and skillful explorers and hunters, known as "old mountaineers," have perished in snowstorms or died of hunger and exhaustion. All remember the thrilling narrative of the suffering and death of most of Fremont's party during the same winter that Gen. Lane performed the journey to Oregon.
    On reaching the Rio Grande, Gov. Lane and his guide differed in regard to the route to be taken, the guide insisting on keeping the old route, while Lane urged the propriety of turning southward. The guide adhering tenaciously to his opinion and Lane with equal tenacity to his, they separated, the former returning to Fort Leavenworth, while the Governor set forward to pilot himself to Oregon! He accomplished this undertaking, which could never have been done if he had followed the advice of his guide. Following the old route he and his party would inevitably have perished. On the route selected by him, though better than the other, the hardships were almost beyond human endurance. At the Gila River some of his men, completely discouraged, deserted and killed two others--the most active and efficient of his party--who were sent to bring them back. Soon after six more deserted. With the remainder he made his way to San Francisco, whence he was conveyed in a government transport to Oregon.
    From a sketch of his administration of the affairs of Oregon, as Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, published in 1852, we select the following passages:
    "On his arrival in Oregon Lane found no organized government; the provisional one had ceased its functions; Indian affairs were in a troubled condition--our troops having been disbanded without effecting anything; the missionary Whitman and his family had been murdered by the Cayuses, and the murderers not yet punished; on the whole, it was apparent that Gov. Lane's arrival was most opportune here, as it had been at Vera Cruz.
    "His first care was to set the government in motion. He immediately ordered the census, preparatory to the election of a legislature. He quickly perceived the necessity of quieting the Indian tribes, in order to secure the prosperity of Oregon. Accordingly, in the middle of April, he left Oregon City to proceed to the Cayuse country, four hundred miles distant, to arrest the murderers of Whitman. Not being able to procure the assistance of troops, he went on this mission accompanied only by an interpreter and Dr. Newell. Arrived there, he represented to the chief that he came alone, for the purpose of showing his friendship, for he wished to owe the surrender of the murderers to the chief's sense of justice, and not to his fears; that the murderers must be given up if the Cayuse nation wished peace; that he had the kindest feelings for the nation and desired to live in peace with them and benefit them, but this would be impossible while the murderers lived; that retaining them showed that the Cayuses defended the act of those lawless men and would be so construed by the whites. A great impression was made on the chief, who asked time to consider. The Governor left him with the assurance that he had only the alternative of war with its utmost penalties, or the surrender of the criminals. On his route he had taken occasion to visit the Walla Wallas, the Yakimas, the Dalles and Columbia Indians, with all of whom he made peace, besides stopping a bloody war then raging between the first two nations, by such representations as would operate on the minds of the untutored wild man of the wood."
    The chief of the Cayuses manifested great reluctance to give up the murderers of Whitman. By superior address, however, the Governor, having secured the friendship of the Nez Perces, brought their influence to bear on the Cayuses. At length, without war or bloodshed, his object was attained; the criminals were arrested and confined and a message was sent to Gov. Lane to come or send for them. With an escort of only ten men he again went among the Cayuses and brought the murderers (five in number) to Oregon City. There being no suitable jail, they were confined in a house on Governor's Island. The citizens, being greatly exasperated against these Indians and fearing they might escape, demanded that they should be given up for immediate punishment. Lane peremptorily refused; they were his prisoners, he said. He had pledged his word to the tribe that they should have a fair trial. Finding expostulation with the exasperated people useless, he at last told them that they could take the Indians only by passing over his lifeless body. This firm stand stopped further proceedings, and the Indians were left in the hands of the law.
    In negotiating treaties and holding "talks" with the Indians Gov. Lane usually went unaccompanied by any military escort. He thus acquired, in a brief period, an almost unbounded influence over them. While he inspired them with the most profound admiration of his courage, he impressed them with a deep sense of his justice. He was as prompt to repress the aggressions of the whites as to punish offenses committed by the Indians. On one occasion, when some lawless whites had robbed the Columbia Indians of several horses, he left Oregon City alone, overtook the plunderers, brought back the booty and restored it to the Indians.
    There is on the files of the Department of the Interior at Washington a long communication from Gen. Lane, giving in detail his operations as Governor [and] ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and containing a full account of the Indian tribes in Oregon, their number, character and mode of life. It affords abundant proof of his energy, activity and research. He describes no less than fifty different tribes. Prof. Schoolcraft said of this report that it was the only accurate account of the Oregon Indians, and he should use it among the materials of his work on the Indians of North America.
THE ROGUE RIVER INDIANS.
    Among the most fierce, warlike and predatory tribes in Oregon are the Shastas, or Rogue River Indians. By his courage and prudence, Gov. Lane had restored friendly relations between the whites and all the tribes in Oregon except this. In the early part of the year 1850 they had committed depredations which called for decided action on his part. Accordingly, on the 27th of July he set out with fifteen men to visit the tribe. So great was their animosity against the whites that he succeeded with difficulty in assembling them for a "talk." This, however, he at last effected. They met on the banks of a river--the whites, fifteen in number, the Indians, four or five hundred, all warriors. During the "talk," one of the white men recognized two horses which had been stolen from him, in possession of the Indians, and two pistols, then in the belts of the chiefs. The fact being made known to the Governor, he demanded restitution of the stolen property, telling them they now had an opportunity of evincing a friendly disposition to the whites by restoring to them their property; that he would regard a restitution of this property an evidence on their part of a willingness to treat and preserve peace. The head chief ordered the possessors of the stolen goods to make restitution, but they demurred; the Governor stepped forward, took one of the pistols from the Indian's belt and restored it to the owner, and was about to take the other when the Indian having it in possession presented his gun and raised the war-whoop. Instantly, five hundred guns and arrows were pointed at the small party of whites. A single false step would have led to bloodshed then and afterwards. But Lane's cool decision and promptness did not forsake him at this critical moment. He has often said, in reference to this affair, that small as was his party, such was their superiority of weapons and skill in the use of them [that] they might have made a successful defense. But his object was to make a peace, not to fight. Promptly stepping to the side of the principal chief, pistol in hand, he told them if a drop of the blood of any of the whites should be shed, it would be avenged by the destruction of the whole tribe. The cool determination of his manner, the fierce emphasis with which he spoke, caused the chief to quail. He was conquered. He was under the spell of that bright burning eye under whose lightning flashes others as fierce and brave as he had quailed before. He ordered his warriors to retire across the river. The Governor advanced among them, took the arrows from the bows and returned them to the quivers, and uncocked their guns and knocked the priming from the pans. The Indians retired as they were ordered by the chief, he himself remaining with the Governor during the night. A few days afterwards the tribe was reassembled, a "big talk" was held, a treaty of peace concluded, and presents distributed. So great was the admiration formed by the head chief for the "great tyee," as he called Lane, that from that day he would allow himself to be called by no other name than "Joe." He also requested the Governor to take his eldest son as a hostage and educate him to be a "great tyee" among the Indians, as he, Lane, was among the whites. Lane took the boy, as requested, and placed him at school at his own expense.
ELECTED DELEGATE TO CONGRESS.
    As long as Lane remained Governor of Oregon that infant Territory made unprecedented progress in wealth and population. At first a few sparse settlements, surrounded on all sides by hostile tribes of Indians, they had increased rapidly in number and in a much greater degree in the means of defending themselves against the inroads of their dangerous neighbors. They were inspired with confidence by the example and conduct of their Governor; they felt that his name was a tower of strength. Already, by his firmness and prudence, had peace been restored in all parts of the Territory. The most warlike and dangerous tribes had been won by the wisdom of his diplomacy, or awed into submission by the terror of his name. There can be no doubt that if he had remained Governor the peaceable relations between the two races would have continued uninterruptedly to exist. But this boon was denied the people of Oregon. In 1849 Gen. Taylor became President of the United States, and he saw fit to replace Lane and appoint Maj. Gaines Governor. The latter, though appointed October 2, 1849, did not reach Oregon till August, 1850, at which time he assumed the reins of government.
    The people of Oregon, indignant at the removal of Lane, at once manifested their feelings and opinions and rebuked the Administration which had perpetrated against them so great a wrong. They chose Lane their delegate to Congress and, to their honor be it spoken, continued him in that position until, by the admission of Oregon as a state, they had an opportunity of elevating him to a still higher post.
BATTLE OF TABLE ROCK.
    The deep impression made upon the Indians by the administration of Lane, during the time he filled the office of Governor, remained uneffaced for years. But for some cause which they could not be made to comprehend, he was no longer the "big chief"; that he had gone to the East, and though he would return at intervals, he would be "big chief" no more. Gradually the impression made upon their minds wore away; the treaties negotiated by him were not held in the same respect as when he was at the head of affairs. Other men were in power whom they neither admired nor feared. The seeds of dissension were sowed by mischievous persons between the two races; acts of aggression and retaliation were committed, until in 1853 the Rogue River tribe rose upon the whites and commenced an indiscriminate slaughter. This happened during the recess of Congress, and Gen. Lane was at that time at home, within eighty miles of the scene of the outbreak. The news was brought him at midnight. In an hour he was in his saddle, and before the morning sun arose he was several miles on his way to meet the enemy. Collecting, as he went, a small body of settlers, miners and a few regular troops stationed at a fort near Jacksonville, he came up with the enemy, several hundred strong, near Table Rock. As in all former conflicts in which he had been engaged, in this also he led the assault and commanded his men to "follow." They were received with a murderous fire, which might have appalled hearts less brave than theirs. Capt. Alden, of the regulars, was shot through the head [his wound was lower than that]; Capt. Armstrong, a gallant soldier, a Tennessean by birth and long a resident of Oregon, was shot dead, exclaiming as he put his hand to his heart "a center shot." Gen. Lane himself was severely wounded in the arm. Tying his handkerchief tightly around his arm to stop the flow of blood, he urged his men forward to a final and desperate charge. Animated by the example and inspired with the courage of their leader, they rushed forward with irresistible impetuosity. The Indians slowly gave way, and then fled in the wildest confusion and dismay.
    Disheartened by their severe loss in this engagement, but more so by the indomitable courage and fierce energy of the whites, the Indian chief sent to ascertain who was in command. They were told it was Jo. Lane. They replied they had not come there to fight him; he was "big chief"; they "come to fight little chiefs." They asked that he would visit their camp and have a "talk" with them. To this he assented, and in spite of the remonstrance of his men, went alone to their camp. They told him they had been wronged by the whites, but now that he was "big chief" again he would redress their wrongs; that if they had known he had returned they would have appealed to him and not taken up arms. He showed them wherein they had committed wrongs and aggressions upon the whites, but promised to pardon their offenses if they would move upon a reservation assigned them by government and not disturb the whites again. They acceded to the terms proposed, and a treaty was made which secured peace to the Territory, until the inhabitants of Oregon and of Washington Territories also became involved in a general war with the savages in 1855 and 1856--a war, it is believed, which would never have occurred had Gen. Lane remained Governor four consecutive years from the date of his appointment.
    It impossible, within the limited space allotted to this sketch, to present a detailed account of all Gen. Lane's military operations at this period. In authentic histories of the war and official documents filed in the archives of government, the reader will find the record of his achievements--his long and toilsome marches by night and by day over a wild and rugged country, full of narrow defiles and dangerous passes; his sudden incursions far away into remote valley and plain; his fierce combats and glorious victories. At Tlaxcala, Matamoros, Galaxa, Tulancingo, as at Huamantla and Atlixco, Mexican valor yielded to the force of his impetuous and well-directed assaults. On every field the ranks of the enemy went down before the thundering charge of his cavalry, the fierce onset of his resistless infantry. The fame of his achievements soon spread through Mexico, and the terror with which the enemy was inspired by his death-dealing blows and almost ubiquitous presence was equaled only by the unbounded confidence and enthusiasm infused into his followers by his gallant bearing, and the prestige of a name ever relied on by them as a sure guarantee of victory. For one quality as much as any other, perhaps more than even his dauntless courage, General Lane was distinguished throughout the war--humanity to the vanquished. His bright fame was unsullied, his escutcheon untarnished by a single act of wanton outrage or cruelty during the whole time he bore a commission in the American army. When the fight was over, and the victory won, the field of carnage, where a short time before foeman had met foeman in deadly conflict, presented the spectacle of stern and swarthy warriors, imbued with the humane spirit of their leader, bending over the heaps of the dying and the dead, selecting now a friend, and now a foe, from whom the vital spark had not yet fled, staunching his wounds, and if the sufferer had not yet passed beyond the power of human aid to save, restoring him by their kind ministrations to life and health, family, home and friends. An officer thus distinguished for courage and humanity; unyielding fortitude under the severest privations, an originality and promptness in the formation of his plans, surpassed only by the boldness and rapidity of their execution; a celerity of movement which annihilated time and distance; with a power of endurance that defied hunger and thirst, heat and cold--such an officer, never for a moment relaxing his exertions, and daily adding some new name to the list of his conquests, could not fail to attract the attention and excite the admiration of the army, and win the approbation and applause of his countrymen in all parts of the United States. There was a tinge of romance in his exploits which possessed an irresistible attraction and captivated the imagination of all classes of admirers. But imagination has had little to do with the final judgment which his countrymen have pronounced upon his conduct. The parallel traced at the time between his deeds and character, and those of an illustrious hero of the Revolution, suggested to his countrymen a suitable way of testifying their appreciation of his services and admiration of his character, and they have, with a unanimity which shows that the parallel is not altogether imaginary, bestowed upon him a title prouder than any ever conferred by a patent of nobility from prince or potentate--the title of "The Marion of the Mexican War."
Memphis Daily Avalanche, Memphis, Tennessee, December 5, 1859, pages 1-2


Sketches of the Candidates.
GEN. JOSEPH LANE OF OREGON.

    JOSEPH  LANE, the second son of John Lane and Elizabeth Street, was born in North Carolina, on the 14th of December, 1801. In 1804, the father emigrated to Kentucky and settled in Henderson County. He had the benefit of having sprung from Revolutionary stock, and, if he learned little else, imbibed many stirring lessons of patriotism and glorious results from the elders who surrounded the hearthstone of his boyhood. At an early age he shifted for himself, and entered the employ of Nathaniel Hart, clerk of the county court. In 1819 he went into Warwick County, Indiana, became a clerk in a mercantile house, married in 1920 a young girl of French and Irish extraction, and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in Vanderburgh County.
    Young Lane soon became the man of the people among whom he had cast his lot. In 1822, then barely eligible, he was elected to the Indiana legislature, and took his seat to the astonishment of many old worthies.
    On the Ohio, Lane became extremely popular as a good neighbor and a man of enlarged hospitality. Near his dwelling the river has a bar, which never fails at low water to detain a small fleet of boats. Lane's farm house had ever its doors open.
    Mr. Lane was a fearless legislator, always acting from a conscientious belief in the truth of his views, and following them up with a spirit and undeviating vigilance. * * * He is, however, a man of deeds rather than words--though he does not lack the power to express his views clearly and forcibly.
    Never in favor of expediency, he was always for what seemed right to him. When it was thought that Indiana, overburdened with debt, would be compelled to repudiate, the prospects of the disgrace which would thereby result to the state aroused all his indignant energies. He would not hear of such a thing. He felt it would be a disgrace to him, as a working man with the will and the strength to labor, to repudiate a debt. What was it, then, to a state of which he was one of the representatives? He toiled untiring to avert it, and had the satisfaction of seeing his efforts successful.
    In politics General Lane has always been of the Jefferson and Jackson school. Possessing a strong intellect and a memory retentive of facts and quick to use them, he became thoroughly acquainted with the history and politics of the country. Mr. Yulee well observes, "He has written with his plow and sword, and spoken by his deeds, and, though unused to the ornaments of rhetoric and literature, he is, nevertheless, powerful in debate, and especially well qualified in political and Presidential conflicts on the stump to overwhelm the opponents of Democracy." He supported Jackson in 1824, '28 and '32, gave his voice and energies for Van Buren in 1836 and '40, "as long as the latter followed 'in the footsteps of his predecessors,'" and went for Polk in 1844. His activity and earnestness were contagious and could not but infuse into those about him, and into the public men of the state generally, the spirit which had led him to so honorable a prominence.
    In the spring of 1846, the war commenced between the United States and Mexico, and a call was made upon Indiana for volunteers. Lane, then a member of the state senate, immediately resigned and entered Captain Walker's company as a private. When the regiment met at the rendezvous--New Albany--Joseph Lane was taken from the ranks by the unanimous voice of the men and placed at the head as colonel, and in a very few days afterward he received--unsought and unexpected by him--a commission from President Polk as brigadier general. On the 9th of July he wrote a letter of acceptance and entered on the command of three regiments forming his brigade. Two weeks after (24th of July) he was at Brazos, with all his men, and concluded the report announcing his arrival to Gen. Taylor in these words: "The brigade I have the honor to command is generally in good health and fine spirits, anxious to engage in active service." On the 20th of August he wrote to Major-General Butler, claiming active service.
    Lane had an idea that the Indiana men were raised to do some fighting, and he was impatient of delay. The second day after his letter to Butler, he wrote again to General Taylor, complaining of the advance of troops out of their order of precedence. Without being disrespectful, he demanded for his command a share in the dangers and honors of the active service. He requested that if the whole volunteer corps was not needed on the scene of action, a part of each state's troops be selected. Despite his anxiety to go on, he had to remain several months, in a most irksome mood, on the swampy banks of the Rio Grande, where his troops, suffering under the sweltering sun, were decimated by the pestilential disease of the climate. He was almost the only man of the brigade who was not prostrated at some time.
    At length he was ordered to Saltillo and was made civil and military commandant of that post by Major-General Butler. Here he established a vigilant police, protecting life and property, and built a strong fortification to provide against the threatened descent by Santa Anna. It was owing to the watchful care of his confidential scouts and spies, secured by liberal pay out of his own pocket, that he was enabled to communicate the first intelligence of the capture of Major Gaines' command. While in command at Saltillo, General Lane personally visited each picket guard nightly, thus presenting to his men a fruitful example of vigilance. After the battle of Monterey, Lane was ordered to join General Taylor.
    The famous battle of Buena Vista was fought on the 22nd and 23rd of February, 1847. General Lane was third in command, and served on the left wing. From the beginning to the end he was in the hottest of the fight. On the morning of the 23rd, Lane had the honor of opening the continuation of the battle on the plain, where he was attacked by a force of from four to five thousand infantry, artillery and lancers under General Ampudia. At this crisis, Lane's force was reduced to four hundred men, and with this phalanx he received the Mexican onset. "Nothing," writes an eyewitness, "could exceed the imposing and fearful appearance of the torrent of assailants which at this moment swept along toward the little band of Lane. The long lines of infantry presented a continued and unbroken sheet of fire. But their opponents, though few in number, were undismayed and defended their position with a gallantry worthy of the highest praise. Several times I observed the Mexican lines, galled by the American musketry and shattered by the fearful discharges from O'Brien's battery, break and fall back, but their successive formations beyond the ridge enabled them to force the men back to their position and quickly replace those who were slain." All the printed authorities on this great fight, as well as parties who served with the gallant brigadier from Indiana, unite in extolling his conduct in glowing terms.
    As Lane commenced the fight on the 23rd, so he was in "at the death." The Illinois and Kentucky regiments, suffering sorely, were falling back under a terrible charge by the collected infantry of Santa Anna, when Lane, though wounded, came up with the Indiana men and with the Mississippi regiment, under Colonel Jefferson Davis, opened a destructive fire upon the Mexicans, checked their advance, and enabled the retreating regiments to form and return to the contest. Failing to pierce the American center, Santa Anna retired from the field.
    In this battle, where all were heroes, it is the more honorable to find Lane, with four or five others, particularly noticed. Here is a picture of him: "When the grape and musket shot flew as thick as hail over and through the lines of our volunteers, who began to waver before the fiery storm, their brave general could be seen fifty yards in advance of the line, waving his sword with an arm already shattered by a musket ball, streaming with blood, and mounted on a noble charger, which was gradually sinking under the loss of blood from five distinct wounds. A brave sight indeed was this!"
    Major-General Wool, writing to Lane, May 23rd, regrets that he is about to lose his valuable services, and testifies to his readiness to do honor to his command, his country and himself. Again, July 7, Wool writes, "I have seen you in all situations--at the head of your brigade, in the drill and in the great battle of 22nd and 23rd of February, and in the course of my experience I have seen few who behaved with more zeal, ability and gallantry in the hour of danger." And General Taylor, in his report, says, "Brigadier General Lane (slightly wounded) was active and zealous throughout the day, displayed great coolness and gallantry before the enemy."
    Having been transferred to General Scott's line of operations, he reached Vera Cruz with his command on the 16th of September, 1847. On the 20th, he set out for the City of Mexico, at the head of two thousand five hundred men. At Jalapa this force was increased by Major Lally's column of one thousand men, and at Perote by a company of mounted riflemen, two of volunteer infantry and two pieces of artillery. At this time Colonel Childs, of the regular army, was besieged in Puebla by a large force under Santa Anna. Childs, knowing the importance of the post, nobly held out, and his officers and soldiers, animated by a like spirit, exhibited the most heroic fortitude under numerous privations. They knew that to gain time was to gain victory, for Lane was marching to their relief. Santa Anna, also aware of Lane's approach, used every exertion to carry the place by storm. Failing in this, he cautiously withdrew the main body of his troops toward Huamantla, intending to attack General Lane in the rear where he had passed that point, while another force would assault him from the direction of Puebla. Lane's scouts, however, were neither deaf nor blind. He divined the Mexican's plan and frustrated it.
    Leaving his train at San Antonio Tamaris with a suitable defense, Lane marched against Huamantla with over two thousand men. On the morning of the 9th of October the people were startled by the approach of the soldiers. White flags were immediately displayed, but no sooner had the advance guard, under Captain Walker, entered the town, than volley after volley assailed it. A deadly combat ensued. Walker gallantly charged upon a body of five hundred lancers and two pieces of artillery on the plaza. Gen. Lane, advancing at the head of his column, encountered the heavy reinforcement of Santa Anna, who had arrived with his full force. Soon the roar of battle resounded from street to street. For a short time the Mexicans confronted their assailants with the energy of despair, but the terrible decision of the Americans prevailed, and their flag soon waved over the treacherous town. A large quantity of ammunition was captured, and some prisoners--one of whom was Major Iturbide, son of the former Emperor of Mexico. This was the last field on which Santa Anna appeared in arms against the United States. For this victory, Lane was brevetted major-general.
    Having rejoined his train, General Lane arrived at Puebla on the 12th of October. Compelling Gen. Rea to retire, he raised the siege. Of the besieged, Jenkins' History of the War with Mexico says: "Their emotions can be more easily conceived than expressed, when they caught sight of the glistening sabers, the flashing bayonets and the victorious banners of General Lane, as his army wound through the now almost deserted streets, and when his trumpets sounded their shrill notes of defiance, every man breathed freer and deeper and felt prouder of his country, her honor and her fame."
    On the 19th, Lane was in pursuit of Rea, under a burning sun. At Santa Isabella, about thirteen miles from Puebla, he met the Mexican advance guards. A running fight was kept up for four miles when, discovering the enemy strongly posted on a hill within a mile and a half of Atlixco, a severe fight took place. The Mexicans were driven into the town. Not wishing to enter a strange place at night, Lane commanded the approaches and opened a telling cannonade. The ayuntamientos came out and begged that the town might be spared. Lane spared it, but took and destroyed large quantities of arms and munitions. On his return to Puebla, he set out for Guexocingo and destroyed the enemy's resources there. On the 29th he fought the first battle of Tlaxcala, and the 10th of November encountered generals Rea and Torrejon at the same place and recaptured a train of thirty-six laden wagons belonging to merchants in Puebla and Mexico. In thanks for this service, the merchants presented a splendid sword to General Lane. On the 22nd, taking with him Colonel Hays, Captain Lewis and Lieutenant Field, with one hundred and fifty horses and one gun, Lane started to surprise Matamoros, where were collected a large amount of Mexican supplies and one thousand men strongly posted in a fort mounted with artillery. Forming secretly, he gives the word; the mounted men are at the base of the wall; in an instant they leap from the saddle and spring upon the fort, losing but one man and putting the Mexicans to flight with a loss of eighty before Lane could stay the havoc. Assuredly he did surprise Matamoros as well as the twenty-five American prisoners he liberated therefrom. On his return (the 24th) the enemy, emboldened by the small number of Lane's troops, being in the ratio of eight to one, made a stand at Galaxa. The Americans were faltering under the terrible fire when Lane, leaping from his horse, unlimbered a gun, turned it on the enemy and fired it with a lighted cigar. The gun, loaded with grape, checked the enemy and, being quickly served by lieutenants Field and McDonald, settled the affair, and our troops returned to Puebla in triumph at noon of the following day.
    Lane's campaign from the departure from Vera Cruz up to this point, was a series of brilliant movements and victories. A surgeon attached to his command wrote home, about this period, that no writers--only the soldiers--could tell with what ingenuity and bravery Lane conducted his handful of men. "I never," he adds, "before could understand how cowards were transformed into brave men as by miracle."
    Reporting himself, by order, to the commanding general on the 18th of December, at the City of Mexico, General Lane was received with marked emotion by General Scott. It was the intention of the latter to send Lane, at the head of a brigade, on a forward movement. Waiting impatiently for four weeks, Lane asked and obtained leave to take three hundred mounted men, with Hays, Polk and Walker, and chase the guerrillas under the notorious Zenobia. In this expedition he almost succeeded in capturing Santa Anna at Tehuacan. All he got of him, however, was his swords. On the 23rd of January, 1848, as he marched into Orizaba--a city of twenty thousand inhabitants--at one side, the enemy marched out at the other. A large quantity of government property was confiscated for the benefit of the United States. He next took Cordova, confiscated more property, and released a number of American prisoners. Recruiting his men at Puebla, he is wandering through the mountains in search of the enemy. On the third day he meets and disperses the command of Colonel Falcon and, not falling in with any other detachment of Mexicans, returns to the capital on the 10th of February, having been absent but 24 days.
    A few days after his return, he turns out again with the same brave and hardy comrades to arrest and punish Jarauta, a noted robber chief, who had been perpetrating such atrocities as not paying overmuch--or very little--respect to the person of the courier belonging to the British embassy, and other more really atrocious doings against the Americans. Leaving the City of Mexico on the 17th of February, he surprised Tulancingo on the dawn of the 21st. General Paredes escaped from his bed. Jarauta, who, Lane learned, was at Tehualtaplan, was a wily rogue. Lane, desiring to throw him off his guard, remained a day and a night at Tulancingo, gave out that he was returning to Mexico, set off in that direction, but about dark changed his course and arrived at a ranch on the road to, and eighteen miles from, Tehualtaplan in thirty-six hours after leaving Tulancingo. On the 24th he was at the former. There were one thousand lancers and guerrillas under Colonel Montana and Jarauta, and, as the Americans entered Tehualtaplan at sunrise of the 25th, the escopeta balls came whistling about their heads from every house. Jenkins in his history, p. 496, says:
    "Headed by General Lane, Colonel Hays and Major Polk, the rangers and dragoons dashed upon the enemy, fighting their way hand to hand into the houses, cutting down every man who refused to surrender. A portion of the Mexicans rallied and formed outside the town, but a vigorous charge, led by General Lane and Colonel Hays, quickly put them to rout. Jarauta, who was wounded in the conflict, again escaped. One hundred of the enemy were killed, however, among whom were Colonel Montana, and the bosom friend of Jarauta, Padre Martinez. A still greater number were wounded, and there were fifty taken prisoners. General Lane lost but one killed and four wounded. Quiet was soon restored in the town after the fighting had ceased, and the Americans returned to the capital, taking with them their prisoners and a quantity of recovered property that had been plundered from different trains."
    The battle of Tehualtaplan was the last fought in Mexico. Peace was soon declared, but General Lane--who, not inappropriately, was styled by his brother officers and soldiers "the Marion of the army"--remained some months directing the movements consequent upon the return of our troops. On evacuating the conquered land, Lane remarked to a friend, "I left my plow to take the sword with a thrill of pleasure, for my country called me. I now go home to resume the plow with a sincere joy."
    About the 1st of August, 1848, General Lane reached Indiana. His fellow citizens were rejoiced to see him, but he had not time to respond to the favors extended to him, for on the 18th he--without any solicitation on his part--was appointed Governor [of] Oregon. On the 28th his commission reached him, and on the next day he set out for his post. He reached Fort Leavenworth on the 4th of September and left it on the 10th, with twenty-two men, including guides &c. This was the year in which Col. Fremont, who followed Gov. Lane in a few weeks, lost almost his entire party in the mountains. The journey to Oregon, at all times arduous, is of course particularly so in the winter season. After reaching the Rio Grande, through snow storms of eight days' continuance, and when neither grass nor timber for fuel were to be had, Lane and his guide differed as to the route that should be followed. The Governor wanted to strike south; the guide insisted on keeping the old route. They parted; Governor Lane undertook to pilot himself, and his guide returned, foreboding evil. Had the Governor followed the guide's advice, the party would have met the same fate as did that of Fremont. For more than twenty days he made southward, and finally came to the Mexican village of Santa Cruz, in Sonora, where he took the regular trail. On reaching the Gila, seven men deserted, who killed two of the men that were sent back after them, and, shortly after, five others, with a corporal, deserted, fearful of starvation if they proceeded.
    On the 2nd of March, 1849, about six months after his departure from home, he arrived safely in Oregon City. This journey cost the government nothing--General Lane not making any charge for his expenses, besides which, he aided largely in subsisting the troops the greater part of the time with the product of his rifle, as he was both the pilot and the hunter for the party. In this connection it may also be stated that during the Mexican War he subsisted his troops with less cost than that of any others in the service. His treaties and "talks" with the Indians in Oregon were all conducted without expense to the government.
    The Indians of Oregon--of whom there were between fifty and sixty tribes--kept the whites in a constant state of jeopardy. The progress and settlement of the Territory were greatly impeded by their depredations. In [1853], a formidable outbreak took place on the Rogue River, in the southern part of Oregon. Governor Lane took the field in person, collected a force of settlers, miners, a few officers and men of the regular army, attacked the Indians at Table Rock, and, after a desperate conflict, in which he was severely wounded, drove them from their position. Following the success up with his accustomed vigor, he so severely chastised them that they were glad to accept any terms of peace. On several occasions, nothing but Governor Lane's force of character and coolness could have saved the handful of men which accompanied him on his Indian expeditions. He furnished the Department with a lengthy report, which in Mr. Schoolcraft's opinion is the only accurate account of the Oregon Indians. The legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon passed resolutions conveying the thanks of the people and giving their fullest approbation to his "extraordinary energy" as Superintendent of Indian Affairs. "Few," says one of the resolutions, "could have accomplished so successfully what his kindness, integrity and firmness have done to secure the bonds of a lasting peace with the tribes surrounding us." The assembly all expressed their belief that while Governor he acted for the best interests of the whole people, and they regretted that upon the accession of General Taylor he was superseded. The people, however, in testimony of his worth, sent him to Congress as Delegate, in which position he remained until the admission of Oregon into the Union, when he took his seat as a United States Senator, having been previously been elected to that eminence.
    As Delegate from Oregon, General Lane was unremitting in his advocacy of the interest of the Territory, and untiring in his efforts for her admission into the Union. The Oregon Bill being under debate in the House on the 10th of February, 1859, Governor Lane contended that there was a population in the Territory sufficient to entitle her to admission. On the 12th, a Massachusetts Representative having inquired whether, if Oregon should be admitted, and he, Lane, had a voice in the other end of the Capitol, would he vote to relieve Kansas of the effect of the English Bill.
    Lane replied that he had not come there to make any bargain. He was an honest man, and if he should be permitted to go into the Senate he would exercise sound judgment prompted by a strong desire to promote the general prosperity and welfare of the country. He hoped that his official action might be the guarantee that he would do in all matters what he believed to be right. He then proceeded to urge the admission of Oregon, briefly reviewing its history from the time of the first settlements to the formation of its constitution. He contended that it was but an act of justice, and appealed to the House to vote down every amendment and let the vote be taken on the naked bill.
    That day Oregon was admitted to the sisterhood of states, and that night the federal city was alive with festivity in honor of the event. A band serenaded the President, Vice President, Mr. Stephens of Georgia, General Lane and others. In response to a call, Governor Stephens introduced General Lane--now Senator-elect from the state of Oregon--to the people. He made a brief speech, in which he said that a bulwark had been raised that day on the shores of the Pacific against foreign invaders, and a fresh assurance given of the perpetuity of the Union.
    While Governor Lane was in Oregon, he was named for the Presidency by the convention assembled at Indianapolis to revise the state constitution of Indiana. The Democratic state convention, which met February 21, 1852, formally presented his claims for the chief magistracy, pledging the vote of the state for him. On his arrival in Indiana from Oregon, he had a public reception, at which, in the course of an address of welcome, Governor Wright thus briefly reviewed the career of the guest of the day:
    "He has been the artificer of his own fortunes, and, in his progress from the farmer on the banks of the Ohio and the commandant of a flatboat to posts of honorable distinction--to a seat in the house of representatives and in the senate of Indiana--to the command of a brigade upon the fields of Buena Vista, Huamantla and Atlixco to the governorship of Oregon, and thence to a seat in Congress--he has displayed the same high characteristics, perseverance and energy. The annals of our country present no parallel for these facts. You entered the army a volunteer in the ranks, looking forward only to the career of a common soldier. You left it a major-general, closing your ardent and brilliant services in that memorable campaign by fighting its last battle and capturing its last enemy."
    As a consequence of the natural turn of his mind, he is not the man to be led off from the paths of duty by every wind of doctrine or by plausible theories in morals, religion or politics. For a mind so constituted the ephemeral expedients of parties of the day have no charms, and hence it is that he is emphatically and truly a National Democrat, embracing, in the scope of his affections, the people of the whole Union, from the capes of Florida to the Aroostook, from the shores of the Atlantic to those of the Pacific. In no instance has he ever swerved from the principles as eloquently enunciated in the farewell address of the Father of his Country, or dwarfed his affections or feelings into the more sectional patriot. Inflexibly just in the discharge of every social, moral and political duty, happy will it be for his country when such men are called upon, by the public voice, to fill its high trust!
    In addition to all this, the General, notwithstanding his early struggles with poverty, is one of the most unselfish men in the world in reference to money or wealth. Instead of looking upon money as an end to be accomplished and attained by the struggles of life, he has never coveted it but as a means of doing good, for which no sacrifice of principle or duty should ever be made. This is well illustrated in his positive refusal to accept the double or constructive mileage to which, under the practice of the government, he was entitled as Senator from Oregon. The sum was a large one, but its acquisition had no charms for the General when he reflected upon the injustice of drawing it from the Treasury to defray his expenses for the mileage and of a trip which he per diem had never performed.
The Floridian and Journal, Tallahassee, July 14, 1860, pages 1-2



Gen. Joe Lane and His Ancestry.
    The following letter from Governor Swain, written during last year, will be of interest at this particular time, especially as Gen. Lane is now a guest at the capitol of our state:
Chapel Hill, Oct. 23, 1859.
    Dear Sir: Your letter of the 14th, owing to my absence in the discharge of my official duties, did not reach me until a day or two since, and I avail myself of their earliest practicable opportunity to reply.
    There is probably no family whose authentic history can [be] more clearly traced through every period of the annals of North Carolina than that of General Lane's. In proportion to numbers, comparatively few of its members have aspired to or obtained political distinction, or indeed distinction of any kind. On the other hand there are probably few that have enjoyed greater average respectability.
    General Lane's great-grandfather, Joseph (who signed his name Joseph Lane, Jr., in 1727), died at his residence near Halifax, on the Roanoke, in 1776. His three sons, Joel, Joseph and Jessee, were pioneer settlers, in the neighborhood of Raleigh, in 1741. Of these, Col. Joel was the wealthiest and most conspicuous. He conveyed to the state the 640 acres of land, the site of the present city of Raleigh. His dwelling house, at the period of its erection the best within a hundred miles, is the present residence of William Boylan, Esq. All three were Whigs during the Revolution, and Col. Joel and Jessee did service in the army, the latter as a private.
    Jessee was the grandfather of General Joseph Lane and of myself. He was born in Halifax, July 4th, 1722, and married Winnifred Acock. They had sixteen children, eight sons and eight daughters, all of whom lived to rear families. In 1779 my grandfather emigrated to Wilkes, now Oglethorpe County, Ga., where he resided until 1800, when he removed to St. Louis, where he died in 1804, in the 82nd year of his age. General Lane is the son of John Lane, the eighth child and fourth son of our grandfather Jessee. At the time of the removal of the family to Georgia (1779) Wilkes was a frontier county, and during a series of years subject to frequent inclusions from the Creeks and Cherokees. There were no members of the family able to bear arms, whose services were not put into requisition, and no one, male or female, who was not familiar with the horror of savage warfare. My mother beguiled many an hour during my infancy, in the recital of hair-breadth escapes, which, delicate woman as she was, rendered her personal history one of remarkable suffering and adventure.
    I have no recollection of my grandfather or Uncle John. The former visited my father on his way to Missouri, and the latter was an inmate of our family for some time previous to and subsequent to my birth. I heard much of him in my boyhood, and suppose that in all respects the son is a counterpart of the father, brave, enterprising and generous. He was a universal favorite in the midst of the men who fought at the Cowpens and King's Mountain, and who considered a foray among the Indians as little less than a pastime.
    Gen. Lane's mother was Betsy, daughter of Jas. Street, the first sheriff of my native county (Buncombe). The descendants of the sixteen children of Jessee are dispersed through all of the western and southern states.
    I enter into these particulars simply to satisfy you that whilst the family of Gen. Lane have no just pretensions to the pride of heraldry, there is no cause, on the other hand, why they should blush for his ancestry or his connections.
    I write in unavoidable haste, but will be ready at any time to communicate more specific information if it shall be called for.
Yours very respectfully,
    D. L. SWAIN.
Newbern Weekly Progress, Newbern, North Carolina, July 31, 1860, page 4


    One Anson Dart, who claims to have be
en an Indian agent in Oregon in 1850, and to have made treaties with the Indians, charges General Lane with being instrumental in preventing the ratification of said treaties. General Lane said in the United States Senate, "They [the treaties] were of no consequence. They never ought to have been made. They were made with Indians living along the coast--small bands--mere fragments of what had been great tribes. At the time the treaties were made there were very few Indians there." But Dart says Gen. Lane caused the Indian wars in Oregon. When General Lane was appointed Governor of that territory in 1848 he found a war going on with the Indians. These Indians were warlike and always troublesome. The people of the territory did not want any treaties with them that should leave them within their borders, and another war grew out of their removal. General Lane went to that country as a protector of the white people there, and in the efficient performance of his duty we do not believe him to have been wanting in humanity to other races.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
OF
GEN. JOSEPH LANE,
OF OREGON.

    General Lane, the nominee of the National Democratic Convention at Baltimore for Vice President of the United States, is one of the most remarkable men of the age. His history is a fine illustration of the genius of our institutions, and demonstrates that the high places of honor and distinction are accessible to all who possess ability, energy and perseverance.
    General Lane descended from Revolutionary ancestors; was born in the state of North Carolina, on the 14th of December 1801. In 1804 his father emigrated with his family to Kentucky, where the hero and statesman was reared and educated. Having received a substantial education he removed to Indiana and settled on the banks of the Ohio, in the county of Vanderburgh, where, without the adventitious aid of fame, family or fortune, he worked his way from a humble plowboy and flatboatman on the Mississippi to his present distinguished position.
    If any man can be styled a man of the people General Lane is truly that man. Through a period of more than a quarter of a century the people have evinced their admiration for the sterling honesty of his character, the strength of his intellect, and his pure and unselfish patriotism by clothing him with trusts of great responsibility and honor, which he has performed with signal ability and success. With a strong intellect and a mind eminently practical, with an honest, manly and generous heart, its every pulsation beating in sympathy with the masses, he won the admiration and confidence of the people of Indiana to such a degree that, unsolicited, before he was twenty-one years of age, they elected him to the Legislature over their former representative, who was an able and experienced legislator and had been speaker of the House of Representatives of the state.
    The strong and practical mind of the youthful legislator, taking a liberal, judicious and statesmanlike view of all questions affecting state or national interests, which he enforced with a persuasive eloquence, soon made him one of the master spirits of the legislature, when the people were anxious to elevate him to still higher posts in the national council; but having no heritage but poverty and an honest name, with a large and an increasing family to support and educate, he had to forgo higher honors and a wider field of usefulness to his people. He continued, however, to represent the people either in the House or the Senate of the state for nearly a quarter of a century.
    His name is indissolubly connected with some of the most important measures which developed the resources, advanced the prosperity and improved the finances of the state, especially his able and successful efforts to preserve untarnished the public faith and to prevent the repudiation of the public debt, which was boldly advocated by some of the strongest men in Indiana.
    When the Mexican War broke out General Lane was a member of the State Senate, and when a requisition was made upon Indiana to furnish volunteers for the war, obedient to the call of patriotism, he resigned his place in the Senate and volunteered as a private for the war. When the companies assembled to organize and elect their officers, such was their unbounded confidence in Joseph Lane that they elected him colonel of their regiment, although he had seen no service either as a soldier or an officer. Before he could put his regiment in motion, President Polk illustrated his sagacity by sending him a commission as brigadier general, a compliment as unexpected as it was unsolicited by General Lane.
    The opponents of the Administration and of the war denounced and ridiculed the appointment, declaring that he might make a good general of the flatboatmen on the Mississippi River, but that the idea of Jo Lane, who had never commanded a company in his life, taking command of a brigade in war was simply ridiculous; that he would disgrace himself, his state and the nation. Thus the plain, humble volunteer, without prestige or pretension, amidst the jeers and taunts of the Mexican sympathizers, set his brigade in motion for the theater of the war, where he not only falsified all the predictions of his enemies and realized the most sanguine expectations of his friends, but won a fame for daring, gallantry and a successful generalship, which has linked his name with the brightest history of his country's renown, while his generosity to the vanquished and solicitude for and care of the disabled made him universally popular with the soldiers and officers of the army who, scattered all over the Union, are burning to signalize their appreciation of his worth by crowning him with the highest earthly honors.
    In less than three weeks after General Lane received his commission he was at the seat of war with all his troops. In communicating his arrival to General Taylor, he wrote him thus: "The brigade I have the honor to command is generally in good health and fine spirits, anxious to engage in active service."
    The indomitable energy, the self-sacrificing spirit, the sound judgment and firm purpose which he displayed in the active service of civil life, were eminently conspicuous in all the stirring scenes of battle, blood and carnage through which he passed, illustrated by a daring bravery and heroism which placed him among the most distinguished heroes of that memorable war. To recount the battles in which General Lane was engaged, the dangers to which he was exposed, the brave deeds he performed, the skill and judgment with which he planned his battles and the unvarying success with which he fought them, would consume more space than we have to spare. Such was the celerity of his movements, the skill and stratagem of his plans, the boldness and rapidity of their execution, and the enthusiasm and courage with which he inspired his men by his impassioned appeal to their valor, as they visited the most fearful slaughter upon the enemy, that the name of Lane struck terror to the Mexican heart, and by common consent he was styled "the Marion of the Mexican War." Of all the battles fought in Mexico, the battle of Buena Vista was the severest and most hotly contested, and one of the most remarkable in the annals of the world. There the American army, consisting of about five thousand, mostly raw militia, met twenty thousand of the chosen troops of Santa Anna in deadly conflict, and after a protracted struggle of two days achieved a glorious triumph.
    In that battle General Lane performed a most important part. No officer contributed more by his gallantry and generalship to win the fortunes of the day. Upon the left wing of the American army, which General Lane commanded, Santa Anna directed his most obstinate and deadly assaults. With but four hundred men General Lane repulsed a large body of Mexicans, six thousand strong. While nothing could exceed the fearful array of the assailants, as they moved toward the little band of Lane, with their long line of infantry presenting a continued sheet of fire, nothing could surpass the undaunted firmness and bravery with which Lane and his men maintained their position and poured their volleys of musketry into the advancing columns of the enemy, which made them break and fall back. Throughout the varying fortunes of that trying day, General Lane with his little band of heroes maintained his position and repulsed the enemy at every point. On the second day of the battle, Santa Anna finding his strength defied and his most skillful maneuvers defeated, as the day was drawing to a close determined to make a most desperate effort to turn the tide of battle in his favor. Collecting all his infantry, he made a charge on the Illinois and Kentucky regiments. Gallantly did those brave troops resist the onset until, seeing their leaders fall and overpowered by numbers, they began to waver and fall back. At this critical moment the eagle eye of General Lane observed the movement, when he hastened with his brigade to the rescue in time to enable the retreating regiments to form and return to the contest and drive back with great loss the advancing column of the enemy. This was Santa Anna's last struggle. On that bloody and hotly contested field night soon closed over the sanguinary scene, and when the morning sun arose it shone upon the battlefield deserted by Santa Anna with his shattered legions, while the star-spangled banner waved in triumph over the American army.
    No officer went into the Mexican war with less pretension than General Lane--none came out of it with a brighter fame. The testimony of eyewitnesses, historians and official records attest the fact. The New Orleans Delta, of May 2, 1847, recorded the popular estimation in which General Lane's conduct was held in the battle of Buena Vista as follows:
    "BRIGADIER GENERAL LANE.--The bearing of this gallant officer in the battle of Buena Vista, as described by persons who were present, was in the highest degree gallant, noble and soldier-like. When his brigade, composed of the two Indiana regiments, were exposed to a murderous fire from the Mexican batteries on their flanks, and front fire from a large body of the enemy's infantry--when the grape and musket shot flew thick as hail through the lines of our volunteers, who began to waver before the fiery storm, their brave general could be seen fifty yards in advance of the line, waving his sword with an arm already shattered by a musket ball, streaming with blood, and mounted on a noble charger, which was gradually sinking under the loss of blood from five distinct wounds. A brave sight indeed was this!"
    This brave man, whose cheek never blanched with fear, or eye quailed amidst the hottest conflicts of battle, has a heart of tenderness which melts at human woe. His solicitude for and care of the sick, the wounded and the dying was manifested on many occasions. Numerous incidents and anecdotes are narrated illustrating his kindness and tenderness in relieving their suffering and administering to their comfort in the hospitals and on the battlefields which so endeared him to his troops that it made him always invincible when their leader. On his return home, citizens of all classes vied to do honor to the distinguished hero. Whilst in the city of Cincinnati, the guest of General Moore, an incident occurred illustrative of his native kindness and tenderness, and the gratitude of the recipient. A German citizen ushered himself into the presence of General Lane, amidst the guests in the parlor. He asked if General Lane was in. The German, with emotion, asked: "Do you know me, General?" "I do not," said the General. German: "Well, sir, I recollect and will thank you to the last day of my life. Do you remember after the fight with the guerrillas at Manga de Clavo, in which we routed the scoundrels so finely, you found a soldier dying by the wayside, exhausted by the heat of the sun and the exertions of the day, and dismounted from your horse and placed him on it, walking by his side until you reached the camp, where you did not rest until you saw him well taken care of?" The General replied that he recollected the circumstances very well. "Well," said the German, "I am the boy, and by that act of kindness you saved my life. I am here to thank you. How can I ever forget to cease to pray for you? God bless you, you were the soldier's friend."
    In his own state of Indiana it was a perfect ovation wherever he went. The masses--the sons of toil--turned out from all the country, and from every hamlet and village, to welcome and to do honor to the man of the people. He was feasted and toasted, and congratulatory addresses were made to him in the name of the people by the most distinguished men of the state. He bore all the honors and compliments showered upon him meekly and with characteristic modesty, claimed for himself nothing more than having done his duty. In his emphatic language he said: "To the volunteers under my command I feel that the honor is justly due; without their aid, I could have done nothing."
    After General Lane's brilliant exploits under General Taylor on the Rio Grande, he was transferred in September 1847 to General Scott's line. We insert from a biographical sketch, published in the Democratic Review of May 1858 [see above], an exceedingly interesting history of his battle with Santa Anna at Huamantla, when he again defeated him, and his rapid and successful assault upon the remnant of his retreating forces at Atlixco:
    "General Lane, having been transferred in the summer of 1847 to the line of Gen. Scott's operations, reached Vera Cruz in the early part of September. On the 20th of that month he set out towards the City of Mexico with a force of about two thousand five hundred men, consisting of one regiment of Indiana and one of Ohio volunteers, two battalions of recruits, five small companies of volunteer horse, and two pieces of artillery. This force was subsequently augmented at Jalapa by a junction with Maj. Lally's column of one thousand men, and at Perote its strength was further increased by a company of mounted riflemen and two of volunteer infantry, besides two pieces of artillery. Several small guerrilla parties appeared at different times on the route and attacked the advance and rear guards, but were quickly repulsed; and the column continued its advance unmolested along the great road leading through Puebla to the City of Mexico.
    "At this time Col. Childs, of the regular army, with a garrison of five hundred effective troops and one thousand eight hundred invalids, was besieged in Puebla by a large force of Mexicans commanded by Santa Anna in person. This general, notwithstanding his many defeats, with a spirit unbroken by misfortune and an energy that deserves our highest admiration, however much we may reprobate the cause in which he was engaged, had collected the remnant of his beaten army, determined if possible to wrest Puebla from the grasp of the American General Scott, and thus cut off his communications with the seacoast. The gallant Childs well understood that the maintenance of this post was of the utmost importance to the success of the campaign. Every officer and soldier under his command seemed also to comprehend the immensity of the stake; and both officers and soldiers exhibited loftiest heroism and the most unyielding fortitude in meeting the dangers and enduring the fatigues and privations of a protracted siege. Aware that a strong column under General Lane was marching from Vera Cruz to their relief, the great object to be gained by the garrison was time. Santa Anna, also aware of Gen. Lane's approach, redoubled his exertions to carry the place by storm, superintending the operations of the troops in person, directing the guns to such parts of the defenses as appeared most vulnerable, and watching with intense anxiety the effect of every shot. Convinced at length by the obstinate resistance of the besieged, and the lessening distance between him and his advancing dreaded foe, that he must abandon his position and encounter the "Marion of the War" in an open field, he silently and cautiously withdrew, and with the main body of his troops moved in the direction of Huamantla, intending when Gen. Lane had passed that point to make attack upon his rear, while another strong force should assail him at the same time from the direction of Puebla. Gen. Lane, being informed of Santa Anna's movements, at once penetrated his designs. With the promptness of decision displayed in all his military operations, he divided his force, leaving the Ohio volunteers and a battalion of recruits with two field guns to guard the wagon trains. With the remainder of his column he marched by a route diverging from the main road directly towards Huamantla.
    "On the morning of the 9th of October, the people of Huamantla were startled and dismayed to behold the formidable and glittering array spread out over the neighboring hills. White flags were immediately hung out in token of submission, and the place seemed to have surrendered without a blow from its panic-stricken inhabitants. But suddenly the advance guard, under Capt. Walker, having entered the town, was assailed on every side by volleys of musketry. He immediately ordered a charge upon a body of 500 lancers, stationed with two pieces of artillery in the plaza. A furious and deadly combat ensued. Gen. Lane, advancing at the head of his column, encountered the heavy reinforcement ordered up by Santa Anna, who had now arrived with his whole force. Soon the roar of battle was sounded through every street, and street and plaza were reddened with blood and covered with heaps of the slain. The Mexicans for a short time combated their assailants with the energy and fury of despair. But the steady and well-directed valor of the soldiers of the "Republic of the North" bore down all opposition. The Mexican ranks were broken and thrown into disorder; the order to retreat was given, and the American flag waved in triumph over the treacherous city of Huamantla.
    "This was the last field on which Santa Anna appeared in arms against the United States. This remarkable man, universally acknowledged to be an able and active, was never a successful commander. Whether this want of success is to be ascribed to the superior generalship of the leaders and prowess of the troops opposed to him, or to his own instability of purpose in the very crisis of battle, when vigor and decision are most required, we will not stop to inquire. Having, during the progress of the war, collected several large armies and led them to defeat, he had determined with that which remained to him to make a last effort to retrieve his fortunes, and Huamantla was selected as the Waterloo where his waning star should shine out in cloudless effulgence or sink to rise no more. If he did not encounter one who, with Wellington's courage, united many of the higher qualities of a military commander. Perhaps he relied upon General Lane's want of experience, but the courage and conduct of the latter at Buena Vista should have admonished him of the hopelessness of a contest in an open and equal field with such an officer, at the head of troops comparatively fresh, in high spirits, with full confidence in the skill and courage of their leader, and burning to rival the heroic deeds of their countrymen at Chapultepec and Cerro Gordo. Although Santa Anna from this time withdrew from an active participation in the contest between the belligerent nations, the bloody drama in which he had played so conspicuous a part was not yet closed. Much remained to be done to complete the conquest so auspiciously begun on the banks of the Rio Grande and prosecuted with such vigor by Scott in the valley of Mexico. Many bloody fields were yet to be won; many desperate bands of guerrillas yet to be defeated and dispersed, to render the subjugation of the country complete.
    "Defeated at Huamantla, the remnant of the Mexican force fell back on Atlixco where, on the 18th of October, a large body, with munitions and supplies, and two pieces of artillery, were collected, under the orders of Gen. Rea. Gen. Lane, hearing of the concentration of the enemy's troops at that point, hastened with the small force at his disposal to attack them. After a long and fatiguing march on a hot and sultry day, he encountered the enemy strongly posted on a hillside within a mile and half from Atlixco. The Mexicans made a show of desperate resistance, but being vigorously assaulted by the cavalry, closely followed by the entire column, they gave way and fled in confusion towards the town. It was not until after nightfall that the whole command of Gen. Lane reached Atlixco, having marched ten Spanish leagues since eleven o'clock in the forenoon. Disposing his troops in such manner as to command the approaches by the main roads, he opened a vigorous cannonade from a height which commanded the town. The guerrillas, however, had fled and authorities having soon after surrendered that place into his hands, his wearied troops entered the town and sought the repose they so much needed."
    It is impossible, within the limited space allotted to this sketch, to present a detailed account of all Gen. Lane's military operations at this period. In authentic histories of the war and official documents filed in the archives of government, the reader will find the record of his achievements--his long and toilsome marches by night and day over a wild and rugged country, full of narrow defiles and dangerous passes; his frequent surprises of the enemy, his sudden incursions far away into remote valley and plain; his fierce combats and glorious victories. At Tlaxcala, Matamoros, Galaxa, Tulancingo, Zacualtiplan, as at Huamantla and Atlixco, Mexican valor yielded to the force of his impetuous and well-directed assaults. On every field the ranks of the enemy went down before the thundering charge of his cavalry, the fierce onset of his resistless infantry. The fame of his achievements soon spread through Mexico, and the terror with which the enemy was inspired by his death-dealing blows and almost ubiquitous presence was equaled only by the unbounded confidence and enthusiasm infused into his followers by his gallant bearing, and the prestige of a name ever relied on by them as a sure guarantee of victory. For one quality as much as any other, perhaps even his dauntless courage, Gen. Lane was distinguished throughout the war--humanity to the vanquished. His bright fame was unsullied, his escutcheon untarnished by a single act of wanton outrage or cruelty during the whole time he bore a commission in the American army. When the fight was over, and the victory won, the field of carnage, where a short time before foeman met foeman in deadly conflict, presented the spectacle of stern and swarthy warriors, imbued with the humane spirit of their leader, bending over the heaps of the dying and the dead, selecting now a friend, and now a foe, from whom the vital spark had not yet fled, staunching his wounds, and if the sufferer had not yet passed beyond the power of human aid to save, restoring him by their kind ministrations to life and health, family, home and friends. An officer thus distinguished for courage and humanity; unyielding fortitude under the severest privations, an originality and promptness in the formation of his plans, surpassed only by the boldness and rapidity of their execution; a celerity of movement which annihilated time and distance; with a power of endurance that defied hunger and thirst, heat and cold--such an officer, never for a moment relaxing his exertions, and adding some new name to the list of his conquests, could not fail to attract the attention and excite the admiration of the army, and win the approbation and applause of his countrymen in all parts of the United States. There was a tinge of romance in his exploits which possessed an irresistible attraction, and captivated the imagination of all classes of admirers. But imagination has had little to do with the final judgment which his countrymen have pronounced upon his conduct. The parallel traced at the time between his deeds and character, and those of an illustrious hero of the Revolution, suggested to his countrymen a suitable way of testifying their appreciation of his services and admiration of his character, and they have, with a unanimity which shows that the parallel is not altogether imaginary, bestowed upon him a title prouder than any ever conferred by a patent of nobility from prince or potentate--the title of "The Marion of the Mexican War."
    Before the close of the war the government of the United States, appreciating the valuable services rendered by Gen. Lane, conferred to him the rank of Major General. This was so expressed in the order of the department as a special mark of approbation for his "gallantry and skill displayed in numerous engagements with the enemy."
"Peace has her victories, no less renowned than war."
    So successful and brilliant as the commander of armies, a few days after he returned to his peaceful home, crowned with laurels and the honors which an admiring people showered upon him, he was called to a different scene of duty, where he could exercise his sound judgment and practical knowledge in organizing and putting in practical operation a civil government on the shores of the Pacific for a remote people, who had been long neglected and uncared for. In August 1848 he received a commission as Governor of Oregon Territory, another compliment as unexpected as it was unsolicited from Mr. Polk. In less than one month from the time he returned to the bosom of his family from the stirring scenes of war, he was en route for the distant shores of the Pacific, with hardships, perils and privations to encounter in crossing the Rocky Mountains that season of the year to his post of duty; which required an energy, hardihood and self-reliance to overcome which but few men possessed; Col. Fremont, who followed him a few weeks afterwards, taking a different route across the mountains, lost almost his entire party amid the cold and snows in the gorges and defiles of the mountains, and nearly perished himself.
    A narrative of the hardships and sufferings endured and the perils encountered by Governor Lane and his party in crossing the Rocky Mountains would fill a volume. We can now no more than quote from a speech made by Mr. Voorhies, of Indiana, last winter to the citizens of Washington, who had assembled to congratulate Gen. Lane upon the admission of Oregon into the Union, and himself into the United States Senate as one of her senators. He said:
    "There is a history of events connected with the pioneer movements of Gen. Lane to Oregon, not generally known to the American people. On the 11th of September, 1848, at the foot of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, with a commission from President Polk as Governor of Oregon Territory in his pocket, he, to whom you tender the honor of this demonstration, gave evidence to his country and to the world of a will and a courage in the discharge of duty surpassing that which Napoleon displayed in his immortal passage of the Alps. The great hero of Austerlitz and Marengo was told by his guide that the route was barely passable, and the order came from the bold spirit to set forward immediately. Gen. Lane, in consultation with Col. Dougherty, a mountaineer of twenty years' experience, was told that the passage of the Rocky Mountains at this season of the year, with certainty of spending the winter in their midst, was a human impossibility. 'We will set forward in the morning,' was the reply of the American hero and patriot, who never knew fear in the achievement of public duty. He and his little band moved in the morning, and for five weary and desolate months were lost and buried amid the gorges and defiles and snows of the mountains. Fancy may paint, but the tongue cannot sketch, even the faint outlines of that expedition. On the 3rd of March, 1849, Gen. Lane reached the capital of Oregon, and before he slept put the territorial government in operation, and started a communication to the President informing him of the fact."
    In the discharge of the duties of Governor of Oregon, and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs, General Lane evinced the highest order of ability. His messages to the territorial legislature abound in sound and practical views relative to the wants and interests of the territory, and in the recommendation of wholesome and judicious measures calculated to develop the resources and promote the prosperity of the people. He found the Indian affairs in a most troubled condition--the troops disbanded, the various tribes in a hostile attitude to the citizens had committed depredations upon their property and murdered several families--the murderers unpunished, and no restitution of stolen property. As soon as he put the government in operation without troops he proceeded to the scenes of depredation, robbery and murder, and by his superior address, tact and judgment he quelled all disturbances, had the murderers arrested and punished, and without war or bloodshed accomplished what both had failed to effect. An incident occurred in Gov. Lane's "talk" with the Rogue River Indians, a warlike and predatory tribe, which illustrates his remarkable self-possession, coolness and judgment in imminent peril. He entered their country with twelve or fifteen men; these Indians had fiercely rejected all attempts by the whites at conciliation. The safety of the border citizens required decided terms of war or peace. Gen. Lane chose the latter; with some difficulty he succeeded in assembling four or five hundred warriors in council. During the interview, one of his company recognized two horses stolen from him in the possession of the Indians, and two pistols in the belts of the two chiefs. The Governor demanded restitution of the property, which restored, he said, would evince their willingness to treat and preserve peace. The head chief ordered restitution, but the possessors refused. The Governor then stepped forward and took one of the stolen pistols from the Indian's belt and gave it to the owner, and was about to take the other pistol, when the Indian who had it presented his gun and raised the war whoop. Instantly four to five hundred guns were pointed at Gen. Lane and his small party.
    A single false step would have led to the most disastrous results, but Gen. Lane's coolness and promptness were equal to the crisis. He said, I have come here to make a treaty of peace, not to have a fight, and promptly stepping to the side of the principal chief, with his firm eye fixed on him, pistol in hand, he told him, if a drop of blood of any of the whites was shed it should be avenged by the destruction of the entire tribe. This well-timed move had the desired effect. The chief told his warriors to cease their demonstrations. The Governor then advanced among the foremost, took their arrows from their bows and returned them to their quivers and uncocked their guns, and knocked the priming from their pans. General Lane did not hold the office of Governor of Oregon more than about two years before he was superseded by President Taylor. Whereupon the legislature of Oregon passed resolutions expressive of their high sense of the energy, ability and success which characterized his administration as Governor of Oregon,and superintendent of Indian affairs, and their sincere regret that the President of the United States has deprived the Territory of Oregon of the future services of one so eminently useful, and whose usefulness was enhanced by the unbounded confidence of the people over whom he was placed.
    As soon as the intelligence of the death of the lamented Thurston, the faithful, able and efficient delegate in Congress, reached Oregon, General Lane was unanimously selected as his successor, and was elected by an almost unanimous vote of the people.
    Upon the eve of General Lane's departure from Oregon to the national capital as their delegate to Congress, the people, without distinction of party, held a mass meeting to tender "him a public expression of opinion in regard to his distinguished talents and services." Among other things they resolved "that as friends of General Joseph Lane, without distinction of party, we tender him our hearty and entire approbation and admiration of his course," and "that General Lane came to us covered with military glory, and leaves us, upon the business of the territory, clothed with our confidence and attachment." That confidence and attachment the people of Oregon have ever since manifested toward him, by continuing him as their delegate in Congress until the territory was admitted as one of the states into the Union, when, in obedience to the unanimous voice of his party, he became one of the Senators from that state.
    All the responsible positions to which Gen. Lane has been called were unsolicited and unexpected by him, what but few public men can say, and he has filled them with signal ability and success. Endowed with a strong and practical mind, stored with the most useful knowledge acquired by extensive reading and accurate observation; sound, liberal and conservative in his views of the policy and principles of our government, he combines personal traits of character, eminently calculated to win the popular heart, with a warm, generous and manly spirit, with a kind, frank and social disposition, with a demeanor so modest and unpretending that he excites no one's envy, but he has acquired an influence and popularity which but few men attain.
    In Indiana, in the legislature and with the people, he was universally popular, and one of the leading men of the state, and styled "her favorite son." On the battlefields of Mexico the soldiers viewed him as invincible, and he was the pride of the officers of the army. In Oregon his name is a tower of strength. In the halls of Congress his popularity and influence are unsurpassed. It was chiefly owing to his exertions that the bill to admit Oregon into the Union passed the House at the session before last.
    The passage of that bill was attended by great excitement. It was violently opposed by the ultra men, North and South. When the final vote was taken, a breathless silence reigned through the hall and the crowded galleries, broken only by the emphatic answer of yea or nay, as the members answered to the call of the clerk for their vote, as the vote was being taken members were to be seen in all parts of the hall, keeping count, and when Felix K. Zollicoffer responded to the last call, parties from all parts of the hall surrounded General Lane with their warm and hearty congratulations, which indicated the result, and when formally announced by the Speaker from the chair, round after round of applause rose from the members in the hall, which was caught and repeated by the crowded galleries of anxious spectators, with waving of handkerchiefs by the ladies, and clapping of hands by the sterner sex, which showed that "he lives in the hearts of his countrymen." When the news of the passage of the bill, and that a seat in the Senate was thereby secured to Gen. Lane, spread through the city there was a general rejoicing by the citizens, and the demonstrations of honor paid to General Lane at his lodgings that night were of the most enthusiastic character. A band serenaded him with the most delightful music, the people assembled in crowds, the strong men of the nation were there and made congratulatory speeches from the portico of Brown's Hotel, which were received with the enthusiastic cheers of the assembled masses,which made the welkin ring. Gen. Lane appeared, and responded to the unexpected compliment in a chaste, appropriate and eloquent speech, then opened his rooms and his heart to receive his friends, and gave them the best cheer that could be provided at so short a notice.
    The fidelity, ability and success with which General Lane has represented the interests of his people in Congress is attested by the fact that, from the time he was first elected, he has been re-elected their representative, with little or no opposition, for a period of more than eight years, until, by an almost unanimous vote, he was chosen one of the United States Senators, by the legislature, upon the admission of Oregon into the Union, having received forty-five of the fifty votes cast.
    Short as has been his service in the Senate, he has more than sustained the reputation he acquired in other spheres of duty. His remarks in the Senate, on the 18th December last, on the territorial question, did honor to his head and his heart. They breathed the spirit of a patriot and the sentiments of a statesman. He enunciated the true principles of the Constitution in a concise, but clear and forcible, expression of the heresy of squatter sovereignty, and the duty and importance of maintaining the equality of the states, in all their constitutional rights in the territories and elsewhere, in order to preserve "the Constitution and the Union, the richest political blessings which Heaven has bestowed upon any nation."
    To preserve the Constitution, and to perpetuate the Union, the equality of the States must be maintained, was the sentiment he expressed and enforced, with such strong and practical arguments as will carry conviction of their truth to the mind of every patriot who reads them. In the language of a distinguished Senator, who arose immediately after General Lane concluded his speech to expression the deep gratification he felt at its delivery, it contained more conservatism, more of genuine nationality, more of that broad sentiment which covers this whole country, than any speech which had been pronounced in the Senate during that session, and it might not be extravagant to add, during half a dozen sessions.
    No man has a purer or brighter record as a citizen, a patriot or a statesman than General Lane. The prudence, wisdom, firmness and ability which he has displayed to the responsible trusts committed to him, whether as the commander of armies in battle or as a legislator in the state or national councils, illustrate his fitness for the second office in the gift of the nation, for which he has been unanimously nominated.
    In sunshine and in storm he has been true to Democratic principles as the needle to the pole.
    His sound national views of governmental policy, with a patriotism broad enough to embrace with equal warmth his whole country, commend him to national, conservative men, in every quarter of the Union.
    But few public men have ever lived so strongly entrenched in the affections of the people as General Lane. From the toiling masses has risen to his high position by the force of his intellect and the energy and purity of his character. With no vanity to grow into arrogance from success, he is as simple and unpretending in his manners as a child, endowed with some of the finest attributes that can dignify man--brave, generous, kind and true. While he commands the admiration, he wins the warmest friendship, alike of the high and the low, the rich and the poor.
    Pages might be written giving the details of many noble, brave and generous deeds which have characterized his eventful life, which are the secret of his success, and the reason of his strength with the people, who are always prompt to appreciate and reward merit.
    In conclusion, we will relate only one incident, which occurred after the suppression of hostilities by the Rogue River Indians, in southern Oregon, in the spring of 1853, an incident which illustrates his sterling patriotism, and the kindness and generosity of his heart, which stamps him as one of the noblest of nature's noblemen.
    As soon as General Lane heard of the outbreak he left his home, and repaired to the scene of hostilities as a volunteer, and placed himself under the command of Captain Alden, of the 4th Infantry, United States army. The regular troops not being sufficient to quell the disturbance, volunteers were called for. Governor Curry, learning that General Lane had proceeded to the scene of action, forwarded him, at once, a commission of brigadier general. The hostilities were promptly suppressed by a short but decisive battle at Table Rock [the treaty took place at Table Rock; the battle, however, was fought near Evans Creek], on the part of the regulars and volunteers, with the Indians, in which General Lane was severely wounded in the right shoulder, when, through his great influence with the Indians, a treaty of peace was made with them. At the ensuing session of Congress a law was enacted to pay the volunteers for their services. Major Alvord, the United States paymaster, paid the troops in full, with the exception of General Lane, who did not appear to claim the amount due him. He then wrote to him that there were due for his services about four hundred dollars. General Lane replied that he had offered his services without intending to receive any compensation, simply because he deemed it his duty, whenever war broke out in this country, to contribute his aid in suppressing it, desiring no other reward than the consciousness of having done his duty in aiding to protect the homes and the firesides of his people from the assaults of the enemy, and directed the amount due him to be paid for the benefit of two orphan boys, the only survivors of the Ward family, who were most cruelly murdered by the hostile Indians. These were the children of a large family of emigrants, whom General Lane had never seen, but whose active sympathies were deeply touched by the cruel butchery of the entire family, except these two little boys saved from the slaughter, but left without a home to shelter them, or a friendly hand to relieve them in their deep distress and destitution.
    The life of General Lane will stand out prominently in history as that of a remarkable man, illustrating the fact that the humblest individual may, under our free and liberal institutions, attain the highest point of distinction, by industry, energy and perseverance, and will furnish an example to include ardent and ambitious minds to emulate his virtues, and cultivate their noblest faculties, with the confident assurance of the most triumphant success.
Beaver Dam Democrat, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, September 29, 1860, page 1


    GENERAL JOSEPH LANE.--Joseph Lane was born in North Carolina on the 14th of December, 1801. The years of his childhood and youth were spent in the family circle of his father, who was for some years a resident of Henderson County, Kentucky. At the age of twenty years Joseph Lane married Miss Polly Hart, and settled in Vanderburgh County, Indiana, and there for more than twenty-five years led the life of a farmer. At that early age he began to assume prominence among men, and his mental and moral qualities were recognized by his fellow citizens, who made him their representative in the legislature of the state of Indiana, and he filled this position during nearly all his residence among them. When the Mexican War began, State Senator Lane resigned his seat and made preparations to take part in hostilities, and was elected colonel of the second regiment of Indiana Volunteers, then on its way to the seat of war. Before his departure he received a commission as Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and was ordered to report for duty at General Taylor's headquarters at Brazos, Texas. During the campaign which preceded the battle of Buena Vista, General Lane was actively employed and in the glorious victory achieved by the American troops he took a very important part, commanding the left wing of Taylor's army. He was severely wounded by a bullet in the shoulder, but, in spite of pain, remained upon the field until victory was assured. Distinguished by his conduct in this battle, and praised by his commander, General Lane immediately attained a position in the public estimation second to no other officer in the service. The period of enlistment of his brigade had now expired, and the General accompanied it to New Orleans, where the troops were mustered out. This duty performed, he returned to General Taylor's army, but was almost immediately ordered to join General Scott, who was now on his celebrated march from Vera Cruz to Mexico. General Lane, leading a brigade composed of the Fourth Ohio and Fourth Indiana Volunteers, with several independent organizations, numbering, altogether, 3,000 men, set out upon his march to reinforce the American army then fighting its way, step by step, from Puebla to the City of Mexico. General Lane's services were arduous in the extreme. The route swarmed with guerrillas and organized bodies of Mexican troops, who resisted his advance and were successfully defeated by him at Huamantla, on October 9, 1847; at Atlixco on the 19th of the same month, and at Tlaxcala on the 29th. Matamoros, fifty-four miles from Puebla, was taken by assault on the 22nd of November, and on the 14th of December the headquarters of General Scott were reached. Subsequently, General Lane and his soldiers were actively employed in the closing battles of the war, and in clearing the country of guerrillas. In January, 1848, an attempt was made by his division to capture General Santa Anna, but unsuccessfully. General Lane took Orizaba in the same month, and on the 24th of February defeated the infamous Padre Jarauta, the guerrilla chief, at Tehualtaplan. This action closed the war, and the General returned to the United States, having attained an enviable reputation as a military officer, and, what was dearer to him, the unbounded regard of his fellow soldiers. It has been customary to call him the "Marion of the Mexican War"--a fit designation for an officer so bold, courageous and full of resources, and withal so patriotic in mind and acts. The government's appreciation of his career was marked by the bestowal of the rank of Brevet Major General of Volunteers, his commission dating from the battle of Huamantla. It has well been said that no officer of his rank who served in the Mexican War rendered such important services to his country or gained greater fame by his abilities and courage. Returning to his quiet and peaceful home in Indiana, General Lane sought rest from the fatigues of military life, amid the pleasant surroundings of his rural abode. But he was not destined to remain long in inactivity, for his unsolicited and unexpected appointment to the governorship of the newly organized Territory of Oregon drew him from his former mode of life and cast his lot with those who were henceforth to be his fellow citizens. He came to the Pacific Slope by way of New Mexico and Arizona, accompanied by a military escort and arriving in San Francisco in February, 1849, took passage to the Columbia on a sailing vessel and arrived at Oregon City, on the Willamette, on the evening of March 2, 1849, and next day issued his proclamation as Governor of the Territory of Oregon--her first and by far her most distinguished executive. The duties of his office were discharged with uncommon tact and justice until in August of the following year, when, a new political party having come in power, his successor was appointed. The General now spent a short time as a miner in Northern California and also participated in Kearny's campaign against the Rogue River Indians in 1851. In the latter part of that year he was chosen territorial delegate to Congress. In 1853 be distinguished himself greatly in the Rogue River War of that year, and he received a severe wound at the battle of Evans Creek. The subsequent treaty with the savages was brought about largely through his influence, as related elsewhere. Subsequently, until the admission of Oregon into the Union, General Lane served the people, as their delegate in Congress, with distinguished fidelity. In 1857 the state testified her appreciation by his election as United States Senator, a position which he held until 1861. In 1860 the Democratic convention at Baltimore nominated the popular General and Senator for the office of Vice-President of the United States on the ticket with John C. Breckinridge. The details of the ensuing canvass are, after the lapse of over twenty years, still fresh in the popular mind. General Lane's political beliefs led him to throw the weight of his influence in favor of the South, in the beginning of the mighty struggle that was about to commence, and yielding to his honest convictions of justice and right, he retired to his home near Roseburg, and never again entered public life. The remaining years of Joseph Lane's career were spent on his farm and in the bosom of his family. Having withdrawn from politics and from the public service of his fellow men, he concentrated upon agricultural pursuits the powers of mind and energies which had distinguished him in previous occupations. His character may be compared to that of Washington, who was content to hide in the placid retreat of Mount Vernon the qualities which had shone in the highest station. Not having had the advantages of a thorough education in his youth, the General, at the age of three score, set about making up the deficiency by a course of systematic study, and by most uncommon perseverance and resolution acquired a store of the most valuable of all learning, the facts which modern science teaches. In such a manner the General passed the later years of his life, surrounded by his children and grandchildren who were bound to him by ties of more than ordinary affection and regard. In the exercise of the most cheerful hospitality and in the society of his relatives and friends, the fitting termination of a life so eventful and laborious was rounded to completeness. His work was done, and as his long and well-spent existence drew to a close, it was with no thought of regret at wasted opportunities that the old General looked back upon the dead years. Joseph Lane died in April, 1881, having nearly attained the great age of eighty years. He left but few of his companions behind him, and of all the officers who reached eminence in the Mexican War, he was the last to bid adieu to earth. General Lane was a man whose unyielding integrity, subjugation of personal prejudices and determination to speak the truth under all circumstances, were the rarest things in political or public life. His perfect frankness did not take the form which it assumes in worse balanced minds of a desire to speak unpalatable truths in season and out of season. Perhaps there never was a politician who was so little of an egotist, and whose judgment was so little swayed by personal feelings. He belonged to that class of statesmen who deal with persons rather than with principles, but he showed little ambition to be merely a popular statesman. The student finds in his life much that is commendable--unbounded patriotism, integrity that has never been impeached, and a wise judgment that always left his constituents satisfied. In all his intercourse with the world there were acts of the finest and most delicate feeling which may well command the respect and admiration of all, never acting for effect, but always consciously and laboriously striving for the good of others. This great patriot, whose career was so manly and noble as any that have ever been enacted, attained, without seeking it, a place in the hearts of his countrymen, which the masters of popular applause might envy. He who has now gone from among his kindred, full of years and of honors, was a good and a great man, genial in his nature, wise in judgment, truthful to the last degree, and doing with might whatever his hand found to do.
A. G. Walling, History of Southern Oregon, 1884, page 531-532


Dates of the births of the children of Gen. Joseph Lane
Millisa Lane       - 1821 - Indiana   (Andy Barlow)
Nathaniel Lane   - 1823 -       "
Ratliff Lane        - 1825 -       "
Joseph Lane        - 1827 -       "         (Dec. 14?)
Mary Lane           - 1830 -       "         (Shelby)
Simon Lane         - 1832 -       "
Emily Lane          - 1834 -       "         (J. C. Floed)
John Lane            - 1837 -       "
Winnifred Lane   - 1840 -       "
Lafayette Lane    - 1842 -       "          (Nov. 12)
    Capt. Nathaniel Lane--steamboat pilot on Mississippi--asst. Indian agent in Oregon Territory--1849: merchant in Portland, Oregon--owned interest in mills at Oregon City--father of Dr. Harry Lane--United States Senator from Oregon--who died in 1917.
    Ratliff Lane--died at New Orleans of yellow fever on one of the flatboat trips from Evansville to N.O.
    Joseph Lane--Fought in Mexican war age 20--rancher-mine owner & merchant in Oregon
    Simon Lane--rancher-mine owner & merchant
    Col. John Lane--left West Point & served with Gen. Lee in the rebellion--marker at Gettysburg--age 24 in 1861
    Lafayette Lane--lawyer and legislator--father of the Rt. Rev. Arthur Lane (monsignor)--converted to the Roman Catholic faith Albany, Ore.
    See Indiana Sentinel, Dec. 24, 1851, which speaks of the General's flatboat trade with New Orleans.
Nina Lane Faubion handwritten notes, Joseph Lane Papers


    When my father, General Joseph Lane, back from Washington in 1853, we came with him. We arrived in Oregon City on May 14, 1853. I was a little over 13 years old. I was married years later to Captain L. F. Mosher, who had been my father's aide in the Mexican war and who had also served with him in the Rogue River war, being wounded not far from Jacksonville. Sixteen years [was] not considered young to marry in those days. I received my proposal when I was 13 years and two months old. I was in New Orleans and Mr. Dean proposed to me. I had been in Oregon but a few months when a young man who had known me in Indiana came clear out to Oregon to marry me. He was a mighty nice young fellow, and my father and mother liked him, but I was only 13½ years old, and they told him I was too young. He came to our home in the Umpqua Valley and went away disconsolate. We put him up a nice lunch of fried chicken and other things for his stage ride to Portland, wrapping the lunch in a freshly laundered handkerchief. After he got home he wrote me he would always save this handkerchief on account of his love for its original owner. My sisters always thought that was a good joke, for it was my sister's handkerchief.
    Possibly because my father was so prominent in politics, or possibly because girls were scarce, or it is barely possible it was because I was considered rather an attractive young man from southern Oregon, Captain L. F. Mosher, who had come from our home in Indiana and who had recently been appointed register of the land office at Winchester, moved next door to us. He suddenly discovered that the little girl he had known had grown up to be a young woman and laid siege to my heart like the very impetuous soldier he was. I found that I cared for him more than the young man I was engaged to, so I broke the engagement. My former lover blamed Captain Mosher for my action for breaking the engagement and challenged him to a duel. They met at the foot of a butte near Winchester, but their seconds were able to adjust the matter, so the duel did not take place. The young man to whom I had been engaged left Oregon, and I saw a notice of his death recently in a Kentucky paper. He died worth more than a million dollars.
    My father was the last of the generals of the Mexican war to die. Scott, Taylor, Worth and Wool, Butler and Kearny, Patterson, Pillow and Pierce, Cushing and Cadwalder, Shields and Whitman.
    The breaking out of the Civil War broke many lifelong friendships in Oregon. My brother left Oregon, went south and became a colonel in the Confederate army. My father's sympathies were with the South, which alienated many of his friends. After the war many of his old friendships were resumed. He and Colonel J. W. Nesmith had long been friends, but they were estranged during the war. Before my father died etc. [sic] Judge Matthew P. Deady in writing of the meeting of General Scott and my father in San Francisco 1859 at the time that General Scott was on his way to Oregon to settle a controversy over San Juan Island, which threatened war between Great Britain and the United States, while my father was on his way to Washington D.C. as Senator from Oregon, said: General Lane stepped toward General Scott, Scott rose and said: "How are you my old friend and fellow soldier?" Lane responded, "General, my career as a soldier was a brief one, but I had the honor of serving under one of the greatest generals of the age."
    After he had served as the first territorial governor of Oregon, my father went to northern California, where he worked in the mines. In 1851 he was elected a delegate to Congress. In 1853 while leading a charge against the Rogue River Indians he was shot through the shoulder.
    Some years ago a relative of mine ran across, in a curio shop in Salt Lake City, one of the old Breckinridge and Lane medals. On one side of the medal is a portrait of Breckinridge and on the other is a most excellent portrait of my father. It was gotten out at the time Breckinridge and Lane were running for President and Vice President of the United States in 1860. The Democratic Party was divided, and Lincoln was elected. My father never again ran for public office. He lived on our farm near Roseburg until his death on April 19, 1881. He was always very active, both physically and mentally. He directed the operations of the farm and spent much of his time in reading history and keeping abreast of the questions of the day after his retirement from political life.
-     -     -
    We started from Washington D.C. for Oregon March 19, 1853. After Father had served as Governor in 1849 and '50 he was elected delegate from Oregon. There were 22 in our party, my father and mother with ten children and ten other relatives. Off Graytown on the Isthmus of Panama, the captain of the man-of-war there invited us all to take dinner on board his warship. I remember it yet as a very enjoyable day. On the Pacific side of the Isthmus there was a dispute between the natives and the white men, and it looked for awhile as if there was going to be trouble. Our party was left to the last, and the natives refused to take us out and would not let the white men take us. Father signaled to the man-of-war, out in the offing, and they sent in a long boat manned by bluejackets and took us out to our vessel. With our party there was Captain Lafayette Mosher, who had been a lieutenant with my father in the Mexican war, and who was afterwards promoted to captain. I was 13 at the time, but a few years later I became Mrs. Mosher. My husband Lieutenant Mosher had worked in the law office of Pugh and Pendleton in Indiana. Pugh was captain of the company of which my future husband was a lieutenant, so that when Captain Pugh resigned Lieutenant Mosher became captain.
    We came from Panama to San Francisco on the Sierra Nevada and from San Francisco to Portland on the Fremont. We reached Portland on May 14, 1853. Victor Trevitt, whose monument is now a prominent landmark on Memaloose Island in the Columbia River, with some other well-known citizens met my father at Portland as we got off the boat and asked him to run for delegate to Congress. Immediately on landing at Oregon City, my father started his campaign, and two weeks later was elected. While my father was campaigning my mother and we children stayed in Oregon City. Supreme Judge O. C. Pratt lived in Linn City, just across from Oregon City. He was leaving Oregon and suggested to my mother that she buy his furniture. She bought his upholstered furniture and a long pier glass.
    As soon as Father returned from the campaign he arranged to have us go to our ranch in the Umpqua Valley. My brother had built a house for us there. The roads in those days were nothing to brag about, and as we were passing along a cut on the side of a hill the wagon fell over a bluff and broke out furniture into bits, and of course the pier glass broke into fragments. My mother picked up some of the largest of these to take along. I can remember yet how the squaws who came to see us were delighted when Mother gave them a piece of the glass about the size of your hand. Look and feel [sic].
    We had only been in our house in the Umpqua Valley a short time when John Fullerton and I. B. Nichols came up from the Cow Creek country to get my father to raise some volunteers to go against the Rogue [River] Indians. My father at once enlisted a party of volunteers and started south. They had several skirmishes with the Indians in the latter part of August, and at the battle of Evans Creek my father was shot in the shoulder. Almost in the same place that he was wounded in the Mexican war. The Indians asked for a peace talk, and Chief Jo said he would get the chiefs together and meet my father at Table Rock.
    My father went to Washington, and Captain Mosher went to Jacksonville to the mines. Through the influence of my father and of Pugh and Pendleton Captain Mosher was appointed registrar for the land office at Winchester. Later [he] moved to Roseburg. He held this office until election of Abe Lincoln in 1860. At Winchester he moved next door to us.
    My husband did not belong to any church.
    We were married on our place, White Oak Farm, in west Roseburg. My husband practiced law from 1861 to his death in March 1890.
Winnifred Lane Mosher autobiography, typewritten transcription, Joseph Lane Papers. The format of the typescript suggests it likely consists of notes taken during an oral interview.


Gen. Jos. Lane Dead.
    The veteran warrior and statesman, Gen. Joseph Lane, is no more. Quietly and peacefully at his home in Roseburg, Tuesday night, April 19th, at 8:45 o'clock, his soul took flight from its mortal tenement. For several weeks he had been gradually failing, and but few were surprised when the not unwelcome messenger, to him, gave the final summons.
    Gen. Lane's life was an eventful one. Born in North Carolina in 1801, his life is almost coeval with the Republic. In 1823 he was elected to the Indiana Legislature, where he continued until 1846, when he resigned his seat in the senate to enter the ranks of the army then being raised for the war with Mexico. He was soon raised from a private to the rank of a brigadier, and then a major general; he was present and engaged in many of the hard-fought battles of that war, and bore honorable wounds attesting [to] his bravery. At the close of the war in 1848, he was appointed, by President Polk, Governor of Oregon Territory; made the trip overland by the southern route, arrived in Oregon City, March 2, 1849, and on the same day issued a proclamation making known that the Territory was then under the laws and control of the United States. In 1851 he was elected a delegate to Congress, which position he successively held four terms. On the admission of the state in 1859 he was elected a Senator, retiring therefrom in 1861. The ability displayed by him in the Senate induced the regular Democratic convention in 1860 to nominate him for Vice President; the split in the party, however, caused the defeat of the ticket upon which he ran. Since that time he has lived in private life, but his influence has been exerted nevertheless, and his opinions have had great weight in shaping public events in this state. His name is interwoven with the pioneer history of our fair young state, and his acts have redounded to her glory. No stain has ever attached to his fair fame. Honor was his guiding star, and while others became rich from office he never profited therefrom and died poor. Rest in peace, honorable old man! Few names in our country's history are brighter than thine.
Eugene City Guard, April 23, 1881, page 4


FUNERAL ORATION.
DELIVERED BY COL. J. W. NESMITH AT THE TOMB OF GEN. JOSEPH LANE,
AT ROSEBURG, OREGON, APRIL 22, 1881.

    FRIENDS: A great and good man, full of honors and of years has paid the debt of Nature and gone to his final account; we, his neighbors and friends, are assembled to pay honors to his remains, by consigning them to their final resting place. We now look the last time upon the kind and genial face of one of Oregon's oldest and best friends. The great heart that has beaten responsive to our welfare so long, is still in death, and the body that contains it bears the scars of honorable wounds received in defending our country's honor and in the protection of the early settlers of our state. A short time before our friend passed away, I received a letter from him filled with expressions of kindness, and from which I copy the following: "When it shall come my time to cross over, I shall expect you to be present at the laying away of all that remains of your old friend." Subsequently, when too feeble to hold the pen, he dictated, and the hand of affection wrote the request that I should speak a last kind word to his neighbors and his friends over his remains. With a sorrowing heart I shall attempt to comply with the last request of an old friend and comrade in arms, who was once my commanding officer. Conscious that our deceased friend's best eulogy is to be found in the somber history of his long and eventful life, and in the virtues that adorned his character, I shall attempt no fulsome panegyric, but will confine myself to the narration of a few historical facts connected with the services he has rendered to his country and to his adopted state.
    Joseph Lane was born in North Carolina, on the 14th of December, 1801. His father removed to Henderson County, Kentucky--then a frontier state--in 1804. The educational advantages of the son were meager. From early boyhood until he attained the age of twenty years, he was alternately employed upon the farm, in the office of the county clerk, and in a country store. In 1820 he was married to Polly Hart, and settled upon a farm in Vanderburgh County, Indiana. The following year he was elected to the legislature. For twenty-five years, almost continuously, he represented his county in one branch or other of the state legislature. When the war commenced with Mexico in 1846, he resigned his seat in the State Senate and enlisted as a private soldier, his company, with several others, having assembled at New Albany and formed a regiment. Lane, the private soldier, was elected colonel. Shortly afterwards he received from President Polk a commission of brigadier general. He immediately set out for the seat of war in command of three regiments of Indiana volunteers, and in two weeks' time landed at the Brazos and reported for duty. His brigade was assigned to Major General W. O. Butler's division. At the battle of Buena Vista he commanded the left wing of the army, and commenced the action by attacking a division of the Mexican army numbering 50,000, commanded by General Ampudia. In the course of the battle he was in the hottest of the fight and was severely wounded by a musket ball, which passed through his right arm near the shoulder, but remained upon his horse and in command of his troops until the enemy were routed and driven from the field. That night he received complimentary congratulations from the "rough and ready'' old soldier, General Taylor, who never wasted words in undeserved praise. Thus within a few short weeks after the farmer was engaged in peaceful pursuits upon the banks of the Ohio, he had "set a squadron" in the field and developed the able general, successfully commanding a division of the army in one of the hardest-fought and bloodiest battles of the war. In June, 1847, he returned to New Orleans, where the Indiana regiments were disbanded. Returning to General Taylor's line he was ordered to join General Scott. Landing at Vera Cruz September 16th, he took up the line of march for the City of Mexico, in command of 3,000 troops. On October 9th he defeated Santa Anna at Huamantla. On the 19th he attacked a strong force of guerrillas at Atlixco and took the place. On the 29th he dispersed another guerrilla force at Tlaxcala. On November 22nd he took Matamoros, which was strongly fortified, capturing a large amount of ammunition and military stores; and on December 14th reached General Scott's headquarters in the City of Mexico and was highly complimented by the hero of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. The brilliant exploits of General Lane and his brigade of 3,000 men on this memorable march from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico have but few parallels in the annals of modern warfare. Their line of march was over the same general route pursued by Cortez in his conquest three hundred and twenty-eight years before, and which Prescott has so graphically described. To successfully conduct an aggressive campaign, with a mere handful of troops in the heart of an enemy's country, gives evidence of a high order of military talent possessed by the commander, who had but a few months' experience in the art of war. On January 15th, 1848, General Lane left the City of Mexico under orders to scour the country between the capital and Vera Cruz, to rid it of guerrilla marauders. After an unsuccessful attempt to surprise and capture Santa Anna, he took Orizaba, and was engaged in other successful partisan operations. On February 16th he was sent out by General Scott in pursuit of the robber Jarauta, and on the 21st reached Tulancingo, where General Paredes narrowly escaped capture. On the 24th he came up with Jarauta at Zacualtiplan, where a severe fight ensued, in which Jarauta was wounded. This was the last fighting in the Mexican war. From the mere, brief mention that I have made of General Lane's career in Mexico, it must be conceded that he exhibited soldierly qualities of no ordinary character. By the secrecy and celerity of his marches, the quick, hard and unexpected blow, together with his plain and unassuming demeanor, he gained the sobriquet of "The Marion of the Mexican War," and all adventurous, enterprising soldiers, who sought distinction by hard service, desired to serve in "Lane's Brigade." He had great natural talent for the military profession, which, with wider and broader opportunities, would have developed the most brilliant of soldierly qualities. No officer of his rank who served in that war rendered so important services to his country, or gained greater fame by his courage and intrepidity, than our deceased friend.
    Of all the generals who served in that war, he was the last survivor. Scott, Taylor, Worth, Wood, Butler, Kearny, Patterson. Pierce, Kearny, Pillow, Shields, Cushing, Cadwalder, Quitman, and last, Lane. All have fallen into line, in waiting for the bugle call.
"On fame's eternal camping grounds,
    Their silent tents are spread,
And glory guards with silent rounds
    The bivouac of the dead."
    In 1848, Congress having passed an act organizing a territorial government for Oregon, General Lane was appointed the first Governor. He crossed the plains with a small escort by the way of New Mexico and Arizona, arriving in San Francisco in February, 1849, where I made his acquaintance, and was his fellow-passenger on board the old fast India brig Jannett. On his arrival at Oregon City, March 3rd, he issued a proclamation, and at once assumed the duties of the office, which he discharged until August, 1850. As Governor he was prompt and efficient in the discharge of his duties, and during his administration he caused the arrest, trial and execution of the Indians who had participated in the Whitman massacre of 1847. In 1851 he was elected Territorial Delegate to Congress, and was successively elected until the state was admitted into the Union in 1859, when he was chosen United States Senator, and was an unsuccessful candidate for Vice President in 1860. In 1861 his senatorial term expired, when he returned to private life. For the next fifteen years, with his book and gun, his life of quiet and dignified retiracy was passed near the summit of a neighboring mountain. During the recess of Congress in 1853, General Lane was engaged in gold mining in the Rogue River Valley, when suddenly the Indians assumed a hostile attitude, killing many persons and burning nearly all the houses from Cow Creek on the north to near Jacksonville. He at once rallied the settlers, and was placed in command, and driving the Indians north in the direction of the Umpqua. On the 24th he fought the battle of Evans Creek, where he was severely wounded. Subsequently, and through his efforts, the treaty of Table Rock was concluded on the 10th of September, and under it peace was maintained for the succeeding two years.
    I served under his command in the Rogue River campaign of 1853. We had in 1849 explored together the regions of the Siletz and Yaquina Bay, and I believe we were the first white men that crossed out over the bar at Yaquina. We made the passage in an Indian canoe, and imperfectly sounded the channel to the sea. In other explorations and associations I had ample opportunities to know General Lane well. During the ten consecutive years that he represented the Territory and State in the national councils, he was always prompt and efficient in the discharge of his duties, and Oregon is indebted to his efforts for much valuable legislation. His name is honorably engraven upon the pages of our early history, while his reputation is of a national character. As an officer in command of troops, he was strict in the enforcement of discipline, while his thoughtful care for those under him, and the inherent kindness of his nature, caused his subordinates to regard him with the affection of a father. As the swift messenger, that mocks at time and space, spreads the news of the death over the broad republic, many a war-worn veteran will drop the silent tear.
When the brave guardians of a country die,
    The grateful tear in tenderness will start,
And the keen anguish of the reddening eye
    Discloses the deep affection of the heart.
    In all the exalted positions that General Lane occupied, he never forgot his origin as one of the toiling people; his respect for the dignity of labor was such that the humblest farmer or mechanic always found in him a sympathizing friend ready to aid and advise. He led a life of remarkable abstemiousness and frugality, coupled with industry, to which may be attributed his preservation of bodily health and sound intellect to the age of fourscore years.
    During the latter years of his life, when advancing age and the pain of his old wounds disqualified him for great physical exertion, he became a hard and constant student, devoting the most of his time to the study of the works of the best authors, and thus acquired a great fund of scientific and valuable information, for the acquisition of which opportunities had been denied him in his youth. In private life he was a man of pure and noble sentiments, eminently kind, sociable and agreeable. He was generous to a fault, and suffering humanity never appealed to his pocket in vain, as long as there was anything in it. I recollect that when the government sent out a paymaster with funds to pay us for our services in the Rogue River war of 1853, he signed the payroll, and directed that every cent of his pay should be turned over to some destitute orphan children, survivors of the Boise massacre; and then borrowed money from a friend to purchase a suit of clothes and pay his expenses to Washington City, from whence he promptly remitted payment as soon as he drew his mileage. In his association with the world he was always the gallant, chivalrous, polite and modest gentleman. Those were inherent qualities which the rough garb of the farmer, miner, hunter, frontier Indian fighter, gold-bedizened epaulets and uniform of the general, or the habiliments of the governor, or the senator, could never change or obscure. He always treated ladies with the greatest deference, while children rarely escaped his caresses. In old times we used to joke him about his fondling with children, as a means of obtaining popularity, but those of us who know him longest and best came to regard it as an evidence of the gentle kindness of his great heart. He had associated much with the distinguished men of his time, and among those were Clay, Calhoun, Webster, Marcey, Buchanan, Douglas, Seward, Chase and others known to fame. He personally knew General Jackson, and was at the impressible age of fourteen when the battle of New Orleans was fought. Many of his Kentucky neighbors and friends had marched to the aid of Jackson and the defense of the imperiled city, under General John Adair, and when they returned home were full and overflowing with the praises of Jackson, who had long before won the admiration of the people of the Southwest by the brilliancy of his Indian campaigns. Those things made an impression upon the boy's mind that death alone could eradicate. Jackson's honest, plain, simple political creed, coupled with his superb achievements and dauntless courage, made him Lane's beau ideal of the soldier-statesman and patriot. It was the homage that one honest and brave man pays to those qualities in another. I have often thought that General Jackson furnished the model after which Lane's character was formed. We know that they possessed many splendid traits in common. Both were the product of frontier civilization, and Nature had been more lavish in her bounties with them than the schools. Each had gained great distinction in the military services of the country, while simplicity of character, honesty and directness of purpose, and sympathy with the people, were their common characteristics. Perhaps by some intuitive process each had adopted and adhered to views upon the great questions of tariff and finance which were in accord with the master minds of the world that have attempted to elucidate those recondite subjects. Both were brave and unselfish patriots, whose chief desire was the welfare of their fellow citizens.
    Gen. Lane was always exceedingly scrupulous about the large sums of public funds at different times entrusted to his care for disbursement, and no complaint was ever made of his appropriating to his private use a dollar not his own. Rings, lobbyists and jobbers never had his aid, while he despised every form of speculation and frequently denounced the speculators. He sincerely believed that all moneys wrung from the hands of the toiling people in the form of taxes should be honestly appropriated to public uses. I never knew of his being engaged in litigation, and he would as soon thought of compromising his honor as an honest debt. In danger or in battle he was always cool, discriminating and alert, and as brave as a lion. I do not think that the man knew what fear was when he had a duty to perform.
    I speak of his dauntless courage by the light of experience I had in standing by his side under the frowning shadows of Table Rock on the 10th of September, 1853, when our little party of eleven men, unarmed, and the General, badly wounded, were surrounded by seven hundred hostile and well-armed savages, who threatened our lives in retaliation for the death of one of their tribe. It was then that the eyes now closed in death seemed to emit sparks of fire, and the now-paralyzed tongue poured forth words of natural eloquence, mingled with a haughty and dignified defiance that seemed to inspire our enemies with an awe and admiration due to some superior being. But for the coolness, the defiant courage evinced by our commander, I believe our little party would have furnished another illustration of the barbarous instincts of the savage for the treacherous shedding of blood.
    During our friend's illness, he had all the loving sympathy, kind care and attention that most devoted filial affection could bestow, and sank to rest surrounded by three generations of sorrowing descendants. Our friend has departed to "that undiscovered country whose bourne from whence no traveler returns," and we are sadly admonished that "the paths of glory lead but to the grave." His good deeds will survive and his memory will be cherished. As we review his long and honorable career his friends will have no occasion to invoke protection from the charitable maxim, De mortuis nil nisi bonum. ["Of the dead, nothing unless good."] Whatever of enmity has ever existed between him and others, on account of ephemeral political differences, are silenced, however, in the solemn presence of death. How sorry and contemptible would those transient asperities appear if paraded at the portals of the tomb; and for my own part I contemplate their past existence with emotions of sorrow and regret.
    Farewell! good, brave and generous old friend. With heavy hearts we consign your honored remains to their last, long home. May they rest in peace!
Transactions of the Tenth Annual Reunion of the Oregon Pioneer Association, 1882, page 81


AN OREGON SENATOR.
Joaquin Miller's Tribute to His Life.
THE POET'S FIRST TEACHER.
The Stormy Career of General Joseph Lane--
His Love of Peace and Letters.

(Written for the Chronicle.)
    I do not know where General Lane was born. I do not care. This unimportant fact can be found in almost any book of biographies, however. In truth, the place of a man's birth or death, the date of these events, are of the least consequence. The world is so full, the histories are so filled with illustrious names, that one who attempts to remember the dates of their birth, death and so on is in danger of becoming a mere catalogue. I doubt, indeed, if it is important to remember a man's name except insofar as it stands out as an expression signifying some great example of virtue or of valor. These examples by the wayside of life as we walk on, lifting up like a cross on an altar in a dark night with a lamp burning--these are what serve us, light us, do us good. We need the light. We do not really need to know even the name of the saint, much less the date of his birth or death.
    Lane first came to the surface in Congress, from Indiana. He next volunteered as a private soldier in the most unnecessary war with our neighbor republic. We soon hear of him as a general. He is named "the Marion of the Mexican War" in the dispatches of the commander of the American armies. Of course this appellation was a bit of affectation, if not downright falsehood, on the part of those seeking to build a pedestal of glory for themselves on the inglorious battlefields of Mexico. I only mention the circumstances as indicating that this man from the Wabash wilds probably did his duty.
A HARDY PIONEER.
    I would prefer, however, to omit all this bloody business of unhappy Mexico from his life. It is some apology for the part he took in the conquest to say that he was then young, unread and had not at all attained to that larger growth and development that widened, refined and made beautiful his life when I knew and loved him in his maturity. Aye, small glory indeed for any man who took part in the murder of those gallant Mexicans who fell defending their capital. Smaller glory, even shame and oblivion, for those who instituted this brutal war of invasion. Let our historians make its page as brief as possible, that our children may forget it.
    Soon after returning from this war General Lane was sent out to us in the Territory of Oregon as its Governor. He located and settled on a ranch in the Umpqua Valley, in the central part of what is now the State of Oregon, built a cabin and with his own hands plowed and planted and reaped his new fields like any other farmer and settler in the wild and remote West. Here it was, I should say, his soul was born and began to grow. In this vast solitude, this isolation and solemnity of his cabin home, with wife and children only for weeks and months at a time, going to the little village called the capital only once about every two years, this germ of greatness, the soul that was in him, began to grow and glow and to be beautiful. And it grew from this date on steadily and upward, as a growing flower to the date of his death, more than a quarter of a century later, near this same isolated spot. In the great Indian war that swept the land from Northern California to British America this man, who had come to abhor war, was compelled to leave his little home and lead us in battle.
A WOUNDED WARRIOR.
    It was a desperate time. Even my Quaker, peace-loving father, who had never fired a gun in his life, I believe, was enrolled as a soldier and shouldered, not a gun, but an ox-whip, and drove away for the war. I, a mere lad, lay wounded under the trees, when an express rode by and gave the glad news that General Lane was coming at the head of all Oregon in arms. I never saw such enthusiasm. He was loved, adored, deified. Battle rock, the most magnificent fortress ever seen--a natural castle--was another lava beds. But it was carried by storm, and the plucky Oregonians soon floated the stars and stripes on the summit of this wonderful battlement and General Lane went back to his plow. But the mature and entirely thoughtful man had even more time to read, reflect and philosophize now than before. For besides other wounds, his right arm had been badly shot, and for a long time he could neither swing his ax nor follow the plow.
    When Oregon became a state, Lane, as a matter of course, was sent back to the federal capital as Senator, and right here, it seems to me, began that misunderstanding that followed him to the end and induced the writing of this sketch.
    Lane found, after long years of absence, the Southern element dominant as before. He found it more than dominant; he found it domineering, insolent. But he kept with the South, not for policy, but for peace.
    Southern Senators, Southern ladies, flattered, petted and praised this man from the far Oregon, called him "the Marion of the Mexican War," than which nothing could now be more distasteful, for his soul had grown to despise all that, and they insisted in placing this peaceful and peace-loving Oregon farmer at the head of affairs.
    It is to be frankly admitted, however, he gradually, and finally gracefully, yielded to this policy. And at last, when he was named as the possible Democratic nominee for President, I regret to confess that he laid aside his grandeur like a garment and went down into the arena a gladiator.
JOAQUIN'S FIRST SCHOOLMASTER.
    But his was no brutal fight or unfair one. I invite attention to this fact, and if any man in his republic can put his finger on an unclean spot of this man's senatorial robes from the day he put them on till his defeat as the regular Democratic nominee for Vice President and his final retirement, let it be done now.
    How it sets one to thinking, wondering at the freaks of fate to sweep the mind back over those stormy days and see Ben Butler, even then, the chiefest, the stormiest, the ugliest and most contentious figure, indeed, in all Charleston.
    It would open the floodgates of contention too widely to more than refer to Lane's position on the great issue of his time. I can only insist that it was for peace, peace, all the time peace, and yet all the time the belligerent and I regret to say even offensive South kept posing him for a hero of war; this man, who all the time offered peace and love and amity for all, who all the time wanted to get back to his plow and his pine woods of Oregon. My letters from him at this time breathe but this one thought. He wanted to get back, get out of it all and sit under the oaks and read Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius. This was the ambition, the desire of General Joseph Lane at the time he was a candidate for Vice President of the United States, being deified by one party, disemboweled by the other.
    I am compelled to speak of myself somewhat now to show my connection with this great and good man and how I came to know him well--better than any other man now living, perhaps.
    I may almost say literally this man taught me to read. He certainly taught me to read the books above named, along with perhaps a dozen well-thumbed old masters, which he knew so well that if I misread a single word as we lay under the oaks--I reading, he lying on his back and looking up at the birds--he would correct me. I know there is a vague impression that General Lane was an ignorant man. Well, I am not learned enough to be good authority, but I have mixed with many educated men since and I am bound to say, so far as I can judge, he was the best-read man I have ever yet met with. His letters are the most perfect in all respects I have ever received. He wrote in the old-fashioned, full, round style, every letter like print, not even a comma missing in letters of the greatest length. Using the simplest Saxon, he always said much in little--a duty of every writer of everything.
A LOYAL FRIEND.
    In the spring of 1862 I returned from Idaho to my parents in Lane County, Or., with a few thousand dollars, and found my old friend had not an advocate in all his state. I never knew such unpopularity. They were even proposing to change the name of Lane County. An enterprising young man, Anthony Noltner, had started a little paper here [the Eugene City Herald] and into this I threw my money, became its editor and was at once dubbed by the press as "Joe Lane's boy." And I fought for my dear old friend from that day till our paper was meanly and maliciously suppressed by the government, with all the might that was in me.
    General Lane, meantime, hated, hooted at, despised, returned to Oregon, and while crossing the Calapooia Mountains on his way home, was accidentally shot through the breast. He reached home, however, and lay nearly a year on his back. The roar of war filled the ears of the world at the time, and bigger events overshadowed him and his troubles. But he did not care greatly for himself at any time. His letters of this period are full of pity for the North and for the South; large and human pity, such as you find in Plutarch or Virgil when they speak of another age than their own.
    I visited him when again on his feet, and I recall with pleasure the fact that the now old man was full of strength and content. On the day he was 65 he and his son, since a member of Congress, went out shooting, and I saw the old Senator bring in a seven-pronged buck on his shoulders.
    Ten years later, on my return from Europe, I sought him out. "He lives three miles east and four miles perpendicular now," said one of his sons, pointing up the mountains. Poverty had driven him from his ranch in the valley.
    I found this old man, now approaching 80 years, felling a tree in front of his little log cabin. He came forward, ax in hand, to meet me, his aged wife shading her eyes with a lifted hand as she looked from the cabin door, wondering what stranger could possibly have climbed this mountain to their humble hermitage.
AT REST AT LAST.
    And what a talk we had; how he wanted to know all about Europe, a world he had never seen, but which he knew so well. How interested he was in my work, patting me on the head and calling me his own boy, believing in me entirely, bidding me to go with God's blessing; to be good, to be great if I could, but be good always.
    And here on this mountaintop, with the companion of his bosom for more than fifty years, the sun of this old Roman Senator's life went down. Nothing was said of him at his death, for no one knew him in his life. I lay this handful of leaves on my dear dead. It is all I have to give; I, a robin, bring leaves for one who was lost in the woods, one who lay down alone and unknown and died in the wilderness of this life. He lived frugally and died poor, while others lived extravagantly and grew rich. Not a dollar of this nation's money ever found its way to this simple and sincere man's pocket. He died not in want, for his children are well to do, but poor; very poor and very pure, as he had lived.
    And in conclusion I perhaps should add that General Joseph Lane never contributed, or was ever expected to contribute, one dollar towards the support of "Lane's organ" while edited by "Joe Lane's boy."
    His enemies finally induced the suppression of the paper with the purpose of injuring him. But let me add here that every dollar sacrificed by that malicious and unnecessary act was two young men's money, earned mostly in the mines of Idaho, by the hand that pens this tribute.
JOAQUIN MILLER.        
San Francisco Chronicle, April 22, 1883, page 1


GENERAL JOSEPH LANE.
The Story of the Life of the First Governor of Oregon.
How He Rose from Obscurity and Won Distinction as a Soldier and Statesman.
His Remarkable March to the City of Mexico under Generals Scott and Taylor.
What He Did for the Far Western State--A Visit to His Tomb.

(Special Correspondence of the Leader.)
    Roseburg, Southern Oregon, February 26.--On Tuesday last, Washington's birthday, I made a pilgrimage to the tomb of General and Mrs. Joseph Lane, who sleep side by side in one of the picturesque localities for which the valley of the Umpqua is so famous. As lies Ohio's greatest son, "slain for the Republic," among countrymen who honored him in life and in death are true to his unattained memory, so rests General Lane, the brave soldier, the faithful friend of Oregon and lover of America, in the midst of a people who paid homage to his worth through many long, eventful years, and who now, in public or at the fireside, ever speak his name reverently.
    The vault which encloses the dust of the General and his heroic wife crowns a gentle elevation in the Masonic Cemetery, near Roseburg. The carriage road thither winds off among the lofty hills, and in the rainy season furnishes in no sense a pleasure ride. The practicable route for pedestrians is the bed of the Oregon & California Railway, which shortens the distance to about a mile and a half. The mausoleum is but a simple arch of masonry, covered externally from base to top with a coat of cement, and closed in front by a two-leaved iron gate upon whose massive black pickets hang several floral decorations, dried and faded by time. The moment the visitor who has any knowledge of General Lane's character approaches the structure he is reminded of some of his distinguishing traits. It is suitable and simple in high degree. It was built before his demise, and, it is said, according to his express directions.
    Naturally, perhaps, the opening faces the sunset, for both the sleepers had reached the far western slope of their lives
ERE THEY WERE BORNE THERE FOR REST.
    Cut in a plain tablet of white marble one may read the record of their names, birth, age and death. There is no word of sentiment, no eulogy. All is unadorned fact. It is said that the warrior-statesman visited the place shortly before his death to inspect the finished work, and after doing so remarked:
    "It suits me exactly, and I am ready to occupy it." And briefly thereafter he did.
    A few strong, branching oaks stand around in the unimproved ground. Their very distorted limbs, covered with mosses, cast crooked shadows down the eastern slope of the hill. In the topmost boughs several tufts of mistletoe had attached themselves, greedy for the life of the sturdy monarchs. In course of time the latter will succumb to the rapacious parasites, as did the rugged soldier to the wasting disease induced by wounds received long years ago in Mexico. [Lane was wounded in the shoulder.] Over the ground circled a half-dozen meadowlarks, filling the air with their loud, clear melody. Could sweeter hymn be sung over the dead? On the east a long, narrow valley stretched away northward, flanked by ranges of lofty hills. Through this valley thunder the trains of the Oregon & California Railway only a few rods from the tomb. Far to the north a sharp cone thrusts itself toward the sky. At its base lies the first farm owned by General Lane after his advent upon the coast, as the first Governor of Oregon, away back in '49. Turning toward the south the town of Roseburg appears fully in view. In it may be seen the little cottage in which the General's last days were spent, together with the homes of several of his children. Between the village and the cemetery flows the noisy Umpqua River, a swift, muddy, crooked and in places dangerous stream. Looking toward every point of the compass, nature's features are grand. Here comes a bold, massive spur, close down to the very brink of the river. Elevations tower on every hand. Toward night, when the element of weirdness will be added to the scene, I had rather be absent. All in all, though, the place is a beautiful one in which to waken "when the Son of Man shall come with all the holy angels with him."
    The following outline of General Lane's life and
SERVICES TO THE ENTIRE COUNTRY,
and to the states of Indiana and Oregon particularly, is drawn from archives in the possession of Mrs. Judge Mosher, a daughter of General Lane, living in Roseburg:
    Joseph Lane was a native of Buncombe County, North Carolina. He was the son of John Lane, one of three brothers, who, in old colonial times lived near where the city of Raleigh now stands. These brothers were clever, intelligent, old-style gentlemen, and all rendered good service in their country's struggle for independence, John entering the army when quite a youth, and just in time to take part in the battle of King's Mountain. He continued therein until the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Toward the close of the last century, he settled in the above-named county, about four miles from the village of Asheville, where his son Joseph, the subject of this sketch, began his eminent career December 11, 1801. In 1804 the family emigrated to Henderson County, Ky., and there resided some years. That was a period of Kentucky history during which it was neither easy to obtain the necessities of life nor to secure opportunities for education. "Money," said Mrs. Mosher, "was not to be obtained. Commodities were paid for in labor."
    Joseph's boyhood and youth were passed successively on his father's farm, in the office of the county clerk, and in a country store. In each of these positions he exhibited the qualities which secured his future elevation and success. Some years having elapsed, the family crossed the Ohio and located in Vanderburgh County, Ind. Here, when not yet twenty years of age, Joseph invited a courageous young woman of his native state named Polly Hart to become Mrs. Lane. Though surrendering a heart for a Lane [sic] she consented, and immediately after their marriage they settled upon a farm. Something over a year later Mr. Lane was elected a member of the Indiana Legislature from the counties of Vanderburgh and Warwick. He was then barely twenty-one, yet such was the confidence inspired by his ability and integrity that his fellow citizens were willing to trust the interest of their district to his care at the capital. From that date forward he served almost continuously in one or the other branch of the state government until 1845, when he resigned a seat in the Senate
TO ENTER THE ARMY,
then being raised for the war with Mexico.
    Senator Lane enlisted as a private soldier, but upon the concentration at New Albany of several companies for organization into a regiment, he was elected their colonel. Before his departure, however, for the scene of strife, he received from President Polk a commission as brigadier general of volunteers with orders to report for duty at General Taylor's headquarters, at Brazos, Tex. Quickly thereafter General Lane set out at the head of three regiments of Indiana volunteers, and in two weeks had joined General Taylor's command, where his brigade was assigned to the division of Major General W. C. Butler. At the battle of Buena Vista he led the left wing of the army under Taylor, and opened the action by attacking a strong division of the enemy under the Mexican general, Ampudia. Being in the heaviest of the conflict, and careless as to personal danger, he was severely wounded in the arm near the right shoulder, but notwithstanding his sufferings he remained at the head of his troops until the field was won. That night he received high praise from his commander, who, it is said, never wasted words of eulogy upon a subordinate, and soon rose "to a position second to no officer in the service, in the esteem of the army and people."
    In June, 1847, General Lane conducted his brigade, whose term of enlistment had expired, to New Orleans, where the men were mustered out. Thence returning to General Taylor, he was at once ordered to join General Scott, now making his famous march from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. Accordingly, with his usual celerity of movement, General Lane landed at Vera Cruz September 16, leading a force of 3,000 troops, composed in part of the Fourth Ohio and Fourth Indiana Volunteers. Taking up the line of march for the "Wonderful City," he achieved a series of splendid victories on the way. Swarms of guerrillas with bands of organized Mexican troops infested the route. On the 9th of October General Lane met and defeated a large force of these foes at Huamantla. Ten days later he overcame another formidable body at Atlixco, capturing the place. On the 29th a similar army was routed at Tlaxcala. November 22, the city Matamoros, though strongly fortified, fell into his hands with a large supply of ammunition and military stores. About twenty days later he joined his command to the forces of General Scott, having performed an achievement quite as brilliant as Sherman's march to the sea. A part of his reward was a hearty compliment for his celerity and success from the "Hero of Lundy's Lane." The government testified its appreciation of his services by bestowing upon him a commission as brevet-major general of volunteers, dating the favor from his victor at Huamantla.
    It has been said that General Lane's line of
MARCH TO THE CITY OF MEXICO
nearly coincided with the route pursued by Cortez in his conquest of that country three and a quarter centuries before. Not having the history of the Spaniards' movements at hand, and not daring to trust memory, the statement cannot be verified by the writer. Omitting numerous other exploits performed by General Lane on the field of Mexico, suffice it to say that he returned to his home near the Ohio, not until peace had perched upon the American flag and he had won for himself the enthusiastic regard of all his troops. General Lane was the survivor of all that brilliant galaxy of officers who shone in the Mexican War. Their names are among the brightest on the pages of American military history.
    General Lane was destined to enjoy but short respite from duty. On the 14th of August, 1848, two years after the treaty with England, which secured all this vast Northwest to the United States, the Territory of Oregon was created by Congress. It was toward the close of President Polk's administration. He was anxious to see a staunch territorial government set up at once and immediately upon the passage of the bill, forwarded to General Lane in Indiana a Governor's commission, and urged him to accept the trust offered him. The bearer of the commission was Major Joe Meek, one of Oregon's remarkable characters. He set forth the new Territory's interests and necessities with such irresistible eloquence that General Lane accepted the position on the spot and with the same promptitude he had displayed in Mexico, arranged his business affairs, and in three days actually set out on his journey to the remote West. Major Meek, who had been appointed Marshal of Oregon, accompanied him, together with a military escort of twenty men, under Lieutenant Hawkins. The route chosen was the old Santa Fe Trail, through New Mexico and Arizona. "The journey," says the General, "had never before been accomplished in winter. The little force left Fort Leavenworth, September 10, 1848, and arrived, all that was left of it, in San Francisco sometime in February, 1849."
    With little delay the territorial officers set sail in an old East India-built brig for the Columbia River, which they reached in eighteen days; steamers now make the distance in three days. The ascent of that stream and of the Willamette to Oregon City, the seat of government, was made in open boats, General Lane and Major Meek taking a hand at the oars a good share of the way. The distance is about one hundred and twenty-five miles
    Reaching his destination on the 2nd of March, Governor Lane next day issued the proclamation and
ASSUMED THE DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE
just one day before President Polk's retirement from office. With one voice the people of Oregon hailed the arrival of General Lane with joy. It was an evidence that at last the aegis of the government had extended its protection over them. He had also been appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs, then far from being in a state of quiescence in the Territory. His combined duties were onerous in the extreme, and after eighteen months' service under the new administration he tendered his resignation. Such, however, was the wisdom of his official acts during this brief time that today General Lane is by all parties conceded to have been the ablest executive Oregon has ever had.
    The winter following his resignation, 1851, was passed in trying his fortunes in the gold mines of Northern California; I presume with no very encouraging results. That year he was triumphantly elected Delegate to Congress from the Territory. Upon his return to the coast, at the close of his term, his family, till then residing in Indiana, accompanied him. By repeated elections, General Lane was continued in Congress until Oregon was admitted into the Union, February 14, 1859. Then the new state immediately sent him to the Senate for the short term. And the succeeding year he allowed his name to be used as the candidate for Vice President on the ticket with General John C. Breckinridge, which ticket, as all men know who remember the controversies of that portentous time, was defeated. General Lane's senatorial term expiring in March, 1861, he then retired to [private] life. It is known that at the outbreak of the war a high rank was offered him in the Confederate army, but he refused to array himself against the government, and also that a similar position was tendered him in the army of the Union, which he likewise declined.
    During the recess of Congress, 1853, there occurred a fierce outbreak of the Rogue River Indians in Southern Oregon, which sent dismay into the mining camps and among the defenseless settlers of that valley. Hearing the startling announcement at his home in the Umpqua, General Lane sped to the scene of atrocities, organized a force of the citizens, pursued the Indians to their retreat in the mountains,
DEFEATED THEM IN BATTLE,
receiving another serious wound in the arm which was disabled at Buena Vista, and finally effected with them the historic Table Rock Treaty of peace. As results of this treaty the Indians accepted homes on a reservation of their choice, and the rich Rogue River Valley entered upon a period of great prosperity and development.
    From 1861 to the end of his career, April 19, 1881, General Lane resided chiefly on his farm, high up among the hills of the Umpqua, where he devoted much of his time to books and studies from which he had been debarred in his youth, through privations incident to frontier life at the dawn of the century. Here Mrs. Lane, heroic even in her girlhood, and for nearly seventy years faithful and charming in every relation of life, laid her burdens down August 16, 1870. The General remained in his now-desolate mountain home until nine years later, when he built a pleasant cottage in Roseburg, where resided several of his children.
    The descendants of General and Mrs. Lane are ten children, of whom nine have outlived them, fifty grandchildren, thirty-nine of whom survive, and twenty-nine great-grandchildren, only three of whom have died. This goodly multitude is scattered all over Western Oregon, from the Columbia River to the California border. Two of the General's sons, Colonel John and Hon. Lafayette Lane, are able lawyers in this city. The former, a graduate of West Point, entered the Confederate service at the outbreak of the war, and, as the General once wrote a friend with reference to the step, "got badly whipped." The latter represented Oregon in the Forty-Fourth Congress. Two grandsons are editors of papers. One, a son of Judge Lafayette Mosher, formerly a Cincinnatian, and late of the supreme bench of Oregon, conducts a lively Democratic sheet at Phoenix, A.T. The other pushes forward the temperance cause in the columns of the Prohibition Star at Eugene, Ore.
    General Lane's leading traits of character were promptness and decision in all his acts; excellent judgment in shaping affairs, civil or military; remarkable courage, unflinching honesty, unquestioned patriotism, tender sympathy for the suffering. He died leaving none of this world's wealth, but was rich in the esteem of his fellow men.
EMMA H. ADAMS.
Cleveland Leader, March 21, 1886, page 11


JOSEPH LANE.
    General Lane was born in North Carolina December 14, 1801. At an early age his father moved to Henderson County, Kentucky, where he lived until the age of twenty. At this early period of life he married Miss Polly Hart, and they moved to Vanderburghh County, Indiana, where for some twenty-five years he led the life of a farmer. Being an active participant in all matters of enterprise that would bring the greatest good to the county, his abilities were soon recognized and he was sent as its representative to the legislature, remaining a member of it until the breaking out of the Mexican War, when he resigned as state senator to accept the colonelcy of the Second Regiment, Indiana Volunteers. He was badly wounded in the shoulder at the battle of Buena Vista, where he commanded the left wing of the army, but, nothing daunted, he refused to leave the field until victory was assured. Subsequently, while in command of a corps destined to the relief of General Scott, he defeated the Mexicans in several engagements. After joining General Scott, he was actively engaged very prominently in the war until peace was restored. From the rank of colonel he rose through merit and bravery to brigadier general and major general of volunteers. No sooner had the sun of military life seen its setting than that of [the] political dawned again, for on his return from the battlefield he found himself commissioned Governor of Oregon Territory. He immediately set out for the scene of his new duties, coming via Mexico and Arizona, accompanied by a military escort to San Francisco, where he took passage on a sailing vessel for Oregon City, the then seat of government. On the 3rd of March, 1849, he issued his proclamation as Governor. In 1851 he was chosen Delegate to Congress, and served in that capacity until Oregon was admitted in 1859 as a state, when he was elected one of its first United States Senators. In 1853 he distinguished himself in the Rogue River Indian War, receiving a severe wound at the battle of Evans Creek. The subsequent treaty with the Indians at Table Rock was brought about largely with his influence with the hostiles. In 1860 he was the nominee of one out of three factions into which the hitherto victorious Democratic Party had been divided, for the office of Vice President, the nominee for President on the same ticket being John C. Breckinridge. The house divided against itself resulted in its defeat, the Republican ticket headed by Abraham Lincoln being elected. General Lane then retired to his home near Roseburg, where the remaining years of his life were brought to a well-rounded close in the heart of his family. In the spring of 1881 this good and noble man slowly but surely began to feel the ebbing tide of a life well spent, and in April of that year closed his eyes to all things earthly. In battle he was fearless, in political life clean, at home the idol of his family, and among his neighbors none was more loved or respected for his virtues. He left behind a large number of relatives, one of whom, Lafayette Lane, a son, was a member of Congress from this state, and Harry Lane, a grandson, is a well-known physician of Portland; and Eugene Shelby, another grandson, has been for years the agent of Wells, Fargo & Co., at Portland.
Oregon Native Son, May 1899, pages 44-45



    GEN. JOSEPH LANE. In the personal memoirs of distinguished citizens connected with the early history of Oregon, few will be perused with the same degree of interest as that of the late Gen. Joseph Lane, the first territorial governor of Oregon, who will be remembered by many of the older citizens as a man who had a military record excelled by few, and whose public life was full of commendation and above reproach. With each succeeding year the haze of obscurity removes more and more from our view the fast disappearing landmarks of the past, and oblivion sprinkles the dust of forgetfulness on men and their deeds. It is with pleasure that the publishers of this history chronicle the achievements of General Lane, and assist in preserving the record of his useful life.
    General Lane descended from a prominent English family, who settled in Virginia in the early days of its history, but subsequently removed to North Carolina. Several members of the family, including his father, John Lane, participated in the Revolutionary War, and from these General Lane received his fighting proclivities. He was born December 14, 1801, and while still young his father removed to Kentucky, where the young lad grew to manhood. He was married at a very early age, and soon thereafter moved to the state of Indiana. He became a politician at the age of twenty and took an active part in the politics of that state. He was elected to the state legislature and had just passed his twenty-first birthday when the session was called. He was re-elected several times, and further honors were thrust upon him by his election to the state senate in 1846. He resigned the senatorship in favor of a military career. At the beginning of the war with Mexico he enlisted in a company of Indiana volunteers, was elected colonel, and later appointed brigadier general, and immediately marched to the seat of war. He fought with great distinction all through the war, and was breveted major-general for gallantry. During the various engagements in which he participated he received two gunshot wounds, but neither was of a serious nature. At one time a horse was shot from under him and he was wounded, and the other wound was received at the battle of Buena Vista while fighting under General Taylor. Immediately after returning from the war with Mexico, General Lane was appointed governor of Oregon by President Polk, and was the first territorial governor of that territory. He received his commission August 18, 1848, and set out from Indiana for Oregon via New Mexico, Arizona and California. He arrived in Oregon City on the third day of March, 1849; organizing his forces, he issued his proclamation that night, and assumed the duties of the first executive of Oregon Territory under a Democratic administration. His first official act was the taking of a state census, which, when completed, showed eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-five Americans and two hundred and ninety-eight foreign citizens. June 18, 1850, believing that he had been relieved by the appointment of his successor, he resigned the office in favor of the latter. June 2, 1851, he was elected by the Democrats as a delegate from Oregon to Congress to succeed Thurston. In 1853 he was again appointed Governor of Oregon by President Franklin Pierce, and qualified for office. He only served three days, however, and then resigned to run again for delegate to Congress as the candidate of the Democratic Party. The election was held on June 6, 1853, and he was again successful in being elected. Immediately after his election, before proceeding to Washington, he was appointed a brigadier general of the volunteer forces and went to Southern Oregon to suppress the hostile Indians. He was wounded in the engagement at Table Rock, but took an active part against the Indians in the subsequent invasions of 1855 and '56. At the June elections in 1855 and '57 he was successfully re-elected Democratic delegate from Oregon to Congress. On July 8, 1858, Oregon having adopted a constitution preparatory to being admitted as a state, General Lane was elected one of the first United States Senators from Oregon, taking his seat in the United States Senate, and having the oath administered February 14, 1859. His term of office expired March 3, 1861, but in the meantime he was nominated for Vice President of the United States with John C. Breckinridge, who was a candidate for the Presidency.
    In 1851 General Lane took up a donation claim of six hundred and forty acres, two and a half miles north of Roseburg, in Douglas County, and afterwards bought a ranch eleven miles east of Roseburg, on Deer Creek. This ranch contained two thousand acres and he owned it for years, but it was purchased in after years by his son, Simon R. In the meantime General Lane built a handsome residence on the banks of the South Umpqua River, and it was there his closing years were spent. He was also interested in the mines at various times. In his religious views he was a devout Catholic, and his family was reared in the same faith.
    In early life General Lane was united in marriage with Mrs. Mary Hart, and they had ten children, viz.: Mrs. Melissa M. Barlow, who died in Jackson County; Nathaniel H., who died in Portland; R. B., whose death took place in Indiana in 1849 at the age of twenty-three years; Joseph, a retired citizen of Myrtle Creek; Mrs. Mary V. Shelby, of California; Simon R., a retired citizen of Roseburg; Mrs. Emily Floed, of San Francisco; John, a resident of Pierce City, Idaho; Mrs. Winifred Mosier, of Portland, and La Fayette, deceased. The latter was a prominent attorney of Roseburg. He served one term in the state legislature and one term as a member of Congress. His demise took place in 1896.
    General Lane was a genial, kind-hearted man and was greatly beloved by his friends. He was the leader of the Democratic Party in Oregon, and had great influence with Democratic politicians in that state. As a politician he had no superior in his day and generation. At the beginning of the War of the Rebellion his sympathies were openly with the South, but he remained on his farm in Douglas County, near Roseburg, during the entire war, and died there in April, 1881, greatly mourned by a wide circle of friends.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon, Chapman Publishing Co., Chicago, 1904, pages 620-621




Last revised March 28, 2017