The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Letters to Jo

Selected letters (mostly to and from Joseph Lane) and other documents, mostly relevant to southern Oregon, mostly from the papers of Joseph Lane 1835-1906, Lilly Library, Indiana University, transcribed from microfilm. The film also includes typescripts of letters from the Asahel Bush collection, as indicated below. I've added Lane letters transcribed from contemporary newspapers and other sources.
For more on Lane, see here.

Joseph Lane Campaign Ferrotype, 1860
Joseph Lane campaign ferrotype, 1860

Headquarters Third Brigade, First Division,
    Buena Vista, Mexico, February 25, 1847.
    Sir--I have the honor of laying before you the following report of that part of the battle of the 22nd and 23rd inst., in which the forces under my immediate command took part.
    In obedience to your orders on the 22nd, I took position on the left of the field upon which the battle was fought, near the foot of the mountain, with the eight battalion companies of the 2nd Regiment of my brigade, supported by three pieces of light artillery, commanded by Lieut. O'Brien. The four rifle companies of this brigade (two from the 2nd and two from the 3rd Regiment) having been sent, under your orders, together with two companies of Kentucky mounted riflemen, to occupy an eminence and ridge on the side of the mountain, to check the advance of the enemy (two regiments) who were attempting to turn the left flank of my position by climbing the sides of the mountain.
    Those rifle companies took their position in the afternoon of the 22nd--the four companies of Indiana, commanded by Maj. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment--the whole under the command of Col. Marshall, of Kentucky; and soon afterwards the enemy opened a brisk fire upon our forces, but with little effect, which they continued without intermission for three hours. In the meantime my men, being secure from the enemy's balls, and watching their chances and taking good aim, succeeded in killing and wounding some thirty or forty of the enemy. In this engagement my loss was four men slightly wounded.
    During the night of the 22nd the enemy sent a reinforcement of about 1500 men up the mountains and succeeded in occupying heights which commanded the position of the riflemen. My whole command slept upon the field that night on their arms. As soon as it was light on the morning of the 23rd, the enemy opened a severe fire from their whole force on the mountain, now amounting in all to about 2500 or 3000 men, commanded by the Mexican Col. Ampudia, it is believed. Notwithstanding the great superiority of the enemy in numbers, our gallant riflemen held them in check for several hours, killing and wounding some fifty or sixty of their forces.
    About 8 o'clock a.m. of the 23rd inst. a part of the Kentucky Mounted Riflemen and cavalry (dismounted for that purpose) were sent up the side of the mountain to support the forces already there, at which time the fire of the enemy became tremendous, but which was returned by our gallant force for more than one hour longer. My instructions from yourself were to hold my position on the left of the field against any force which the enemy might bring against me in that quarter. The enemy had been in great force all the morning of the 23rd, directly in my front and in sight, but too far distant to be reached by Lieut. O'Brien's battery.
    About 9 o'clock I was informed by Col. Churchill that the enemy were advancing toward my position in great force, sheltering themselves in a deep ravine which runs up towards the mountain directly in my front. I immediately put my columns in motion, consisting of those eight battalion companies and Lieut. O'Brien's battery, amounting in all to about 400 men, to meet them. The enemy, when they deployed from the ravine and appeared on the ridge, displayed a force of about 4000 infantry, supported by a large body of lancers. The infantry immediately opened a most destructive fire, which was returned by my small command, both infantry and artillery, in a most gallant manner for some time. I soon perceived that I was too far from the enemy for my muskets to take that deadly effect which I desired, and immediately sent my aide-de-camp to Lieut. O'Brien, directing him to place his battery in a more advanced position, with the determination of advancing my whole line. By this movement I should not only be near the enemy, but should also bring the company on my extreme left more completely into action, as the brow of the hill impeded their fire. By this time the enemy's fire of musketry and the raking fire of ball and grapeshot of their battery posted on my left flank had become terrible, and my infantry, instead of advancing, as was ordered, I regret to say, retired in some disorder from their position, notwithstanding my own and the severe efforts of my officers to prevent them.
    About the same time, the riflemen and cavalry on the mountain retired to the plain below. The Arkansas cavalry (who had been posted by your orders in my rear at the foot of the mountain to act as circumstances might require) also left their position, the whole making a retrograde movement along the plain towards the rear. At the same time one of the Illinois regiments, not under my command, but stationed at some distance in rear and on the right of my position, also retired to the rear. These troops, the most of them, were immediately rallied and fought during the whole day like veterans. A few of them, I regret to say, did not return to the field at all. By this apparent success the enemy were much elated, and poured down along the side of the mountain on the extreme left of the field their thousands of infantry and lancers and formed themselves in good order along the mountain fronting perpendicularly to where our lines had been posted. At this critical juncture, the Mississippi Regiment, under the command of Col. Davis, arrived on the field, and being joined by a part of the 2nd Indiana, met the enemy in a most gallant style, and after a severe and bloody engagement repulsed them with great loss. In the meantime a body of lancers, 600 or 800 in number, who had passed down along the left toward our rear, made a most desperate charge upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, with a view of cutting off and plundering the baggage train of the army, which was at a rancho near the battlefield.
    This charge was met and resisted most gallantly by those cavalry, aided by about two hundred infantry who had taken refuge there after they had retired from the field. This repulse discouraged the enemy, and the Mississippi Regiment and part of the 2nd Indiana, being joined by the 3rd Indiana Regiment, commanded by Col. James H. Lane, now advanced up towards the foot of the mountain for the purpose of dislodging the enemy's force stationed there. In this enterprise I was aided by Capt. ------'s battery of light artillery, and it was crowned with complete success, the enemy retreating in disorder and with immense loss, back along the side of the mountain to the position they had occupied in the morning, some flying in terror up the sides of the mountain and into the ravines, while a few were taken prisoners. Amongst the last desperate attempts of the enemy to regain and hold the left of the field was a charge made by a large body of lancers upon my command. This charge, for gallantry and determined bravery on both sides, has been seldom equaled. The forces on either side were nearly equal in numbers. Instead of throwing my command into squares to resist the charge, the enemy were received in line of two ranks, my force reserving its fire until the enemy were within about seventy yards, which was delivered with a deadly aim, and which was most destructive in its effects--the enemy flying in every direction in disorder and making a precipitate retreat towards their own lines. About sunset the enemy withdrew from the field, and the battle ceased. In a brief report it is impossible to enter into the details of a day like the 23rd. The fighting throughout consisted of different engagements in different parts of the field, the whole of them warm and well contended, many of them bloody and terrible. The men under my command actually discharged eighty, and some ninety, rounds of cartridges at the enemy during the day. The 2nd Regiment of my command, which opened the battle on the plain in such gallant style, deserves a passing remark. I shall attempt to make no apology for their retreat, for it was their duty to stand or die to the last man until they received orders to retire, but I desire to call your attention to one fact connected with this affair. They remained in their position, in line, receiving the fire of 3000 or 4000 infantry in front, exposed at the same time on the left flank to a most desperate raking fire from the enemy's battery, posted within point-blank shot, until they had deliberately discharged twenty rounds of cartridges at the enemy.
    Some excuse may be framed for those who retired for a few minutes and then immediately rallied and fought during the day, but unless they hasten to retrieve their reputations, disgrace must forever hang around the names of those who refused to return, and I regret to say there were a few of those from nearly every volunteer corps engaged.
    In a battle so fierce and protracted as this, where there were so many exhibitions of coolness and bravery, it is a difficult and delicate task to particularize. But justice compels me to mention Col. Davis and his regiment of Mississippians, who so nobly and so bravely came to the rescue at the proper time to save the fortunes of the day.
    Col. J. H. Lane and the 3rd Regiment of my command were ordered into the action soon after Col. Davis, and the coolness and bravery displayed by both the officers and men of that regiment have rarely been equaled--never surpassed--by any troops at any time. They have done infinite honor to the state and nation that gave them birth. Lieut. Col. Haddon, of the 2nd Regiment of my brigade, aided me in rallying his regiment after they retired, and he in person succeeded in marching a party of them back towards the enemy, with whom he immediately became engaged, and fortunately repulsed them with considerable loss. In another part of the field he succeeded in killing an officer of the enemy with his own hand, by sending a rifle ball through him at a great distance.
    I was also much indebted to Major Mooney, quartermaster; Major Dix, paymaster; the gallant and lamented Capt. Lincoln, of Gen. Wool's staff; and to Lieut. Robinson; for their assistance in rallying the forces after they had retired from their position. They all behaved nobly, and deserve the thanks of the country for the coolness and intrepidity which they displayed on that trying occasion. The latter--acting as my aide-de-camp during the entire day--is entitled to particular attention for the gallant manner in which he executed my orders. Lieut. O'Brien--who commanded the battery of light artillery on my right--is deserving of particular praise for his courage and self-possession throughout the day, moving and discharging his battery with all the coolness and precision of a day of ordinary parade. Major Mooney, quartermaster, and Major Morrison, commissary, attached to my brigade, although not belonging to the line of the army nor expected to take an active part in the battle, are entitled to great honor for their bravery and coolness in promptly rallying the scattered forces at the rancho, who assisted, under the command of Major Morrison, in resisting the desperate charge of the lancers made upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, as by this repulse the whole baggage train of the army was saved from destruction. This important duty they discharged in addition to those which strictly appertained to their respective departments. A statement of the killed and wounded has already been submitted, which need not be recapitulated here. Although censure does justly attach to a few who proved recreant to their duty on that day, yet I am of the opinion that veteran troops, either of this or any other country, could not have fought and won the battle better than those engaged. It is a victory without a parallel in this or any other war on this continent, and the men and officers who did their duty at the battle of Buena Vista deserve to have their names inscribed on the brightest pages of their country's history. Respectfully, your obedient servant,
    Brig. Gen. Com'g. 3rd Brigade.
To Brig. Gen. Wool, U.S.A.
Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 4, 1847, page 1

Puebla Mexico October 25 1847
My beloved wife
    I arrived at this place on the 12th instant. I had much trouble in getting along owing to bad teams, broken wagons and wet weather. Rain almost every day and night; in all it was a hard trip, but not altogether unprofitable to the arms of our country, but on the contrary glorious. On my way up on the 8th I was informed that Santa Anna was somewhere near with a large force. My spies was immediately dispatched to look for him. About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 9th they informed me that he was at Huamantla, a large town twelve miles from the road. I divided my forces, ordered the wagons packed, left 1500 men to guard them and in fifteen minutes from the time my spies came in I was on the road to meet him. After a severe march of three hours I reached the town and engaged him. The fight was severe for one hour, but Santa Anna was completely routed and run off. His force was 2500 and ours 1500; he had his cannon so as to rake the streets. 150 Mexicans were killed and many prisoners taken, two cannon and 30 wagonloads of ammunition and a large number of mules and horses. Our loss in killed and missing fifteen, among them the gallant Capt. Walker.
    On arriving at this place we found our forces shut up in the forts and the enemy occupying the town. I made no halt but marched into town, engaged and drove the enemy out with severe loss. In three days more the town was well filled with the returning inhabitants; stores were opened, and things moving on quietly. On the 18th I learned that Genl. Rea was at the town of Atlixco, 20 miles from this place, with 2000 men and 4 cannon. On the morning of the 19th I was on the road to meet him or hunt him up and bring him to a fight. He came six miles on the road to meet me and the fight commenced. They were driven, contesting the road, for six miles into town, where they opened on us with their artillery. My pieces, seven in number, were run up in close range and opened on the town. The bombardment lasted for one hour, commencing about 8 o'clock at night, and was the most beautiful sight that I ever seen. They ceased firing and sent out and surrendered the town and asked for quarter, which was granted. 219 Mexicans were killed and 300 wounded. Never was a victory more glorious. I have done more to awe the Mexican forces around Puebla than has been done by any other man.
    Joseph is at the castle of Perote where I left him. In a few days he will come up with Genl. Cushing. Perote is a delightful place, and our officers will be kind to him. Besides I left a good servant to take care of him and plenty of money in his pocket.
    I don't see how the Mexicans can hold out much longer; they must make peace, and I would be glad how soon my ambition is fully gratified, and I want to be with my family. Take good care of all my children.
God bless you all
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

New Orleans April 12 1848
Dear Doctor
    I arrived here on the 4th in good health. No vessel going out for several days, so I will be compelled to remain in the city. I would much have preferred being at home, provided always that my peace, quiet and comfort should not be disturbed by the dmd. infernal constables, to me a very unwelcome visitor at any time, and more especially under the circumstances that I received their last visits. In truth I had no money. In this city I borrowed money from a friend before I offered to take my baggage off the boat (unknown, however, to the clerk) to pay passage. On my passage, though a good boat, kind capt. & crew, I suffered in mind all the torments of hell. I would imagine that some personal or political enemy would publish that I had refused to pay honest debts and had to run from the worthy gentlemen above mentioned. I had in my pocket no money to treat my friends, which would very much have relieved my gloomy state of mind. I would often study over the doings of my life & would at times be foolish enough to think that I had rendered good services to the state and especially to Evansville in the arrangement of the state debt. Then again I would be weak enough to claim to myself the credit of having done something in vindication of the injured reputation of the troops of our state. That I had truly sought opportunities and thrown myself in the front of the fight for the purpose not only of doing my duty but now to show to the world that Indiana as well as other states was willing and would do her duty in battle or otherwise & would in my heart curse the enemy for not shooting me in the head and ending gloriously a life, though devoted to my country & family, that has been made miserable by poverty and misfortune. My children are to be raised without education & I shall expect to hear that the subsistence in the way of provisions, which is barely sufficient for them, is sold by virtue of execution. Then things were continually harassing me. My favorite charger, because I could not think of having her sold into the hands of the highest bidder, for she had carried me to battle & to victory at Huamantla, Puebla, Atlixco, twice at Tlascala, at Matamoros & Galaxa, at Teotihuacan & Sequaltepan, has been given to another. Is it certain that she will be treated as she deserves. That thing has harassed me very much. But I have one comfortable reflection. She is in the hands of a well-tried and faithful personal friend. He has been kind to my family in my absence and helped them in need. But, my dear friend, these things are wearing off, and with great pleasure I think of the kindness that I have received from the good people of Evansville without distinction of party. They have been more kind to me than I expected or deserved, for which I shall always feel grateful.
    I will leave on the first boat for Vera Cruz and hasten to the city of Mexico & if there is more fighting to do I will do my duty, and if it is the will of kind heaven that a shot from some escopet may happen to end my life, it will save the repetition of the horrors and sufferings of mind which is to a proud man worse than death that shall be compelled to endure until I can get money to satisfy the cravings of such dmd. rascals as Babcock & others.
    Genl. Taylor arrived in the city this morning. He is in good health, but not well pleased with Clay's letter, as I am informed. He thinks that he has the best chance of success. Nothing late from Mexico. The opinion of knowing ones here is that Mexico will not make peace. I have not, however, changed my opinion; peace will soon be made.
    If I had known that my stay here would have been so long I might possibly have by waiting have got my leave extended or at least have got an answer to my letter. If it has come to hand, forward [it], as I may be held responsible for delay. Visit my family and encourage them to persevere in business, to make no debts and try to get the children to school. Simon, who is a good boy and sensible, cannot write his name. Trouble condition hard reflection [sic] and yet he must work like a negro to satisfy the damned heartless robbers. Oh, cruel fate.
    Can't our property be sold, debts paid, and the children educated. Get Robinson to try and sell. If he can effect a sale I will direct the boys to make the conveyance. Attend to this request; the happiness and respectability of family makes it necessary. Our property is a fortune, but we must pay debts and educate our children.
    See Robinson soon and try and get him to seek a buyer and write me.
    My respects [to] Mrs. Lane and family.
With great respect I am your
        Joseph Lane
Write me often. Let me know things generally.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 11, 1848
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd inst. directing the sum of $6,902.85 to be turned over to Govr. Jos. Lane on account of the Oregon sub-agency, and to inform you that he left here about the 1st instant for Fort Leavenworth, at which place I have just learned from the clerk of the steamer Mandan he was on the 6th last and making his preparations to start on the 9th for Oregon. From another gentleman I learn that there was some uncertainty about his starting so soon, and have accordingly written to him this day by mail and steamboat, informing him that the money, instructions, blanks, commissions &c. are on hand here for him.
With great respect I am sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        John Haverty
            Clerk Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 414-415.

    GOV. LANE.--The steamer Martha arrived from Weston last night. We learn from her officers that Gov. Lane left Fort Leavenworth with an escort of 25 men, under the command of Lieut. Hawkins, on Sunday, the 10th inst., for Oregon, via Santa Fe and California. The officers also report that Gen. Price was expected to arrive in Santa Fe on the second of last month.
Unidentified clipping marked "Sept. '48," pasted onto letter below. Weston is a town in Ohio; the Martha plied the Ohio River.
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 28, 1848
    On the 11th inst. the clerk of this office had the honor to inform you of the departure of Govr. Jos. Lane from this city for Fort Leavenworth on or about the first of this month, and of his having written to him by steamboat & mail, advising him of the amount of funds &c. These letters have since been returned by the postmaster at Fort L. to this office, the Governor having left there on the 10th instant on his way to Oregon.
    The remittance of $6,902.75, advised by your letter of 2nd inst. for the use of Govr. Lane, was recd. here on the 13th. It being no longer available here for the purpose intended, I have respectfully to ask your instructions to redeposit it to the credit of the Treasurer of the United States.
    The documents recd. from your office for Govr. L. have been returned here up to this time, in the hope that an opportunity would occur of forwarding them to Oregon; none such having presented itself, I have this day returned them as directed by the postscript of your letter above referred to.
I have the honor to be sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        T. H. Harvey
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. W. Medill
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 416-417.

   Fort Vancouver 3 March 1849        
To General Lane
    Governor of Oregon
    &c.   &c.   &c.
                We have very lately been informed of your safe arrival in this country and take the earliest opportunity to present our cordial congratulations on an event which we, in common with the other inhabitants of this country, have long and ardently desired.
    We intend shortly to do ourselves the honor of paying our respects to you in person and in the meantime we beg to assure you that it will afford us much pleasure to see you at Fort Vancouver whenever you visit this part of the country.
    The Hudson's Bay Company's overland express will leave this place about the 18th inst. for Canada, and we shall be most happy to take charge of any letters you may wish to forward by that conveyance.
We have the honor to be
Your Excellency's
    Most Obdt Servts
    Peter Skene Ogden
    James Douglas
    Chief Factors H B Compy.
This letter was misfiled as being from 1869. The image of the original can be found on the eighth microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.

Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane

To the Territorial Legislature.
    Oregon City, August 18th, 1849.        
To the Editors of the Indiana State Sentinel:
    Enclosed I send you the message of our mutual friend, Gov. Lane, to the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon. This document, as well as all the Governor's official acts, shows the good sense, and I may add, the good heart of the man, and is well received here by the citizens and assembly. The Governor is very prompt in defending the Indians in their fisheries and other rights, essential to their comfort and subsistence, and on the other hand exacts from them more respect to the rights of our citizens than one not accustomed to them would suppose them capable of yielding. We have had no late difficulties with them, and I believe his policy will secure us against any future difficulty. The Governor is almost constantly engaged in hearing their petty grievances, and redressing them in a plain and summary way that makes them pay respect to the rights of one another, and abstain from depredations upon the citizens. Our legislature is in session. They are men of good sense, and well understand the wants of the people of the Territory. Several of them have filled important stations in the States, and Col. Chapman was once a delegate in Congress from Iowa. The courts in my district are in session. Last week I held court in Linn County, in this, in Champoeg, and next week will hold court in Clackamas, and week after in Vancouver, which will end my circuit. Judge Pratt's circuit will commence 1st Monday in September. I found but little business to do. The grand jury found four or five indictments for small offenses, such as hog stealing and stealing horses from the Indians, &c., in Champoeg. Such things will happen at first, but I think, judging from the mass of the citizens, who are mainly very orderly and honest, that these lawless characters will not long remain amongst us. I was up this, the Willamette Valley, as far as the Calapooia settlements. I never saw a richer valley of land, and the mountain scenery is captivating. The health of the country is good, and the harvest is abundant. This is the greatest country for wheat on the continent. I have never seen finer wheat grow than we have this year in Oregon, not near all of which will be saved for the want of laborers. The ordinary wages for laborers in the harvest field is $6 per day to each man. Every kind of labor commands nearly any price asked for it. The packers, in advance of the emigration, arrived today. They report 8,000 wagons on the road; about 2,000 bound for this Territory, the residue for California. The cholera had been fatal out from Missouri to Blue River, about 400 miles; about 700 deaths, and had abated; but there was much sickness of fevers among the emigrants, and some deaths. We anticipate much sickness and distress among the land emigration. The packers are of opinion that they are rushing and pressing their cattle so hard in order to get out to the mines that they will break them down. I hope there will not be sufficient emigration come here to make us a famine. Our people are returning from California every day with large sums of gold, the product of the mines. It will surprise you I dare say to learn the trade of the Columbia River this year, in comparison with what it has heretofore been. I have before me a statement showing the arrivals and departures of vessels coming in and going out with freight over the Columbia Bar which has heretofore been considered impassable. Since the 7th of May, ships of every size, from forty tons to seven hundred tons burden, amounting to fifty-eight up to the 18th of this month, and not a single incident of a serious character has happened. If the twentieth party of the protection was given to the trade of this river that is extended to the mouth of the rivers in the States, the Columbia would be found to be a much better bar than that of most rivers in the States of its size. The lumber trade of this river is quite an important trade; so of the wheat and flour.
    The Legislature were this evening engaged in devising means to alleviate the suffering of the emigrants. Many of them will not be able to get through, it is believed, with the best assistance we can give them.
    We have no paper published in this Territory, and I cannot furnish you with a printed copy of the Governor's message. He is quite well; left here this morning for the Umpqua Valley, accompanied by Lieut. Talbot, with an escort, to examine Alsea Bay, and to see the Indians of that part of the Territory. It turns out that there are several good harbors on the coast below the mouth of the Columbia River, although it has heretofore been reported an iron-bound coast.
    Yours, truly,
        WM. P. BRYANT.
Fellow Citizens of the Council, and of the House of Representatives:
    It affords me pleasure to tender to you my friendly greeting, on the occasion of your assembling at the seat of government for the first time, under the law of Congress "To establish the Territorial Government of Oregon," to enter upon the discharge of the important duties to which you have been called by the voice of your constituents.
    The task devolves on me,to propose such measures as have in the discharge of my official duties suggested themselves as necessary to promote the interest and welfare of the Territory. In communicating with you for the first time, it is a source of unfeigned satisfaction, calling for mutual gratulations and devout thanks to a benign Providence, that we are in the enjoyment of general good health and prosperity, and that we are at peace with the numerous tribes of Indians surrounding us.
    Widely separated and exposed as are our people, by reason of the great extent of country over which they are scattered, peace and harmony with the natives is of vital importance to the security and success of our settlements. The well being of the inhabitants of Oregon, no less than the cause of humanity, requires that we should always encourage relations of the most friendly character with our red brethren.
    The Cayuse nation remain unpunished for the massacre at Waiilatpu, but the whole tribe will be held responsible until those, whoever they may be, concerned in that melancholy and horrible affair are given up for punishment. A fine regiment of troops commanded by officers who have distinguished themselves in the service of their country are en route for Oregon and may be expected to arrive by the middle of September. It will then be in the power of the government to make this tribe accountable for their wrongdoing, and I can assure you that our government will not suffer the guilty to go unpunished.
    A party of the Shey-wamish and Snoqualmie tribes recently made an attack on the Hudson's Bay Company's fort at Nisqually, in which difficulty an American citizen was unfortunately killed. I shall hold these tribes accountable until the guilty shall have been punished. It is the intention of the gallant officer in command of the forces now in Oregon to establish a garrison of one company on Puget Sound for the protection of the settlements in that quarter, so that no apprehension of any further outrage in that section need be entertained.
    I had the gratification while on a visit to the falls of the Columbia, to bring about a peace, at the request of the chief of the Yakimas, between that tribe and the Walla-Wallas who were at that time engaged in war. These tribes, as also the tribes that I visited on the Cowlitz and Puget Sound, I was pleased to find friendly towards us, and as well as the tribes bordering the settlements on the Willamette and Columbia, anxious to sell their possessory rights to the soil.
    Surrounded as many of the tribes and bands now are by the whites, whose arts of civilization, by destroying the resources of the Indians, doom them to poverty, want and crime, the extinguishment of their title by purchase, and the locating them in a district removed from the settlements, is a measure of most vital importance to them. Indeed the cause of humanity calls loudly for their removal from causes and influences so fatal to their existence. This measure is one of equal interest to our own people. I would therefore call your attention to the propriety of memorializing Congress upon this interesting subject.
    We can recognize in Oregon the material of her future greatness; a climate and a soil extraordinarily productive eminently characterize it. The prolific growth of grain, vegetables and grapes; the natural meadows, untouched by the hand of cultivation, sufficiently extensive to furnish subsistence to innumerable herds of cattle, during the entire year; inexhaustible forests of the finest fir and cedar in the world; never-failing streams which furnish water power of unlimited capacity, show how lavishly nature has bestowed her blessings upon his favored land.
    With the proper development of her agricultural resources, and the improvement of her immense water power, she can supply the entire Pacific Coast with the most important of the necessaries of life and many of the staple articles of commerce. Her immense resources are gradually but surely being developed; her mineral wealth, at present, is not to be computed; gold has been found in several places, in sufficient quantity to induce the belief that there are mines, perhaps extensive ones, of this precious metal within the borders of our Territory; iron, lead and coal are known to exist, and the indications of their abundance are of the most flattering description.
    The Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope of our continent which leads from the ocean to the Rocky Mountains, by which a line of communication can be opened to the great valley of the Mississippi. The navigation from its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of nearly one hundred and fifty miles, is uninterrupted for vessels of the largest class. These obstructions, and those beyond, may be surmounted in a considerable degree by canals and locks. The importance of this immense line of interior communication cannot fail ultimately to secure for it the fostering hand of the general government. It is a source of great gratification to know that the entrance of the mouth of the Columbia is much less dangerous than has heretofore been generally supposed. Many vessels, some of them large ships, drawing from twelve to sixteen feet of water, have, during the present year, crossed the bar, arriving and departing without the aid of pilots, lighthouses or buoys; and not a single accident has occurred to intercept the facility of navigation during the present year.
    It affords me much pleasure to give the subjoined extract of a letter from Captain Wood, of the United States steamer Massachusetts, as such testimonials will have a tendency to disabuse the public mind and remove the prejudices unfortunately existing against the mouth of this noble river.
    "Having waited until about 4 p.m., and seeing no indications that our signal for a pilot had been observed, I stood in, followed the directions I obtained in New York of Capt. R. Gelston, who was here last year in the barque Whitton, proceeding safely and without accident to anchorage in Baker's Bay. There was no one aboard the ship who had ever been here before. From what I saw, it seems to me that if the channel was properly buoyed, and there was a competent pilot stationed at the cape to conduct vessels in, that the entrance of the river would lose its horrors, and in ordinary circumstances be considered safe and easily accessible."
    Congress has made an appropriation for the erection of lighthouses at Cape Disappointment and New Dungeness, and for the construction of buoys to indicate the channels at the mouth of the Columbia and the approaches to Astoria.
    This appropriation, it is to be feared, will be inadequate, in consequence of the high price of labor, occasioned by our proximity to the gold mines of California. I would therefore respectfully advise you to memorialize Congress on the subject, acquainting that body with all the circumstances and facts of the case, and showing that the early completion of these contemplated improvements are of vital interest to the Territory.
    Puget Sound is known to be one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation into a beautiful and important portion of our country.
    I refrain from dwelling further upon topics so interesting as the features and resources of the country, conscious, as I am, that my feeble attempt to delineate them is entirely inadequate to do them justice.
    I am happy to know that many of our people who have been to the mines are returning to their homes and farms, and it is to be hoped are satisfied and determined to remain and renew their farming and other occupations. The gold excitement occasioned the absence of a large part of our laboring population; many of them had failed to put in crops; fine farms are lying idle; consequently, this year, the crops will fall short of an average one. But there is no doubt that with the grain on hand there will be a sufficient supply for home consumption.
    We have good reason to believe that the extraordinary emigration to California, in consequence of the gold mines, will in a short time result in adding so largely to our numbers that our population, now only about nine thousand, will be doubled in the next twelve months. The healthy climate, rich and beautiful valleys of Oregon, will doubtless induce many of them to seek a permanent home amongst us. She will thus be benefited by those mines equally with her sister territory.
    It is estimated that upwards of two millions of dollars in gold dust have been brought into Oregon since their discovery. This new element of prosperity, invested in agricultural and other branches of industry, must have a most cheering effect upon the prosperity of the country. It should, however, always be borne in mind that the wealth of a country does not consist so much in dollars and cents as in the number, virtue, intelligence and patriotism of her population; in cultivated fields, flocks and herds, and those facilities natural and artificial which afford an easy and certain market for its surplus production.
    From the best information I have been able to gather, from estimates and otherwise, the expense of the late Cayuse war may be set down at about one hundred and ninety thousand dollars. This indebtedness has borne heavily on many individuals who advanced money to the provisional government, some of whom borrowed money for the purpose of arming and subsisting the troops, and have since paid those sums out of their own funds, by which they have been greatly injured in their private affairs.
    The justice of the war and the good conduct of the citizens in promptly turning out in defense of their country entitle them not only to the good opinion of government, but to an appropriation by Congress sufficient to pay the expense of the war. It is for you to take such steps as in your wisdom may seem best to ascertain the exact amount of the expenses of the war, and to whom it is due; and to lay the subject before Congress, with a request that they make the just and proper appropriation.
    In regard to donations of land, the people of Oregon have long been kept in suspense. They believe that the faith of the government is virtually pledged to a grant of land to each settler who has made a location and improved it. The immediate attention of Congress should be called to the subject, and their early and favorable attention requested.
    The necessity of good roads, in aiding the settlement, as well as in promoting the present and future prosperity of the country, is too manifest to require illustration. The enactment of laws to this end, and for the making [of] such other improvements, as may facilitate intercourse between the different sections of the country, so far as it may be, within the ability of the Territory, is earnestly recommended. A good road leading from Walla Walla to Puget Sound, one from Chehalis to some point on the Columbia, and another from the falls of the Columbia to the valley of the Willamette, one of the greatest importance to our country in a military point of view, and will doubtless be so considered by our government, if their attention in a proper manner is called to the subject.
    A matter of the deepest interest to the prosperity of the Territory will be the establishment of a judicious system to raise revenue. This is no less demanded for the redemption of the plighted faith of the provisional government, than it is for raising by a practicable and legal method sufficient funds not obtainable from the federal treasury, to meet incidental and necessary expenses of the Territory. While the home government contributes in a liberal spirit to the maintenance of our temporary existence as a Territory, it is expected that all revenue, necessary to the local interests of the several counties will be supplied by a system of equal assessments, levied upon the people who are to be permanently benefited thereby. Your early attention to this delicate but necessary duty is earnestly recommended.
    Your immediate attention is most respectfully urged, to the examination and remedy of the loose and defective condition of the statute laws, declared by the organic act to be operative in the Territory. No others prevail here, except such as were the offspring of the late provisional government, which are coupled with an old and imperfect edition of the laws of Iowa, which were adopted by it, only one or two copies of which are to be found in the Territory. Most of these laws are unsuited to our present condition. Besides they are to a great extent beyond the reach of the body of the people, whose lives and property are to be controlled by authority and rules for their guidance, not to be obtained, or if found, not adapted to the new order of things.
    Certainty, simplicity [and] fitness in the statute regulations of any people united to education and the general diffusion of the laws constitute the most reliable safeguard against the commission of crime, and the surest pledge of general prosperity.
    No duty is more arduous, or more imperatively demanded by the public interest, than that which devolves upon you in furnishing the people of the Territory with good and wholesome laws. The public good as well as a just pride in your legislative reputation call for the application of your best energies and most careful deliberation to this difficult and laborious task.
    I feel it no less my duty than my highest privilege to call your attention to the deeply interesting subject of education. The law of Congress provides that when the lands of the Territory shall be surveyed under the direction of the government of the United States, preparatory to bringing them into market, sections sixteen and thirty-six, in each township, shall be reserved for the purpose of being applied to schools. The munificent spirit displayed by Congress in making so liberal a donation for this purpose is a ground for grateful acknowledgment, and indicates an enlightened policy, which looks to the general diffusion of knowledge as the surest guarantee for the continuance of good government, and the substantial happiness of our people. In this grant we shall have the means of promoting a system of common schools for the education of all the children of the Territory.
    Your attention is invited to the importance of adopting a system of common schools and providing the means of putting them in immediate operation; and when the land becomes available, the system may under wise legislation be maintained and continued without bearing onerously upon the people, and ultimately be productive of the end in view when the gift was made. With a system of general education, sustained by such resources, there is no reason to doubt that in the course of a few years the rising generation of Oregon will proudly vie in respect to useful knowledge and moral culture with that of the older settled portions of our common country.
    The organization of the militia is a measure so identified with the peace, security and defense of our people, that it cannot fail to recommend itself to your early consideration. Your attention is invited to the act entitled "An act to prevent the introduction of firearms amongst the Indians." This law not only prevents the introduction of firearms, but prohibits the sale of powder and ball to the Indian, thereby depriving him in a great measure of the means of procuring subsistence, and if strictly enforced, would produce much suffering among this unfortunate race of people. Humanity requires that we should afford them every facility that we can safely do to ameliorate their condition. It is well known that the tribes bordering the settlements are friendly and well disposed towards us, and that there is no danger to be apprehended from them by placing in their hands the means of procuring subsistence by the chase. I would therefore recommend the repeal of the law, or its modification, so as to discriminate between friends and enemies.
    It will be your duty by enactment to fix the time, place and manner of holding and conducting elections; to provide for the apportioning [of] the representation in the several counties and districts to the Council and House of Representatives; to define the qualifications of voters and of holding office, and also to fix the day of the commencement of the regular sessions of the legislative assembly.
    It will be for you in your wisdom to determine whether you will proceed to locate the seat of government at the present or some subsequent session of the legislative assembly.
    In closing this communication, it only remains for me to assure you of my earnest wish for the adoption of such measures as will tend to the general welfare, prosperity and happiness of our people.
JOSEPH LANE.           
    Oregon City, July, 1849.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, December 13, 1849, page 4

Oregon City December 6th 1849       
    I have just had an interview with Capt. Scott from the Umpqua settlement, who informs me that an Indian of the Umpqua tribe recently came into the settlement and there reported that a party of ten or twelve families from California bound for Oregon have been cut off by the Rogue River Indians, all killed but the children, who are prisoners.
    The following is an extract from a letter just recd. from the Umpqua. "If the Indian report alone was the only grounds we have for belief, I should place much less reliance upon the story, but we have had for the last two weeks a report given us by parties returning from California that ten or twelve families were about starting for Oregon and others reported them actually on the road. The last party of packers who passed about eight days ago reported seeing fresh wagon tracks on the road as far as Rogue River but no further."
    I have conceived it to be my duty to lay this information before you, with the hope that you will be able to send out a small force to the Umpqua and in the direction of the Rogue River tribe of Indians, for the purpose of inquiring into the facts, and if true to recover the captives. Children could hardly be expected to survive the winter; deprived of clothing, exposed to cold and hunger, death would be almost certain. If there is any good reason to believe the report, it seems to me that an effort ought to be made to recover the living.
    I would advise you to see Captain Scott, who will call on you tomorrow morning and give you all the information that he possesses upon the subject. He can also inform you whether a small force could be subsisted and quartered in that vicinity or rather in the Umpqua settlements.
With great respect
    I am sir
        Your obt. servt.
            Joseph Lane
Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received 1848-1852, 1849 No. 21.

Oregon City, October 25th, 1849.       
    Dear Spann:--I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your very friendly letter, by Judge Bryant, and also the proceedings of two public meetings of my good friends of Indianapolis, for which I tender you and give them my thanks. You will, I hope, readily pardon me for not writing sooner. I have been so constantly engaged in the discharge of official duties that I have not had time to write as often to my friends as I would like to.
    I arrived here in advance of all the territorial officers, proceeded to organize the government, caused the census to be taken, made the apportionment, caused elections to be held, convened the legislative assembly, and did all other things required by law and the interest of the Territory.
    Most of the time I have had no assistance, and consequently everything to do. In the management of our Indian affairs I have had but little help. Two sub-agents received appointments in June. One soon after resigned, and the other went to California. In the discharge of this duty, for the purpose of maintaining friendly relations with the Indians, I found it necessary to visit many of the tribes, in their own country. I proceeded to the Dalles of the Columbia, Chutes River, Yakima county, Cowlitz, Puget Sound, the valley of the Willamette, across the Coast Mountains, from the Willamette to the coast at Yaquina Bay; near two hundred miles south of the Columbia.
    I have seen more or less of the people of near forty of the sixty-seven tribes living in Oregon, made out and forwarded a report of all the tribes, their location, numbers, and disposition, as near as could possibly be ascertained; copied the executive proceedings and official correspondence, and forwarded the same to the President, and did all other things necessary to be done, to the best of my ability, honestly and faithfully. The executive books and papers, as also of the Indian affairs, are in good condition, plain and easy to be understood.
    My health has been fine, and I have labored constantly. I have said this much about my doings (which I hope you will excuse) to let you know that no part of my duty has been neglected. I suppose that I shall be removed, but I am determined that it shall be without cause, or at least any reasonable cause of complaint. These are the reasons, my dear friend, why I have not written ere this.
    I confess to you that I am surprised to find that any considerable portion of the Whig Party of Indiana should at any time be willing to fasten upon their state lasting disgrace. It is not deserved. No better troops ever pulled a trigger in their country's defense than the troops from Indiana. Why should they unjustly suffer? They shall not! I shall feel it my duty at all times and under all circumstances to tell the truth, and the honest truth is the only defense of their reputation that they or the state will ever require. If it should be my misfortune to make enemies by defending the reputation of my command, my state, and myself, let it be so.
    While in the Mexican War, it was my fortune to see troops from different states engaged in battle--good troops--but no better than the Indianans. No troops ever did their duty better, and but for the cowardice of Bowles, and the falsehood of others, no troops would have stood higher. And after that unfortunate affair, every Indianan who came under my observation, endeavored by his gallantry and good conduct to convince the world of their capacity to do, under all circumstances, in battle or otherwise, their duty--yea, honor to themselves and their country. And they did so.
    I have seen much of this country and like it. Yet I would much rather be in Indiana. I like the state, God bless her; but I am here, I am poor, and have a large family to support. I can make money, and have concluded to send, by my son, who goes home, for my family. It is like taking my life to bid farewell to my state, but what better can I do? I am not now able to labor as I once could, and here is perhaps the best place for me. He goes fully authorized to sell the homestead, and all my effects, settle my business, pay all debts and leave the home once so dear.
    Please tender my thanks to my friends for their kind defense of my reputation. I am proud to know that no Kentuckian, or other person, can assail it without incurring the displeasure of a generous, kind and good people.
    God bless you, my friend, and the state.
Evansville Daily Journal, Indiana, March 1, 1850, page 2

Columbia River opposite Mr. Burns'
December 8, 1849
My dear wife
    Here I am again going
ahead leaving my kind and loving wife and family anxiously preparing ahead to roll on the billows of the great Pacific asking for favorable winds to widen the distance between me and all that is dear to me but enough I have to go and the sooner I am back the better. I want you to take more than special care of the girls; there is more danger of their men now than of any other kind which grieves me to be away at this time--for God's sake do prevent them from going out of night to parties no matter who courts after them and although Capt. Jones is [from] a highly respectable family yet there is great danger to be found from our daughters' staying all night there or going to parties with them--do prevent them from doing either.
    I do not want to dictate in small matters, but for god's sake look well
to the foregoing, as also to our dear little George, do not let him go about or cross the river without you. I have written to Capt. Couch to send you all shoes, also George a pair of boots.
    Walter Pomeroy says that if you want any money he will let you have it. I only say so to you to let you know what he says.
    Do not sell any of our property till I get back, which shall be soon.
    Tell my old friend the gov [i.e., Joseph Lane] to write me by every ship that leaves for California and to advise me what is best to do, whether to buy a vessel or come home with goods, and if so what kind of goods. It seems to me that furniture is a good article to bring to Oregon.
    My dear wife, take care and do as you think best, and I will be satisfied. Let me here suggest that you employ a cook and for god's sake save
yourself in your old age--my kind love to the children may God bless them and the richest of all blessings on you is the desire of your affectionate husband
W. G. T'Vault                        

On board the brig Josephine
December 9th, 1849
My dear son
    I am now going down the Columbia and will not have an opportunity of writing to you after we leave Astoria.
    I hope you, your mother and sisters are all well and may kind providence guard and bless you with good health until I return.
    My dear George I want you to be a good boy do not run about in the streets go to school, obey your mother and Gov Lane be careful do not go about the river take good care of yourself do not quarrel nor dispute with other boys.
    Write to Capt. Couch for your boots and your mother's and sisters' shoes.
    My dear son I do hope and pray you will do well until I return I will come home as soon as I can nothing will stop me but death or disappointment from being back by first of February next.
    God bless you all I want you to be careful of yourselves do [so] for my sake.
    Give my best respects to Gov Lane tell him I will write from San Francisco as soon as I arrive--your affectionate father
W. G. T'Vault                       
Tell Gov Lane that I will write him every opportunity and do hope that Judge Bryant will not be detained by the [illegible]; I hear she is aground. All is well with me hoping that I may continue so with all at home and elsewhere.
December 9th
W. G. T'Vault

    Articles of agreement made and entered into this 7th day of January 1850 between W. G. T'Vault  of the first part and H. G. Parks of the other, witnesseth the said parties agree to form a partnership for carrying on the slaughtering of beeves, hogs etc., also the establishing [of] a market of meat, vegetables etc. in the town of Oregon City, said partnership to commence from this date and continue unless dissolved by mutual consent for the term of three months, upon the terms following, that is to say--
    The said T'Vault is to furnish a house and lot, the house to be for a slaughter and market house, the market house to house [a] store, the lot to be
suitable for keeping cattle and hogs, also to furnish a capital of two hundred and fifty dollars and to superintend and purchase beeves and cause them to be delivered in the slaughter pen or lot, said T'Vault is to charge no mill for said house and lot nor for any service for delivering stock in the slaughter lot, the said T'Vault is to take a receipt for all monies that he may pay out for marketable supplies and cause the same to be entered on the books of the firm.
    In consideration of the same, said Parks agrees to furnish two hundred and fifty dollars capital stock and to cause the
mass [of] any quantity of beeves suitable for the market to be slaughtered provided the same can be obtained, and to market the same, and superintend the sale of all marketable articles and in fact the said Parks is to superintend the slaughtering of all beeves and hogs and sale of the same as well as all other marketable articles and keep an exact account of the amount of sales and enter the same each day on a book to be kept for those purposes and at the end of each week there shall be a settlement made; each party accounting for this amount he may expend if the same has been expended for the use of the firm it is to apply to the same use of the firm, and said Parks to to charge milling for his services.
    The above agreements are mutual between the parties.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands this day and date above written.
[signed]  W. G. T'Vault
                H. G. Parks
Witness: R. R. Thompson

Extract of a Letter from Gen. Joseph Lane to the Editor.
Oregon City, January 28th, 1850.
    Dear Sir: You will doubtless see the published proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of this place who formed themselves into a company for the purpose of sending to the States to purchase or build two steamers, suitable for the navigation of the Columbia and Willamette rivers. The necessary amount of money was subscribed, and paid. I was kindly selected by the agent of the company. I was so strongly urged, and daily expecting my successor to arrive, and knowing the great necessity of the measure, I at first concluded to go. But upon more mature reflection I declined, and determined not to abandon my post for one moment, but remain in the faithful discharge of my duty until my successor is on the spot. I know the condition of the country and know the necessity of my constant presence in the Territory. So you will do me the kindness to contradict any rumor that may reach the States of my probable return. I did not ask the office; but at the request of President Polk, yourself and other good friends I accepted it, and in twenty-four hours time was on my way to Oregon. I reached Leavenworth by steamboat and there with my own money I purchased horses, provisions &c., and then by the middle of September took the road via Santa Fe; from which place I packed on a mule my provisions and blankets, putting on my pack every morning and taking it off every evening, helped to cook my provisions, and for one hundred and ten nights slept upon the ground or snow without tent or shelter.
    From Fort Leavenworth to Los Angeles in California, my trip did not cost the government a dime. From there to San Francisco I came in the government transport; and from San Francisco to the mouth of the Columbia I paid one hundred dollars, and from there to this place I worked my way in a Chinook canoe.
    Since I have been here I have traveled all over the Territory for the purpose of putting our Indian affairs on proper footing. I have seen most of the numerous tribes and encouraged relations of peace and friendship with them. I have visited tribes never before visited by white men, except in a few instances. During this whole service, I rode my own horse, slept upon my own blanket, and killed game for my subsistence, making no expense to the government. Now, my dear sir, here I am. I have sent for my family, who will come to Oregon next summer. I am poor and getting old--unable in consequence of my wound to work hard. I have no profession to fall back upon; but with the help of my family, being near the gold mines, perhaps I can get along. Actuated by an ardent desire to do my duty, I have had much expense, many hard nights ride in Mexico; quick and bloody fights without regard to personal safety. These things, with my hard winter's trip to Oregon and the faithful discharge of my duty, will not, I feel confident, entitle me to any favor from the government. The facilities given to others are denied to me. But I shall not complain, if I can get my family here. I am willing to say farewell to the States. Goodbye homestead and friends. I shall not again visit our beloved Indiana. God bless her, may she always prosper and grow stronger and stronger in Democracy; and palsied be the tongue that would attempt to injure her reputation.
*      *      *
    With great respect I am, sir, your ob't. serv't.,
    Hon W. J. Brown.                                               JOSEPH LANE.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, June 6, 1850, page 1

(From the Madisonian.)
Letter from General Lane.
    We are allowed to make the following extract from a letter from General Joseph Lane, to a gentleman in this city:
Oregon City, June 6, 1851.       
    Dear Sir: . . . I have been hard at work in the mines. I got home on the 28th of April last, and next day commenced the canvass for Delegate to Congress, and was every day in the saddle until the day of election, which was Monday last, and on that day I was one hundred and twenty miles from home. Dr. Wilson was put in nomination in opposition to me, and warmly supported by his friends. He is one of the early settlers in the territory, a clever gentleman, and good electioneer. The election is now over, and I am elected by over 1,500 majority. . . . I have received more than four-fifths of all the votes given in the territory, over one of the most popular men in it. . . . In a few days I shall set out for the gold diggings in the southern portion of this territory, for the purpose of winding up some unsettled business, and will then leave here (about the first of October) for Washington City.
    . . . Present my compliments to all friends in Indiana, and especially your good lady and family.
                Your sincere friend,
                        JOSEPH LANE.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, August 21, 1851, page 2

Camp Stuart, Rogue River, June 28 '51       
    Editor of the Statesman, Dear Sir:--When I left Oregon City, I promised to write often, but up to this moment I have not had an opportunity to write you. Active operations have ceased, and an occasion is offered for me to redeem the promise which I made, and I proceed to give in brief an account of the various battles which have just been terminated with the Indians on Rogue River by a detachment of the First Dragoons and a number of volunteers, under the command of Brevet Major Kearny, a portion of which battles I had the pleasure of witnessing. On Saturday the 21st inst., while passing through the canon, I was met by a party of men, who informed me that war had commenced in good earnest, and that a severe battle had taken place between Major Kearny and the Indians; that Capt. Stuart had been killed; that others were wounded, and that the Indians were gathering from every quarter. I at once pushed forward, and on Sunday night reached Rogue River Valley, a distance (from the camp) of about 30 miles.
    Soon after picketing our animals an express arrived at our camp on his way to the ferry on Rogue River, who informed me that the Major had by that time set out with his command, dragoons and volunteers, for the purpose of making a forced march during the night in order to attack the Indians at daybreak the next morning. Early on Monday morning I set out with the hope of falling in with the Major or the Indians retreating from his command, and made a hard day's ride but failed to find the Major or the Indians. On Tuesday I proceeded to Camp Stuart with the hope of hearing of the command, but as yet no tidings had been received of their whereabouts. Late in the evening Capt. Scott and T'Vault, with a small party, came in for supplies and reinforcements. They informed me that two battles had been fought, one early on Monday morning, and one in the afternoon. In the last fight the Indians posted themselves in a dense hammock, where they defended themselves for four hours and until the darkness of the night enabled them to make their escape. In both fights the Indians suffered severely. Several of our party were wounded, but none mortally. T'Vault received an arrow through his hat, just grazing his head. By nine o'clock at night we were on the march, and joined the Major at 2 o'clock Wednesday morning, when I had the pleasure of meeting my friends Applegate, Freaner and others.
    Early in the morning we set out to carry into effect the plan of operations which had been agreed upon, and proceeded down the river and on Thursday morning crossed about seven miles from the ferry. We soon found an Indian trail leading up a large creek, and in a short time overtook and charged upon a party of Indians, killing one. The rest made their escape in a dense chaparral. We again pushed forward as rapidly as possible until late in the evening, when we gave battle to another party of Indians, few of whom escaped. Twelve women and children were taken prisoners; several of those who escaped were wounded.
    At this point we camped, and next morning took up the line of march and scoured the country to Rogue River, recrossing at the Table Mountains, and reached camp at dark on the evening of the 27th.
    The Indians had been completely whipped in every fight. Some fifty of them were killed, many wounded, and thirty taken prisoners. It has, however, cost us dearly. We have lost Capt. Stuart, one of the bravest of the brave. A more gentlemanly man never lived; a more daring soldier never fell in battle. Too much cannot be said for Major Kearny. For more than ten days he was in the saddle at the head of his command scouring the country and pouncing upon the Indians wherever they could be found. He has done much to humble the Rogue River Indians, and taught them to know that they can be hunted down and destroyed. Capt. Walker of the Rifles deserves the highest praise for gallant conduct. Lt. Williamson of the Topographical Corps and Lt. Irvin and command also deserve high praise for gallant conduct. The volunteers behaved well--nobly. Applegate, Scott, T'Vault for good conduct as guides and courage in battle are entitled to great credit. Capt. Armstrong, Blanchard, Boone and all of our Oregon men deserve credit for their good conduct and bravery. Col. Freaner from California with a party of volunteers from the mines promptly tendered their services and behaved nobly.
    Never has an Indian country been invaded with better success, nor at a better time. The Indians had organized in great numbers for the purpose of killing and plundering our people passing to and from the mines. The establishment of a garrison in this district will be necessary for the maintenance of peace. That done, and a good agent located here, and we shall have no more trouble in this quarter.
    This morning the question arose what must be done with the prisoners. The Major was anxious to turn them over to the citizens of Oregon to be delivered to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The citizens were generally bound to the mines, and none could be found to take charge of them. The Major was determined not to release them, holding that it would be wrong to give them up before a peace could be made. Consequently he determined to take them to San Francisco and then send them by sea to Oregon.
    With great respect I am, sir
    Yr. obt. srvt.
    Jo Lane
The bulk of this letter was transcribed from a typescript on the microfilm of the Joseph Lane Letters, "copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon." The first page, missing from the typescript, is copied from the Oregon Statesman of July 22, 1851, page 2.

Governors Camp, Rogue River       
July 8th 1851       
Dear Bush
    I write you from Camp Stuart a brief account of Major Kearny's operations in the Rogue River country, and that he had very properly determined to take the prisoners with him. I arrived at the Shasta diggings on the morning of the 30th ult, which is within ten miles of the road leading to California on which the Major would pass by Wednesday noon. I had my business settled up and was ready to return to Oregon. Lt Irwin came in and reported that the Major had passed and would camp near the Shasta Butte, distant 25 miles. I told Irwin that if I could get the prisoners I would take them to Oregon and deliver them to the Governor or Supt of Indian Affairs.
    He immediately dispatched a courier to Major Kearny bearing my letter, proposing to take charge of the prisoners, which reached him by seven o'clock in the evening. The Major promptly dispatched Capt Walker with them, who arrived at my camp just before daylight on Thursday morning. When a party of Oregonians, numbering some twenty, among whom was Dan, Waldo [Dan. Waldo?] and Hunter and Rust of Kentucky and Simonson of Ia. bound to Oregon, kindly offered to assist in bringing them in. We immediately set out and arrived here safe with all the prisoners, yesterday noon, when I had the pleasure of finding Gov Gaines with some fifteen men. To him I delivered the prisoners. His intention is to see the Indians and if possible make peace.
    My son Jo will remain here with the Governor. By noon today I shall set out for the City but shall be compelled to travel quite slow, as I have to give protection to some wagoners who had the kindness to haul in some of the prisoners who were worn out traveling.
                        Yours truly
                        Jo. Lane
    P.S. I omitted to mention that on my way down Rogue River with the prisoners I had a conversation with a considerable number of Indians across the river, who gave me a terrible account of the invasion of their country by our people. That they had come on horses in great numbers invading every portion of their country, that they now were afraid to lay down to sleep for fear the white people would be upon them before they could wake, that they were tired of war and now wanted peace. I told them that the Governor was at the crossing of the river, that I would leave the prisoners with him, and that they must go and talk with him and make their propositions of peace to him, who would be glad to see and talk and make peace with them.
                        J. L.
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon." This particular letter was misfiled as being from 1857. The image of the original can be found on the second microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.

    Genl. Lane, the newly elected delegate to Congress, informs me that he intends to take his departure for the States with the next steamer. He will be in New York the latter part of August or early part of September next. I hope some of our folks will make an effort to see him and will show him some attention. I would be glad if Father would invite him to come and see him at Parksville. The Genl. is a plain, blunt man of practical good sense and of generous impulses. His nomination was  cordially concurred in by the Whigs although he was a Democrat, and he has therefore I think no party antipathies in this region. He has seen a great deal of the rough and tumble life of the West and is probably as well acquainted with the situation and prospects of this country as any man in it. His family reside in Indiana, and he goes to the States thus early so that he may meet with his family before Congress commences its sittings. The Genl. I understand has an eye on the Presidency, and I believe has been nominated for that station in some parts of Indiana.
Thomas Nelson, letter dated July 21, 1851, Oregon City; Beinecke Library, Yale University

    GEN. LANE arrived in this city on Thursday evening last, direct from the Rogue River country. He leaves here tomorrow on the mail steamer for the States. We wish the brave old soldier a safe journey.
    When the General arrives in Washington and lays the true state of affairs before the government, we feel assured that justice will be done to the people of Oregon.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Umpqua, August 2, 1851.
Mr. Editor:
    Sir--I have observed of late a desire on the part of some to revive here in Oregon partyism, strike party lines, &c. Well, if this is necessary to promote the public good, and if striking party lines is essential to perpetuate republican principles, unity of action, &c., enabling us as one people to apply the Jeffersonian test to office seekers, "Is he honest, is he capable," teaching us to seek the substance of things, know that names are nothing, and that we can march to the polls unbiased, without fear or reserve, there to exercise the inestimable privilege which our forefathers purchased with their blood, feeling and acting as republican brothers--if party lines bring these things about, let them be struck. And if partyism and political division did not crumble old Rome to dust, let the lines be struck. And if it is for the want of division in politics that keeps the republics of South America and Mexico in perpetual civil war, and even threatened the great republic of the United States with division, let the lines be struck.
    If political division is necessary, why did not the founders of this republic recommend it? No; to the very contrary was their advice. The father of his country cautioned us in the most solemn manner against political division. Strike the lines of partyism in Oregon, then comes the tug of war between party zealots and political dabblers. And the papers at once cease to be impartial journals and are made the vehicles upon which designing politicians convey their misrepresentations, producing local animosity and civil discord. The greater the political excitement, the easier elections are carried by drunken brawl and mob law. By political excitement and strong party feeling in a community, base impostors are given a chance to flourish over honest and just principles, by attaching themselves to the strongest party. Such pettifoggers as can be hired with money to write slanders on a whole territory of people, charging them with being ungrateful adders and vipers, and even lend their aid to perjured deserters to write falsehoods and vile slanders on honest citizens [see letter on page 1, Oregon Spectator, July 22, 1851], for money gives counsel to renegade, enabling her to escape with her husband's effects. Such men as come among us with high-sounding titles, with their characters in their own keeping, as though it was predominant over public scrutiny. Such men's characters might be justly biographied even in Congress; then if they thought they could make themselves favorable with party, would be found figuring in letters of condolence, &c.
L. A. [most likely Lindsay Applegate]
Oregon Spectator, August 26, 1851, page 1

Oregon City O.T.   
    Aug. 20th 1851
Dear Father
    I recd. your favor from San Francisco by T'Vault a few days since and am proud to hear you were so kindly treated by your friends at that place. I will have the Denison matter attended to with dispatch. Times are pretty tight with us in the milling business. Since you left I sold lumber enough to Noyes Smith to place a credit of $1619 on his order. We have paid Ralston $550 and about 300 to Adair in flour, so you see we are working slowly along but continually drained of money.
    Joe came down last week, and is about to buy a wagon and oxen to be paid by me in flour. He says he could not do any fencing without a team to haul rails with. He will go back this week, and I think will stick close [to] business, as he seems to be well pleased with the Umpqua country. Our country is blessed with some bilious fever and a good many cases of chills & fever. I am just recovering from an attack of bilious fever. Civilization is just beginning to have its effect.
    The wife of Gov. Gaines was thrown from a mule while riding from Tansy Pt. to Clatsop Plains and so dangerously hurt that she only survived a very short time. I don't know what the Governor will do now, having lost what I consider a great deal more the better half of himself.
    Mr. Thompson has not returned from San Francisco yet, nor have I heard from him. As soon as he gets back we will pay off the balance of the Ralston and the Meek debts. We have contracted for the building of a new bridge for $1800. The work is now under way. I will keep you advised of the state of things here. You must let me know from time to time what is going on in the old world.
    Bush has made you his agent for the Atlantic States. I told him you would attend to the subscription.
Truly your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane

P.S.--Ingalls the blacksmith beat old Hugh Burns very badly with a stick a few days since.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Panama, Aug. 21, 1851.
    I have the pleasure to inform you that I arrived in this city yesterday morning. I am much pleased with my trip; the very names of the boats on which I traveled were calculated to make the trip pleasant. I left on the Willamette. From Astoria to San Francisco I came on the Columbia, and from San Francisco to this place on the fine steamer Oregon. So I have just got out of, or rather off of, Oregon. Tomorrow morning I shall set out for Chagres. The most of our passengers have already gone; I delayed going for the reason that it is understood that no steamer will go from Chagres before the 25th, consequently I preferred staying here to staying in Chagres. The Oregon brought down four hundred passengers. From Cape St. Louis to near this place the weather was excessively hot. Yet notwithstanding the crowd of passengers and great heat we had but three deaths on the passage. One was a lady from near New Harmony, Ia. to California, where she was taken sick, and in that condition came on board. She was buried at Acapulco.
    Her husband, Mr. Wiltse, remained at that place for the purpose of getting his babe--only two months old when the mother died--nursed. Mr. Bush, of San Francisco, bound to Rochester, N.Y., came on board sick, said he should die, and did. The third was a young man who caused his death, as was supposed, by eating fruit at Acapulco.
    The Oregon has a lucky name, is a fine boat, and [is] commanded by a good sailor and popular gentleman, and has a worthy set of subordinate officers. The Willamette and Columbia are also fine boats, with first-class accommodations and gentlemanly and experienced officers.
    I have had the good fortune to fall in with Major Lee and Capt. Hardcastle, of the army, and Dr. Hewett, late surgeon of the army, all of whom I find to be honorable gentlemen and noble-hearted, chivalrous Americans. I shall have the pleasure of their company to the States. Hardcastle has been engaged in the boundary survey, and has acquitted himself with credit. He speaks well of Col. Weller, and says there was no good cause of removal, and that Weller's successor has expended some two hundred thousand dollars and done no good.
    My health is excellent.
Respy. yours
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 30, 1851, page 2

Correspondence of the Oregon Statesman.
The Cuban Revolution--Particulars of the Capture and Execution
of Col. Crittenden and Command--General Lopez Taken Prisoner
and Garroted--Reflections, &c.
Havana, Cuba, Sept. 1, 1851.
    Dear Bush.--On arriving at Chagres, we received information of the invasion of Cuba by Lopez--that he had several fights, with success; and also the melancholy intelligence of the capture of Col. Crittenden and some fifty of his command, and of their execution by order of the authorities of the island. My desire to know the facts induced me to take passage for this place instead of going on the Georgia directly to New York. I have been here now two days, and can give you authentic information as to the invasion.
    Lopez, with some five or six hundred men, mostly Americans, effected a landing, and at first [illegible] sought advantage, but from necessity he divided his forces. Col. Crittenden, with his command of over one hundred men, was attacked by a large force of the royal or queen's troops, in which affair Crittenden and command behaved most gallantly. Overpowered and broken, he determined to take his chance, in open boats, upon the broad ocean, with the hope of being picked up by some friendly ship. In this condition, after having been at sea one hundred hours, without water, bread or arms, he was picked up by a Spanish war steamer, brought in and murdered--an account of which you have no doubt seen ere this.
    Lopez was taken the day before our arrival here--brought in from the country last evening, and this morning, at 7 o'clock, executed (garroted). Many of his party are prisoners, and have been sentenced to ten years' hard labor in the galleys. You will see that this second expedition of Lopez is crushed, and that he has paid dearly for attempting to liberate a people who deceived and betrayed him--a people who deserve no better government than they now have. Many noble young men--American citizens--have been deceived and sacrificed. It is greatly to be hoped that their fate will be a warning to others, and that no further attempt will be made upon Cuba, until it is done in a way that will ensure success.
    Col. Crittenden was a nephew of John J. Crittenden. My health is excellent. I shall leave this evening via New Orleans.
Your friend,
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 14, 1851, page 2

Correspondence of the Oregon Statesman.
Letter from Gen. Lane.
Evansville, Indiana,
    Sept. 19, 1851.
    Dear Bush.--From Havana I wrote you, giving an account of my passage to that place, of the failure of the Cuban expedition, of the fate of Lopez and others. In that letter I perhaps did injustice to the natives of Cuba; but, if I did, let me tell you that it was not intentioned. One thing is certain; the expedition received little or no assistance from the Cubans. But upon inquiring particularly relative to their wishes and feelings upon a change of government (and I had an opportunity on my passage from Havana to New Orleans to learn much from a gentleman on board who has seen much of Cuba recently), I am inclined to the opinion that they are heartily tired of the tyrannical government under which they live, which, by the way, is the worst, most cruel and oppressive on the face of God's earth. But they cannot help themselves nor render assistance to those who would fain free them and give them a good government. They are not allowed to own or carry arms. They have no organization, nor can they organize. So closely are they watched that whenever a few of them are seen together in a suspicious manner, they are arrested and lodged in prison.
    The late expedition caused the arrest of some 2000 Creoles, many of whom have suffered death; many were imprisoned and others banished.
    The day is not far distant when Cuba will be free. Such a system of tyranny and oppression cannot long last. How or by whom it is to be done, God only knows. One thing, in my mind, is certain; it will be done, and that ere long.
    I had the pleasure of reaching my old home on the 12th inst., in excellent health, and found my family in the enjoyment of good health, since which time I have received the visits of many old and good friends. My heart has been often glad; yet nothing looks right. The people, though as clever as any in the world, don't look healthy as they do in Oregon; nor is the country like Oregon. I long to be there. I would not give my claim in Oregon for twenty miles upon the banks of the Ohio, and be compelled to remain in this country. Oregon is my country--my home--and just as soon as I can I will again be there with my family. I shall labor faithfully for the promotion of her interests, and let me say that I have little doubt of procuring the passage of such laws as are necessary for thar purpose.
Your friend,
    JO. LANE.
    My letters will explain the reason why I came by New Orleans and not by Washington, as contemplated when I left Oregon. Ere long I will be in Washington. I will neglect nothing that I can do for our Territory.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, December 23, 1851, page 2

Oregon City O.T.
    Sep. 21st 1851
Dear Father
    Times are still dull. The largest portion of the emigration is now in the settlements, and I can't see that they have effected any material change in times except the reduction of 50 cts. per day on common labor and a good demand for flour. Money seems to be a little more plenty than when you left. We have not paid any debts since I wrote you, but will pay off the Ralston, Meek and I think the Adair debt soon. We had a great amt. of rain in the latter part of August and the first of this month, so much that it raised the river above the falls 4 or 5 feet, carrying off our temporary dam, but the weather has cleared up and the days are beautiful, and the river has fallen back to the old mark, leaving us very short of water again. There is more sickness in the country at this time than has ever been known, though nothing serious. I hope you have had a safe and speedy passage to the bosom of your friends, where I suppose you will learn of Emily's marriage to Creed Floed. Well, I hope he will make her a good and kind husband. I have not heard from Joe for some time, but I think Capt. Wm. Martin will be in soon from the Umpqua and bring some news from him. I have taken the amt. of stock on hand &c. and have the books so arranged as to show everything just right. I have no bookkeeper, as Mr. Davenport has left me. I have that to do myself. If we were not so pressed with our debts all the time nothing could keep us from making money pretty fast, but we are not able to buy wheat enough to keep the mill going and consequently have to let Abernethy & Barlow and one or two others make all the profits, but I have hopes that this state of things will not last always. Write to me as often as you can and let me know how all the folks are, and my children. You will certainly go down and see them. I will write again soon.
Your obedient son and friend
    N. H .Lane
Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City
        Oregon Territory
                1st Oct 1851
Hon. Joseph Lane
    The treaty with the Rogue River Indians was concluded on the 14th July last. On the 15th July Gov. Gaines left for Oregon City and I was left in charge of a party of 12 men on Rogue River at the request of the Indian agent H. H. Spalding to remain in the country with the Indians until the superintendent or himself should return and make a purchase of the Indian lands. The object of leaving me in the country was to see that the terms of the treaty were observed and to visit all the Indians. This was done thoroughly. And I returned to Oregon City on the 10th Sept. last and on presenting my account to the superintendent, Dr. Dart, he said he had not authorized Mr. Spalding to have a parley etc., consequently would not pay anything etc. Now Dr. Dart was at Oregon City when Govr. Gaines and Mr. Spalding returned--this was on the 22nd July--Mr .Spalding made his report to Dr. Dart. And Mr. Spalding wrote me on the 28th day July stating that "Dr. Dart had resolved to meet the Indians about the 15th Sept. at the ferry on Rogue River or at Table Rock and requested I should retain what men I had and notify the Indians of his intention" etc. I done so--visiting all the Indians from the Kenyon on Umpqua to Table Rock on Rogue River, to which proposition the Indians consented.
    On the 14th day of August Dr. Dart dictated a letter to D. D. Bayley stating "if he would go into the Rogue River country and get the Indians to meet him at Port Orford he would pay him $5 per day and make the Indians a present" etc. Mr. Bayley reached Rogue River on the day I had concluded the arrangements with the Indians according to advice of Mr. Spalding. Upon the arrival of Bayley I hastened to Oregon City to see Dr. Dart before he should leave for Port Orford. I succeeded by making the trip in seven days and convinced Dr. D. of the impossibility of taking the Indians on the Coast, they never having been there and knowing nothing of it--besides it is almost an impossible chain of mountains etc. etc. Dr. D. again resolves to meet them in their own country and authorizes Mr. Cary (who is trading there) to say as much to the Indians.
    This, sir, is a brief account of this matter. My object in writing you is to get the use of your kindness and influence to see that the debt credited there (in all only $21.00) to be paid.
    Inasmuch as you are aware the importance of holding a treaty of peace with the Indians at the time Govr. Gaines made it and also the necessity of leaving a party with the Indians to see that the terms of the treaty be observed.
    I refer you to Govr. Gaines and Dr. Dart to satisfy you that I done the part assigned me faithfully and satisfactorily to both parties. I was with the Grave Creek Indians near a week and passed amongst them several times they were left perfectly friendly and expressed a disposition to remain so.
    And no well-disposed person can reasonably find fault with living upon terms of peace with those Indians knowing that their country abounds in gold mines and our people spreading over it daily. Long before I left many of the young Indian men had engaged and were working for the miners and were giving satisfaction. And I truly believe a better step could not have been taken than this one by Govr. Gaines.
    Indulging a hope you will honor my present request with your consideration,
        I remain
            Hon. Sir
                C. M. Walker
N.B. I am quite unwell, which I hope will serve as an excuse for this scrawl. C.M.W.

Island Mills O.T.
    Octr. 6th 1851
Dear Father
    By the last mail I recd. your letter from Panama of the 21st August, for which kindness I feel very grateful. I am extremely glad to learn of your safe arrival at that port in good health, as I feared much you would be sick on the trip.
    I have no news of importance; peace and quietude seems to prevail throughout the Territory until you arrive in the Rogue River country, and from that quarter we hear of some Indian depredation every day or two, but nothing of any importance.
    Squire T'Vault has returned from the country in the neighborhood of Port Orford, where he was not successful in viewing out a road from Fort Umpqua to Port Orford. He and three others are still surviving out of a party of nine whites, the other five having been murdered by the Indians of the Coquille River. T'Vault says that he discovered the most fertile valley on that river that mortal has ever been permitted to look upon. Ash, maple and other timber familiar to the Ohio and Wabash bottoms with the wild cucumber vine is to be found there in its most flourishing state, and he is of opinion that corn could be raised there in great abundance.
    Our mills or rather flour mill is doing a very fair business. Flour is advancing in California and is now worth from 14 to $16 per barrel. Our flour mill is kept running day and night and still making the best flour in the country. The new bridge will soon be completed. The old one is already tore down, and our railroad communication with Oregon City is for a few days suspended.
    I have not heard anything from Joe for some days. The last news he was on the claim, building houses and fence. I have no doubt but he will stay on the claim and keep improving until you get back with the family. You will miss the presence of Emily on your arrival at home, but I hope Mr. Floed will prove to be a good man and kind husband. Still I think they got the wedding up right quick. The rumor is that Gov. Gaines is going to send his family back to old Kentucky where I hope he will soon follow, as I think his services can easily be dispensed with.
    I am very glad to hear of our triumph in Kentucky, particularly in the Ashland district. Though Indiana has done well, yet I think they might have elected Lockhart. You will have learned ere this of our triumph in California, and I can assure you that Oregon recd. the news with three cheers. California in spite of all the wireworking and votes bought is Democratic. Poor Neely Johnson, I am afraid, will not get to Congress as easily as he may imagine. We are still working off old debts by degrees. My health is tolerable fair. Give my respects to all friends, Mother and the family in particular, and tell me whether things look natural or not. I will write by next mail to Washington. Write me.
Your obt. son and friend
    N. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dr. Sir
        We have the pleasure to renew to you our congratulations upon your safe arrival to the bosom of your family after an absence of over three years. We are happy to greet you as our friend and fellow citizen, and hope you will do us the honor of meeting us and your numerous friends & partake of a public dinner to be served up upon the line of the Evansville & Illinois Railroad two miles north of the city on the 1st day of Novr. A.D. 1851 with consideration of the highest regard.
    Evansville October 20th A.D. 51--we have the honor to be
    James Lockhart John Mitchell
George B. Walker R. W. Dunbar
Wm. H. Walker John S. Terry
John T. Walker Geo. H. Todd
James T. Walker W. R. Greathouse
Cyrus K. Drew Ben Stinson
Simeon Long Ira P. Granger
N. J. James Leroy Calvert
M. J. Bray Saml. McDonald
Isaac Casselberry C. M. Griffith
Richard Raleigh John M. App
James P. Byrne A. Liter
Walter Raleigh Peter Burk
John Henson Moses Ross
Benj. Hume John Cupples
W. C. Saunders Isaac Hutchinson
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Evansville Indiana
    October the 20th 1851
Mrs. M. L. Byba
    Dear Madam
        Your son, John Anderson, handed me ($502) five hundred and two dollars in Oregon to be delivered to you at Memphis. On arriving at Memphis I went to your residence where he expected I would find you, but you were not there. Your tenant who I found in your house promised to write you and let you know that I had that amount of money for you, with the request that you would write me at Evansville and direct me where to send the same, to you. Up to this time I have heard nothing from you. Please write me as soon as possible where to send the money, which shall be subject to your order at a moment's notice.
With great respect madam
    I am your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    Octr. 21st 1851
Dear Father
    Since my last nothing of interest has transpired. We have our new bridge so far completed that we can run the car over it. When it is roofed, weatherboarded and painted it will be one of the best improvements in Oregon. In the last ten days we have paid off the Ralston & Joe Meek debts, except a very small balance. I am very glad to learn through the Statesman that you arrived safely at "Havana" in good health and hope that the balance of your passage was attended with equal good fortune and health. We keep the flour mill running from 12 o'clock Sunday night until the same hour on Saturday night. We are not running the sawmill, nor will we until the rain commences sufficiently to raise the river. Flour is ready sale at $5 per hundred. Lumber is dull at $25 per M.
    Our island [Abernethy Island] has not been surveyed by Mr. Preston, and from all that we can learn the old survey only included about 2 acres, running no farther up the river than to the canyon at the upper corner or side of Thompson's house and there across to the channel at the upper side of the rack heap, leaving all that portion above entirely out, and we are beginning to feel a little anxiety about it. Holbrook and Preston have both been trying to find out all they can in reference to the Island, and Preston seems anxious to give us all that he can. Holbrook leaves for New York in November and will be able to give you more information than I can. I would like if you would suggest some mode by which we can hold it all. If it has to be done by occupancy we must go to work and build a breakwater in order to make a house stand or to protect the house, and if that has to be done the upper part will I suppose have to be surveyed separate and recorded.
    A Mr. Palmer, brother to Lieut. Palmer, came in yesterday from the Umpqua. He saw Joe, says he is well and hard at work on the claim. Mr. Thompson has been sorely afflicted with ulcerated sore throat but is nearly or quite sound again. Bush, as you will discover, keeps hitting away at the Whig officers here in power. He has the whole band (Dart and Hamilton excepted) down on him. We have had ten days of lovely weather. I suppose by the time this gets to you you will have entered on your laborious duties at the U.S. capital. I am frequently asked if you intend to bring your family to Oregon, and I answer by saying if you live. I will write often to the family. I wish you would have Mitchell to keep my babes at school.
    We think some of making an addition to the flour mill and putting in another run of burrs, that is, if we find we are not able to build a new mill. I hope in one more year to find ourselves out of debt and with some means at hand. Write to me if you please.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane

P.S. I weigh ten pounds more than when you left.
    Mrs. Thurston will write to you to solicit your aid in procuring her the books and documents lying in the Linn City P.O. Moore refused to give them up unless she will pay the postage. I hope you will render her all the aid you can, as I certainly consider that Jim Moore is the most contemptible of all pups.
    Dr. McLoughlin leaves in Nov. for Washington to endeavor to get back to himself the Oregon City claim, and I sincerely hope he will fail.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Dear Genl
    For the first time since I parted with you at San Francisco I embrace an opportunity of writing to you. I assure you I have seen sights since we parted; I took passage on the Sea Gull and arrived at home on the 12th of August, and on the 15th again set out for Port Orford after having expended all my money for horses and outfit. As I was taken into the Port Orford Company upon condition that I should furnish four horses with their packs complete and return to Port Orford by the then returning Sea Gull and go myself to superintend and make as practicable a road from Port Orford to the interior [as possible]; in consideration I was to receive one-eighth of [the] entire enterprise.
    Accordingly I embarked on the 15th August from Portland and on the 21 took up my march from Port Orford with 18 men. [For] the result of my expedition see Oregon Statesman October 7th, enclosed.
    But I will enter more particulars into my sufferings as I can do so without it appearing egotistical, as my report was intended for publication and this is not. On the morning of the 14th Sept about ten o'clock myself and some of my men (for 9 had abandoned me two weeks before) were descending the Coquille River within 2 miles of its mouth on latitude 43°10' longitude 124°8' we came near the shore to try and get something to eat, for we had been without provisions for several days and were very weak and hungry. When within a few yards of the shore the edge of our canoe was seized by Indians who were in their canoes and near the shore and we were dragged near the shore; however, no manifestations of hostility were yet made, yet there was a great number of canoes & Indians in them also some 200 on the bank. We made signs and tried to get some provisions, but could not get any. We then tried to push off, but the Indians held onto our canoe. From the great number and our peculiar position we were anxious to get away without an attack [illegible]; as we would push off they would hold onto our canoe; finally they made a rush. Not less than fifty of them rushed upon us, sank our canoe and seized our arms before we could raise our guns to our [illegible], our arms was instantly taken from us and the most murderous attack made with clubs and knives. I was struck and hardly able to sit up in the canoe, but as I rushed to the shore was stabbed and knocked down by 2 blows, one on the breast, the other on the back, and suppose I was thrown into the river for dead or to be drowned if not dead. The first thing I remember I was some 20 or 30 feet from the shore in swimming water and was helped by a young Indian lad about 15 years old to get into a small canoe. The boy then ran to the other end of the canoe and assisted a Mr. Brush to get in the same canoe. He then jumped overboard and Brush and myself paddled the canoe to the opposite bank. When we got there, neither of us able to stand, we rolled out and crawled a few yards, pulled off our clothes and crawled up the bank. During the whole time there was the most dismal screams, the sound of strokes from clubs that it is possible to imagine, yet none of the Indians followed us. We continued our course by the sun, keeping in the thick chaparral all night, then went to the beach, traveled all night and the next day, and on the 16th arrived at Port Orford in so feeble a state there it required two Indians (as we had met with some friendly Indians on Monday night) to assist us to walk. It has been ascertained that three others of my party made their escape and went north to Umpqua. Some friendly Indians sent their squaws and found five dead bodies and buried them. Thus ended my first expedition. In a short time I am going to start upon a second overland expedition and [I] pray god that I shall have better luck. Genl Hitchcock has established a military post at Port Orford and ordered troops there. It is a good location, and I hope that he will continue it. When I arrived there on the 16th Sept. Lieut Wyman of the artillery was then building winter quarters. Since my defeat he ordered 150 men, part of the same troop that I went to California with last summer, back to Port Orford. They are under the command of Col Casey. If you can do us any good, do it.
    Political matters are as you left them. I think you are gaining popularity as far as I can learn.
    I want you to write to Capt Tichenor (his name is William Tichenor) and give me as favorable a recommend as you can, also to T. Butler King and Judge Pratt; those men are all my friends, but I wish them to know that I have other friends. King is popular with the army, also in California, yet he is a Whig, and it might be of service to me.
    You will see from the papers that my prospects are in the ascendancy, and by the help of God I will keep it there, for I will not drink or gamble.
    A. Holbrook goes to Washington; you must watch & pray he is a Whig.
    You ought to write letters to the Oregonian, also to the Oregon Times.
I have got a quiver of arrows & bow that I got from those damnable Rogue River Indians that I am going to send you by [illegible] express or by Holbrook. I want you to exhibit them on all occasions and tell how you got them, who from, how I got them, who from, and how you have seen me and where.
    Now I will say that we are all in better health just at this time than ever you saw us. I am getting not only fat but corpulent. Mrs. T'Vault is fleshy to corpulent upon my honor. You would be astonished.
    In [omission] I hope you & your good family are all well.
                        I remain your old friend
                            W. G. T'Vault
                                Oregon City Nov 1 1851
This letter was misread as being from 1857 and can be found on the second microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.

Oregon City O.T.
    Nov. 7th 1851
Dear Father
    Since my last Mr. Preston has discovered that the survey does go above the rack heap some distance, say 12½ rods, making about as much above the rack heap as below it, so you see we are on the safe side. I have no news nor no time to write. Business is only tolerable good; we are crowded to overflowing with custom work, but unfortunately for us it don't pay. Capt. Hilborn has just come down from the Umpqua and says Joe is getting along very well, making improvements and some little money. We have had some very fine weather, but it is now raining. Waldo, your old friend, wants you to examine the patent of a planing machine, invented at Albany, New York, and ascertain the price &c. &c. And also Mrs. Husted wishes you to write her what you done with some papers she placed in your hands & if you have lost them she wishes you to bear in mind the purport of the papers as your evidence may be required &c. &c.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Jos. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City O.T.
    Novr 15th 1851
Hon Joseph Lane
    Some time since I wrote you on the subject of my claims against the Indian agency. I am apprehensive that that letter has miscarried. I therefore presume upon your patience to make a brief statement of this matter and solicit your influence to secure me as speedily as convenient the amount of my claims.
    The day after the ratification of a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians Mr. Spalding the acting agent resolved to leave a party of men under me to see that the terms of the treaty were observed until he could confer with the superintendent Dr. Dart at Oregon City and return to the tribe and make a purchase of their lands. He left Rogue River on the 15th day of July and arrived at Oregon City on the 22nd of the same month. He wrote me on the 28th of July stating that Dr. Dart had resolved to meet the Indians at some convenient point in their country and purchase their lands and requested me to retain the men under me and give the Indians notice that such was the intention of the superintendent and that I would convene the Indians at such convenient point on the 15th day of September. I proceeded to obey these orders by going through the whole tribe from the Kenyon on the Umpqua to the Table Rock. After I had finished this understanding with the Indians, Dr. Dart sent Mr. Bayley to the Rogue River country with a letter authorizing him, Mr. Bayley, to take the Indians to Port Orford as per Mr. Bayley. Mr. Spalding wrote me a letter stating that he was sorry that Dr. Dart had changed his purpose of meeting the Indians on the 15th of September and requested me to dismiss the men under me. On the day after the receipt of this letter I started for Oregon City and arrived there in time to see Dr. Dart before he left for Port Orford. I told him the impossibility of getting the Indians to go to Port Orford &c. He then resolved to meet the Indians in the course of six weeks in their country and trade with them for their lands &c. He proceeded to Port Orford and returned, and finally declined trading with the Indians this season at all, but sent out Judge Skinner, the agent for that district with a few presents, &c. &c. Mr. Dart refused at the time of my return to pay me, and still refuses to do [so] as he says until he can get advices from Congress. The reason he assigns for not paying me and my party is that he did not approve the steps taken by Mr. Spalding in leaving a party in the country--besides, he had not approved the treaty of peace made with the Indians by Govr. Gaines.
    I have no disposition to impugn what the Dr. states, but really there is such a plain discrepancy in his sayings and doings I cannot act otherwise than to notice it.
    In the first place he instructs Mr. Spalding to go to the Rogue River country and at whatever cost to remove from among the Indians any and all persons who have killed innocent Indians, & to adopt the most advisable steps to produce
harmony &c. &c. Mr. Spalding done so. The Dr. told me he did not authorize the steps taken by Mr. Spalding in leaving the party under me in that country. As I before stated, Mr. Spalding returned from Rogue River to Oregon City on the 22nd July and reported what had been done. Mr. Spalding wrote me from Oregon City on the 28th July stating the Dr. would meet the Indians on the 15th Sept. and for me to continue the men in the service &c. &c. This does not look like the Dr. did not approve what was done by Mr. Spalding. He certainly did not disapprove it, or the party would have been dismissed at once instead of keeping me from July until September, performing the most hazardous hardships--and using my own and some of my party's money in furthering the wishes of the agent.
    You were present in the country at the time the treaty was about to be made. You are aware [of] the necessity of the treaty of peace, of which it will be useless for me to speak.
    As for what I have done I can refer you to Govr. Gaines, Mr. Spalding and even to Dr. Dart himself. I am sorry I have to resort to this humiliating method of importuning any person of power to arrive at a well-earned and established right. 
    I left my family and home for the purpose of mining on Rogue River or Shasta. I was in the Rogue River Valley at the time the treaty was making, and was under Govr. Gaines for that purpose. After this Mr. Spalding prevailed upon me to remain with the party for the purposes before stated. I abandoned my mining purpose, disposed of my tools, provisions &c. at a sacrifice and used my (all I had) money in providing for the occasional wants of the party and in paying some of the discharged men.
    I am now at home without a dollar in pocket, and without any visible method of soon getting any. I certainly claim that this abuse on the part of Dr. Dart is entirely unwarranted and without a parallel.
    The money due me and my party should be paid, and if Dr. Dart has forfeited his bonds to government it is a matter between himself and government.
    I think it quite a low and very mean subterfuge in Dr. D. to keep the important, hazardous and assiduously industrious services of myself and comrades in the Rogue River country, among a tribe of entirely savage people (and these too just out of a destructive war with our people) as we [are] waiting for our hard-earned pennies until he can receive advices from the home department, dodging the consequences of a responsibility that he might incur if he paid the amount at once, when in fact the labor we were performing was of the most pressing importance to the government, and the mining community on the one hand, and for Christianity's sake, for the bettering and improving the condition of this untaught and entirely ignorant people on the other. True, it was his duty to have done this in person but if calls from other neighboring tribes rendered it impossible at that time, and if the ends were accomplished by me, that could only have been done by himself what is the difference?
    I will follow the theme no farther, and regret I have troubled you to such length on this subject--you will pardon me.
    Allow me the honor of hearing from you at your earliest convenience
        And believe me
            Most respectfully yours
                C. M. Walker

Oregon  City Nov. 20 1851      
    I received a day or two ago the enclosed letter from Capt. C. M. Walker to yourself requesting me after inspection to forward it to you. I have examined the letter carefully and state without hesitation that the facts as stated by him so far as they came within my knowledge are strictly true, with his conclusions I of course having nothing to say.
    Finding myself in the very heart of the enemy's country with only ten men, Major Kearny having just left with some thirty women and children captured from there, I employed Capt. Walker and four others at a cost much below the ordinary price as you will know (that is three dollars a day for man, horse and equipments) and sent three of my party to the Umpqua Valley to procure an interpreter who returned on the same day you arrived at my camp with the prisoners.
    I then thought it necessary, in which you concurred, to increase my force, which I did to some twenty-four-five, amongst whom was your son Jo. These men were all under the management of Capt. Walker, whose wages was fixed at four dollars a day, as he had much labor to perform and a good deal of responsibility. I well remember your telling me that I could have not have procured a more suitable person to perform the important and delicate duties then on hand. I found him sensible, decent, vigilant, and without him or some such person I believe I could not have accomplished the pacification which we all then had so much at heart.
    Two days after you left and the day before the pacification was concluded, but after the terms were agreed upon, Mr. Spalding, who had but just recovered from a long spell of sickness, arrived at my camp with written instructions as he stated from the superintendent, to bring to justice at "no matter what cost," all persons accused of wantonly killing Indians. He was present at the signing of the treaty, is a witness to it, and highly approved all that was done.
    Having concluded all I thought I had a right to do and written to Dr. Dart by yourself advising him of what was doing and urging him to come up and attend to this business who whom it properly belonged, I dismissed my men, paid them off and immediately left for home.
    Mr. Spalding, feeling himself fully authorized by the written instructions of Dr. Dart to spare no expense in bringing to justice murderers of unoffending Indians, and also feeling that the continuance of peace depended upon a faithful execution of the agreement by which hostilities had just been terminated, employed Capt. Walker and some few others to enable him to carry out his instructions and to protect the very valuable trade which you are well aware was then being carried on through the country. I will here add that I most solemnly believe that to Capt. Walker's prudent management, and to his arduous and hazardous labor, this territory is justly indebted for the preservation of peace.
    Mr. Spalding conferred with me as to what course he should pursue and I did hesitate, knowing all the circumstances as I did, to advise to employ Walker and his party, and I have not a doubt it was the cause of saving many lives and tens of thousands of dollars to the government. Mr. Spalding returned to Oregon City and arrived a day or two after I did. He assured me that he fully informed Dr. Dart of all that was done and also that he had promised to return to Rogue River in two weeks.
    I informed Dart myself on the 23 July of all that was done which he professed [illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] him to allow Spalding to keep his promise with the Indians to return in two weeks. He informed me that he had intended to go to Rogue River but that he had altered his plans, that he had then made arrangements to meet the Clatsop Indians and that he must have Mr. Spalding's services, and that he would, or had postponed this meeting which had been appointed by Spalding with the Rogue River Indians until the middle of Sept. and that they had been so informed. Before the arrival of that day the Dr. determined to go to Port Orford as stated by Mr. Walker.
    I also read to Dr. Dart on the day of its date my letter of July 25th to Major Hathaway, in which I say, after urging him to send troops to R. River, that the Indian agent had employed a number of men at a high expense awaiting his arrival.
    This letter you will find in my report to the Secretary of War. All this time no objection was made to my knowledge, and the first intimation I had to the contrary was received from Mr. Spalding or Capt. Walker early in September immediately after his recall. These are the facts to the best of my recollection, and I consider it but sheer justice that Walker and his comrades should be promptly paid the amount contracted to be paid by the government agent.
    Indeed, whether Spalding had or had not the authority to do what he did, his contract should nevertheless be complied with, and if he exceeded his [illegible--one word chewed away] it should be a question between him and the govt. and not with an individual.
    But the letter of Dr. Dart to Spalding directing him to spare no expense in bringing to justice certain respective offenders I consider ample authority to do all he did, and that he used it most beneficially and economically for the public good.
    You are at liberty to show this to Dr. Dart if you think proper, and also to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    I am sir
        Very respectfully
            Your obt. servant
                John P. Gaines

Shasta Butte City, Cal.
            Dec. 1st, 1851
To the Honbl. Gen. Lane
    Sir, as our acquaintance is but slight you will naturally be somewhat surprised at my intruding myself upon your notice and time, and it is with extreme diffidence that I address you yet. Gen. Lane will pardon the assurance of a soldier. I have a favor to ask or I should not this intrude, therefore I crave your patience while I relate our grievance. You doubtless recollect the time of my departure from Redding's Diggins for Scotts River, as I applied to you for information relative to the nature of this region and the best route to travel. I think it was one year ago last August I came on to Scotts River and have been here since. We located in Scotts Valley and built the first house ever raised in the valley. There were several interested in the rancho because it was deemed unsafe for
less to reside in the valley. Myself and B. E. Simmons bought out the rest and paid them in dust, provisions and labor rated very high and we had but few animals. But all there was we had therefore spent our money and time anticipating that our claim would be valuable in time. That time has arrived. Claims have been sold at six and twelve thousand dollars the past summer. Col. McKee, however, U.S. Indian agent, arrived here this fall and has designated the most valuable portion of Scotts Valley as an Indian reserve, i.e., the lower end of the valley and covers many valuable claims and improvements. Most of the occupants of these claims will apply through the Com. of Indian Affairs at Washington for damages. I have written out a statement of the facts and an application and forwarded it by Col. McKee to the Com. at Washington. Therefore I would most respectfully solicit your attention and influence in our favor. We are the first and most unfortunate settlers of Scotts Valley.
    I am sir very respectfully your
        Obedient Servant
            S. R. Lewis
To the Hon. Gen. Lane

Island Mills O.T.
    Dec. 18th 1851
Dear Father
    I have recd. two dollars and placed it to your credit on our books. The money is to pay subscription for the New York Weekly Tribune, to be sent to Gabriel Walling Esqr. at Oregon City and also the Whig Almanac from the Tribune office. He desires also that you would ascertain when his subscription for the above-named documents is up. If you will take as much trouble to attend to this matter you will both oblige him and me. Our legislature it is feared will do no good this session. The greater portion of the members are now in session at Salem, and the remaining at Oregon City. Judges Nelson & Strong held the supreme court at Oregon City and decided that they were holding court at the seat of government, and Judge Pratt went to Salem, but I have not seen any decision from him.
    Aside from the little excitement that the splitting of the legislature has caused, the country and business generally is dull. I recd. your letters of the 22nd & 28th September and am very proud to learn that you arrived at the old homestead in good health and to learn that you found the family in good health & am much obliged for your visit to my children.
    Judge Skinner is out on Rogue River, and I am afraid I will not be able to see him soon in order to take up your notes, though I will write him by the first opportunity and ascertain when I can get them, and where they are. I am very glad to know that you effected a settlement with Judge Bryant.
    I am driving the mills all I can, but the old debts have retarded me greatly in getting along. We are still manufacturing the best flour made in the Territory, and sawing some lumber. We have had considerable rain and some tolerable high water, but nothing to do any damage. The weather for the past few days has been delightful, the days clear and pleasant with frosty nights. I am becoming more and more attached to Oregon every day and am only afraid that by the time you get the family out here I will be so much in love with the country that I won't want to leave.
    Your old friend Horace Baker says that he sent by you for two copies of the Washington Union and is afraid that you will forget to have them sent to him. Please remember it, and I will make him pay the subscription to me and place it to your credit. The people, or some of them, are very anxious to know what you are going to do for the Territory. I tell them you will do all in your power for the general good of the Territory, and that if they will only give time that everything you do will come to light.
    Mr. Thompson has had a great deal of sickness in his family, and the doctors have advised him to move his family off of the Island in order to avoid the dampness caused by the Falls. Your boy John came very near dying, but is now well. I had Doctor Barclay to attend on him. He as well as myself and others thought there was no hopes for him. His disease was similar to erysipelas.
    Friend Bush has taken his small press to Salem to do the legislative printing, and he is about getting up a session paper to be called the Vox Populi. I have heard nothing from Joe for some time, but have reason to believe that he will stick to the claim and do all he can in the way of improving it. Try and persuade all the good citizens you can to move to Oregon when you come. Mr. and Mrs. Harrison send their compliments to you, as do Mrs. T'Vault and family and many others of your good friends.
Your obt. son and friend
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Letter from General Lane.
Washington, Dec. 24, '51.        
    Dear Bush:--About 7 o'clock this morning the Capitol was discovered to be on fire. My boarding house is on the hill, and not far from the Capitol. Consequently I ran quick to learn the extent of the fire, condition of things, &c. and to assist if possible in arresting the flames. I found the police stationed in and about the building, and everything in the greatest confusion--bells tolling, people collecting, engines hurrying to the scene of trouble, and the library, or western end of the building, all in flames. The woodwork in that portion is all destroyed together with the library, many valuable paintings, statues &c. Considerable damage was also done to the walls and columns of the building. The halls of the two Houses are untouched. Loss and damage, including value of books destroyed, some 5 or $600,000. It will not interfere with the sittings of Congress.
JO LANE.       
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, February 17, 1852, page 2

In Reference to the Settlement, Soil, and Climate of Oregon Territory.
    Washington City, Jan. 1, 1852.   
    The great number of letters I am constantly receiving, making inquiries in reference to the Territory of Oregon, has induced me to embody in the form of a circular such information as is usually desired, that I may thus be enabled to furnish it more promptly and more in detail than a due attention to my other public duties would allow me were I to endeavor to give a written answer to each. I hope this course will not be considered discourteous to my correspondents, for in pursuing it, I will more effectually and satisfactorily serve them, which is my chief desire.
    Oregon is a mountainous country, interspersed with many extensive, rich and beautiful valleys, watered by cool, pure streams, having their sources among its snow-clad mountains. It is exceedingly healthy--no country is more so. The atmosphere is pure, and the climate delightful, especially during the summer. From April to November there is but little rain, but a cool, gentle breeze flows almost perpetually from the north. The winters are rainy, but mild, for, during the season, warm south winds constantly prevail.
    The country is well watered, and the soil very fertile and well adapted to the growth of all the small grains, grasses, potatoes and other culinary vegetables--all yielding most abundantly, except Indian corn, which is not regarded as a successful crop. Many of the hills and mountains are covered with inexhaustible forests of fine timber, generally fir and cedar. Those forests frequently skirt the valleys and streams.
    As is well known, the Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope, and stretches from the sea coast to the Rocky Mountains. From its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, there is an uninterrupted navigation for vessels of the largest size. The Willamette empties into the Columbia about ninety miles from its mouth. This river is also navigable for the largest vessels to Portland, fifteen miles from its mouth, and many have ascended as high as Milwaukie, seven miles further.
    At the risk of some little repetition, it may not be deemed improper or unnecessary to give a more detailed and minute description of the valley of this and some of the other streams of Oregon.
    The Willamette Valley is bounded by the Coast Mountains on the west, and the Cascade Range on the east. The soil is excellent, and is not surpassed, if equaled, by any portion of the continent in its adaptation to the growth of wheat, rye and oats. Potatoes are produced in great abundance, and are of a superior quality, while wheat is invariably a certain crop, subject to none of the diseases and uncertainties peculiar to it in the States; it matures slowly, hence the grain is always full and plump, and the straw unusually solid and elastic, and not subject to fall. In consequence of the cool, dry summers, and the entire absence of rain during the harvest season, the farmer is enabled to gather in the grain without waste.
    This valley is about one hundred and fifty miles in length, and thirty-five in breadth, and is sparsely settled throughout its whole extent. Many fine locations are yet unoccupied, which will richly repay the labor of the thrifty husbandman. Natural meadows, as yet untouched by the hand of cultivation, afford abundant and rich pasturage for immense herds of cattle. The valley is mostly prairie, skirted by beautiful groves of timber, while through its center runs the Willamette River.
    The Umpqua Valley is distant from the Willamette about twelve miles, and is separated from it by the Calapooia Mountain. It is about ninety miles in length, and varies from five to thirty-five miles in width. It is made up of a succession of hills and dales, furnishes but little timber, yet abounds in a natural luxuriant growth of the richest grass.
    North and South Umpqua rivers run through this valley, and form a junction about forty miles from the bay of the same name. The entrance to this bay is found to be practicable, as many ships and steamers have crossed the bar at its mouth, finding from three to three and a half fathoms of water upon it, without the aid of pilots, buoys or lighthouses. A few slight accidents, however, have occurred for the want of such improvements. A port of entry has been established here, and appropriations have been made for a lighthouse and fog signals.
    This bay is destined to be an important point to the southern portion of Oregon; here will be the outlet for the produce of the Umpqua Valley, and, consequently, here will be its commercial city. Many pack trains are already employed in the transportation of goods and provisions from this point to the "gold diggin's" on Rogue, Shasta and Scott rivers.
    Rogue River Valley, which takes its name from the river that passes through it, is about seventy miles by the main traveled route from Umpqua. The valley is well watered by never-failing streams; the soil is generally good, and it is skirted and interspersed with groves of fine timber. As it borders upon a rich gold region it must eventually become densely populated. As yet, however, it contains no white settlement, but is occupied by the Rogue River Indians, who have rendered it the seat of much trouble and suffering from their depredations.
    There is no portion of the Territory, and indeed, I may almost add of the world, better adapted to grazing than this valley. In extent it is about fifty by thirty miles. Surrounded by mountains, the eye seldom rests upon a more beautiful, picturesque and romantic spot. It extends to within a few miles of the boundary between Oregon and California. These valleys all lie west of the Cascade Mountains and south of the Columbia.
    There are also many small valleys, rich and fertile, in this part of the Territory, affording good inducements to settlers, and which no doubt will be speedily occupied so soon as suitable protection can be extended over them by the government.
    A very interesting portion of Oregon lies north of the Columbia, and is being rapidly settled. The Cowlitz, which rises in the Cascade Mountains, north of the Columbia, runs through a large tract of fine, arable land, entering the Columbia some forty or fifty miles from its mouth.
    A French settlement of many years growth commences near this river, about thirty miles from its mouth, and now embraces some large and valuable farms. Americans also have, within the last six years, settled between it and the Chehalis, and are doing well. The country is level and fertile, and beautifully interspersed with prairies and timber.
    The valley of the Chehalis is also fertile, and well adapted to cultivation. Between it and Puget Sound the country is level and well timbered, with occasional small prairies. This sound is one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation to an important portion of the Territory. Surrounded by a large district of country, rich in soil, with immense forests of the finest timber in the world, and combining many advantages, agricultural and commercial, it is destined to be, at no distant day, one of the most important points on the Pacific coast. A low pass in the Cascade Mountains offers a route for a good road from the Sound to Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia. Such a road would be important for military purposes, and would also be a great saving of distance and time to emigrants going from the Cowlitz and Chehalis rivers, Puget Sound, or to any other point north of the Columbia. At present emigrants are compelled to take the road across the Cascade Mountains, south of the Columbia, to Oregon City, from whence it is as far, by a road almost impassable, to Puget Sound as it would be from Walla Walla by the road suggested.
    There are, also, east of the Cascade Range, north and south of the Columbia, now in possession of the Indians, large districts of country finely adapted to grazing, with occasional good tracts of farming land, which will, no doubt, ere long be occupied by the whites.
    Oregon City is situated at the Great Falls of the Willamette. Steamboats run daily from this place to Portland, and those of a small class also run daily up the river, above the Falls, from thirty to fifty miles, and in some instances, recently, as I am informed, they have even gone up one hundred and fifty miles. A small judicious expenditure would render the river constantly navigable for such boats that distance.
    The population of Oregon, including the immigration of the last season, is probably twenty thousand. The immigration is rapidly increasing, owing not only to the natural advantages of the country, but to the liberal provisions made for actual settlers by a late law of Congress. By that law liberal donations of land are made to all who will settle upon them previous to the first day of December, 1853. To a single man one hundred and sixty acres, and to a married man three hundred and twenty--one-half in his own right and the other half to his wife in her own right, upon condition that they will live upon and cultivate it for four years.
    The population is of a substantial character, much better than is generally found in new countries. The people are enterprising, industrious, frugal and orderly. Many of the earliest settlers have large, well-cultivated farms; indeed, agriculture everywhere in the Territory may be said to be in a flourishing condition, remarkably so for a new country. California and the Sandwich Islands afford markets and good prices for all our surplus products, and will undoubtedly for years to come.
    Many of the various religious denominations have established churches in the Territory, to some one of which the majority of the settlers belong. Great interest has also been manifested by the people in the establishment of good schools, and admirably have they succeeded in their laudable efforts. The Institute at Salem, under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Academy at Tualatin Plains, under the control of the Presbyterians, are excellent and flourishing institutions. There are also two female institutes in Oregon City. Portland, Lafayette, and other small towns have good schools. Indeed they are common in the country wherever the population will justify them. A grant of land was made by the last Congress for the endowment of a university, the site of which has been fixed by the Territorial Legislature at Marysville.
    The Indians immediately bordering on, or near the settlements, are perfectly friendly and well disposed. Settlers have nothing to fear from them. Those upon Rogue River are troublesome to those passing through their country, and will probably continue so until a garrison shall be established to overawe and keep them in subjection. This, I hope, will soon be done, for their depredations upon travelers have already caused much trouble and suffering. They are upon the great thoroughfare from Oregon to California, a fork of which leads to Fort Hall, being the road frequently traveled by emigrants from that point to Oregon.
    Emigrants the past year suffered considerably from the Snake Indians, who infest the great road west of Fort Hall, and who are scattered over a large extent of territory through which the road passes. The establishment of a garrison in their country is essentially necessary to the maintenance of peace, and the protection of the lives and property of persons passing to and from Oregon. A number of emigrants have, during the past season, been murdered by the Indians, and many of their animals and other property stolen from them. Emigrants should exercise great care and prudence in passing through this district of country, and they should remember that it is essential to their safety, upon all parts of this road, that in no case should they suffer themselves to be taken by surprise, or the least advantage had of them by the Indians, for the least carelessness or want of proper precaution often seriously endangers the safety not only of their property but their lives.
    Those who contemplate emigrating to Oregon should be ready to leave St. Joseph, on the Missouri River, with a proper outfit, by the first day of May. Ox teams are much to be preferred. Provisions for the trip, and sufficient blankets for bedding, with such tools only as are necessary to repair a wagon, should be taken. Each man should also take his gun and plenty of ammunition. The journey is a long and tedious one, and all who undertake it must expect to endure fatigue, privations and hardships. I would advise every person, or at least every company, to procure Palmer's Emigrants' Guide. It correctly lays down the fords across the streams, the camping grounds, and also the places where grass, wood and water can be found. No article not necessary for the journey should be taken, as there is great danger of overloading and breaking down the teams.
    Dry goods, groceries, furniture and farming utensils of all kinds are abundant in Oregon, and no one should think of taking such things with them. It must not, however, be supposed that no inconveniences are to be experienced by emigrants, after they arrive there. These are always incident to the settlement of new countries, especially for the first year; but they are fewer in Oregon than are usual in the settling of new territories.
Bardstown Herald, Kentucky, February 4, 1852, page 1

Oregon City O.T.
    Jany. 4th 1852
Dear Father
    I wish to say a word of two in reference to the [capital] location question. Whatever you do, don't favor Oregon City and the federal officers. They have arrayed themselves against the people and their representatives who met at Salem, and I feel confident will through their chief actor (A. Holbrook Esq.) try to lead you astray from the true principles. Some of your best Democratic friends think you have so much confidence in Mr. H. that you could be influenced by him against your own as well as the true interests of the people of the Territory. But I am satisfied that you are too old a hand in such matters to be deceived by a man belonging to the opposite party. But still I think whenever an opportunity offers to undeceive the people in reference to your standing with the Whig officers it would be well to do so.
    There is one other thing I want to urge upon you, and that is the necessity of procuring the passage of such a bill as will give the people of the Territory the power to elect all their officers, to be paid as before out of the Treasury of the United States, and again I would say for God's sake don't allow yourself to be led astray by letters or anything coming from the Whig officers.
    The river is higher now than any time since the great flood in '49 and is still rising slow, but as it has not rained any for 56 hours we don't think it can rise much more. It has done us but little damage yet, nothing in fact but carrying off some one or two hundred saw logs.
    Mr. Thompson's family is still afflicted; his little daughter Elly is now very sick with inflammatory fever. You must write to Mr. Thompson. I know he would be glad to get a letter from you.
    I have not heard from Joe for some time, but suppose he writes to you. My health is very good. I am getting along very well in the milling business, making but little in the way of cash, but paying off some debts which you know is equivalent.
    I will write you often and try to keep you posted on such matters as I think are of importance to the Territory and your own well being. Your friends send their compliments. You must not fail to send the papers to those who sent money by you to pay subscription.
    Write me as often as you can.
Your obt. son &c.
    N. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    Jany. 20th 1852
Dear Father
    This morning I recd. a letter from you dated Washington Dec. 4th / 51 and have an opportunity of answering it immediately, as the mail steamer Columbia lays over two days at Portland. In reference to the survey of the Island you may rest satisfied that I will have it attended to at the first low water and have the survey recorded per your instructions. I wrote to Judge Skinner, who is on the Rogue River, about those notes. I sent him a copy of the recpt. and Judge Bryant's order, keeping the original myself until I recd. the notes. I have not heard from Skinner yet, but think I will get some news from him ere long. I wrote to him to send me the notes by the first opportunity. No news of interest afloat in this section of country. The people's legislature at Salem will adjourn tomorrow, "sine die" I suppose. Bush has been up at Salem during the session and is expected to return this week. And as I think I said something about his having something to do with the editing of the Vox Populi
I will here place that matter right, as I have since been informed that he refused to have anything to do with the paper, but to accommodate the members let out the use of his small press and type to the gentlemen who got the paper up. We sustained a loss of $735 worth of logs by the late high water, but no damage was done to the mills except stopping them about two weeks with back water, but I have them both going now and am making some lumber and flour and a very little money. I am getting rid of old debts and hope to get them about all worked off during this year. Times are pretty hard and money not very plenty, I assure you. I have not recd. anything from Joe for some time, though I have written frequently. I don't except him down until sometime next summer. Mr. Thompson has moved up on the hill in the house that Gov. Gaines occupied when you left. He has bought some land and concluded to try farming. His family are regaining their health. T'Vault has not been 3 weeks at home since you left. He is now up in the Umpqua pretending to look out a road to Port Orford, but I fear he will do no good neither for himself nor country.
    I cautioned you against Amory Holbrook in my last, and I again repeat it: He will bear watching. You can't imagine how odious he has made himself among the Oregonians. I hope you will do all you can for Oregon and that you may do all things right. Write me often. I will do the same.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City, January 21st 1852
Messrs. Greenbury and James B. Martin,
    Gentlemen, Capt. Wm. J. Martin has forwarded to me a power of attorney to "collect by suit or otherwise to receive and receipt for the same" two promissory notes executed by Greenbury Martin and James B. Martin of Platte County, Missouri for the sum of five hundred and thirty-three dollars each, with ten percent interest bearing date April 3rd 1846, payable to William J. Martin three years after date. These notes as you are aware are filed in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Platte County. One of the votes is entitled to a credit of one hundred and sixty dollars, Sept. 29th 1849.
    On yesterday I recd. a letter from William informing me that he is in great need of money and requesting me to write you without delay and beg you to pay the above notes in time to forward the money by May next. This I hope you will readily do. I urge this the more for the reason that I know that William's engagements will seriously embarrass him without he can get the money due him from you. Upon the payment of the above-named notes I am authorized to execute all proper releases or conveyances necessary to discharge any mortgage or collateral security of any kind whatsoever, and to do all other things necessary to be done in the premises.
    Permit me, gentlemen, to beg you to write me immediately upon the receipt of this letter and let me know when you can discharge the debt above mentioned. I have no doubt of your ability and willingness to pay this debt. Let me know how and when I can get the money. Write me and also your member of Congress Mr. Hall if necessary to ensure the forwarding of this transaction.
    Direct to Washington City, D.C. I shall be here until the close of the session.
I am gentlemen
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington Feby. 6th 1852
    At the last session of Congress an act was passed appropriating the sum of fifteen thousand dollars for a lighthouse, fog signals &c. at the mouth of the Umpqua River in Oregon Territory. Will you please inform me what steps, if any, have been taken to carry out the object of this appropriation. The interest of the southern portion of that Territory will be greatly promoted by the speedy erection of the lighthouse and other improvements at the mouth of this river for which this appropriation was made, and I am exceedingly desirous that should this appropriation of fifteen thousand be found insufficient for the immediate construction of these works, at this session I may secure further appropriation sufficient to secure the completion of the work.
    You will oblige me by furnishing me with such information upon this subject as may be in your possession, at your earliest convenience.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joseph Lane]
To Hon. Secy. of Treasury
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington Febr. 6th 1852
    I have read with great interest a copy of the letter addressed to the Commr. of the Genl. Land Office by John Evans, Geologist for the Territory of Oregon, in reference to his geological surveys in that Territory and by that office kindly furnished me.
    I am well aware of the inestimable importance of a geological survey of that country as essentially conducive to the development of its rich and valuable resources, and I am pleased that the indomitable energy and experienced ability of Professor Evans has been appointed to that labor. It seems from the letter to which I allude that a further appropriation of ten thousand dollars will be necessary in order to carry on this survey during the coming year. Like Prof. Evans I am an economist, and anxious that all appropriations for the use should be disbursed as well as created with a view to economy as well as utility. I am, however, decidedly in favor of this appropriation thus asked by Prof. Evans, and in order to obtain it will thank you for such estimates, reports &c. as may be in your possession establishing the necessity for such an appropriation, upon which I may base my propositions to that effect before the House of Representatives. I shall also be under obligations to you for any other aid and information in reference to this subject you may be pleased to extend me.
[Joseph Lane]
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Honolulu Feby. 10th 1852
Dear Sir;
    I wrote a few days ago to Mr. Hamlin in relation to an exchange of certain commodities of these islands free of duty for certain others of Oregon and California. You are doubtless aware that the sugar plantations here are struggling for existence, and that since California has begun to supply herself with potatoes and other vegetables these Islands have but little to export with which to pay for the goods which still continue to come from all parts of the world. If Sandwich Island's sugar could be admitted into Oregon and California free of duty in consideration of the admission of flour, lumber and salmon from our coast free here, it would be a gain on both sides. If you will examine our treaties with Mexico, Ecuador, Peru &c. you will see that in such case they too could bring their sugar [to] California and Oregon free as the same conditions being entitled to all the privileges of the most favored nations, but I do no find anything in our treaties with Spain or China which would entitle them to the privilege. (I have only the old edition of the laws and later copies in pamphlets.) It is Chinese and Manila (Spanish) which competes most with that of the islands. The Spanish American states have not much to sell. I wish you would see the California Senators and Reps. and Gen. Lane, the Delegate from Oregon, and learn their views on the subject and if it shall be found that the thing can be done without involving us in a difficulty with any of the countries with which we have treaties yielding them the privileges of the most favored nations. I hope an arrangement may be made. The planters here are nearly or quite all Americans, and more Americans would come if sugar cultivation were made profitable. It would give the American population a controlling preponderance here which no adverse causes could overthrow. As it is now this is not so certain. The present King's ministers are all right, but we cannot be sure of keeping them in, for there is an anti-American influence constantly plotting against them, and trying to prejudice the King against them. He is much addicted to the bottle. His ministers try to keep him sober--their enemies try to get him drunk and to profit by it as they do, some of them being his boon companions. In this state of things there is no knowing what he may do. He cannot live long unless he alters his course. The Protestant missionaries all have strong American partialities and great influence. The Catholic missionaries are all hostile to annexation, and they have made proselytes of nearly two fifths of the natives. These are facts to be considered, for the popular branch of the legislative body is elected by universal suffrage. These native Catholic converts can all be taken to the polls like a flock of sheep. Already they have had their tickets marked with a cross † to prevent mistakes in voting. If they get a majority they will control the house of representatives. We want more white population from the States, and the commercial arrangement I speak of would secure this while it would injure nobody on your side of the continent. Sugar is as much an article of necessity as coffee or tea--nay, more so, as would be better entitled to into the U.S. free of duty, but for the principle of protection. We raise sugar in Louisiana, Florida and Texas, but no tea or coffee. I therefore would not desire to take off anything from the 30 percent on sugar on your side [of] the continent. But the admission of Sandwich Island sugar into the Pacific States would not affect the American planters on the Atlantic side. I have written to Mr. Webster on this subject, but do not know what his views are or the President's. You will see the propriety of not giving me as authority for what I have said of the King's dissipation. He is very friendly to me and I wish to keep him so. Wish I could keep him sober. He has good sense, but not so strong as his appetite.
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Sound Doctrine--Letter from Gen. Lane
    The following letter from Gen. Lane to Mr. Deady will be read with the deepest interest. It is but one of a large number of like purport, which have been received in the Territory:
    Washington City, Feb. 19, 1852.           
M. P. Deady, esq.--Dear Sir:
    * * * I consider it quite unfortunate that there has been any difference of opinion between the Governor and Legislative Assembly, in reference to the location of the seat of government. The Representatives of the people are the only lawmaking power known to the people of Oregon, so far as municipal enactments are concerned. The acts of the Assembly, therefore, should be respected and sustained, not only by every citizen, but every civil and military officer of the Territory, AND ESPECIALLY BY ONE WHOSE DUTY IT IS TO SEE THAT THE LAWS ARE FAITHFULLY EXECUTED, AND WHO HAS NO RIGHT OR POWER TO DECIDE UPON THE VALIDITY OR CONSTITUTIONALITY OF LAWS PASSED BY THE ASSEMBLY. I HATE TECHNICAL QUIBBLES AND EVASIONS. To me it would have been enough to know that the Assembly had located, by enactment, the seat of government, and SO IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN TO ANY MAN, GOVERNOR OR OTHER. The Assembly have, in my judgment, acted correctly in holding their session at Salem. The legality of these acts at Salem are, in my opinion, as unquestionable as the acts of any former session, and so Congress, I have no doubt, will consider them. Your memorial is before the Committee on Territories. I am preparing a bill in accordance with the wish of the Assembly, that is to extend to the people the right to elect their Governor, judges, &c.
    Now, my dear sir, lose no time in urging a complete organization of our party. * * * You may depend upon my doing everything in my power for the promotion of the interests of the people of Oregon.
    Your friend,
        JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 11, 1852, page 2

Island Mills O.T.
    Feby. 21st 1852
Dear Father
    Yours of December 21st came to hand by last mail. I am truly sorry to learn that Joe has made false statements to you about his condition in reference to provisions and money, for I assure you that I purchased all the provisions that he wanted. He made out a bill himself, and every item that was mentioned in it to the full extent was sent to him, and I gave him all the money I had. This was all I could do, and I told him to buy a wagon and oxen and I would pay anything we had in the mills for them, but he could not get any on these conditions. Now I ask is it my fault? Can a man give that that he has not? So far as his doing anything in reference to improving the claim is concerned, it's all in my eye, but I think he will stay about it enough to hold it until your return, and that of course is better than to lose it entirely.
    I have seen Smith once, and he promised to make out your bill and give me a receipt for the articles used as Indian presents, but he is now out of town and I don't know when I will be able to get the documents ready to send on to you. At any rate I will do all I can to expedite the matter. R. R. Thompson will give me a recpt. for the tobacco anytime. I have not written to Capt. P. Thompson, but will as soon as I can ascertain when to write.
    Times are extremely dull and daily growing worse. I am driving ahead all I can trying to make money, but I assure [you] it's a very uphill business. The people are leaving Oregon City, some for the upcountry, some for claims near town and some for the States. If they continue to leave for the next twelve months as they have for the last four months, the place will be entirely depopulated. There is not now more than one-half of the houses occupied. The location excitement is subsiding some little, but I expect it will be revived at the next election. His Hon. Judge Nelson has resigned his judgeship but I believe intends to hold his March term before his resignation takes effect.
    You may rest contented on one score, and that is that I will do all I can for our interests here. I have been and intend to be very attentive to business. I want to establish a reputation for doing business correct and prompt, and I believe I am succeeding very well so far. I am my own boss and bookkeeper, as I have got rid of Thompson and Davenport both, and I find that I can attend to all as well as to part. I will write regular. Send me some papers. Your acquaintances in the city are all well and send their compliments.
Your son &c.
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Winchester Feb. 22 1852
Dear Father
    I have received your letter, papers and patent office report. There has been considerable excitement in Oregon about the legislature and the Whig officers, such as Gaines, Nelson, Strong and others. I want a Democrat President and the Whig federal officers thrown out. In Oregon we are sick of them now.
    You said that you would be glad to swap berths with me; well, come out here and I will exchange with you.
    You say never mind, better days coming. I want them to come quickly if they come at all, for I think these days are bad enough. There is no news up here. Nat never writes to me at all. I wish you would [send] me the Washington Union and all of the news from the States if you please. Mr. Akin and family send their compliments to you. Give my compliments to Lockhart and others.
I remain your affect. son
    Jo. S. Lane
Jos. Lane

    Mr. Ingalls and family send their respects to you, and Mr. Evans of Oregon City requests me to say to you that he was living in Umpqua, and anything that you send to him send it to this place.
    Jo. S. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    March 8th 1852
Dear Father
    I avail myself of Mr. Gaines' kindness to drop you a few lines. Your letter, stating that McLoughlin has filed a patent in the Genl. Land Office against a patent being issued for the Island, came to hand ten days since. I have not been able yet to get a copy of the compy.'s old survey, but will try to have it ready by next mail. I have taken up the three notes that Skinner held of Bryant's against you and have them in my trunk.
    Business is exceeding dull. I am trying to keep the mills both going, but am not able to keep the flour mill all the time at work, owing to the scarcity of wheat. A demand in California for seed wheat has taken a great deal out of Oregon, and the present amt. of wheat in the ground is, I am told, far short of the usual amt. sowed. Such being the case, I fear our business is not going to be very profitable for the next 12 or 15 months. Still I hope to make something, with good luck and close management. I wish you would tell Mary and the balance of my sisters and brothers to write to me a little more regular, as it is quite lonely out here, and they are exceedingly careless about answering my letters.
    I will write more at length by next mail.
Your obt. son
    N.H. Lane
Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Letter from Gen. Lane
Undoubted Ratification of the Location Law and the Laws
of the Last Session of the Legislative Assembly--
The Memorial--Democratic Organization

Washington City, March 21, '52.       
    A. Bush, Esq.--Dear Sir: Yours of the 8th ult.,inquiring my views in relation to certain questions hereafter mentioned, which are agitating the public mind in Oregon, has been received, and I hasten at once to comply with your request and to give you my opinion with that frankness that should characterize a representative of the people.
    I have ever acknowledged the right of a constituency to be made acquainted with the views of their representative upon questions of public interest, and I have regarded it as the duty of the representative to answer such inquiries freely and in a spirit of manly candor and frankness. At least, this is the rule by which I have sought to square my public action. The people of Oregon are entitled to my views, as their representative, upon public questions of importance to them, and I have no disposition to shrink from any responsibility that attaches to my station. So regarding the right of the people to ask, and the duty of the representative to answer all questions on matters of grave public interest to them, I shall therefore proceed to reply to your interrogatories in order.
    First, in regard to the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon--praying the Congress of the United States to give the people of Oregon the privilege of electing their governor and judges--I will say that it meets my cordial approbation, and I shall cheerfully comply with the wishes of the people. As a Democrat, I have ever believed in the doctrine that the people are capable of self-government; and I can see no good reason why the selection of officers to administer laws in which they alone are interested, and enacted for their protection and happiness and the protection of their lives and property, should not be entrusted to the intelligent voters of Oregon. In almost every state in the Union, this system of election by the people prevails. Are the people of Oregon less capable of exercising this prerogative than other American citizens? Are they not as intelligent, as patriotic, as law-abiding and as capable of protecting their just rights as the citizens of any other community? I repeat, I can see no good reason why this privilege should be denied them when they desire it. I have accordingly brought it to the notice of Congress; the memorial has been referred to the Committee on Territories in the House, and a bill, in accordance with the prayer of the memorial, has been referred to the same committee. I cannot now determine what disposition will be made of them. I shall spare no exertions, however, to urge the committee and Congress to give the bill a favorable consideration, and, if possible, pass it.
    Second. In regard to the location of the seat of government and the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem, I will also state that, some time since, I introduced a joint resolution approving the confirming the act of the Assembly, locating the seat of government at Salem, and also approving the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem. This joint resolution will, I have no doubt, pass, and will, I hope, settle public opinion so far as the location of the seat of government, and the lawfulness of the proceeding of the Assembly at their late session at Salem are concerned.
    Now, sir, as to the organization of the Democratic Party in Oregon. I am in favor of such an organization. Party is but another term for principles; an organization the more efficiently to act together for the dissemination and success of certain defined principles. It is certainly the desire of every good citizen to see his government administered on just and correct principles that will conduce to the happiness and prosperity of his country. But as our minds are differently constituted we cannot see alike, and though aiming at the same object--the honor, the greatness and prosperity of our common country--we travel different roads to attain that object. A portion of our countrymen believe that a national bank, a high protective tariff, and a grand and magnificent scheme of internal improvements by the general government are necessary and indispensable to the welfare and prosperity of the country. You and I, on the contrary, believe that such a policy would be ruinous to its best interests, and that a revenue tariff which will not operate disadvantageously to the great agricultural interests of the country and yet yield enough revenue to defray the expenses of government, the establishment of the present independent treasury system, an economical administration of the affairs of government, the creation of no monopolies, the speedy liquidation of our national debt, a strict construction of the Constitution, a faithful observance of its requirements and the assumption of no doubtful powers, the careful preservation of the rights of the states as the great bulwark of our liberty, and many other things I could enumerate, will "do the greatest good to the greatest number," preserve our institutions in their pristine purity and conduce to the happiness of the people and the growing greatness of our Republic; hence we are Democrats. Now, if our principles are worth anything we should contend for their success; but, in order to succeed, we must organize our forces efficiently so as to concentrate them and act together. The fact that the principal offices of Oregon are filled by Whigs should speak volumes to the Democracy of Oregon. It shows that the Whig administration has not been unmindful of its party friends, and very naturally prefers Whigs to Democrats. Are we to be asked to reverse the rule? Now I do not complain, and never have complained, of this state of affairs. On the contrary, I hold it to be just and natural for Whigs to prefer their party friends, and to forward and promote the Whig cause by elevating them to offices of trust and honor. It is equally as just and as natural for Democrats to prefer their party friends, and to seek the promotion of our principles by giving them the reins of power. If it is proscription in the Democrat it is proscription in the Whig, and our opponents cannot object if the same causes that led them to the appointment of Whig officers in Oregon, viz., the rewarding of party friends and the promotion of Whig principles should influence the Democrats to form an organization for the same purpose. They were the first to enter the field of proscription, but, having found themselves in a minority, they now hope, under the "no-party" guise, to breed dissension in our ranks and to triumph through our division. Let the Democrats of Oregon remember that these gentlemen have been the last to practice that political mercy they invoke for themselves, and they have not yet given that repentance for their acts of proscription which should entitle them to our political favor--the offices of Oregon are still filled by Whigs. I trust the Democrats of Oregon will now see the importance of a thorough organization; it would, in my opinion, strengthen and encourage the Democratic cause.
    You now have my views briefly, and you are at liberty to make whatever disposition of this letter you may deem proper.
    I have the honor to be
        your ob't. serv't.,
            Joseph Lane.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 18, 1852, page 2   A different version of this letter can be found in Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters, transcribed below.

Washington City, March [21, '52]     
Asahel Bush, Esqr.
    Dear Sir,
        Yours of the 8th ult.,inquiring my views in relation to certain questions hereafter mentioned, which are agitating the public mind in Oregon, has been received, and I hasten at once to comply with your request and to give you my opinion with that frankness that should characterize a representative of the people.
    I have ever acknowledged the right of a constituency to be made acquainted with the views of their representative upon questions of public interest, and I have regarded it as the duty of the representative to answer such inquiries freely, fully, and in a spirit of manly candor and frankness. At least this is the rule by which I have sought to square my public conduct action. The people of Oregon are entitled to my views, as their representative, upon public questions of importance to them, and I have no disposition to shrink from any responsibility that attaches to my station. So regarding the right of the people to ask, and the duty of the representative to answer all questions on matters of grave public interest to them, I shall proceed at once to reply to your interrogatories in order.
    First, in regard to the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon praying the Congress of the United States to give the people of Oregon the privilege of electing their Governor and judges, I will say that it meets my cordial approbation, and I shall cheerfully comply with the wishes of the people. As a Democrat, I have ever believed in the Democratic doctrine that the people are capable of self-government; and I can see no good reason why the selection of officers to administer laws in which they alone are interested, and enacted for their protection and happiness and the protection of their property, should not be entrusted to the intelligent voters of Oregon. In almost every state in the Union this system of election by the people prevails. Are the people of Oregon less capable of exercising this prerogative than other American citizens? Are they not as intelligent, as patriotic, as law-abiding, as capable of protecting their just rights, and managing their own domestic concerns, and make their own municipal regulations, as the citizens of any other community? I repeat, I can see no valid reason why this privilege should be denied them when they desire it. I have accordingly brought it to the notice of Congress. The memorial has been referred to the Committee on Territories in the House of Representatives, and a bill in accordance with the prayer of the memorial has also been referred to the same committee. I cannot now determine what disposition will be made of them, and whether, in the great rush of business, they will receive any consideration this session. I shall spare no exertions, however, to urge upon the committee and Congress the necessity to give the bill a favorable consideration, and, if possible, pass it.
    Second. In regard to the location of the seat of government and the "legalizing" of the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem, I will also state that I will urge the Congress to pass a law settling the whole question affirmatively. Some time ago I introduced a joint resolution to locate the seat of government at Salem, and had it referred to the Committee on Territories. Since then I have brought the question of "legalizing" the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly and thus confirming their acts to the notice of the committee. I entertain no doubt of the passage of a law approving the law by which the seat of government was located at Salem, and declaring the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly to be valid and legal.
    Third. The legality of the act "to provide for the selection of places for location and erection of the public buildings" &c. I regard the act as legal and in no respect violating the organic law of the Territory. I am aware that it is open to legal quibbles, and, perhaps, unfortunate in this respect. I think, however, that a common-sense view of the subject will set the matter right. The organic law requires that the Legislative Assembly shall not intermix in one act "such things as have no proper relation with each other" (no one can contend that the location and erection of public buildings were irrelevant subjects) and that such act shall have but one object, or one purpose, one design, for these terms are synonymous, and that to be expressed in the title. Now, I have been careful to read this act and have given it much consideration, and I confess myself utterly unable to read but one object, one design, viz.: "to provide for the selection of places for the location and erection of the public buildings" &c. Surely no one will contend that a separate bill was necessary to provide for a penitentiary, another for the state university &c. Such a reading is clearly contrary to the organic law, for it admits of more than one "thing" in a law, else why the necessity of speaking of and by directing the Assembly not to intermix "such things as have no proper relation with each other" infers that they have the power to intermix "such things" as have a proper relation with each other, else there is no meaning in language. Such a reading, too, would render null and void a general law creating the office of justice of the peace in each county in the Territory, and would require a separate act for each justice created! I am free to say such could not have been the intention of the lawmakers, and such is not my reading of the law. But this is a plain, practical question, not to be fogged by legal technicalities, which every practical man in the Territory can decide for himself in a common-sense manner. The requirements of the organic law, so far as this question is concerned, are plain and simple. I have stated them briefly. The questions for every voter of Oregon to decide are, Does this act violate the organic law? Does intermix such things as have no proper relation to each other? Has it more than one object, one design, one purpose, and is that object expressed in the title? I trust my fellow citizens will decide this question in their own mind for themselves in a common-sense manner way, and not allow their minds to be fogged with irrelevant questions and legal quibbles.
    Fourth. The organization of the Democratic Party in Oregon.
    My views upon this question have always been freely expressed in favor of such an organization. I remain of the same opinion. Party is but another term for principles--an organization the more efficiently to act together for the dissemination and success of certain defined principles. It is certainly the desire of every good citizen to see his government administered on just and correct principles that will conduce to the happiness and prosperity of his country. But as our minds are differently constituted we cannot see alike, and though aiming at the same object, the honor, the greatness and the prosperity of our common country, we travel different roads to attain that object. A portion of our countrymen believe that a national bank, a high protective tariff, and a grand and magnificent scheme of internal improvements by the general government are necessary and indispensable to the welfare and prosperity of the country. You and I, on the contrary, believe that such a policy would be ruinous to its best interest, and that a revenue tariff which will not operate disadvantageously to the public great agricultural interests of the country and yet yield enough revenue to defray the expenses of the government, the establishment of the present independent treasury system, an economical administration of the affairs of government, the creation of no monopolies, the speedy liquidation of our national debt, the assumption of no doubtful Constitutional question, a strict construction of the Constitution and a faithful observance of its requirements, the careful preservation of the rights of the states as the great bulwark of our liberty, and many other things I could enumerate, will do the greatest good to the greatest number, preserve our institutions in their pristine purity and conduce to the happiness of the people and the growing greatness of our Republic; hence we are Democrats.
    Now, if our principles are worth anything they are worth contending for, but in order to succeed we must organize our forces efficiently so as to concentrate them and act together. The fact that the principal offices of Oregon are filled with Whigs should speak volumes to the Democracy of Oregon. It shows that the Whig administration has not been unmindful of its party friends, and very naturally prefers Whigs to Democrats. Are we to be asked to reverse the rule? Now I do not complain, and never have complained, of this state of affairs. On the contrary, I hold it to be just and natural for Whigs to prefer their party friends, and to forward and promote the Whig cause by elevating them to stations of trust and honor. It is equally as just and as natural for Democrats to prefer their party friends, and to seek the promotion of our cause and our principles by giving them the reins of power. If it is proscription in the Democrat it is proscription in the Whig. And our opponents cannot object if the same causes that led them to the appointment of Whig officers in Oregon, viz.., the rewarding of party friends and the promotion of Whig principles, should influence the Democrats to form an organization for the same object. I am clearly of the opinion that the Democratic cause would receive strength and encouragement from by a thorough organization of the party, and I believe the sooner that object is attained the better.
    I have been full and frank, I am afraid tedious, in this expression of my views. The importance of the subject is my apology for the length of this letter, which is at your service to make and you can make whatever disposition of it you please.
    I have the honor to be
        Very respectfully your obt. servant
            [Joseph Lane]
[on a separate sheet of paper]
    They first practiced
    They were the first to enter the field of proscription, but, having found themselves in a majority minority, they now are "no party" men with the and now hope, under the no-party guise, to breed dissension in our ranks and to triumph through our division. Let the Democrats of Oregon remember that these gentlemen have been the last to practice that political mercy they invoke for themselves, and that they have not yet given that repentance for their acts of proscription which should entitle them to our political favor. The offices of Oregon are still filled by Whigs.
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters  This letter was printed, with alterations, in the Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 18, 1852, page 2. See above.

Washington D.C.
    April 7 1852
Hon. Secy. of Navy
        From a memorial I have received from the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon I learn that the United States mail steamers fail or refuse to touch at Umpqua in said Territory, according to the terms of contract between our government and the proprietors of said line of vessels. You will please inform me of the cause assigned if any for this neglect or refusal of the proprietors to comply with the stipulations of their contract whether the remedy is within the control of your Department and if not what steps are necessary to be taken in order to secure to the people of Umpqua the mail facilities to which they are entitled under the contract to which I refer.
    An early answer is respectfully requested.
[Joseph Lane]
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    April 20th / 52
Dear Father
    I have recd. your letters regular, by each mail one. The last one brought several newspaper recpts. and a list of items for which you want me to send you vouchers. Well, I am afraid I can't get the vouchers ready to send by this mail but will try to have them all ready by next mail. Genl. Hamilton has promised to have a copy of the survey of the Island ready by this mail. If so I will send it in this. I have not seen Capt. Phil Thompson, but recd. a note from him refusing to pay the draft you sent me. I therefore send it back protested, and Bush I presume has written to you in reference to the paper. He says he can raise the money if it is necessary, but is at present short of funds.
    Times are exceedingly dull, and business is going on something after the fashion of a snail. Our business has never before looked so bilious. Wheat is very scarce, and flour dull & low, ranging from 8 to 9 dollars per barrel, and lumber is selling slow at $20 per M., and add to that the high price paid for labor and you will see that our prospects are not very flattering, but notwithstanding all this I will prosecute our business with all my energy as long as I have a dime to do it with, and when the last cent is gone I will run my credit as long as it is worth anything, and when that is gone I will run away, but I hope it won't come to that. Were it not for the debts that have been hanging over us I could have done very well, but our greedy creditors keep us all the time drained, and aside from this R. R. Thompson Esq. is building a fine house, and that is and will be taking something all the time, but even with all this I could get along well enough if our debtors would fork up, but it seems useless to ask a man for money. He would put you off till Saturday & then till Monday & then from Saturday till Monday during an age.
    We had a Democratic meeting in Oregon City last Saturday to choose delegates to attend a coming convention for the purpose of nominating candidates for the different county offices. Thompson will no doubt be nominated for the assembly. I can't yet tell you the other candidates will be, but let them be who they may we will try to elect them all.
    The no-party clique headed by Buck and McCarver held their meeting the day before ours and nominated McCarver for joint councilman and Whitcomb, Carter & Wait for the assembly. Their ticket will be supported by the Whigs and the jack-legged Democrats, such men as are afraid to organize for fear of displeasing the Whig officers. Well, we expect a change of administration soon, and then where will these poor fellows be. God send how soon the change may take place, and when it does I hope you will remain in Washington until the appointments are all made, and be sure to have a clean sweep made. Have Preston, the Surveyor Gen., removed by all means. I don't know that there is any fault found to him, but it will make room for a Democrat, and it will please me. Let them be such Democrats as no favor will sway nor no fear awe, and our country will be safe and free from wrangles.
    W. G. T'Vault is on the eve of moving his family to Rogue River, where he says he has taken a claim. They are all well and send their regards. T'V. is the most cultus tillicum ["worthless person"] in these parts. I am glad he is going to move. I heard from Joe the other day; he was well and was keeping ferry on the Umpqua. The spring has been quite backward, cool and raining about half the time. I hope you will hurry out with the family and my children as soon as you can, as I am getting quite lonely, and I would like it very much if you could send Simon immediately. He would be great service to me, and I could pay him fair wages, as I am [omission] I can't leave to attend to anything up or down the river. I have no clerk, nor don't want any unless it would be him.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
P.S.  A young man by the name of McCarty will probably go to the States by this mail and will if you permit him be likely to bore you. He is a stinking Whig without much brains. He wishes me to speak of him to you, and you can tell him I have done so.
    I send you vouchers for tobacco purchased of R. R. Thompson. You can tell them they have been lying in the hands of Davenport, and I got hold of them and send them to you. You will find in this the copy of the survey of the Island made by Applegate. It will I hope be of some service to you in securing the Island to ourselves.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City, April 22, 1852.       
    Dear Bush:--The Committee on Territories have agreed unanimously to recommend the passage of my joint resolution confirming the seat of government at Salem, and approving the holding of the session of the Legislative Assembly at that place. It will certainly pass. I hope to get it up and passed on Monday or Tuesday next.
    This I hope will do much to restore peace and harmony in the once tranquil Territory of Oregon. I have introduced several bills into the House, having for their object the promotion of the interests of the good people of Oregon.
    Your Friend,
        JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, June 8, 1852, page 2

Island Mills O.T.
    May 9th 1852
Dear Father
    I recd. from Maxwell Ramsby $2 and placed [it] to your credit, for which he wants you to send him the Washington Union. Have it directed to Maxwell Ramsby, Oregon City, O.T. I hope you will attend to it immediately. I did think I would be able to send you the Campbell & Smith vouchers and the other vouchers you wrote for this week but have been disappointed about getting them. I went with Campbell several times to the old store, and each time he would promise to make out his Indian a/c next day, but has not done it. I will renew the task again this week and stand by him until I get it. Mr. Bush showed me a letter from you to Deady and asked my opinion about publishing it, and after examining it carefully I told him to publish it, that I could not see anything in it that you would care about having kept secret, and I know it will do our party a great deal of good in the coming election. Let the people once know that Congress will sustain the Salem legislature and our ticket will carry throughout the Territory. You will see by the Statesman that we have succeeded in organizing the Democratic Party here, and even if we don't succeed in electing our ticket throughout the Territory it will leave us in better condition hereafter, and aside from that it separates the real Democrats from those that pretend to be. Wait is running on the no-party ticket, that is, he calls it such, but I discover that all the Whig officers and all support it.
    I fear he will be elected. Lancaster attacked you in a speech in Clatsop because you favor organization. I have not heard any of the particulars of his speech, but suppose [I] will see it soon in the Oregonian, as that is the mouth organ of all such Democrats as Lancaster. Wonder if he would not favor organizing a party on the wildcat bank principle. I hope you will keep us posted in all transactions of Congress relative to Oregon. I hear a great many complaining about your writing so seldom. You should write more frequent. Don't commit yourself when writing to those that you know are not very friendly towards you.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City June 2nd / 52
Dear Father
    Our election comes off next Monday, and the race in this, Yamhill, Washington and Clatsop counties is going to be a close one. I fear that the straight-out Democratic ticket will not be elected in either of those counties. From present appearances Thompson is the only one of our ticket that will be elected in this county. King, it is thought, will be elected in Washington, and one other of our ticket. We fear that Col. Taylor, the independent candidate, will be elected over John A. Anderson of Clatsop, and Yamhill I am afraid will all go wrong. But let them go wrong this year if nothing else will do, and next year we will be better organized and will give them the worst whipping they ever heard of. The election this year reminds me of home; both parties are at work. Candidates canvass the counties, and stump speaking is quite common. Your letter came in good time, and I only wish we could have recd. news of the passage of your resolutions before the election, but owing to some accident to one of the mail steamers we miss one mail, which throws the next one after the election.
    Mr. Waldo wants to know if you recd. his bill for articles that he desired you to purchase and whether or not you have bought them. Please inform him.
    I recd. four dollars from H. Baker, the pay for the Unions you sent him, and now he wants you to send to him five more numbers of the same paper, which he says will only cost $8, and he will pay me the amt. on arrival of the papers here. You can do as you please about sending them. He must be a mean man or he would not want to give you so much trouble for so small pay. I have sent to the States for papers for myself, and I always put the money in the letter and my papers always come, and I don't see any reason why he should not do the same.
    Our bridge is entirely completed, roofed, sided up and painted, and by far the best thing of the kind in the Territory. I will have a wagon road in the place of the railway running clear up to the doors of our mills this summer, and that will curtail our expenses considerable and will the sooner enable us to build mills. Our prospects are some brighter than when I wrote last, but still business is dull. I am well pleased with Oregon and becoming more and more so all the time. I could not be induced to go back to Indiana to remain for no consideration. My health is good, and my weight exceeds my usual weight in the States fifteen pounds. I hope you will send Simon out soon. I need him very much.
    Your boy John is still alive, but is very weak. I can't find out what is the matter with him. It seems to be something like consumption of the lungs. The doctor has quit coming to see him & says he can't do anything more for him. I am very sorry to have to lose him, for I am sure I never saw a better or more honest boy in my life, either black or white, and besides that he thinks the world of me and would do everything for me, and I have become very much attached to him, but I fear there is no hope for his recovery.
    I will send you a power of attorney by this mail to sell all my land, town lots &c., and I hope you will be able to get a fair price in cash or at least half cash and take mortgages on the property for the remaining half and send me the amt. cash you receive, as I want to make a purchase of some lots in Oregon City now while property is low. Money invested now in Oregon City lots will realize one hundred percent in five years.
    Write often as you can, and don't forget to write to Thompson.
Your obt. son
    Nat H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Speech of Gen. Lane.
    At the Democratic Ratification Mass Meeting held at Washington in front of the City Hotel, Wednesday evening, June 9th, 1852.
    The Chairman. I have now the pleasure of introducing you to Gen. Joseph Lane, of Oregon.
    General Lane. Fellow citizens, allow me to express my gratification at being here. It is good to be here, and I regard my position now as one of the happiest in which I could be placed. It always makes my heart glad when I can have the pleasure of meeting with the true Democracy of the country, and talking with them about our prospects and our principles. I have met you for the purpose of expressing my pleasure and gratification at the nomination of Gen. Franklin Pierce as our standard bearer in the coming contest. I congratulate you--I congratulate the Democracy of the country--upon the nomination of two such good Democrats and pure men--indeed I congratulate the whole country, for allow me here to say that Democratic principles are the true principles of this government, and the promotion of these principles is the promotion of the interests of the whole country. There ought to be no difference of opinion about administering the government of this country. It is better for Whigs, for Democrats, and for all other parties, that the Democracy should govern. [Cheers.] They are competent to govern, and when they are in power they endeavor to promote, and always have promoted, the interests of all. I defy any man, Whig or Democrat, to cast his eye back over the history of this country and say that any Whig administration has ever tendered any service to this country calculated to develop its resources or promote its glory. They have made no acquisition of territory; they have never been in favor of extending liberal Democratic principles, nor, gentlemen, will they ever be in favor of such progress. They are not liberal in their views, and, with the Little Giant [Laughter.], I can say it is better for the country that they never should govern. [Applause and cheers.] Let me tell you, fellow citizens, I honestly believe they will not have the good fortune to govern again in the next twenty years. [Applause.] The Democratic Convention, which but a few days ago assembled at Baltimore, have presented for our standard bearer in the approaching campaign the name of Gen. Franklin Pierce, a Democrat of the Jackson school. He is a Democrat, true and well tried in civil and military life. In every position in which he has been placed, Franklin Pierce has most ably and gallantly done his duty. Then is it not cause for congratulation and a matter of pride that we have presented to us one so entirely unexceptionable? He has as clear a record in our political history as any man in the nation. With such men as Franklin Pierce and William R. King on our ticket, I am satisfied that it will sweep over this country like a whirlwind, from its eastern extreme even to California, and no ticket that we have presented before will have ever shown as large a majority as this one will receive. [Great applause.]
    I hail from a district of country not now entitled to vote for a President, but if it were possible for the people there to act, there would not be two hundred voters in the Territory who would not vote it. [Applause.] I am familiar with the history of Gen. Pierce in Congress, and I have had the pleasure of knowing him personally in Mexico. I know that he rendered important service to his country in a cause that was just, right and honorable, and that he distinguished himself as an officer, a soldier, a hero, a patriot and a gentleman.
    Of Col. King I can say with truth that he is a good man, long and well tried, and in every position in which he has been placed he has faithfully done his duty. You must excuse plain talking. I am from the far West, where we have none other than honest, plain-hearted Democrats, and I claim to be one of that school. It affords me great pleasure and gives me courage to meet the Democracy of the country here, and especially when I can meet them under such circumstances as the present. It gives me courage to see you here, and enables me to talk with a heart full of love and energy of purpose. We have a good cause and a good ticket. We have justice on our side, and, as certain as God lives, victory is ours. [Applause.] I have nothing to say about the Whigs. I have never had much confidence in them as a party. [Applause.] I have known many clever fellows among them, but when it comes to the selection of officers of government, I have never seen one to whom I could afford support, and I am sure I never shall. [Laughter.]
    Then I am with you, gentlemen, in this race, and with all my heart and mind. If I cannot vote, I will go among the plain hard-fisted Democracy, among whom I was raised, and tell them what I know of the merits of our standard bearers--of their great worth, personally and politically. I will tell my friends in Indiana, who I know are so devotedly attached to the gallant, the great, and noble old Cass--and none there or elsewhere loves him more than I do--and this country owes him more than any other man living--that though we have to give him up, we yet have a gentleman in his stead worthy of their cordial, energetic and active support, and I know they will give it to him with all cheerfulness and alacrity. If it could have been left to my choice, gentlemen, Lewis Cass would have been the man. [Cries of "good, good."] But the convention have decided otherwise, and I hope that the whole American Democracy will be satisfied with the decision, and I have every reason to believe they will be.
    I must be permitted to speak a few words in regard to the other candidates in the convention. To the Little Giant I owe the kindest feelings. I love him as a Democrat. If he could have waited, as I said once before, ten or fifteen years, it would have been better. However, the Little Giant has been voted for, and got a very handsome vote. He is, indeed, a great little man. [Applause.]
    My friend, Gen. Houston--God bless his old soul!--[Applause.]--he has served his country in every capacity--has done his duty nobly. He, too, was supported in the convention. I am glad to have the pleasure of meeting upon this occasion the leader of our party, General Cass--the man to whom we owe more than any other man--of meeting the Little Giant, and also of meeting Gen. Sam. Houston. I congratulate them all, and you, gentlemen, once again upon the prospects before us.
    The convention has given us a glorious nomination. The Democracy of this country know it; they will act upon that knowledge, and in the end all will be well. When we meet here next winter we can then say that on the 4th of March, General Frank. Pierce will take the oath of office as President of the United States, and relieve the present incumbent [Laughter and applause.], a very worthy man--an accidental President, however. Frank. Pierce will take charge of that office with a determination to do his duty--to know no North, no South, no East, no West--to know nothing but the Constitution and his country. I beg pardon for saying so much, but as I said before, it always affords me pleasure to meet with brother Democrats, and I must be excused if I do say too much. Let me say, in conclusion, that I am with you in heart and feeling, and that I am pleased and gratified with the nominees of the Baltimore Convention, and I am satisfied that the whole country will be, and will ratify the action of that body by an unprecedented vote. [Great applause.]
    Gen. Lane subsequently addressed the meeting for a short time, as follows:
    I am sorry to appear before you a second time, but I have made it a rule of my life that when I commence a thing, if I quit before I get done, to begin again [Laughter.], and, indeed, in the service of our country it was my fortune to command forces who would never leave a battle half completed. I intended to have stated before, but I omitted it, that the last thirty-odd years of my life have been spent in Indiana. She is a thorough Democratic state. The Little Giant has said to you--and I know he believes all he has said--that Illinois will give to Gen. Pierce a larger majority than any other state. Now, here is my friend Ficklin--one of the representatives of that state--who will endorse everything the Judge has said, but I must be permitted to say that Indiana will give to General Pierce, over any Whig, just as large a majority as Pierce would like to have. It will be a sweeping Democratic majority.
    It was my fortune in Mexico to serve on both lines under Gen. Butler, and I know that this world has never produced a more gallant, upright and honorable man than he. [Great applause.] I also know that General Butler would not say or do a dishonorable thing, if it would bring to him the office of President for life. He hails from the "dark and bloody ground"--nominally a Whig state, it is true, but one which I believe will, at the next election, give to Pierce a handsome majority. She has not, since 1832, given a Democratic majority until recently in the election of governor. But this year, 1852, is going to be a good one to revive and resurrect the feelings and majorities of the invincible days of Jackson. [Laughter.] I can assure you that in my honest opinion, the old state in which I was raised (Kentucky) will this year give a majority for Pierce, and outside of two or three states, I cannot imagine a single other that will give a majority in opposition to him.
    To the state of Indiana I feel it my duty to tender in your presence my most heartfelt thanks. They had the kindness to present my name to the Democratic convention. God knows I never have desired that office, and I never desired to stand in the way of anyone more worthy and better qualified than myself, and know that no gentleman's name was presented to that convention who was not better qualified. I will not yield honesty of purpose and intention and devotion to country to any name, but I will yield ability to a great many of them. I feel it my duty to tender my thanks to the delegation from that state for voting for me on thirty different ballots, which is just the number of years that I have been in the public service.   
    I commenced my public service in 1822, and I shall end it when Gen. Pierce takes the oath of office as President of the United States in March, 1853, and after that I can assure you that I have no inclination to hold office, unless it should be necessary in the defense of my country's honor. [Great applause.]
    And when I am gone hence, I hope and believe that my posterity--my children--will stand as ready and as willing as I know I have always been to fly with alacrity to the post of duty whenever their services are needed.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 11, 1852, page 1

Oregon City June 23rd 1852
Dear Father
    Yesterday we recd. news of the passage of your resolutions on the location of public bridges, and I assure you it is joyful tidings to the Democrats in Oregon. it sets the vexed question at rest and verifies our words. I am only sorry that the news couldn't [have] reached here immediately after the passage. It would have done as much good in our election. As it is the Whigs came very near whipping us out in the Territory, but we hope to be better organized at the next election. I think the Whig victory in Washington, Clackamas and Yamhill will do much to organize our party. In Washington they elected all 3 of their representatives, and the same in Clackamas, and in Yamhill 2 out of 3.
    Your boy John as I predicted has died. I buried him last Saturday. Nothing could save him. This is I think the worst country on lungs I nearly ever saw. Bresee (watchmaker) died last Sunday with consumption, and we have in Oregon City 2 more past recovery with the same disease.
    Times are still dull, no improvement since you left. I am driving away at the mills making some little money and some improvements. I will have completed this summer a wagon road across to town in the place of the railway. When this improvement is completed the expense of carrying on business will not be so heavy.
    I have not heard from Joe for some time. He never writes to me, and the only means I have of hearing from him is through miners returning from the mines. He has been keeping the ferry at Winchester for some time past & I am told is doing well.
    I hear a great deal of complaint about your not writing to the citizens of Oregon. They say you don't seem to think that they are your constituents. R. R. Thompson Esq. thinks very hard of you for not writing to him. He don't say anything about it to any person but me. I am sorry you have not written more and hope you will try and make up in future what you have neglected in the beginning.
    Write often as you can. I am much obliged for papers.
Your obt. son
    Nat H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    July 20th 1852
Dear Father
    The improvements I have been making and the old debts have kept me pretty well drawn down, in consequence of which I was compelled to borrow money. I therefore borrowed of Daniel Waldo five hundred dollars on six months' time, which falls due about the middle of November--and as I am fearful that I will not be able to meet it I beg of you to make sales of my property and remit in some shape so that I can get it, the above-named amount, as I would not for five times the amount miss having the money when it becomes due. Now I hope you will not fail to send it. I have not done anything since I returned that I regret so much as borrowing that money, and if I get clear of it I will not be guilty of so gross a blunder again. Let me assure you that I am driving things all I can & I believe I am doing as well or better than anyone else could do under the same circumstances.
    In one month more I will have a wagon road completed onto the Island with a platform in front of the mills for wagons to turn on. This done and a few more debts worked off and things will begin to be easy. I am sawing on a large contract for Otway of Portland at twenty dollars per thousand. Wheat is too scarce to keep the flour mill all the time going, but what flouring we do pays very well. Mister R. R. Thompson wants to sell out his interest and will I think advertise for sale in the Statesman, but I think it very doubtful about his finding a purchaser. He asks twelve thousand dollars for his fourth. Times still continue dull, but all who are doing business on a close scale are making money. I am afraid you may think I spend money foolishly, but I can say with a clear conscience that I do not and would add that I am perfectly temperate, don't drink anything stronger than coffee, and have become so stingy that I have stopped buying milk to go in my coffee and tea, and I never go off of the Island during the weekdays except on business. So you will see that I do all that is in my power to drive things ahead.
    As I had to get the power of attorney that I wrote you about attend[ed to], it did not go at the time I wrote you it would, but I now send it accompanying this. Do the best you can with my property and tell all my old friends goodbye, that if they want to see me, come to Oregon.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
P.S. Since writing the above I recd. a note from Genl. Adair calling on me for money--and says that if I can't pay him the amount of the draft that he will draw on you in Washington, and thinking he may draw for the full amount. I send his bill. On the recpt. of his note I sent him one hundred dollars in cash, it being all the money I had--now for heaven's sake don't think that I have not tried to pay him, for I have paid him as much as I possibly could--and if he could hold off a little longer I could pay him the balance--but he says he will have to settle up his affairs with govt. and don't want to be in arrears.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City Septr. 21st / 52
Dear Father
    I gave the the McElroy draft to M. P. Deady and told him to present it and report to me. He did so and sends it back protested, and I herewith forward it to you. I also send you the one on Henry Tanner. I did not present his, as I learned he lived in the back part of Tualatin Plains and was not able to pay. Now I wish you would say to your friends who wish to draw on people in Oregon that I wish they would draw on men who are able to pay or not draw at all, as it gives me just as much trouble to present their drafts and get nothing as it would to get the money of those who are able to pay. Anderson has not written to me since I sent the Hensill draft down to him. I hope he will send it back in time for the next mail if it is not paid. Business is brisk, flour worth from 10 to 12 dolls. per hundred.
    Excuse the shortness of this letter, as time is so pressing I can't write more.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City Octr. 1st 52
Dear Father
    There is beginning to be a great deal of talk about the next delegate to Congress, and it is pretty generally believed that we are going to have some trouble to elect a Democrat, and your friends think you are the only man that can beat the Whigs, Softs and no-party ticket. Now for my part I don't want you to be a candidate, but if nothing else will do you will have to run, and in that event it will be better for you to come home by the Isthmus and start early after the adjournment of Congress, so that you may have time after arriving in the Territory to see the people and clear up the thousand and one lies that will be told and freely circulated to your detriment throughout the Territory. The Democratic candidate, be he whom he may, will have to use industry and spare no pains or he will find himself beat, particularly if Scott should be elected, and here let me say that if Scott is elected Oregon is Whig in spite of all that can be done. The Oregon Democrats are the weakest brethren I ever knew; the greater portion are only Democrats when that party are in power. And another thing, the people are becoming so tired of this split-up between the legislature and the Govr. and stand so much in need of the public buildings that they will whip over onto the side of the Governor in order to have the money expended if for no other reason, and I believe that if we have to be cursed with Whig rule for the next 4 years that I will leave everything and ship myself out of the country, for I never saw anything that deserved contempt more than these officers and their toadies, Wait, Buck, Whitcomb and other pretended Democrats. By the way, Buck has been appointed postmaster, and Frank Holland, a true-blue Democrat, turned out. I want you to see to this if Pierce is elected and have Frank reappointed. Don't fail to attend to this.
    There is a man here by the name of Carter who is an acquaintance and friend of Noyes Smith, alias E. Olcott. This man Carter says he is a Democrat and a true friend to all Democratic measures &c. &c. He desired me to say to you that he wants to be appointed Surveyor Genl. for Oregon. All I know about Mr. Carter is that he was nominated last spring by the no-party party as a candidate for representative, and his election beginning to look bilious he withdrew from the field and pretended he would vote the Democratic ticket, and now he says he did vote it. This I know that at the precinct where he voted there was but one clear Democratic ticket voted, and a man by the name of Lockwood voted the Democratic ticket the same day at the same place, so my opinion of Mr. Carter is that he is a weak sister, and when the appointments are made remember him, that is to see that he don't get any appointment.
    A man by the name of Quigley says he worked in the mines with you and said something to you about bringing his family with you for one thousand dollars was to see me today to get me to mention it to you and to urge you to bring them. He says he would send you the money if he was certain you would bring them.
    W. Holmes Esq. says he wants to be appointed United States Marshal, and Jo Meek wants to be reappointed. Jo is rather a soft-shelled Democrat, but I have no doubt you will be troubled enough recommending the different candidates for favor. Among the true Democrats I have no choice, but beware of the long-faced hypocrites; give them no office. Let them look to the party with whom they sympathize for their favor.
    Mr. Longnecker of Penn. is in the city. He talks some of going back on the next steamer. I find him a very clever, sociable gentn. and good Democrat. He presented your letter of introduction, and him and I have had several interesting conversations. I like him very much. Mr. Babcock of Covington, Indiana has also arrived and presented a letter from you. I am well pleased with Babcock; he is a plain, industrious and very sensible man. He is now at Portland.
    I am driving the mills all I can. The flour mill is paying well and the sawmill is paying a little. Well now, Father, we can't do a good business here until we get a new flour mill, and if I should get a millwright to make out a bill of the castings necessary would you buy them and ship them to us? If so I will send on the bill this winter. The smut machine you sent us is now in operation and works well. Give us a new and good flour mill and money can be made fast. Without 'tis no use to try. Our mills can't stand much longer, and since McLoughlin had his new bolts put in he makes better flour than we can, which makes it more necessary for us to build. When I send on the bill I want you to buy all the items mentioned in it. Let them be the exact size and number; buy no more nor less than the bill calls for, as the man that makes out the bill will build the mill, and I want him to be at work before the castings will arrive.
    Anderson has not sent me any account of the Hensill order. I can't think what he means. Give my respects to all, and try to come by the Isthmus. 'Tis cheaper and much quicker and less dangerous.
    Write often.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Yoncalla, Umpqua
    Oregon Territory, October 18, '52
Gen. Joseph Lane--
    Sir, I again endeavor to communicate to you respecting some of the most important incidents of the times. There has arrived, and is still arriving by both roads, vastly the largest emigration that has ever entered this territory. They have suffered considerably by sickness, and some loss of property as is usual.
    But the greatest calamity and that which gives me pain to record is the murder of the helpless emigrant by the ruthless savage.
    There has been a number of men, and as many as three families of women and children, most shockingly butchered, to my knowledge. Also four young men who met the emigration to assist and protect them have been slain, one of them a gallant young man of your acquaintance, John Quinsby, who turned out with you when you pursued the deserters.
    Dear sir, in this instance permit me to tender you my heartfelt thanks for your endeavors to procure protection for those helpless emigrants. Also you deserve the abiding gratitude of the people of both Oregon and California for the same exertions.
    A great portion of the emigration has come the South Road and have arrived in the Rogue's River, Klamath and Scott River valleys, and with but little loss of property. Some have taken claims for the purpose of farming, others for the purpose of mining, and are generally well pleased with the prospects before them.
    And there is in this country still room for thousands of others. The emigration by coming this road, as you know avoids the sand desert at the sink of Mary's River [the Humboldt], and the California mountains on the south, Snake River and the Blue Mountains on the north, hence the advantage of saving their stock.
    The citizens have resolved to meet the emigrants on the South Road in sufficient force for their protection in the ensuing season in case they do not get information of troops coming that they can rely on.
    The emigrants coming the South Road should leave the Fort Hall road at the Soda Springs and strike directly to the head of Humboldt or Mary's River, which road is now quite plain, having been traveled very extensively this year. The emigrants in traveling on this road should by all means keep in companies of sufficient size for self-protection, say from fifteen to twenty men strong at least, and keep the Indians at a proper distance. And at any and all times prepared to defend themselves; suffer no individuals or families to fall behind, or get too far in the advance, for if they do they will assuredly be butchered.
    I for one, and can not feel otherwise, than to hold the present administration as responsible for the butcheries on the defenseless women and children the present season. They heard the voice of humanity and heeded not! Hundreds of families set out with full faith and belief that they were traveling under the protection of the strong arm of the government from promises made by the government, of protection, but lo they found it not! And the consequence has been that the innocent babes have been torn from the bosom of their mothers, and their blood caused to welter upon the sand of the desert.
    Where the Oregon road leaves the California, one hundred miles above the sink of Mary's River, is where the emigrants may expect to be met. From this place to Rogue River mines is about two hundred and eighty miles (Jacksonville). The distance from the same place to Sacramento being about four hundred. The advantage of the Oregon road here is in its ample supply of grass and water, and also its good traveling with the exception of a small portion of the road which I will here state.
    From the turning off, you proceed twelve miles up a dry creek to its head at a spring to the left hand on a point, good, fresh water, some grass.
    Thence fifteen miles to two small springs immediately on the roadside, but little grass. Thence twenty miles across the bed of a dry lake, beautiful road, to Black Rock, plenty of grass, but bad water. From here the emigrants has plenty of grass and water and a good road, and can camp almost where they please. Here the emigrants must watch their stock and keep a sharp lookout for Indians. And shoot every chance, for they may rest assured that the Indians will do the same by then if they can. If there is any items of information in this letter which you may deem of interest to the public you may hand it to some editor for publication.
    Your humble servant, Lindsay Applegate.

Oregon City Oct. 20th / 52
Dr. Father
    In my last I omitted to tell you that Mr. Bush had paid me for that paper you purchased for him. I placed the amt. to your credit and charged you with his bill for printing. The mills are doing very well at this time; lumber is in good demand at $25 per M., and flour still continues high, worth now $12 per 100 lbs. Wheat is 3 & 3¼ dolls. per bus. All kinds of provisions are high.
    The emigrants are still coming; their suffering this season has been great, and had not the fall been a very dry, warm and favorable one, thousands more would have died. Mr. Babcock of Inda., Longmaker of Pa. and Allen of Pittsburgh have all arrived and presented letters from you. The former and latter are still in Oregon and seem to be well pleased with the appearance of things. Mr. L. left for the States by the last steamer.
    I have recd. many valuable documents from you for which I offer my thanks. Those that you wish preserved will be placed in the top of my trunk, there to remain until your return. John McCracken has recd. several documents from you and feels under many obligations. I hope you will continue to send to him, as he is an uncompromising Democrat and a gentleman of the first water and one of your strongest friends.
    Judge Nesmith would like to be appointed Marshal of Oregon. I hope you will give your influence in securing for him that appointment. I want you to get him the appointment for two or three reasons. One is that I believe him to be one of your warmest friends; another is he is a good Democrat and will be of service to the party while traveling over the country discharging the duties of the office, and the last is I think Joe Meek ought to be turned out by a Democratic administration. He is no Democrat, nor is he a man in whom confidence can be placed. I hope you will not neglect the Judge.
    I recd. your order on Walker for 36 dolls., but unfortunately he has gone to Puget's Sound, and I don't know when I will see him. However, I will try to see him if he should come up here soon. I hope you have recd. my power of attorney and have sold or will be able to sell all my property. You still persist in coming across the plains. I wish you would change your mind and come by the Isthmus. You could then be here in time to help us in the next Delegate election, and I know it is less dangerous. I will write again soon. I hope you will write often. My respects to all friends.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Island Mills O.T.
    Nov. 7th 1852
Dear Father
    Yours of August 24th is now before me, for which favor you will please accept many thanks. I would have complied with your request and sent you those papers relating to the "Island" if I could have got my eye on Abernethy since I recd. your letter, but he has been out of town for several days. I will try however and get them ready to send to you by next mail. I will here mention to you that I had the Island surveyed this fall, and find that it contains several acres more than the Applegate survey calls for, and also that the last plat and survey was handed in to Preston in R. R. Thompson's name. I mention this so that you & him need not conflict in proving up the claim, for if it is claimed by you there and him here it may give trouble and show a want of system. I wish you would write to me or Thompson on this subject and let us know what to do. I know that it is not good policy to get the thing in such a shape that it could not be understood, and if it is filed in the Genl. Land Office in your name it should be so on the Surveyor Genl.'s books here. Write me if you please on this subject.
    Flour still continues high, now worth $12 per 100 lbs. Lumber 20 & 30 dolls. per M. All kinds of provisions are high. The emigrants are about all in. Their number is differently estimated, but I suppose that I would not be far out of the way to say there was 10,000 all told, which you see makes quite a show in this wooden country.
    Well, the President's election is over, and I sincerely hope that Pierce is President, but it will be some time before we way out here in Oregon will know the result. I suppose you are in Indiana at this time and having a nice time over the Democratic victory. I would like to be there today just to crow over our success, but our time will come by and by, and after the 4th of March next what a shuffling there will be of Whig office holders. Tell Mr. Pierce for me that if he leaves one Whig in office that I hope he may meet with the same fate. Harrison and Taylor did, and I am pretty sure he will. I don't know whether or not you want any office, but if you do I wish you would let me suggest to you that of Governor. There is no other office in Oregon that I would like so well to see you filling as that of Governor. I don't know yet who will apply for the Surveyor Genlship of Oregon, but I think a Mr. Zieber will. If he applies I think you will be safe in recommending him, as I believe him honest and capable and know him to be a Democrat of the right stamp. Mr. Zieber came to this country last year from Illinois; he formerly edited a Democratic paper in Peoria and is poor, and I would like to see him occupying a station that would pay him for his services. O. C. Pratt knows him personally and can give you more information than I can. Bush's letter that you spoke of has not yet come.
    I hope you will write regular and often. Do send something to Thos. Waterbury. He says you have never sent him anything since you left. Try if you can to send papers and documents to everybody in the county during the next session. These Oregonians are fond of being noticed, and I hope you will accommodate them.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Jos. Lane

I have not seen Joe in 14 months. He never writes to me. I hear he is in the mines & says he won't go back to the claim. I am uneasy about him.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

San Francisco Dec. 12th / 52
Dear Father
    You will see by the caption of this that I am not at present in Oregon. I left Oregon about the first of this month for the purpose of going to the States to buy machinery for a new flouring mill, but on the passage to this place I was taken sick with dysentery and from that to fever. I am undergoing medical treatment in this place and hope in two weeks to be able to return to Oregon, as I have given up going any farther. Mr. Thompson is here on his way to the States to buy sheep. He will see you at Washington. I send to you by him six hundred dollars. I send it to you for fear you may be cramped, and as I desire that the $500 be paid to Pratt for Bush. Bush has paid me that amt. besides your paper bill.
    Mr. Thompson will give you a draft and description of the machinery we want for the mill, and now let me urge you to have it bought and shipped insured &c. as quick as possible. If there is no vessel there for Oregon, ship them in a clipper ship to Shepherd & Hale, San Francisco, and I will see to the balance. Everything depends on that machinery coming--and coming soon.
    We will have the new mill up and ready to put the machinery right into [omission] as soon as it can come. I sent $100 of the six that you will receive from Mr. T. for a sewing machine to make sacks with. I don't know that the machine will cost that amt. or even half of it, but if it don't you can use the remainder in something else.
    I wish you would send us the bills of the articles and bills of lading so that we may know when they will come and when we have recd. them all.
    We were greeted on arriving here with the glorious news of Pierce's election, and while speaking of this I will say something about officers and men. In the first place I want you to come back Governor of Oregon. I know the appointment would be one that would satisfy the most of our party, and now that we have a Democratic President we will not have any trouble in electing the Democratic candidate for Delegate--and next (you need not mention this to Thompson) I want you if you can to get Mr. Zieber appointed Secretary. He is an excellent man and a true, unflinching Democrat and needs the office. Mr. Douglass of Ill. and O. C. Pratt of On. are well acquainted with him and will tell you what sort of Secretary he would make. The balance I care nothing about so they are filled with good, efficient Democrats. I don't want any office; bear that in mind, and the reason I want you to come back Govr. is so you may be with the family, and I know if you don't that you will have to run for Congress, and knowing that you are invincible, you would have to leave the family at a time that your attention is most required.
    Mr. Thompson will tell you all about our milling arrangements, and will surprise you I expect in letting you know that he no longer belongs to the firm. He sold for $11,000 to John McCracken, and although I think Mr. T. a good and honest man, I am very glad of the change, as I know Mc. to be honest, industrious and as good a business man as you will find.
    Yes, one thing more political. I want you to see that Old Buck [William W. Buck] is turned out of the post office and Frank Holland put in again and also to see that Whitcomb, Wait and all the balance of the soft-shelled Democracy are left out. If there is any place for Curry give it to him, so [long as] you give the Secretaryship to Zieber.
    You will be bored to death by office-seekers in Oregon. When I get back I will go to Salem and try to get the legislature to agree on the men that are to fill the different offices. If you come by the Isthmus don't fail to bring my little children, and if you come across the plains do as you think best about bringing them, but I hope you will not wait to come across the plains.
    Flour has been high all the fall, and our mills have been paying well and will continue to do so as long as there is any wheat to grind. Lumber took a little flare-up for a short time, but is now down again. I met here Dennison of the Quito, and he wanted me to settle the amt. he claimed against the mills, but I told him our books showed him in our debt and that I should pay him nothing. He said then he would have to wait until you come back, and he knew you would pay him. I told him I thought it possible, as you was very much in the habit of paying debts you did not owe, but that I had outgrown everything of that kind.
    Write as often as you can and send documents.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Oregon City 16th January 1853
    Dear Father this note I write you in favor of Mr. McConaha, who brought with him warm letters of introduction both to you and me from Gov. McDougall and other prominent citizens of California. Mr. McConaha with his family located himself permanently in Northern Oregon last spring on Puget's Sound. He is an applicant for the place of United States Judge for the judicial district north of the Columbia River in place of Judge Strong.in case the judges are removed. Col. McConaha has the reputation of being an able lawyer & good Democrat. I saw Gov. McDougall when in San Francisco; he speaks in the highest terms of McConaha. I am well convinced that the people residing north of the Columbia River are undivided in favor of McConaha for judge. I say this to you knowingly, and I hope you will see that he gets the appointment in case Strong is removed. He is a self-made man, was left an orphan in childhood. He was without friends, educated himself, and I know you always feel interested in behalf of such men.
    The people living in Strong's district are now circulating a petition asking the appointment of Col. McConaha, but it will not reach Washington before the adjournment of Congress; therefore I hope you will not fail to attend to this matter yourself with the President. For information in regard to the ability and honesty of McConaha call on Col. Weller, U.S. Senator for California or Col. Benton of Missouri.
    N.B. Thos. J. Henley and McConaha are bitter personal enemies and have had an open quarrel. Henley has boasted that he would crush McConaha in your estimation & as Henley will be in Washington when this arrives I therefore wish to guard you against being misled by him in this matter. The difficulty between Henley & McConaha arose out of the fact that McConaha supported Col. Weller for the U.S. Senate in preference to Henley.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City D.C.
    January 17th 1853.
Dear Genl.
    I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 11th inst., but have been so constantly engaged that I have not had time to answer.
    The points you have made are very clear and correct. My view in relation to the question of lieutenant general are these: 1st that the creating of that title, grade or rank in any shape, form or manner is unnecessary, anti-Democratic and wrong, not known to our law or army regulations and contrary to my judgment of right and expediency.
    At this moment, my dear sir, you occupy the highest position known to our law or organization of our army. At the top of the ladder, it is a high and proud position, one that you are eminently qualified to fill, one from your long and distinguished service you richly deserve to fill; none should be placed above you, but I am opposed to raising the ladder one round higher. I am, my dear Genl., well aware that a new brevet does not create a vacancy, and that a brevet does not entitle one to extra pay, but this is only a beginning in wrongdoing; once gone into no one can tell when and [where] it is to stop. I am also well aware that the assignment to duty on a brevet entitles an officer to pay of the rank to which he is brevetted, and further I am satisfied that creating the rank of lieutenant gen. would properly reorganize the army, to all of which I am opposed.
    I am sorry to find "by some unintentional change in the law" your salary has been reduced. Allow me to assure you that no man will go further to do you justice by increasing your pay than your humble servt., and I sincerely hope it may be done.
    Now my dear Gen., allow me in conclusion to say that I know you to be a good soldier and great general, and that no man respects you more sincerely than I do. You occupy a high position and have a strong hold upon the hearts of the American people, and I am only sorry that you are not content.
I am my dear Genl. with great
    Respect your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Maj. Genl. Winfield Scott
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City, Feb. 8, 1853.           
Editor of Oregon Times:
    * * * At 10 o'clock I called upon our Delegate from Oregon, and was politely and most cordially received by him. After the solicitous inquiries respecting old friends and acquaintances in Oregon, Gen. Lane remarked to me that the "Oregon Land Law" would come up today in the House, and also the proposition to divide the Territory. I at once determined to go to the House and see for myself how we were represented. Our Delegate in the morning manifested a great deal of anxiety, and sent his friend and little son to request, as special favor, that certain members whom he knew to be friendly to Oregon, and had assisted him thus far in his efforts for Oregon, would not forsake him in the hour of trial. We went at an early hour to the House, and our Delegate was not idle. He besought of one, as a favor, that he would not oppose this bill; of another, that he would give it his cordial support; another, to help get it through as a matter of importance to the welfare of the Territory.
    To accomplish this, he was in his place an hour in advance of the time for the House to meet. The House met, and our Delegate continued his labors, going from member to member, while the Journal was being read; and up to the time the Oregon Bill was announced by the Speaker as the first business before the House. On this announcement by the Speaker, in an instant, not less than ten voices shouted, "Mr. Speaker!" The Speaker gave the floor to Mr. Jones, of Tenn., who withdrew the objections which he had previously made to the bill. There were several attempts made to stave off the question, but [it] was evident that the silent and personal efforts of Gen. Lane had secured a reliable support, and every division and vote showed that he was gaining his point. He was also ready to put in a short speech at the right point--which told, for I noticed when the Chairman announced that the gentleman from Oregon had the floor, that the members laid aside their newspapers to listen--and all appeared not only willing, but anxious to hear all he had to say. I am fully satisfied that the influence of our Delegate is more than that of any other man that could be sent, from what I saw in his management of his Land Bill, and the division of the Territory.
    I had, with many others of our citizens, been under the impression that our Delegate was not doing for us as much as we expected of him. In this impression, I am frank to acknowledge I was very wrong. I believe he is doing all in his power for our Territory--and is doing more in proportion for us than any other Delegate for any other Territory can do. He says but little, but acts the more--and was listened to with more attention than any member I heard speak in the House. * * *      G.
Quoted in "Gen. Joseph Lane," Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane Dear Sir the Indians have broke out and are very bad. They are killing and wounding men in all directions. They killed Doct. Ambrose [Dr. Rose was killed, not Ambrose] and wounded John R. Hardin between this and T'Vault's last night. [Hardin was killed.] The greatest alarm prevails through the valley and bids fair to destroy the prospect of our valley for 2 or 3 years. Capt. Alden of the U.S.A. is here from Scotts Valley and has organized two companies of volunteers. Yreka has sent 60 or 70 men over to help us. I wish you would and I speak the sentiment of the whole valley that you would try and get a company from Vancouver to bring down some arms. There is a very great want of guns. The towns was double guarded last night and one half of the men had to stand guard with nothing but a pistol. There is a committee of 4 appointed to receive money and provisions and Alden has lent the committee one thousand dollars and there is about 5 or 6 hundred dollars subscribed by the merchants here. They are now advancing provisions with the expectation of being paid by the government. God knows when and how this will end. I do not believe that it will be brought to a close before winter. They are better armed and fight harder than when we was in here with Kearny. It is believed by those who have been out that there is from three to 5 hundred warriors around the valley. Lieutenant Griffin's company had a brush with them last night and had two men wounded.
    No more but yours with respect
        R. B. Morford
To Gen. Joseph Lane, Umpqua
Jacksonville, Oregon Augt 11 1853

Winchester, Aug. 17, 1853.           
    Dear Bush:--At 1 o'clock this morning I received by express per Mr. Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River, confirming the news which recently reached us of war with the Indians in that vicinity, of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes of that quarter. Dr. Rose, Jno. R. Hardin and several others have been killed, and a large amount of property destroyed.
    It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united, determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are, it seems, well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners; they have also a good supply of ammunition, consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
    In great haste, your ob't. serv't.
        JO LANE.
"Indian War in Rogue River," Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 23, 1853, page 2


August 17 1853
Dear Bush
    At 1 o'clock this morning recd. by express per Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River confirming the news which recently reached us--of war with the Indians in that vicinity of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes in that quarter. Dr. Rose, John R. Hardin and several others have been killed and large amt. of property destroyed. It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are it seems well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners, and have a good supply of ammunition. Consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
In great haste your obt. srvt.
    Jo Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."

Mountain Camp, Aug. 25, 1853.       
Gen. Joel Palmer, Super't. Ind. Affairs
    Sir:--Yesterday myself and the men under my command had a fight of four hours with the Rogue River Indians, in the most dense forest in this part of the country. Our loss was three killed and four wounded. Those dead are Capt. Armstrong of your county, a Mr. ---- and Francis Bradley. Those wounded are Col. Alden, dangerously, Charles Abbe, do., and Wm. Fisher, badly, Thos. Hayes, shot through the arm, and myself, shot through the shoulder. There were 8 Indians killed and about 20 wounded.
    In the afternoon a proposition came from the enemy for a parley, which was granted, they being in such a position that they could not be dislodged without the loss of a great many men.
    Today we have arranged terms with them, and have agreed to meet them at Table Rock in seven days from today, to make a general treaty, and your presence is imperatively required as soon as possible. You must not delay one moment in coming, as it is perfectly safe traveling now, and I wish you to bring a sub-agent to remain here, as the presence of an agent is absolutely necessary for the maintenance of friendly relations with the Indians.
    I will remain here until you arrive.
        Your ob't. servant,
            JOSEPH LANE.
"Latest from the Indian War," Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 6, 1853, page 2

Halstead Rangers
    Aug 29th 1853
Gentlemen, commissioners of war and commandant at headquarters
    This morning Capt. Owens with a detail started off for the Canyon. First Lieut. T. Frizzell with two of our men went in search of some stray horses which [were] within the vicinity of  T. Frizzell's ferry. Our first lieut. and James Mungo was killed, the third man a California Indian was shot through the face.
    The report came to Long's old ferry this afternoon and forwarded to our quarters. Lieut. Crandall at the head of thirteen men upon the reception of the news started for the purpose of meeting the enemy and bring[ing] in the killed. Some 3 miles above Long's old ferry a party of Indians were discovered firing the prairies.
    They were charged upon by the foremost of the company, but the Indians leaving the open ground fell back into a thick wood which was not deemed practical to enter by our small party as it being a well-known place for self-defense.
    Those Indians were in the act of driving off the stock belonging to Mr. Vannoy and others.
    The number of Indians perhaps amounted to 30 or 40, about that number were seen. The exact strength of the Indians are not known.   
    Gentlemen, while hostilities have ceased on the part of the Americans in the vicinity of Jacksonville the Indians are falling back upon us and already the work of death and destruction of property have commenced. It is for you gentlemen to take into consideration the propriety of lying still while the Indians are pouring in upon us.
    We will defend our position until the death.
    2nd Lieut. Crandall
    Orderly S. W. B. Lewis
        per N. C. Boatman

The following letter is compiled from a handwritten transcription in the Joseph Lane Papers and as printed in the History of the Pacific Northwest:
                                                    Headquarters, Camp Alden
                                                        Rogue River, Oregon
Brigadier Gen. Hitchcock
    On the 17th of August, I received information at my residence in Umpqua Valley that the Rogue River Indians, assisted by the Klamaths, Shastas, the bands living in Applegate and Grave creeks, had united and attacked the settlements in Rogue River Valley near Jacksonville; that a number of persons had been killed, a large amount of stock killed or driven off, and houses and grain burned and that companies were being formed for the defense of the settlements and for the purpose of a general war upon the Indians. I promptly notified the citizens of the neighborhood and advised with Major Alvord, who was then present engaged in the location of the road from Myrtle Creek to Camp Stuart, and immediately proceeded accompanied by Capt. Armstrong, Messrs. Clugage, Nickell and some ten others, to the scene of the hostilities. On the 21st I arrived at the headquarters of our forces, on Stuart Creek, where I found Cap. Alden 4th Inf., who had promptly upon the first information being received by him, at Fort Jones on Scott's River, repaired to Jacksonville with ten men of his command (all who were fit for duty) and forthwith proceeded to take energetic measures for an active and effective campaign, by appointing four commissioners of military affairs, and mustering into service all the volunteers for whom arms could be procured. This force on my arrival consisted of companies under Captains Goodall, Miller, Lamerick and Rhodes commanded by Col. John Ross, the whole under the command of Col. Alden. These troops had been actively engaged in scouting the country in all directions, and had succeeded in driving the main body of the Indians to their strongholds in the mountains. Pack trains were being collected in view of an extended pursuit of the Indians, and all other preparations were being made with the uttermost dispatch.
    At the request of Col. Alden and the troops, I assumed the command of the forces, and on the 22nd, at 4 o'clock a.m. left camp for the mountains, having divided the command into two battalions in order better to scour the whole country. One battalion composed of Captains Miller's and Lamerick's companies under the command of Col. Ross were directed to proceed up Evans Creek (which empties into Rogue River from the north) and continue on, if no traces of the Indians were found, until the two detachments should meet at a point designated, but if the trail was found, to follow it, and bring the Indians to battle. At the head of the other battalion, composed of Captains Goodall and Rhodes companies commanded by Col. Alden, I proceeded by way of Table Rock in the direction of the point designated on Evans Creek. After advancing about fifteen miles beyond Table Rock, I discovered the trail of the Indians, and encamped upon it.
    I took up the line of march early next morning, and followed the trail with great difficulty, the Indians having used every precaution to conceal it. The country was exceedingly mountainous and almost impassable for animals and as the Indians had fired the country behind them, the falling of the burning timber and the heat delayed our progress, while the dense smoke prevented us from ascertaining with certainty the face of the country. About noon we came to the place at which they had encamped a few nights before, by the side of a stream in a dense forest. Here they had killed a mule and a horse they had captured in a battle some days previous, and used them for provisions. From this point we had more difficulty in finding the trail, it having been very carefully concealed and the mountains lately fired, but, after some delay, we again struck it. Late in the evening, we came to the main fork of Evans Creek (now called Battle Creek) where we came to a spot at which the Indians had again encamped. Beyond this, all trace of the Indians seemed to be lost; and, after searching in vain for the trail until dark, we were forced to encamp. The valley was very narrow and almost entirely covered with an impenetrable thicket of maple vine, leaving scarcely room for the men to lie down on the bank of the creek. The animals were closely tied to the bushes, there being no grass or forage of any kind.
    The command was ready to move by daylight. A party on foot early discovered the trail; and, after cutting out the brush for nearly a quarter of a mile, we succeeded in reaching it with the animals. About a mile farther up we crossed Battle Creek and ascended a high, steep mountain which forms the dividing ridge of the numerous branches running into Rogue River. This part of the country had not been fired. About nine o'clock a.m., we arrived at another Indian camp on the ridge, at a spring very difficult of access, on the side of a mountain. On leaving this camp, we found that the woods had been recently fired, which induced me to believe that the Indians were not far in advance of us. About a half a mile from the spring, as I was riding slowly in front, I heard the crack of a rifle in the direction of the enemy. I proceeded to a point commanding the rapid descent of the trail from the mountain, and, halting, could hear persons talking in their camp about four hundred yards distant, in a dense forest thick with underbrush, which entirely obstructed the view. As the troops came up, they were ordered in a low voice to dismount, tie their animals and prepare for battle.
    Colonel Alden, at the head of Captain Goodall's company, was directed to proceed on the trail, and attack the enemy in front, while a portion of Captain Rhodes' company was directed to follow a ridge running to the left of their trail, and turn their flank. Colonel Alden proceeded to engage them in the most gallant manner, his well-directed fire being the first intimation of our approach. It being found impracticable to turn their flank, Captain Rhodes at once engaged them on their right. The men were deployed, taking cover behind the trees, and the fight became general. I was delayed a few minutes on the hill for the arrival of the rear guard. These were dismounted, and all except fifteen men I immediately led into action. On arriving on the ground, I found Colonel Alden, who had been shot down early in the fight, dangerously wounded, in the arms of his faithful sergeant, and surrounded by a few of his own men. The battle was now raging with great fierceness, our men coolly pouring in their fire, unshaken by the hideous yells and war whoops of the Indians, or by their rapid and more destructive fire.
    After examining the ground and finding the enemy were securely posted behind trees and logs and concealed by underbrush, and that it was impossible to reach them except when they carelessly exposed their persons in their anxiety to get a shot at our men, I determined to charge them. I passed the order, led forward in the movement, and, when within thirty yards of their position, received a wound from a rifle-ball, which struck my right arm near the shoulder-joint, and, passing entirely through, came out near the point of the shoulder. Believing at the time that the shot came from the flank, I immediately ordered our line to be extended to prevent the enemy from turning our flank, and the men again to cover themselves behind trees. This position was held for three or four hours, during which time I talked frequently with the officers and men, and found them cool, and determined on conquering the enemy. Finding myself weak from loss of blood, I retired to the rear to have my wound examined and dressed. While here the Indians cried out to our men, many of whom understood their language, that they wished for a talk; that they desired to fight no longer; that they were frightened and desired peace. Mr. Tyler was dispatched by Captain Goodall to inform me of the desire of the Indians to cease firing and make peace. By this time, Robert Metcalfe and James Bruce had been sent into their lines to talk, and, having informed them that I was in command, they expressed a great desire to see me.
    Finding that they were much superior in numbers, being about two hundred warriors, well armed with rifles and muskets, well supplied with ammunition, and knowing that they could fight as long as they saw fit and then safely retreat into a country exceedingly difficult of access, and being desirous of examining their position, I concluded to go among them. On entering their lines, I met the principal chief, Joe, and the subordinate chiefs, Sam and Jim, who told me that their hearts were sick of war, and that they would meet me at Table Rock in seven days, when they would give up their arms, and make a treaty and place themselves under our protection. The preliminaries having been arranged, the command returned to the place where they had been dismounted, the dead were buried and the wounded cared for.
    By this time Colonel Ross, with his battalion, arrived, having followed our trail for some distance. This gallant command were anxious to renew the attack upon the Indians, who still remained in their position, but as the negotiations had proceeded so far, I could not consent. That night was spent within four hundred yards of the Indians, and good faith was observed on both sides. At the dawn of day, I discovered that the Indians were moving and sent to stop them until a further talk had been held. Accompanied by Col. Ross and other officers, I went among them and became satisfied that they would faithfully observe the agreements already made. By the advice of the surgeon, we remained that day and night upon the battle ground, and then returned to Table Rock.
    Too much praise cannot be awarded to Col. Alden. The country is greatly indebted to him for the rapid organization of the forces, when it was utterly without defenses. His gallantry is sufficiently attested by his being dangerously wounded while charging at the head of his command, almost at the enemy's lines. Captains Goodall and Rhodes, with their companies, distinguished themselves from the beginning to the end of the action. For their cool and determined bravery, no troops could have done better. The command of Col. Ross, under Captains Miller and Lamerick, although too late to participate in the action, made a severe march through the mountains and arrived on the ground one day sooner than I expected them. Their presence was of great assistance to us. Our loss in the battle was three killed: Pleasant Armstrong, John Scarborough and Isaac Bradley, and five badly wounded: Colonel Alden, myself, and privates Chas. C. Abbe (since dead), Henry Flesher and Thomas Hay. The Indians lost eight killed and twenty wounded, seven of whom we know to have since died.
    Soon after my return from the mountains, Capt. A. J. Smith, First Dragoons, arrived at camp with his troops from Port Orford. His arrival was most opportune. His presence during the negotiations for a peace was of great assistance, while his troop served to overawe the Indians.
    The governor of the territory, upon the first information being received by him, ordered out a company under Capt. Nesmith, and sent them as an escort for a large quantity of arms and ammunition which were procured from Fort Vancouver. Captain Nesmith arrived after the negotiations had been commenced, but was of great service to me from his intimate knowledge of the Indians and their language. Lieutenant Kautz, Fourth Infantry, accompanied Captain Nesmith, and had in charge a twelve-pound howitzer and caisson, which he brought safely into camp, although the road is a very difficult one and seldom traveled by wagons. A commission as brigadier general, from the governor of Oregon, reached me a few days after I had assumed command at Capt. Alden's request. A treaty of peace has been made with the Indians, and I have no doubt that with proper care it can be maintained. The tribe is a very large one, and to a great extent controls the tribes in this part of the country, and a peace with them is a peace with all. This, in my opinion, can only be perfectly secured by the presence of a considerable military force in the Rogue River Valley without delay.
    To Robert Metcalfe, who acted for me as scout and guide, I am indebted for the faithful discharge of his duty. John D. Cosby, James Bruce and George W. Tyler did good service in the same capacity. On the expedition to the mountains, from the 22nd to the 26th, W. G. T'Vault, Esq., acted as my volunteer aide. At that time, Captain C. Sims joined the command, and handsomely performed the duties of assistant adjutant-general until compelled by sickness to resign on the 29th. Since that time, Captain Mosher, late of the Fourth Ohio Volunteers, has performed the duties of that office. Dr. Ed. Sheil, George Dart, Richard Dugan and L. A. Davis, the commissioners appointed by Col. Alden, were most active in the performance of their duties, and kept the command supplied with provisions, transportation and necessaries for carrying on the war. Major Chas. S. Drew, assistant quartermaster, with his assistants, performed their duties with promptness and accuracy. Dr. E. H. Cleveland, surgeon general, and his assistants, were unremitting in their attention to the sick and wounded.
    I have the honor to be, etc.,
            Joseph Lane.

Jacksonville O.T. August 30th 1853               
To General Lane commanding Oregon and California battalion
    It is thought by those who have recently arrived here from the Canon that it is necessary  to send an escort of some ten or twelve men to guard the incoming trains, six or seven in number.
    Col. Alden is very feeble. Dr. Gatliff has just arrived from Yreka.
    Yours respectfully
        C. S. Drew

    Rogue River Valley
        Aug. 31, 1853.
My dear sir
    Your note of today is just received by the hand of Messrs. McKay, Newton and others.
    Since the Saturday that the present Indian difficulty commenced there have been no Indians at my house, except one known among us by the name of Old Jacob, and his family.
    If there had been any others here I should have taken pleasure in recommending to them to report to you at headquarters.
    Old Jacob referred to above had been camped on Stuart's Creek near my house the greater part of the time since the present difficulty commenced, and so far as my knowledge extends has remained entirely neutral.
    I have the honor to be
        very respectfully
            Your obt. srvt.
                A. A. Skinner
Gen. Joseph Lane,
     Commanding etc.

September 7th [1853]               
General Lane
    Dear sir day before yesterday the awful intelligence reached me of the death of my husband by the publication of one of your letters. Tomorrow morning Mr. Dunham, the bearer of this, starts to see if he can make arrangement to get men to go for the body of Mr. Armstrong against [sic--until?] my brother Dr. Smith arrives with the team. Dear sir, if you will please render some assistance by informing them where Mr. Armstrong was buried and assisting them to obtain men if more are necessary to make it safe. I shall be unspeakably obliged and you shall have the gratitude of my heart for your kindness. I also desire you to write me the particulars of my husband's death if you please, how long he lived and what he said. Give me all that is known in regard to it.
                    Jane Armstrong

Halstead Ferry Rogue River
    Sept 9th 1853
Gen. Joseph Lane Commander in Chief of Rogue River Forces
    Having according to orders left Jacksonville on the morning of the 4th Sept. after transacting all necessary business my command traveled to Applegate and encamped below the fort for the purpose of obtaining information of the whereabouts of the Indians of those occupying that position. After obtaining a guide we marched for a creek on which we supposed the Indians to be in force some 8 or 10 miles distant from the above-mentioned fort where we scouted from the afternoon [of the] 4th until the 7th inst. seeing plenty of fresh sign on the several creeks emptying on the west side of Applegate. And finally on the morning of the 7th we found where they crossed Applegate in [a] pretty large body. We pursued the sign and about noon came upon the Indians they having discovered us but were scattered so on the side of the mountain in the brush we could not charge them; however, in the evening we captured a prisoner known as "Jim Taylor," a notorious leader in the many depredations and murders perpetrated against our fellow citizens. The Indians discovering we had captured their tyee wish to "wah wah," but knowing their intentions I prudently sent no man for that purpose. The Indians were careful to keep in the brush on the mountainside. In the night they kept whooping and signal fires on the mountaintops but did not attack us.
    In the morning [of the] 8th the Indians came down partly on the mountainsides as if to attack. We attempted to draw them out but did not succeed. At 10 o'clock a.m. the Indians augmenting their forces I concluded to march out for Long's Ferry, not caring to risk a battle with the large force the Indians would have had by night--and the obstruction of our pack mules and prisoner. The pack mules we unfortunately had with us or I should have drove them from their position. On the evening of the 8th arrived at Long's Ferry, the Indians following us on the mountains.
    My object in going to Long's was to obtain more provision and dispose of the prisoner, which has been done today, 9th inst. From evidences which I obtained I concluded to have a trial in which it was proven he and party had killed Mungo and others beside numerous depredations; upon these evidences he was convicted and sentenced to be shot, which sentence was executed today by a detail of my command in a summary manner.
    I shall march tomorrow morning the 10th for the mountains on Applegate, where I hope to engage and rout them completely. The Indians are seen here frequently; a large number passed last night in canoes down the river--what their object is I do not know.
Yours respectfully
    R. L. Williams
        Rifle Rangers
P.S.  I thus have been precise in details so no wrong construction will be put on our proceedings.  R. L. M.

Jacksonville Sept 10th, 53               
Dear General
    Our march was brisk to this place, and we will leave for the mountains in the morning. I have got all the medicine I want except some quinine, which Drew will get from Dr. Gatliff of Yreka if he can raise the money as the Dr. is not willing to trust the government for pay. I find our hospital have nearly clear of sick and wound[ed] for which I am and every soldier and officer shouts be thankful to Dr. Cleveland for his untiring service and care.
    General, your old friend T'Vault is down and you I would like if I had time to give you a full description of our conversation, but have not time so I will refer you to Dr. Ambrose for particulars.
    Col. Alden is doing well.
    Permit to say you will ever have a friend in your svt.
        H. L. Evans
N.B.  Dr. Cleveland comes to camp and will dress your arm tonight and in the morning.

Scotts Valley Sept. 10th 1853               
Gen'l Lane
    Dear sir, Since my arrival at this place I have seen the chief of the Scotts River Indians and he informs me that there is a large body of the Rogue River Indians with old Tipsey on or about the head of Cottonwood sent and ordered to remain there by Old Joe, for if they showed themselves to the whites they would have to give up their arms. The Indians say that they know where they are and if necessary will pilot the whites to where they are.
Yours truly
    James Bruce

Jacksonville Sept 15th 1853               
Dear Genl.
    Since listening to the recital by Capt. Williams, in your presence, of the fight between his command and the Indians on Applegate Creek, I have heard and believe that it was an unprovoked attack on the family of Indian John by order of Capt. Williams, and in direct violation of your positive instructions to not interfere or do anything to interrupt the friendly relations then about to be and now fully consummated between the whites and Jo, Sam, Jim, John and Limpy's bands of Indians.
    It appears to me that Capt. Williams could not have been ignorant of the fact that this party of John's was a portion of those included among 200 people who were awaiting the return of John and his sons from the treaty ground preparatory to their removal to the reserve assigned them. John's uniformly good conduct towards the whites and the assurance he and his people gave us of their good and friendly intentions, and the circumstances by which we are now surrounded, I think demand an investigation of the conduct of Capt. Williams and his command, and as an act of justice to those people and to the end that peace may be preserved, I ask that Capt. Williams may be arrested and dealt with according to the rules and regulations of the army. It is at this time impossible to foresee the result of this unfortunate transaction, but as I have great confidence in the forbearance of those Indians and their great desire to preserve peace by carrying out on their part the stipulations of the treaty just concluded, I do not despair of being able to conciliate and to convince them of the sincerity of our intentions towards them.
    Your long acquaintance with these Indians and your better judgment will enable you to determine whether this act be such as to require the interference on your part for the arrest of those implicated.
    I have the honor to be
        dear sir your obedient
                Joel Palmer
                    Supt Indian Affairs
                        O T
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Commanding Forces   

Jacksonville, Sept. 18, 1853.       
    DEAR MADAM--It is with the deepest regret that I feel called upon to tender to you my heartfelt sympathy at the overwhelming loss you have recently sustained. Your husband [Pleasant Armstrong] was my friend, and one whom I highly esteemed. His loss was deeply deplored, not only by myself, but by the whole command, for none knew him but to love him.
    He fell like a gallant soldier, charging at the head of troops. When within thirty yards of the enemy's line, the fatal shot struck him in the center of the breast; he exclaimed, "They have given me a dead center shot," and immediately expired. By my orders his body was carried to the rear, and after the battle he was buried with the honors of war. May He who protects the widow and the fatherless give you strength to bear this deep affliction!
    I remain, madam, your sincere friend,
                                                                        JOS. LANE.
Mrs. Jane Armstrong.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, November 15, 1853, page 2

Marysville, Sept. 20th, 1853.       
Dear Sir:
    The difficulties with the Indians, I understand, are settled, and I sit down to congratulate you most heartily on your escape from the imminent dangers to which your life has been exposed. The news of the outbreak reached here the day after I returned from Winchester, and I heard at the same time that you had started to the seat of war. Knowing the daring courage of your nature--the almost recklessness with which you expose your person in the hour of battle--I felt great uneasiness on your account, and almost dreaded to hear any news from the scene of hostilities. You have escaped--escaped from perils greater than you passed through in Mexico--and with only a wound that has not endangered your life nor mutilated your person. Allow me to rejoice with your family that your life, so important to them at this time, has been saved to them and to your country, and that, instead of being cut off when their welfare and happiness depended so much on your preservation, you return to them with new honors, and new laurels, and a stronger hold than ever on the affections and confidence of the people of Oregon and of the whole country.
    I trust you will not consider these the cold congratulations of one who, while you were bravely periling your life for your country, preferred to remain snugly at home. It was not from choice that I remained, but from necessity. Although my eyes suffered greatly from my trip to Winchester, I determined to join you, and made great efforts to get a horse. But no one was willing to let a horse go on such a service, and the only one I could get was a wild colt that would have given me infinite trouble and perhaps broken my neck. Having no money I could not buy, and was thus compelled to forgo the credit and excitement of Indian warfare for the inglorious confinement of a village post office.
    I have been keeping the post office since my return, but shall give it up in a week or two, as it pays very little and I have made enough by my profession to pay expenses for a few months. I have made about two hundred dollars, but as business is limited I cannot promise myself such success hereafter. Two hundred dollars would be a considerable sum in the states, but here it will pay expenses only 15 or 20 weeks. However, that and what I may make by the clerkship of the council (should I be elected) will keep me afloat till something better offers. At least, I will use every exertion to make it answer.
    Mr. Avery has offered to secure for me the clerkship of the dist. court of this county, but I shall decline it, for the reason that Hovey, the incumbent, invited me to use his office when I come here and loaned me twenty dollars to go to Winchester. To displace him after such little kindnesses would have the appearance of ingratitude. I would not feel quite at ease if I should do so, although the office would be conferred on me without any solicitation whatever on my part. I would caution you against mentioning to Avery that this was my reason for declining, inasmuch as there is a bitter feud between him and Hovey, and he could not therefore appreciate my motives.
    One T. M. F. Patton passed through here a few days ago and was railing against you considerably for making a treaty with the Indians, and exhibiting a hole in his shirt which he said was made by an Indian bullet. We read in ancient history of Pisistratus, the Athenian, who cut and wounded his body to induce the belief that this violence was committed by his enemies, and having by this artifice obtained a guard for his person, overthrew the liberties of his country. Patton has improved upon Pisistratus, and instead of cuts and wounds upon his body, exhibits a bloodless hole in his shirt. What a miserable green-eyed reptile he is. I want to learn from you his conduct in the war, as I wish to take him off in the Statesman. The wretch and all others like him will find that when your military or civil conduct is assailed, you have friends whose voices and whose pens will soon place it in its true light. Miserable dunghills, whose martial ardor rises with the prospect of peace, and who become eager for the fray when the fight is over, can do but little damage to one who displays as much prudence and humanity in negotiations for peace as courage in braving the perils of the battlefield.
    You have doubtless heard before this time that Col. Gardner has been appointed Surveyor General of Oregon. This appointment disappoints Olney, and upsets our calculations with regard to the expected vacancy.
    Yours truly
        Samuel B. Garrett

General Joseph Lane
    Commanding etc.
        Robinson House

Camp [on Rogue River] one mile above Evans   
    22d Sept 1853   
Dear General
    Yesterday we met some six or seven Indians armed on this side of the river. I write you to let you know the fact that such is their custom. You think as I do (as you stated when I met you) that there is eminent danger of collision, if such a practice is persevered in, such is the feeling of the whites. Another thing occurred last night which the whites would not care about in ordinary times. A dozen or more Indians on the other side caroused the whole of last night in howling at a[n] Indian dance or war dance, or whatever they may call it. I do not write to add to your labors already arduous, but you are entitled to know the facts.
    Very sincerely and truly
        B. Alvord
            B. Major
General Joseph Lane, Commanding
    Robinson House

Camp Lane OT
    Sept 24th 1853
    I have just received a note from Col. Wright in which he says "I am on my march for Jacksonville and shall reach there in 3 days." Think he will be in this morning or tomorrow morning, as his letter is dated 12 miles north of Yreka Sept. 22nd. I want you to come down and see my new fort, if I have the naming of it, it will be called Fort Lane, as you are particularly identified with this Rogue River war. I will be happy to see you and hope you may see Col. Wright at camp.
    Yours respectfully
        A. J. Smith
            Capt. Dragoons
Gen. Lane

Washington Butte P O Linn Co
    Sept the 26 53
Mr Joseph Lane
    Sir I take the liberty to ask your advice concerning claims that I have against the Rogue River Indians.
    They robbed me of fifteen hundred dollars and two horses with sundry articles of camp equipage the summer of 1849 as I was returning from California.
    I am in need of my money and wish to know if I can get it and if I can what is the legal course to be pursued.
    I asked the advice of a lawyer on the subject he said he could not tell what could be done without seeing you.
    So I concluded that the only sure way to obtain the information that I wanted would be to inquire of you.
    My account was made out against the Indians and testified to by John Meldrum in the latter part of the summer or fall after the robbery was committed. If I mistake not you was acting as Indian agent at that time.
    Please to answer as soon as convenient
        Yours respectfully
            Arthur Saltmarsh

Jacksonville O.T.
    Sept 28 '53
Hon. Commissioners of Military Affairs
    In compliance with your request we have ascertained the amount of damages sustained by our citizens during the recent war as nearly correct as the circumstances and space of time would admit. The sum that you will see by our return amounts to $37,412.98. We have traveled over the greater part of the county and have witnessed personally nearly all of the accounts of which we return and are of the opinion they are correct and just. We have been governed by your instructions throughout and have affixed a cash valuation upon all articles as you will observe by a glance at our return. There are a few accounts which we return to you upon the best information we could get without their being qualified to. In all such cases we have designated them by marks, yet we believe they are correct and would recommend them to you for your favorable consideration. Also there may be a few accounts which have not come under our knowledge. If so in all such cases we hope you may take some measures to remunerate them for their losses.
    Gentlemen, with due regard for your kindness and attention, we now take our leave, having discharged the duties assigned us by you to the best our ability.
    With much respect we subscribe ourselves, yours respectfully,
    Geo. H. Ambrose
    John E. Ross
    W. W. Fowler

Headquarters Pacific Division
San Francisco Sept. 30, 1853
My Dear General
    I take great pleasure in returning you a printed copy of your most interesting account of the recent Indian war on Rogue River, the original of which I had the honor to receive two days since. This is the second time you have distinguished yourself in the Rogue River country, and now, as on the former occasion, you have most handsomely spoken of the regulars. Believe me, General, that although nothing less was expected from your sense of truth and justice, we feel it as an index of true magnanimity and in the name of my brother officers and particularly that of Maj. Kearny in the first case and of Capt. Alden in the recent instance I beg to tender you my most sincere acknowledgments.
    I need not say that your recommendation for establishing a post in the valley shall be attended to as soon as the means can be controlled. If Col. Wright should find himself able to make a post at Table Rock or its vicinity, I shall be much pleased--if not, I have asked for more troops from the East expressly for the purpose.
    Wishing you health and prosperity
        I am, dear sir,
            Very respectfully
                yr. obt. servt.
                    E. A. Hitchcock
                        Col. 2nd Infy. B. B. Genl.
Genl. Jos. Lane
    &c. &c.

Jacksonville, 7th October 1853               
Genl. Jo Lane
    Dear Genl.,
    At the request of Major Drew, I write to inform you that, up to this time it has with the hardest work been impossible to settle and close up all the accounts of the quartermaster and commissary department.
    The muster rolls are all complete with the exception of such stoppages as must be entered on them for forage and subsistence furnished. This will be done at the earliest moment and the whole sent to the Adjutant General at Washington with a letter enclosed directed to you. Meanwhile the estimate, as near as it can be made, of the cost of forage, subsistence etc. is sent herewith enclosed, in order to give to you some information that may be desirable.
    The papers will all be ready and forwarded from San Francisco by the steamer of 1st November.
    I shall at Major Drew's request stay till these papers are all made out.
    The Indians since you left are quiet, and there is a respectable dragoon force here, Col. Wright having ordered the detachment of Lieut. Radford from Goose Lake on Klamath.
    Things will go well I think with regard to the Indians. Capt. Smith is in command of Fort Lane, which is being built rapidly.
    Very respectfully,
        Sir your most obedient servant
            James P. Goodall

Fort Jones Scotts Valley Calif
    October 10th, 1853
    A package of paper, from the Commissioners of Military Affairs in Rogue River Valley, Oregon was brought to me today by an express rider with a verbal request from the Commissioners that I should examine them and forward them to you at San Francisco.
    Unfortunately the regular express had left here before the arrival of the special express and as the latter will be compelled to overtake the former at Callaghan's tonight he leaves me but a few moments to examine the documents and communicate with you. If he should not arrive at Callaghan's in time the papers might fail to reach you before you sail from San Francisco on the 15th.
    These documents are addressed to the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Interior and to yourself. According to the verbal request of the Commissioners I have opened the envelopes and examined all the papers. I regret that I have but a few moments allowed me to submit my memorandum remarks on these documents.
    1st.  As it is a very unusual thing for an officer of the army to volunteer pecuniary assistance to the government, in order to relieve myself from misconstruction I ought perhaps to mention the circumstances under which this offer of mine was made.
    When I reached Jacksonville the 9th of August last, in order to give all the aid in my power towards the suppression of hostilities in Rogue River Valley, I found no public officer of the government, and no individual or organized board or committee with whom I could confer. No arrangement had been made for the temporary supply of volunteers with subsistence etc. Under the circumstances I informed the principal gentlemen of the town that I had no authority from the government to enroll volunteers and to pledge the government for their pay and subsistence, and that for this purpose a special appropriation would be required by Congress. I declared to them however that by personal observation I perceived clearly that a real war had broken out in the valley and that as they themselves had represented to me it was imminently threatened by at least 250 Indian warriors armed with rifles and well supplied with ammunition, that volunteers must be enrolled immediately and be supplied with subsistence and camp equipage, and that I had no doubt that Congress would make appropriation sufficient to cover all legitimate expenses of the war.
    I recommended that a committee of military affairs should be appointed forthwith composed of responsible men and having the confidence of the community and whose especial province it should be to raise funds and subsistence for the immediate wants of the volunteers. It was then intimated to me that as matters then stood the merchants of the town were unable to advance supplies and money the amount of which might not be refunded to them by the government for several years. I replied to them that the representations which had been made to me of the critical state of the valley threatened by a combination of several Indian tribes had not been exaggerated in the least, and that I was so well satisfied that Congress would make appropriations sufficient to meet all advances of funds etc. made by citizens in this emergency that I was willing to pledge myself to loan the committee one thousand dollars. I have since then been repeatedly informed by the principal men of the town that this offer on my part at once removed all hesitation on the part of merchants of the town to make advances.
    I was requested by the gentlemen of the town to nominate a board of commissioners. I made this nomination immediately from a list handed to me by the most responsible men of the place. This board consisted of Messrs. ____ ____. They entered upon their duties next day, and from that moment ample supplies were furnished to the troops. These commissioners were appointed by me on the 10th of August and continued in session until within a few days past.
    You are well aware of the value of their services.
    I perceive that the appraisers of property destroyed by the Indians do not appear to have signed their own names to the appraisement. I shall inform the commissioners of this fact and suggest to them to forward the proper signatures to you.
    In this appraisement account the appraisers do not make mention of the principle and manner by which they arrived at the amount of damages claimed by the parties.
    I regret that I have not a moment's time to say more as the express rider is compelled to start in five minutes. I will endeavor to write to you by the steamer that leaves San Francisco on the 1st of November. Perhaps I may leave for home in that steamer myself and in that case I shall go to Washington to meet you. My general health is improving, but the fingers of my right hand still refuse to hold a pen beyond the time required to sign my name.
    The muster rolls and subsistence accounts will not reach Washington I suppose before the 1st of December. I regret that the gentlemen have not been able to have them ready before this.
    With sincere regard
        Yours most truly
            My dear general
                B. R. Alden
                    Capt. 4th Infy.
General Joseph Lane
    San Francisco

Yreka Cal
    Octr. 17th, '53
Dear Genl:
    I am here on my way to Jacksonville, where my presence may be needed for the settlement of various accounts, and I make bold today to harness my fingers on trial with a pen. I am rejoiced to find that though my arm may never recover, yet my fingers as you perceive are doing well. Two days since it gave me great pain to write a line, but today a great change for the better has come in my nerves.
    I read your printed report yesterday for the first time and notice a word which would do me great discredit if it remains unexplained.
    You say that you were requested by "Col. Alden and the troops" to take the command. I did not notice this when Mr. Mosher showed me the manuscript, but certainly the request to relinquish the command to you came from myself alone.
    Will you please General to do what you can to correct this, and to save me from the misconstruction that would be put on it.
    The two Indians who killed Mr Kyle the other day in Rogue River Valley have been given up by Joe and Capt. Smith will hang them.
    My arm refuses to be used a moment longer.
    Yr. sincere friend
        B. R. Alden
            Capt. 4th Infy.
Genl. J. Lane

Fort Lane O.T.
    Oct. 29th 1853
Dear Gen
    I returned last evening from Illinois Creek. The Inds. have been stealing stock on and mar[red] that stream for some time. Capt. Smith and Lt. Radford [were] with me. But when we reached them we found that more force and provisions would be necessary and I sent back an express for more. In due time Lt. Castor arrived with a reinforcement. On the 23 we started into the mountains and on the 24th at noon we came to where my guides wanted us to stop that they might explore a little (these two guides belong to Tyee Jo['s] people). In a short time the guides returned and said they were satisfied that the Inds. were below on the creek
    Radford left a guard with the horses and went down the mountain with the command on foot. The guides took us down so as not to be observed. The men jumped into the water, swam across the water and [were] upon them so quick that they were completely surprised.
    The Inds. made three different stands though they were short. After the word was given "forward" the dragoons were stopped but rushed upon them and chased them until they reached the mountains. From 8 to 15 Inds. were killed; it was impossible to tell how many because the Inds. carried off all of their killed and wounded that they could.
    There was 20 soldiers in the fight, two were wounded. Just after we had commenced our action we were fired upon from the bushes and 2 men killed and 2 men wounded. We took 16 horses and one ox from the Inds. all of which they had stolen within six weeks.
    The Inds. that we found on Illinois Creek belong on the coast and were driven over at the time of the difficulty near Crescent City and they were stealing stock to take back with them. There was a party of 30 miners that went down to and attacked this same party of Inds. two days before but the Inds. whipped them.
    I know that none of the Inds. treated with were with them, for my two boys (guides) would not have fought their own people as they did these. Besides Tyee Jo wanted to take some of his men and go with us to fight them and again we took everything in possession of the Inds. even to cans of powder, balls, caps, etc. and if any of these Inds. were with them we would have taken something that we would have recognized.
    It is very cold in the open air this morning. I can hardly hold my pen. The fort is nearly completed; will get into it in four or five days.
            S. H. Culver
Gen Jo Lane Delegate etc.
    Washington D C
    Capt. Smith has just come down from the new fort and says give my compliments to the Gen., say that I will write to him in a few days. He hopes you will not forget what you promised in case a new regiment is raised etc.    S H C

Fort Lane O.T.
    Dec 8th 1853.
My Dear Gen
    I have just returned this morning from Illinois Creek where I have been for the last ten days. I gave you a brief history of what occurred when the dragoons went there with me on a former occasion, to wit: that they had a battle. The result is as I expected; a peace is established that is likely to stand. When we went there I knew that those Inds. had then in their possession from 15 to 20 horses which they had stolen during the war, that if I and the dragoons should have it in our power to take them and not do it it would have raised a great talk and would have been used as an argument against treaties etc. At the time that I returned from the mountains (from the fight) I told the miners that they might fight them as long as they pleased, that I would not interfere, but when they were satisfied and wanted to stop to let [me] know and I would get them in some way and make a treaty with them. Those miners find that fighting Indians does not pay and are now anxious to keep peace and the Inds. are of the same mind. I have been a long distance down Illinois Creek with our Indian boy and myself and saw all of the Inds. that belong there. Peace is established.
    The two Indians that were given up as the murderers of Mr. Kyle made their escape from the guard on the morning that I left for Illinois Creek. I went to Jo and Sam at once; they both say that they shall be found and delivered up which will be done. They want peace.
    Now one word which relates to me personally. A friend told me as I came through Jacksonville this afternoon that he had heard that there was a petition in circulation having for its object my removal and Bob Metcalfe's appointment in my place. Whether there are any reasons assigned or not I cannot tell, probably not, for there are none. This is the long and short of it. Deady has been removed and it is supposed by Whig influence or rather Whig slanders. This is delightful to Whigs and they propose to continue the thing and get such persons appointed as pleases them. I have done everything in my power to preserve peace and to perform whatever duties were incumbent upon me as agent and have been successful.
    But some certain Whigs who have not deemed it expedient to come out openly against you, though they had the dead thing on you when they saw the first effects of the treaty, in other words they thought it would seriously affect your popularity. They are disappointed in it and they know the reason. Without taking too much to myself I think I may safely say that I have contributed more than any other person here to bringing about this state of things. I have in my travels stayed overnight or called at nearly every house in the valley and taken occasion to correct many wrong impressions entertained by citizens, and honestly too, about the late treaty of peace made by you.
    One instance I found whole neighborhoods laboring under the impression that you gave the Indians several thousand dollars worth of clothing if they would come in and stop fighting and that you did so give the goods for that purpose and that the Inds. would not come in and make peace unless you paid them for it. This is but one of a number, all of which are equally as absurd. These have all been corrected or nearly so and were the question put to the people of this county tomorrow whether they approve your course in making that treaty it would be sustained by a large majority, but no thanks to the Whigs, no not one of them, particularly those in and near Jacksonville.
    But enough of this. The only thing that has induced me to say anything about this reported petition is that I am fearful that some one-sided statement might be made, for if persons will get up a secret petition they may not be above making statements that are at variance with truth.
    I shall start down the river in the morning to try to get the two prisoners that escaped just before I started to the Illinois River and shall succeed before I stop.
    Respectfully your
        obt. srvt.
            S. H. Culver
Gen Jo Lane
    Delegate in Congress
        Washington D.C.

/ 53
    Dec. 9th
Dear Father
    You must excuse me for not writing to you before. I have been very busy ever since this session took up and cannot get time to write to you, only of Saturday. Mr. Martin came down and he says that all of the family is well. You must go to Indiana when the first session is out and see all of the people there. I have received only one letter from there since I have been here. I heard from Mary the other day. She is well; all of the folks is well there. You could not get me to live in Indiana for anything. Judge McFadden
has come up here and is liked very much. The Governor has arrived here; we saluted him when he came in on the steamboat. I think that you had best buy some lots in Salem and none down here, for it is the prettiest place in Oregon that I have seen.
    Lafayette is a-learning very fast. I think he studies very hard. You had better send money as soon as you can, for Mrs. Bears [sic] had me to pay her to the amt. of $46. I had to borrow it and got Mr. Nesmith to get it for me. I have not had any chance to send to Portland. I thought that you made arrangements with her. I told Lafayette to tell her that I had no money and could not get any until you could get to Washington or somebody would go to Portland and she sent word to me that she must have it so I got Mr. Nesmith to get money for me.
    I like Mr. Hoyt
very much; he tries to make me learn. I speak every Friday. I want you to send me the Drawing Room Companion and The Flag of Our Union. Legislature has met. Garrett is clerk of the council; John McCracken is the clerk of the legislature.
    I think that if I study here as I have been until you get back then I can go to studying law. Mr. Garrett has made a poor start here; he has lost every case that he's had except 2. We have a debating society here;
Mr. Hoyt is president. Umpqua is so wild a country that I wish Mother was down here. You must write soon.
    I am a-studying arithmetic, philosophy, grammar, reading & bookkeeping is all that I am a-studying at present. I entered astronomy next session and algebra.

Dear Father, I have a friend here that wants to go to West Point, and I want you to send me a copy of the regulations and the qualifications necessary for cadet. He wants to know what he had better do to get the appointment. His name [is] Roswell Lamson. Send them as soon as possible. Send them to me. Don't fail.
Your son John S. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City
    December 10 1853
William Cose Dusenberry Esqr.
    Wall Street, N. York
            I have in my possession one hundred dollars, placed in my hands by E. Hamilton Esqr. of Oregon for you, which will be forwarded promptly upon your order. Have the kindness to address me.
    It was my intention to see you in N.Y. and hand you the money, but had mislaid a slip of paper handed me by Mr. Hamilton with your address and could not recollected the name; have this day found it. This is my apology for not doing as otherwise I would.
Respectfully yours
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Ho. of Reps.
    Washington Dec. 12th 1853
Hon. E. Whittlesey
    Comptroller &c.
            You will please favor me at your earliest convenience with a tabular statement of appropriations made by Congress for the Territory of Oregon since its organization as a Territory, showing for what purposes the same were made, what amount actually paid out, for what purpose, and what amount withheld and for what reason, together with the sums of each appropriation yet remaining in the Treasury.
And oblige
    Yours respectfully
        Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

    Oregon Territory
        21st Decr 1853
Gen Jo Lane
    Dr Sir
        I have just got through and am sealing up the papers for transmittal to Washington.
    They are all directed to you and amount to $93,511.25 cents, which is not far I believe from the estimate sent to you at San Francisco.
    I have to say that since closing the accounts, a bill was presented by Levi Libby for $200 for transportation. This bill is sent, but is necessarily detached from the rest and swells the amount of expenses to $200 more, making $95,511.25 cents [sic].
    Enclosed is a letter to Hon. P. H. Bell, of Texas; he is my friend and I think you can rely on his cooperation in this matter.
    Capt. Terry it seems has sent on an independent muster roll. I frequently hear his men speak of him and with execration. They do not approve [of] his conduct. You will doubtless see his roll, and will act as in your wisdom shall be deemed best. His men are as anxious as the rest to get pay, and I recommend it.
    Your letter to me directing copies of muster rolls to be sent to the governor of Oregon was obeyed. If your avocations permit I should be glad to hear from you occasionally.
Your friend
    James P. Goodall
P.S. The rolls made and sent by me asking pay are
1st   Your staff roll
2nd  Roll of hired men in hospital
3       Roll of hired quartermaster men
4       Miller's roll of mounted volunteers
       Goodall's roll of mounted volunteers
       Lamerick's roll of mounted volunteers
       Rhoades' roll of mounted volunteers
       Williams' roll of mounted volunteers
       Owens' roll of mounted volunteers
     Fowler's infantry volunteers
    And the rolls of Capts. Terry, Martin and Nesmith, which doubtless are or will be sent.
Respectfully etc.
    J. P. Goodall
    Hon. Jo Lane
        Washington D.C.

Ho. of Reps.
    Washington D.C.
        Dec. 29th 1853
Hon. John Wilson
    Comm. of Land Office
            I learn that it has been the practice of the Surveyor General of Oregon to exact fees of settlers for services rendered in proof of claims and in rendering certificates of settlement and cultivation. Do not these duties devolve upon the Surveyor General by virtue of his office for which he is remunerated by the salary thereof and are not such charges therefore illegal and contrary to the contemplation of the act creating the office of Surveyor General?
    Your early replication is respectfully solicited.
Very respty.
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joseph Lane]
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Randolph City Coquille Mines
    Jan'y 28th 1854
Gen. Joel Palmer
Supdt. Indian Affairs
    At a meeting of the citizens and miners held today in this place, the undersigned were appointed a committee to address you upon the subject of our relations with the Indians of this vicinity. The Indians have at different times warned the people resident here that if they did not leave they would compel them to or kill them. Yesterday the chief of the tribe located at the mouth of the Coquille River fired upon some whites located at that point. When requested by a messenger from the Indian agent at Port Orford to come in and have a talk, he refused to do so, stating in distinct terms that he was an enemy to the whites, that he always would be an enemy, and that he wanted to fight and kill all the whites. The people seeing that the Indians were determined to put their threats into execution, a few men proceeded early this morning to their rancheria and were fired upon by the Indians, which fire they returned, and in the engagement fifteen Indians were killed, and two squaws (who were killed by accident). The whites then burnt their rancheria. In the engagement the chief was wounded, being shot through his shoulder.
    Eight squaws were taken prisoners.
    Later in the day the chief surrendered and came in. He professes friendship and says he is sorry he was hostile to the whites and promises to behave better in the future. How long his good behavior will last is uncertain.
    All of which is respectfully submitted
John C. Danford
B. I. Burns
J. E. McClure
Wm. J. Berry
B. J. Bell

Winchester O.T.
    February 25 1854
Dear Father
    This day I recd. your letter containing the check for 675 dollars in favor of D. Barnes, which I handed him and redeemed your note of 725 dollars.
    I settled with Wm. J. Martin. His acct. against you was 706 dollars, including the store house, and our bill against him for goods was 211 dollars. The burrs you sold him was 397 dollars, which leaves a balance due Martin 92 dollars. I told Mr. Martin I hoped that this settlement would be satisfaction to you, and he said he knew it would be, for you and him had a talk about the burrs and you agreed to pay for repairing them, which cost $152, but he would pay half and charge you only $75. See enclosed bills.
    That note you give Knott for 1500 dollars he sold to Sutherland. We have paid 1000 dollars on it, and the 500 we will pay the first of March. Then we will owe 450 dollars, and about the same owing to us, and I think we have in store about $2500 worth of goods. Times are quite dull in Winchester at present, money very scarce, [a] good many people going to the gold mines from Douglas County. There is a great excitement about the Coos mines; people are going there from all parts of Oregon. John & Russell Fickas are gone to Coos; Simon paid them off. Their wages were $450. I am well pleased with Oregon. I bought of Mr. Akin the house brother Wilbur occupied. The house cost $450. I paid 200, the balance [due] next May. I moved to Winchester the 10th Nov.
    Since that time we have sold 4300 dollars worth of goods, but we have to sell goods at a very small profit owing to so much competition. This county has a great many stores and grocers that we have to contend with; consequently we have to sell goods cheap in order to gain custom.
    All of your American cows has calved. Mother and family are very well. Emily and little Mary are well and send their very best love to you.
Yours truly
    J. C. Floed
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City
    March 25 1854
My Dear Tyler
    Your note of the 20th inst. has been recd. Territorial business has been made the special order for the first week in May, and within that week the bill providing for paying the expenses of the Rogue River War will pass the House, and in a month or two thereafter will become a law. You are sufficiently acquainted with Congressional legislation to know that things are not dispatched as rapidly as we have been in the habit of moving in the mountains in search of gold or Indians.
    Should an increase of the army be authorized I shall stand by you for a captaincy.
    The Nebraska Bill has been sent to the committee of the whole. I am inclined to think that it will pass notwithstanding.
    I shall send you papers.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City
    March 31 1854
Dear Tyler
    Yours of the 26th inst. has this moment been recd. I recd. your letter written soon after your arrival at home & answered it promptly and sent you some papers.
    I think I wrote you that Territorial bills have been made the special order for the first week in May. During that week the bill for the expenses of the Rogue River War will pass, at least I hope it will pass, and have no fear of the results; for the occasion I shall be prepared.
    The difficulty between Cutting & Breckinridge has been settled, honorably, without bloodshed.
    I am glad to hear that you are determined to unite yourself to a better half. You could do nothing more sensible, and from your description I know she is lovely and worthy, worthy [of] the hand of my gallant young friend, who will I am sure be to her a good , kind, affectionate husband. I wish you both many years of peace, happiness & prosperity.
    Shall be pleased to hear from you occasionally. I send you some speeches and papers.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington, June 26, 1854.
My Dear Friend Hoyt: Salem
    Your favor of the 4th has just been received. I am truly grateful to you for the interest you take in my sons. It is a consolation to me to know that your watchful care will be over them, and to this I must attribute, to a considerable extent, the success they have attained in their studies. I hope you will continue this attention, as well in regard to their physical as mental being. I am pained at La Fayette's sickness, and hope, whenever it may be necessary for his health, that he relax his studies. But I am assured that you will have an eye to this in my absence.
    I will call on the Secretary of State in relation to the documents you speak of. I am pleased to learn that your institution is in so flourishing a condition, and hope it may long continue to advance in strength and usefulness, and prove a blessing to our young and growing country.
    In regard to the education of my sons, or rather the branches I prefer, I have only to remark that reading, writing, grammar and arithmetic, mathematics &c. are, in my opinion, the first essentials of a good education. In regard to other studies, you own good judgment will be a better guide than anything I can say on the subject.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City
    August 31 1854
Hon. James Guthrie
    Secretary of the Treasury
            Herewith I propose to furnish you such facts as came within my own knowledge in relation to the services of Genl. Joel Palmer of Oregon in the war with the Cayuse Indians in the years 1847 and 1848. I met with the Genl.in San Francisco in Jany. 1849, and took passage with him on the same ship with him. On our way to Oregon I learned much from him, and other Oregonians, returning home from San Francisco about the Cayuse War. From the Genl. I learned that the war had terminated in the summer of '48, that he had served a quartermaster and commissary, and at the close of the war he found himself encumbered with a large amt. of public property, books and unadjusted accounts, that he had a strong desire to convert the property into the largest sum possible for the payment as far as it would go of the expenses of the war. Consequently when he left home he found it necessary to employ other persons to take charge of the property, books and accounts--to arrange and close them up. This I found to be on my arrival at Oregon City to be the case. From my personal knowledge therefore I am able to state that he had two persons employed a portion of the time, & one, Mr. Clouse [Cloisse?], the entire time of the absence as clerk, & the other to take charge of and dispose of property, and I further know that he paid them for their services out of his own money. And further I can say that I consider
Palmer an honest, conscientious, good man and efficient officer [and] the award allowed to Palmer by Commissioner Wait just and only but a reasonable compensation for his services as quartermaster, and in my judgment ought to be paid without further delay.
[Joseph Lane]
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Salem April 22nd 1854
Dear Father
    I have come to the conclusion that you are not a-going to write to me anymore. It has been so long since I received a letter from you that I cannot hardly remember when it was. I wish you would write any mail if you have time. I have not heard from home for some time, but when I heard they was all well. I expect you will hear before you receive this letter of the steamer Gazelle blowing up, killed about 28, 30 wounded. Among them that was killed was Rev. Mr. Miller of Corvallis, a preacher of the gospel, and old Mr. Page, supt of the Willamette Company. His head was blown all [omission]; he was so disfigured that they would not have known him only by some papers he had in his pocket.
    The longer I stay in this country the better I will like it. I would not live in Hoosier. If Mother only lived here in Salem I know she would like it better. Lafayette is a-learning very fast. I study harder than I did in my life before. Mr. Hoyt is a good teacher. I wish you would let me go to school a few years yet and I will have an excellent education. Father, I want you to send me books. I want you to send debates in Congress upon tariff and bank questions, Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, history of Greece unabridged, history of Rome unabridged, history of France unabridged, Tom Paine's Rights of Man, also his Common Sense. And dozens [of] useful books, histories &c. Be sure to send them, for I want them very much, and Saturdays and Sundays I can read them. You can make arrangements to send them.
    I have no more to write at present,
But remain your son
    John Lane
To Gen. Jos. Lane

I have give out the notion of going out after gold.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

War Department
    Washington, April 28, 1854
    In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of the 5 instant I have the honor to transmit herewith estimates prepared from muster rolls and vouchers filed in this department, principally by the delegate in Congress from the Territory of Oregon, showing the amount of claims for services of volunteers and for supplies furnished for their use etc. in suppressing Indian hostilities in "Rogue River Valley" in that territory.
    The pay and allowances of the volunteers are estimated according to the rates prescribed by the act of March 19, 1836, the only general act fixing the pay and allowances of volunteers and militia when called into the service of the United States.
    The amount of claims for supplies is stated according the bills presented, of which an abstract is submitted showing in brief the quantities furnished and prices charged.
    I also submit copies of reports from Capt. B. R. Alden, late of the army, who was in command of U.S. troops engaged on that occasion, stating the circumstances under which the volunteers were organized, and the mode in which supplies were obtained.
    Very respectfully
        Yr obt srvt
            Jefferson Davis
                Secretary of War
Hon Linn Boyd
    Speaker of the House of Representatives
[written in another hand on the transmittal:]
Estimates, Expenses Rogue River war
May 1, 1854 Referred to the Committee Military Affairs and ordered to be printed.
Communication from the Sec. of War transmitting estimates for services of volunteers &c. in the Rogue River war.
Print immediately.

Fort Lane O.T.
    March 1st 1854
Dear Gen
    Enclosed is a slip from the Mountain Herald of 25th Feb. that I just received. So far as Inds. in my Dist. are concerned be assured that it is a lie out and out. But those on Rogue River are in a suffering condition for want of food. In fact if depredations are committed by them it will be from want. I don't know as I will be able to get this to the post office before the mail leaves, but will try.
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
Genl. J. Lane
    Delegate in Congress
        Washington D.C.

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City, April 29, 1854.
    My Dear Ladd:--
    I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 10th March, and am much obliged to you for much interesting news and information.
    I am glad to learn that gold is found, or is likely to be found, [in] plenty on our coast near us, and am also happy to know that vessels have found a good entrance to Coos Bay.
    Some time since I wrote a letter for publication in relation to the division of Oregon Territory, as proposed by the people of Jacksonville and Yreka, in which I gave my views in opposition to such division, and urged the establishment of a state government, for reasons that I think will be considered legitimate and proper. A new Territory cannot be made as proposed. The delegation from California don't think of entertaining the idea of clipping their state.
    Now, my dear friend, you may rely on my doing for Scottsburg all that mortal man can do. I feel the importance of that point, and the wants, necessities, interests and wishes of the people of Scottsburg, and all Southern Oregon, and I am as anxious as a man can be to procure such legislation as may be necessary for the advancement of their interests. I have a bill now pending for continuing the military road from Myrtle Creek to Scottsburg, and have the promise of the Postmaster General that the mail steamers shall stop and deliver the mail at Scottsburg, and in addition to this we have a bill pending for separating our services (that is mail service from the company's line at San Francisco and for letting all north of that point to an independent company, to stop at Port Orford, Coos Bay, Scottsburg and Astoria, and deliver the mail going and returning. Indeed everything has been and is being done that can be, for the promotion of our interests in your section, and all others of our Territory, and you may rest assured that I shall not neglect any portion of my duty, or of the Territory.
    Our Territorial business has been made the special order for the first week in May. I feel confident of success in most matters pending. I will give you the result. . . .
    Your obdt. servt.
        JOSEPH LANE.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, June 23, 1854, page 2

    Remarks on certain accounts and bills, presented by citizens of Oregon and California, for services and supplies furnished during the Rogue River War of 1853, also remarks concerning muster rolls of volunteers in that war.
    Of the muster rolls of volunteers in the hands of the Secy. of War, to the best of my belief and knowledge the following are substantially correct, as correct as could be expected under the circumstances, viz: Capt. Goodall's, Lamerick's and Miller's.
    Capt. Fowler's company was enrolled by the Commissioners of Military Affairs in Rogue River Valley as a guard for the defense of the town of Jacksonville. When they advised with me on the subject, I suggested the enrollment of thirty men. I suppose the muster roll in the hands of the Secy. to be correct.
    Capt. Owens' company was enrolled by my authority--twenty-five men--but was soon after disorganized. The men
[missing page?]
prices of articles of subsistence be regulated so that different merchants shall not be paid different prices for the same article. This to apply to merchants in northern California (in the vicinity of Yreka) and in Rogue River Valley.
B. R. Alden
    Late Capt. 4th U.S. Infy.
Washington D.C.
March 24th 1854

    The next bill upon the Calendar which came up for consideration in order was House bill (No. 339) to authorize the Secretary of War to settle and adjust the expenses of the Rogue River Indian War.
    The bill was read in extenso.
    The Clerk then read the first section.
    Mr. LANE, of Oregon. Mr. Chairman, the duty devolves upon me, I imagine, to give an explanation of the object of this bill, and of the circumstances which make its passage necessary. If I knew that it would pass without anything being said by me, I would say nothing; and it would gratify me very much. But, for fear that it might not be so, I avail myself of the opportunity to make a brief statement.
    In the Rogue River Valley there are two great tribes of Indians, the Umpquas and Shastas, all known as the Rogue River Indians. These Indians, for the last twelve months, have been preparing for war. They were enabled to provide themselves with the implements of war, and with everything necessary to commence a deadly hostility, and to make every arrangement necessary for carrying out their purpose, by means of appearing friendly to the whites, in hunting for them, and selling the proceeds of the chase for guns, powder, balls &c.
    In that vicinity there are rich mines, and many American citizens had rushed in there for the purpose of digging for gold. Many persons from the States who had no intention of becoming citizens of that Territory, and who did not become citizens, went there in search of gold. It is the habit of miners, and it is the habit of American citizens who are in search of gold, to take with them a rifle and other weapons which they regard as necessary for their personal safety and protection.
    The Indians in that valley, who are a superior race, remarkable for their intelligence, availed themselves of the great number of miners, who purchased of them the game that they could kill, and which was very plenty in that portion of Oregon, to realize a considerable sum of money, which they took care to invest in rifles, pistols, powder, lead and percussion caps, and everything else necessary to commence a war of extermination; in this way all they had received in twelve months past had been invested. At that time the white people in the vicinity, among whom were many families, believed they were as safe as the people of the city in Washington now consider themselves.
    The massacre commenced the first day by a scattering band of Indians; and Edwards, Wills and Noland, all of them American citizens, were massacred. Only these three were murdered the first day. This was, however, only a beginning of the execution of a scheme which had been matured for sweeping off every white man, woman and child in that country. This tribe had formed an alliance with other tribes. The Klamath Indians, numbering some five hundred warriors, within seventy-five miles, and Tipsoe Tyee's band, within twenty-five miles, had agreed to join them in the massacre; and, as soon as the war commenced, they were all to rush in, and sweep from the face of the earth every man, woman and child. And, Mr. Chairman, their designs would have been accomplished, but for the prompt and efficient aid of Captain Alden, who is now in this city, crippled for life, in consequence of a wound he received in that war. I say that but for his aid they would have been swept from the country, every man, woman and child. The Indians were well armed; and it is a fact, strange as it may seem, that the white people were mostly without arms. They had no apprehensions from these Indians. They had lived with them for many months in peace. They had sold their arms to the Indians, and believed them to be perfectly harmless in their intentions.
    When the massacre commenced Captain Alden was one hundred miles off. The intelligence was received, and he, with a company of ten men, his whole available force, immediately started in the night and rushed to the rescue. They succeeded in checking the Indians for the time being. In the meantime two companies of Californians, under Captains Goodall and Rhodes, turned out and joined Captain Alden. All the people, or nearly all in Rogue River Valley, capable of bearing arms, were organized into companies, two under Captains Miller and Lamerick for active service, and one under Captain Fowler, for the protection of the town of Jacksonville. The two companies under Captains Miller and Lamerick were organized into a battalion, and placed under the command of Colonel Ross. I take occasion here to say that too much praise cannot be given to Captain Alden for his prompt organization of these troops, or to the troops themselves for their gallantry and good conduct.
    Soon after the battle with the Indians, Captain Nesmith, who had been ordered out by the Governor, joined me with a large company of volunteers; also, Captain Smith, with a company of United States dragoons; Captains Martin, Applegate and Terry, each with a small company, promptly repaired to the theater of hostilities. To all these officers, and the men under their command, I take pleasure in saying that great praise is due for their gallant and soldier-like bearing. I also take pleasure in saying that I am indebted to Major Alvord, of the United States Army, for much valuable assistance in negotiating a treaty with the Indians, as well as Superintendent Palmer. Mr. Culver, Indian agent, threw down the shovel, the pick and other mining implements, and rushed to the rescue. By this timely movement the progress of the massacre was checked, and but for it every white inhabitant of that country must have been stricken down. He divided his forces at night, so as to prevent the Indians from coming upon the settlements, and in that way managed to hold them in check. Many skirmishes, however, ensued, and John R. Hardin, Dr. Rose and others were killed. On the morning of the 16th of August, I received notice at my residence, which is one hundred miles north of that point, that the Indians had commenced a general slaughter of the white people of that country. This intelligence was brought to me by Mr. Ettlinger and Mr. Nichol, who had ridden the whole distance in a day and night. In a few minutes after its arrival, I was on the road to the Rogue River Valley.
    I mention these facts to show the committee my knowledge of the transactions there. It is necessary that I should allude to them.
    On the 15th day of August, Captain Armstrong, a valued and respected citizen of Oregon, passed my house on his way to California, through the Rogue River Valley. Then the rumor was indefinite--that there was trouble in that quarter--but we did not know to what extent. It had been my lot to have been thrown into the company of Captain Armstrong in 1851, during a war with the same Indians. I found him a gallant and valuable gentleman. I mentioned that I was unwilling to see him go in the direction in which he was going without a rifle. He had none with him. "What," he replied, "was the matter?" I told him the rumor had reached me that there was trouble of some kind in the valley; that his life was too valuable to be incautiously trusted there; and that he had better take my rifle. He did so. In the course of that night he met the express going for me, and waited until I overtook him, when we traveled together. We arrived in Rogue River Valley [the] 19th of August. We found Captain Alden, with his usual gallantry and efficiency, in command, and affording protection to our citizens. His force, in my judgment, was sufficient to make a movement against the enemy, which he had already contemplated. A few days before, a portion of his command under Lieutenant Ely had been sent to make a reconnaissance. He fell into an ambuscade, and nearly half his command were killed. The other half would have shared the same fate but for the timely arrival of a reinforcement. Although I came as a volunteer, Captain Alden insisted that I should take the command of the troops. At his urgent request I did so. Sunday afternoon order was given to be ready to move on Monday morning at four o'clock. At the appointed time every foot was in the stirrup. Wednesday morning we overtook the Indians, and brought them to battle. Captain Alden was shot down. Captain Armstrong received a shot at about the same moment, and just had time to say that they had given him a dead center shot. The conflict led to a peace. Notwithstanding the screams, yells and war-whoops of the Indians for four hours, and notwithstanding we had failed to dislodge them, they agreed to make peace. They asked for peace. They wanted to know who commanded the troops. I heard them. I know their language well, having had a good deal to do with them, and knew most of them personally. They called out for me to come in, as they wanted a talk. They were tired of fighting, and desired peace. Well, I had been a little hurt myself, and I said to them and to the command that I would rather fight forty battles than talk about one peace. But after a good deal of time had been lost, and after a great deal of persuasion, I went among them. The preliminaries of a peace were made on the battleground. We camped on the battleground for two nights. The Indians were so well satisfied that there would be a peace that they assisted in removing our wounded men on litters across the country, which, by the by, is the worst country I ever traveled over. Well, a peace was made, and it has been maintained until this time, and I think it always will be maintained, for the government has purchased their lands. A treaty was made with them directly after the war for their territory, and that treaty has been ratified.
    I have given this history of the war from its commencement to its termination, for the purpose of satisfying the committee that the volunteers who turned out on that occasion ought to be paid for their services. I ask that the Secretary of War may be authorized to pay them. Many lost their lives. The Indians killed nearly as many of us as we killed of them. We only ask that those volunteers who turned out and assisted in putting down an Indian war that would otherwise have lasted for years, and cost the government millions of dollars, and hundreds of lives--and, as it was, did cost us the lives of many valuable citizens--may be paid for their services. The troops were disbanded as soon as it was thought safe to do so. I kept them with me but a few days after the peace was made, and remained near the Indians for several weeks myself for two reasons; one was that I was not very well able to get away from them, and the other was that I knew that by remaining there until the hot blood had somewhat cooled I could prevent a renewal of hostilities between the Indians and the whites. We only ask that the volunteers shall be paid for the time which they actually served, and the necessary expenses of subsistence, ammunition, forage and so forth. The accounts were all carefully kept. Captain Alden had appointed quartermasters and commissaries, and the accounts were as accurate and correct as I have ever seen them in the Army. I hope this explanation will satisfy the committee that the bill ought to pass.
    Mr. WASHBURN, of Maine. I should like to ask the gentleman from Oregon a question. Will the gentleman state about how much the expenditures will amount to?
    Mr. LANE. My opinion is that they will amount to about $150,000; perhaps a little over or a little under. I cannot, however, say exactly.
    Mr. WASHBURN. The language of the bill is rather wide. It provides for appropriating money for the expenditures for all necessary and proper supplies. Now, would it not be well enough to have some limitation as to the full amount?
    Mr. LANE. I am very willing to say that it shall not exceed $175,000, if the committee desire that there shall be a restriction. But I have confidence in the Secretary of War. I have confidence in his ability, integrity and honesty, and in his capacity to judge from the papers what allowances are reasonable. He will allow nothing wrong, and we ask nothing but what is right. Let me say here that, so far as I was concerned, I settled my accounts on the spot. I went out as a volunteer, but I received while there a commission as brigadier general from the acting Governor of the Territory. As soon as I could ride down from the portion of the country where the war took place, I returned the commission with a note on it that I charged nothing for my services; that I would not receive anything for them then, or at any future time, nor will I.
    But that was not the case with others. Many persons left their business and hurried to the rescue of the people there, when the Indians were about to tomahawk men, women and children; and this would have been done, had it not been for the noble conduct of Captain Alden and those brave men who volunteered in their defense. All I ask is that these men shall be paid, and that the actual and necessary expenses of the war shall also be paid. I hope no further explanations will be necessary.
"Thirty-Third Congress," Daily Globe, Washington, D.C., May 6, 1854, page 4

    On the --th ult., at the residence of Samuel Stevenson, in Douglas County, by Judge Deady, Joseph S. Lane, Esq., to Miss Eleanor Stevenson.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1854, page 3

    May 19th / 54
Dear Father
    Yours of the 3rd of April is now at hand, for which I am much obliged; glad to know that you are well.
    We are all well at this time and doing the best we can. Business in Winchester is quite dull, and we have a great deal of opposition to contend with, therefore we are compelled to sell goods very cheap in order to compete with others' prices. We have on hand a great many articles that we have to sell at or below cost. However we can replace them with much less money. I think Oregon is overstocked with goods, and many merchants will fail this summer.
    The firm of Hartless & Murch have moved their store from Marysville to Winchester under pretense of selling out at cost in order to close business, but I think they intend this for a permanent location to continue business from the fact that they won't sell anything unless it brings a profit. They had an auction sale today and [I] suppose sold two or three hundred dollars worth of goods, but they had a man employed to bid who run everything up so high that merchants had no chance.
    Creed will go to Portland about the first of June to purchase goods. From all accounts goods can be bought cheap at that place, owing to the great amount they have on hand.
    The cows & calves look well; however, the grass does not look so well as it did last year when I first came in the valley. More anon.
Your affectionate son
    Simon R. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Camp mouth of Chetco
2 June 1854
Dear General
    We reached this place 12 o'clock on yesterday. We have visited all the bands on our way down and up to the Great Bend. They are all very friendly and kind to us and to all sensible white men. I shall investigate the Miller matter here; this will detain us some time longer than I had anticipated but justice requires it. We are all well and in good spirits. In case you arrive at Port Orford before us I suppose you will have to wait our arrival. This shall be done with as much dispatch as the circumstances will permit.
    I have the honor to be your obt servant
        J. L. Parrish
            Ind Agt
                Port Orford
To Hon. Joel Palmer
    Supt Ind Affairs
        Dayton Oregon T.

At Home Tuesday 20th June 1854.
Friend Lane
    After my respects to you--hoping this may, when received, find you in good health--the most invaluable blessing we mortals can possess in the world, &c.
    I will give a brief statement of our election in the Territory so far as heard from. Washington County has gone Whig entire with the exception of one representative, and Meek for Colonel who was elected by one vote.  160 for Convention, 694 against, &c.  Marion County has carried the Democratic ticket entire with the exception of Sheriff; against Convention 393.  Whole number votes cast 1,131. Linn County Democratic ticket elected entire--majority for Conv. 287. Benton County--representatives one Dem., one Whig, the balance Dem. ticket elected with exception one county commissioner; for Conv. 181 against Conv. 320. Yamhill County--the Dem. ticket elected with the exception of one Representative--a small maj. for Conv. Polk County--the entire Dem. ticket elected, majority for Conv. 84. Clackamas County--the entire Dem. ticket elected--with the exception of one county commissioner.  J. B. Preston, Whig, was elected by a small majority. Majr. against Conv. 170. Wasco County send a Dem. to the Legislature. Lane County is Democratic; 750 majority for Conv. Douglas County Democratic, large majority for Conv., in Winchester precinct out of 77 votes, 66 for Conv. In Umpqua there is a close run between Ladd Dem. and Thompson Whig.  County strongly for Conv.  It is generally believed here that Convention will carry by a small majority.  This is all so far as heard from.
    J. C. Avery has qualified as postal agent and will enter on the duties of the office on the 1st of July.
    I saw our friend Lovejoy on Saturday last; he seems a good deal mortified at his removal.  I wrote you last mail in relation to his being destitute of any ready means for a support.  I feel for him.  And thought very hard against the Department for turning him out when I last wrote you.  But upon mature reflection of the matter, I have come to the conclusion that the Post Office Department could not do otherwise than it has done in the premises.  The office is an intricate one, and one to give satisfaction requires eternal vigilance and industry in an agent, and in my own mind I have concluded that he was guilty of dereliction of the duties of the office.  This is my private opinion.
    I have no doubt but that you have many applications from our Democratic friends in this Territory asking your good graces and influence for any office that may be created or become vacant in the Territory, that they may have the appointment.  I will for the first time will request it of you (should it meet your approbation) if this should reach in time to present my name for a receiver of public money in the Land Office about to be established in this Territory, I am conscious that I can discharge the duties of the office.  Otherwise, I should have said nothing in the premises about myself. 
    But I really do think old Clackamas is deserving of something--and I should be glad if Lovejoy could get an office that would pay.
    We have had, and up to this time [have] a great deal of cold, cloudy weather differing entirely from any spring that I have witnessed in this Territory.
    You will write the true situation of the Cayuse War claim audited by A. E. Wait in favor of A. L. Lovejoy for over 200 dollars and transferred in favor of A. J. Cason at your very earliest convenience. 
    I must beg your pardon for this obtruding myself and others and their wants upon your time and patience, but I feel that if I have done wrong in this, your goodness    will pardon my presumption.
    With my best respects and well wishes for your health, prosperity & happiness, I am your friend,
Fendal C. Cason
Hon. J. Lane

Department of the Interior
    Washington, June 22nd 1854.
    I will thank you to ascertain and report to me what expenditures were incurred by Gen. Lane, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, for blankets &c. in obtaining the surrender of Indians accused of murder at Fort Nisqually and also what moneys were paid out by him to counsel for their defense in the trial for the murder and whether he received credit therefor, and if so under what authority of law or otherwise.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Yr. obt. servant
            R. McClelland
                Secretary [of the Interior]
Chas. E. Mix Esqr.
    Acting Commr. of Indian Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Roll 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 375-376.

House Reps.
    Washington City
        June 22 1854.
    I have the honor to acknowledge the rcpt. of your communication of day before yesterday enclosing a copy of the certificate of O. C. Pratt in relation to services rendered by Kintzing Pritchett Esqr. as counsel for certain Cayuse Indians who were tried in the year 1851 for the murder of Dr. Whitman and family.
    At the time the Indians were brought to trial, I was Governor of the Territory of Oregon and ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affrs., and I hereby certify that Kintzing Pritchett was appointed by Judge Pratt at my request, and in accordance with a promise made by me to the prisoners and the Cayuse Nation, counsel for the prisoners at the trial, and performed the duty assigned him with zeal and ability. He is in my opinion entitled to compensation, and I do not consider the amount designated in the certificate of Judge Pratt as more than is reasonable and just.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Roll 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 379-381.

Yreka June 22nd 1854                       
Dear General
    I have to say that Mr. Tyler has just returned, and he tells me that Capt. Rhoades' muster rolls had not arrived with the other papers of the Rogue River War. I must beg that you will not attribute to me any neglect of duty for this; they were made out with the rest and placed in Maj. Drew's hands to be forwarded, and he has informed me that they were sent after the other papers were forwarded. Should you not have received them by this time it is evident that they have miscarried, and as it is important to do justice to Capt. Rhoades' company as well as the rest, if you so advise I will go over to Jacksonville and make them out again from a copy I left there, and forward them at the earliest moment.
    Should the present Congress fail to make an appropriation, they can arrive in time to be incorporated with the other rolls for the action of the next session.
    Believe me sir! that I have used every diligence to carry out the order which you entrusted to me at Jacksonville, and I hope that you and Capt. Alden are satisfied with me.
    You will confer a favor on me and my company by giving me the earliest information of an appropriation for us, with the details of pay allowed.
    I now take the liberty of trespassing on your valuable time to call your attention to our Indian affairs. I forward you two Yreka Heralds, which will give you some idea how affairs stand. It is needless to say that my conduct in these affairs has met the entire approval of the agent and of the officers of the army here and that the communication in the Herald headed "Indian Affairs" was not got up by a meeting of the citizens of Cottonwood, but was an emanation from a few persons who had committed an outrageous murder upon the Indians, against good faith and in violation of treaties, and who then had the hardihood and impudence to come out in a public newspaper and by false assertions endeavor to shield themselves from public execrations, and to cast aspersions upon others.
    Persons living on this frontier are well aware that the Indians generally have an innate propensity to steal and commit depredations, and that the strong arm of force and authority must be used to restrain them, as well as those whites who by improper conduct in their interference with the Indians so frequently jeopardize the peace of the country.
    The government authorities cannot too soon take action to carry out this policy and hold to a strict accountability all persons guilty of crimes, and I very respectfully suggest that one or two examples of this sort will greatly promote the interests of this frontier, and at much less expense than if another course is adopted.
    Tipsu Tyee has certainly been killed by the Shasta tribe. I had his grave opened, witnessed by three other whites and am satisfied. His only son and one warrior were killed with him also, and Capt. Smith at Fort Lane has captured and broken up this thieving band, who were the cause of so much trouble during the Rogue River War.
    You may well imagine the course I took after so much villainous abuse which you will see in the Herald I send you.
    Mr. Tyler and Albert Brown acted as my seconds, and I accompanied them to Cottonwood where I sent a very polite note challenging each and all [of] the parties to combat. There being a most miserable back out, no one coming up to the scratch, my two seconds then challenged them on their own account, with the same result.
    Should the affair at any future time bring about a duel--for I have expressed a willingness to fight any one of the parties--I have no apprehensions for the result, as my cause is just. I have been outraged, and I am too old a soldier not to understand the use of my weapons under fire.
    I am so anxious to see the perpetrators of the murderous affair that occurred on the 24 May at the Klamath Ferry punished in the U.S. District Court and as I am a material witness, I have by the advice of the agent failed to make any remarks in vindication of myself other than those you will see in the Herald that I send you.
    Esteeming you and Capt. Alden as amongst my best friends I have written this to you in order that my honor as a gentleman and my integrity as a man may not suffer for one moment in your estimation.
    You may hand or send this letter and the newspapers to Capt. Alden if you please. You will recollect my affair with Mr. Smith last summer, which Capt. Alden with so much solicitude took in hand to have amicably settled. I have an account of the recent affair with the people who have so much abused me in the newspaper publication referred to, determined to have this affair brought up again and settled according to the strict code of honor if practicable, and Mr. Tyler now has the affair in his hands.
    This affair with the Indians on the 24 May is I assure you General one of the most brutal, outrageous and uncalled-for murders that has ever been committed in the United States.
    The Indian agent has taken all the measures in his power to place the affair in a proper light before Lieut. Beale, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Cal., and he will doubtless in conjunction with Genl. Wool take speedy action upon it. But I am so deeply convinced that both justice and sound policy requires the government to take speedy and immediate action on this matter that I cannot refrain from bringing the subject to your attention and that of Capt. Alden, and of respectfully suggesting that the affair be laid before either the President himself or the head of the Indian Bureau.
    I hope that your avocations will permit you to write to me, and that Capt. Alden who is I believe at Washington has entirely recovered from his wounds. Mr. Tyler tells me that your wound is entirely well.
    I have the honor to be
        General, very respectfully
            your obedient servant
                James P. Goodall
Hon Jo Lane
P.S.  I would like Capt. Alden to see this letter and the newspapers. It will give him a view of a new phase in frontier life that is decidedly rich.  J.P.G.

[June 1854]
An Act
making appropriations for the completion of
Military Roads in Oregon Territory.
    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled: That the following sums of money be and the same are hereby appropriated for the completion of military roads now in course of construction in Oregon Territory, to wit: for the completion of the road from Astoria to Salem the sum of sixty thousand dollars; for the completion of the road from Myrtle Creek to Camp Stuart the sum of thirty thousand dollars; and for the completion of the road from Myrtle Creek to Scottsburg thirty thousand dollars, the said roads to be completed under the direction of the Secretary of War.

    On my way to this city, after having a little row with the Rogue River Indians, I stopped in Oregon City to see my mills. And here I may say that those mills nearly ruined me. Their purchase was the worst thing I ever did. I agreed to give near $100,000 for them. I gave the earnings of twenty years of my life, and have now sold out for one-third what they cost me. I am not now the owner of a single mill.
Joseph Lane, "Congressional,"
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 4, 1854, pages 1- 2

Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        July 20, 1854.
    I have examined the communication left here by you of Mr. McCarty, making certain inquiries respecting a treaty which he understood to have been made with the Sioux and other Indians west of the Rocky Mountains about one year since, wherein they were to have a certain annuity for granting permission to emigrants to pass through their country unmolested and providing indemnification for depredations committed by the Indians.
    I presume Mr. McCarty must have had reference to a treaty made with the Sioux and other Indians at Fort Laramie on the 17th of September 1851, as the Sioux tribe reside east of the Rocky Mountains. If so, the said treaty made no provision for indemnification, but merely authorizes the President to withhold the whole or a portion of the annuities from the nation guilty of the violation of any of the provisions of said treaty until in the opinion of the President of the United States, proper satisfaction shall have been made.  Mr. McCarty's letter is herewith returned.
Very respectfully,
    Yr obt srvt
        Geo. W. Manypenny
Hon. Jos. Lane,
    H. of Reps.

Washington City
    August 14 1854
My dear Genl.,
    Mr. Guthrie sent for me this morning to have a talk about your accounts. He is quite out of patience and says that a settlement must be had, that is, that your accounts must be rendered without further delay. Now my dear friend I have from time to time begged the [Treasury] Department to let you have time and all would be satisfactorily arranged, but he appears to be determined to wait but little longer. He spoke of seven thousand dollars advanced you on going out. Now I am satisfied that if you will render an account showing the items of expenditure on your way with your family that you will be allowed this seven thousand, but he cannot, he holds, allow the round sum of $7000 without knowing how and for what purpose it had been expended, the balance you can account for, make out your accounts and certify or swear to them so far as your disbursements were made, and if you claim for building wharf or anything else that you have disbursed, which you cannot get allowed. Petition Congress for relief, and I will try and obtain the passage of a law authorizing the Secretary to allow in settling your accounts, but by all means if your account can be settled without, do not apply for relief. I am very anxious about your accounts and greatly hope that you may be able to close up. You may rest assured that you shall not be disturbed if I can help it. I am for you under all circumstances and at all times, know well your honesty, Democracy and integrity. Allow me to say lose no time in closing up.
    I am gratified to know that you and other friends are pleased with the little castigation administered to the delegate from Washington. He is a great scamp, and will not do either credit or good to his Territory.
    I have attended to your Globe subscription. They will forward.
    Respects to your family and friends.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Genl. John Adair

I shall be a candidate for nomination for next delegate.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City, August 16, 1854.       
    A. Bush, Esq.,--Dear Sir:--The Rogue River war claims are in the hands of the second and third auditors, and will be audited without alteration; that is, as they are. The troops will be paid as per muster rolls. Thus you will see that the expenses of the Rogue River war will all be paid in less than eighteen months from the commencement of hostilities. The accounts will all be audited, including muster rolls, by the first of October. Action upon the suspended Cayuse war claims has been at  my request postponed for a few weeks, that I may be able to give personal attention to them. I am satisfied of the justice of the claims, and shall expect the full amount of the awards allowed by Skinner, Wait and Rice to be paid; shall insist on justice in these cases, and shall not be satisfied with anything but payment in full. And while speaking of this, Cayuse war claims heretofore allowed should be forwarded for payment, and all outstanding claims not acted on by some of the commissioners should be presented and proved up without delay. It is not improbable that many of these claims, mailed in Oregon, have failed to reach this city. Mr. Thompkins, for instance, wrote me that he had an allowance made him, and that Gov. Gaines had forwarded it by mail. On inquiring at the Comptroller's office I find that no such award had ever been received. In all such cases duplicates should be issued. It is desirable that the expenses of the Cayuse war should be as speedily settled as practicable.
    The season of Congress just closed transacted a large amount of important business. Below I give you a list of some of the most important bills passed: The regular appropriations bills, the Nebraska-Kansas bill, the bill providing for six first-class war steamers, the ten-million bill for Gadsden Treaty, the Homestead bill for Kansas and Nebraska, the bill extending the warehousing system, the bill to give effect to the Reciprocity Treaty, and the bill to regulate and systematize the postal system of the country. The importance of this latter bill will be seen and felt in good time. These, with many Territorial bills and a large number of private and local bills, were passed.
    Many important treaties were ratified, to wit: The Gadsden Treaty, by which we are released from the provisions of the Guadalupe Treaty to protect the Mexican frontier from Indian depredations, and by which we have obtained a large and valuable tract of country, and [a] good route for a southern railroad to the Pacific, the British Colonial Reciprocity Treaty, the commercial treaty with Japan, the neutrality treaty with Russia, and a number of Indian treaties, by which at low prices many million acres of rich soil have been secured for the benefit of the adventurous pioneers, who will soon reclaim and reduce it to cultivation. By the above brief history of the doings of the late session of Congress you will see that more important legislation has been had than by any previous session.
    The recent revolutions in Spain lend to the Cuban question fresh interest. It is doubtful whether the Queen will be able to sustain the government. It is difficult to sustain a throne which has been tottering for many years. Now will not the new government of Spain be more favorably disposed toward the sale of Cuba than the old one? The probability is that the new government will be much embarrassed [financially] and will not dare to levy new taxes on the people for fear of its popularity. Will not our government have a good opportunity to purchase that beautiful and to us most important island; in this way I hope to see our government obtain Cuba. The policy of the Administration in the management of our foreign relations has been wise, and will meet with the approval of the American people, except such as are opposed to our good, and especially so in time of war.
    It is my intention to remain a considerable portion of the recess in this city, where I am sure I can be useful to the people of Oregon in attending to the auditing and settlement of their just claims on the government for services, subsistence, forage, medical services, stores, ammunition &c., in the troubles we have had with the Indians, and prepare all my business for the next session. I have strong hopes of procuring an appropriation for a military road from Astoria to Salem, and additional appropriations for the Penitentiary and State House; at all events I shall do all I can for the promotion of our interests.
    Health improving,
        Your friend,
            JO LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, October 3, 1854, page 2

Salem Aug. 22nd 1854
Dear Father
    I received your very kind letter, for which all thanks. No news from home for some time. The last they were all well & wanted me to come home, but I do not intend to do it. Lafayette went home a few days since. I do not know whether he will return or not. They have a good school out there, and I expect he will go to school out there. We have a vacation of a few weeks. School takes up in two weeks. I wish to go 3 years yet if you are willing. Mary & Winnie are well. Winnie is very homesick. I think they will come down after her in a week or so. If Mr. Garrett is in Washington give him my love. And for god sake take care of Lancaster, for he has not got the sense of a louse. I think there will be some chance of me getting to Congress, that is, if I lived in Washington Territory. Write soon & often. Remember those books. I am a-going to leave Nesmith's and go to the Institute and batch no more.
I remain your son
    John Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

[Below is a preliminary draft of Joel Palmer's annual report, part of the 1854 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, available online here. The final version reveals lengthy deletions.]
Superintendency of Indian Affairs O.T.
    Dayton--Sept. 11th 1854.
    I respectfully submit the following report of affairs in this superintendency during the past year.
    With a few exceptions the Indians remain in a condition differing little from that exhibited in my last report. Much excitement has existed at various times among the settlers and miners in the southern and southwestern districts, of which my former communications advised you to some extent. Outrages, in which whites and Indians, in turn, were the aggressors, have occurred, resulting in the death of a few of our citizens and many of the natives. These occurrences, especially the massacre of the natives at Coquille and Chetco, caused serious apprehensions of a general outbreak of hostilities in the Pt. Or'd. Dist. Frequent acts of violence during the winter, the sufferings of the Indians on the reserve from disease and want, the refusal of Tipsey and his band to come upon the reserve, and other causes, produced a state of affairs equally threatening in the Rogue River country.
    I determined at the close of the rainy season to visit the scene of those disturbances, and also if the condition of affairs permitted carry into effect my plans of exploration, which I have heretofore announced. Accordingly about the first of April I set out with a small party and a few pack animals, conveying, besides the necessary equipage of the expedition, some farming utensils and supplies for the tribes treated with in September, and a few presents for other Indians.
    I had before leaving home purchased and shipped a considerable quantity of Indian goods
to Port Orford to await my arrival at that point.
    On my route I visited several bands of the Umpquas. I found many of them wretched, sickly, and almost starving. Their habits being exceedingly improvident, and the winter unusually severe, they had been kept from perishing by the limited assistance afforded by a few humane settlers.
    Through the operation of the law lately enacted, prohibiting the sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians, they can no longer procure game, rendered scarce and timid by the presence of the white man, and the cultivation of the soil, together with the grazing of large herds of domestic animals, has greatly diminished the subsistence derived from native roots and seeds.
    They said, truly, that they were once numerous and powerful, but now few and weak, that they had always been friendly to the whites and desired them to occupy their lands, that they wanted but a small spot on which they might live in quiet. Many of their number, they said, had been killed by the whites in retaliation for wrongs committed by Indians of other tribes, and that they had never offered violence in return. They claimed it is but just in return for lands once yielding them abundant supplies that they should receive the means of subsistence for the few years they will exist.
    A few presents were made them, and sub-agent Martin instructed to secure them small tracts of lands, on which I learn they are now cultivating potatoes, corn, peas and other vegetables, giving promise that under the wise and fostering care of government they may become a domestic and agricultural people. The seventeen bands or villages of this tribe number 566 souls. The country of the Umpquas east is bounded by the Cascade Mountains, the Umpqua Mountains and coast on the west, Calapooia Mountains on the north and Grave Creek and Rogue River south, an area of not less than 3600 square miles, much of which is already settled by the whites, to 800 square miles. Of this tract the Indians' title is extinguished by the treaty with the Cow Creek Band.
    Near the Grave Creek Hills resides the feeble remnant of several bands once numerous and warlike. Their constant aggressions and treacherous conduct has brought upon them the heavy hand of vengeance, both of the whites and Indians. They speak the Umpqua language, and though so different in character may be regarded as belonging to that tribe. I declined making them any presents, and told them to expect nothing until they should merit it by their good conduct.
    I found the Indians of the Rogue River Valley excited and unsettled. The hostilities of last summer had prevented the storing of the usual quantity of foods; the occupation of their best root grounds by the whites greatly abridged that resource; their scanty supplies and the unusual severity of the winter had induced disease, and death had swept away nearly one-fifth of those residing on the reserve. Consternation and dismay prevailed; many had fled, and others were preparing to fly to the mountains for security.
    Tipsey, the chief of the party visited by General Lane at the close of the war, who, with the consent of the Rogue Rivers, had agreed to remove with his band to the reserve, and had accordingly received a part of the goods distributed in pursuance of the treaty, now refused peremptorily to come in, and his people showed their hostility and malignant temper by the murder of an inoffensive settler, taking his arms and ammunition, and laying his body with that of his dog as his own door. The principal actor in this tragedy was Tipsey's son, who boasted of the deeds to other Indians and declared his determination to continue his atrocities, having already with his party stolen a number of horses, destroyed cattle and robbed houses.
    An ingenious plan was laid to combine the Indians in a hostile movement. This was to secretly kill Jim, a Rogue River chief, who had been very active in discovering and arresting Indians committing depredations on the whites, and controlled much the largest band in the tribe, and to fix the suspicion of his death on the whites, which would entirely destroy the confidence of the Indians in our professions, and unite them in seeking revenge.
    The plan was carried out so far as the murder of the chief. He was shot from a house in Jacksonville occupied by whites who were then from home. The perpetrator, a young Indian, instantly fled, but fortunately was seen leaving the house by the friends of the chief, thus the perfidious scheme was frustrated. Such have been the efforts on the part of unfriendly Indians to break the late treaty, and plunge us back into war; and it is feared that white persons have not been wanting who from revengeful or mercenary motives have attempted to effect the same object.
    Prior to my arrival, Agent Culver, accompanied by Capt. Smith with a command of thirty soldiers, had scoured the country occupied by the bands of Limpy, John, Elijah and Tipsey and succeeded in inducing Elijah's bands to start for the reserve, but near Jacksonville they nearly all dispersed and fled to the mountains. A few families remaining with the chief camped among the miners.
    On my arrival at the fort I proceeded with Mr. Culver to Elijah's camp, and after a talk messengers were dispatched to collect the fugitives, and the families present put on their move to the reserve, where days afterwards the chief was joined by his entire band. Lieut. Bradford with 40 dragoons was sent in pursuit of Tipsey to bring him and his murderous band, if possible, to justice. I accompanied the command for five days without success. When called by other duties I returned to Fort Lane, leaving the detachment still in pursuit. I may here say that Tipsey after repeated acts of robbery and the murder of a white man on the Siskiyou Mountain was, it is said, slain, together with his son, by the Shasta Indians, and his band dispersed, some of whom are probably still prowling among the mountains.
    I next visited the Etch-ka-taw-wah or Applegate Creek and the Haw-quo-e-hov-took or Illinois Creek bands, usually called the Shasta bands of Rogue Rivers. At the time of my arrival great consternation prevailed from intelligence that the miners from Althouse and Sailor Diggings were about to come down and wipe them out. The bloody attack upon them last winter in which seven squaws and two children were killed and several men and children wounded, gave them but too much cause to be alarmed by this report.
    They consequently fled from camps to the mountains. Some boys of this band residing with a gentleman named Mooney on Deer Creek were with him dispatched to the Indians with a request to meet me in council. On the second day after I had the satisfaction of seeing them generally come in, and arrangements were made for their immediate removal to a reserve, the consent of the Rogue Rivers being previously obtained. The details of a treaty were left for subsequent action. The same day under the escort of Mr. Mooney they were on their way to the reserve.
    A portion of the country claimed by the Applegate band was included in the treaty of purchase made in Sept. last at Table Rock, but a considerable tract lay west of the country ceded, and John, the patriarch of his band, who came in after the signing of the treaty and received a portion of the goods had returned to this branch of his family. For reasons set forth in Agent Culver's report these Indians have since been permitted to return to their old homes, where they still remain. With the exception of a few lodges near the mouth of Illinois Creek and Limpy's and George's bands, near the mouth of Applegate Creek, these bands have the controlling influence over all Indians between Rogue River on the north, the territorial boundary on the south, the Coast Mountains west and Applegate Creek east.
    I continued my route up Illinois Creek to its head; across the divide to Smith's River in California; down Smith's River till within ten or twelve miles of Crescent City; thence S.W. to the coast; thence on the coast to our southern boundary, recrossing Smith's River fifteen miles north of Crescent City.
    On Illinois Creek and its tributaries there is considerable good farming lands, and a few claims are already taken. From this creek to Smith's River the country is mountainous and barren, with a growth of scrubby pine and spruce and a variety of underbrush, and is wholly unsuited to agriculture. But the entire country from Jacksonville to the coast is a mining region rich with gold and as such is now extensively occupied. On the trail, being the great thoroughfare from Jacksonville to Crescent City, there are houses at convenient distances for the accommodation of travelers. Near the coast and along Smith's River are tracts of excellent land, much of it covered with a dense forest of redwoods. Some trees are over twenty feet in diameter. There are a few prairies of great fertility and abounding in various kinds of luxuriant grass. About three miles north of our boundary line a stream empties into the ocean designated on the map of the coast survey as Illinois River--the Indian name Chetco. Here are many indications of having once resided a numerous people. In the fall of 1853 one Miller and several associates located land claims in this vicinity. They first built their houses about a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the river, to which the Indians made no objection. Subsequently knowing that the newly discovered mines would attract a large population, they projected a town speculation, formed an association, and selected a site at the mouth of Chetco River. The face of the country is such that the crossing must be at the mouth of the river by a ferry; here were two Indian villages on the opposite banks of the river of twenty lodges each; this ferry was of no small importance. The new town site included one of the Indian villages, and when preparations were made to erect a house within its limits the Indians strongly protested, but at last acquiescing the cabin was built and occupied by Miller.
    Hitherto the Indians had enjoyed the benefits of the ferry, but now Miller informed them that they must no longer ferry white people. They however sometimes did so and were threatened with the destruction of their lodges unless they desisted. In February last the misunderstanding grew to such a pitch that several of the men who had been engaged in fighting Indians on Smith's River were called in by Miller and quartered in his house for nearly two weeks. Becoming unwilling to tarry longer they were about to return to their homes. Miller objected to their leaving him until they had accomplished something for his relief, as on their departure he would be subjected to the same annoyance as before. Accordingly the next morning at daylight the party, consisting of 8 or 9 well-armed men, attacked the village. As the Indians came from their lodges twelve of them were shot dead by these monsters. The women and children were permitted to escape.
    Three men remained in the lodges and returned the fire with bows and arrows. Being unable to get a sight of these Indians they ordered two squaws, pets in the family of Miller, to set fire to the lodges. In the conflagration two were consumed and the third while raising his head through the flame and smoke for breath was shot dead. What adds to the atrocity of the deed is that shortly before the massacre the Indians were induced to sell the whites their guns, under the pretext that friendly relations were firmly established. The Indians kept up a random fire without effect from the opposite village during the day and at night fled to the mountains. The next day all the lodges on the north bank were burned and the day following all on the south, two excepting belonging to the friend of an Indian who acted with Miller and party. This horrible tragedy was enacted about the 15th of February and on my arrival on the 8th of May the place was in the peaceable possession of Miller. Seeing a few Indians on an island in the river I took a boat and proceeded to that point with a view of holding a talk. All except an old woman and small boy fled on my approach. With these we could only converse by signs. I gave them some presents and sent the boy to persuade the Indians to return. Another boy alone accompanied him back. I gave each a shirt and sent them again, but no others could be induced to approach us. I left a few shirts and some tobacco for the chiefs with a settler who could converse with them and directed him to tell them that I would soon send an agent to see them. After the massacre the Indians several times approached the settlement, robbed houses, and once attacked three men, but succeeded in killing none. Twenty-three Indians and several squaws were killed prior to my arrival.
    Miller was subsequently arrested and placed in the custody of the military at Port Orford, but on his examination before a justice of the peace was set at large on the grounds of justification and want of sufficient evidence to commit.
    The details of a similar occurrence at Coquille have been laid before you in a copy of the report of Special Agent F. M. Smith of the circumstantial truthfulness of which I am fully satisfied.
These narratives will give you some idea of the state of affairs in the mining districts on this coast. Arrests are evidently useless, as no act of a white man against an Indian however atrocious can be followed by a conviction.
    A detailed statement of Indian affairs in the Port Orford district will be found in the accompanying report of Agent Parrish. He enumerates twelve district bands with an aggregate population of 1311 souls and includes them all in the 
Tututni tribe. These bands however speak at least four distinct languages and but few in each band can converse with those of another. Those grouped as one band often reside in several villages. These bands are scattered over a great extent of country along the coast and upon the small streams from California to 20 miles north of the Coquille and from the ocean to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains. Several bands I visited in person and directed Mr. Taylor to accompany and assist the agent in ascertaining the numbers of the remainder. Excepting the Chetcos and the Coquilles I found these Indians at peace with the whites and among themselves. They are willing the whites should occupy their lands, provided they are permitted to retain their fisheries from which they mainly derive their subsistence. The chiefs wish their people to be taught agriculture and a few have this season planted patches of potatoes. Tobacco has long been cultivated by the bands on Rogue River. It is well tended, grows luxuriantly and is of a fine quality. These Indians are an athletic and robust race. The women perform much of the manual labor. Since the coming of the whites, many of the men have entered their employ and prove faithful and industrious. Chastity was formerly a marked trait of this tribe, and its violation on the part of the female was punished by cutting off the ears, putting out the eyes and even death. Sad changes however have taken place in this regard, and many serious difficulties have had their origin in the licentious conduct of the miners.
    The country along the coast from Umpqua River to the Ne-a-ches-na River, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, is occupied by five bands of the Tillamook tribe. They reside on the principal streams, and all speak the same language and are peaceable, healthy and well clad, assimilating to the whites in dress obtained from their occasional visits to the settlements. The Si-u-slaw band, instructed by a French man residing among them, have commenced the cultivation of the soil and have several well-tended patches of potatoes. This band with proper care would soon become an industrious and happy community. Polygamy is common among them, one chief having eight and another six wives. Their wives are usually purchased from other bands and often reside in several distant villages. A few presents to these people gave much satisfaction.
    I have in a former communication spoken of a part of the region occupied by these bands as well suited for the colonization of the Indians found west of the Cascade Range including the Umpquas. But since my visit I am less favorably impressed. Except a few narrow margins on the coast bays and streams and some small islands, the entire country is a dense forest. Within a few years much of the timber has been destroyed by fire, and an almost impenetrable underbrush has arisen in its stead. The valleys are narrow and hemmed in by precipitous spurs of the Coast Range, rendering communication between them exceedingly difficult.
    Much of the upland is sufficiently even to admit of cultivation and has a fertile soil, but the skill, enterprise and wealth of advanced civilization alone could develop its resources. To a sparse, roaming, savage population, no portion of Oregon yields a greater abundance and variety of spontaneous products for their sustenance. Mussels deeply encase the rocks from the ocean along the coast, several species of clams abound on the beach, and crabs in the bays, while salmon, herrings, sardines and other fish in perpetual succession visit the streams. The mountains yield a profusion of berries,a nd the lowlands at the proper season swarm with wild fowl.
    Between the Siuslaw and Ne-a-ches-na is a country large enough to settle all the Indians in the Willamette, Umpqua and coast, but they would be required to live in small detached communities, in scarcely accessible valleys, and a great number of farmers, mechanics, teachers and agents would be required for their proper instruction and control.
    The transfer of Mr. Parrish to the Port Orford district leaves the Willamette Valley without an agent, and the care of the district has fallen directly on this office. My explorations in other parts of the trip prevented my visiting all bands within its limits, but their condition has changed but little since my last report.
    A treaty of purchase negotiated with the Tualatin band of Calapooias on the 25th of March last has been transmitted, accompanied by a letter explaining the causes which led to such action. Aided by the articles supplied in pursuance of this treaty, this band put in crops which compared favorably with those of their white neighbors, but unfortunately, owing to insufficient fencing, during their absence gathering berries the hogs broke in and destroyed a large part. The liberal provisions of this treaty have contributed much to incline the other tribes of this valley to enter into similar negotiations, and little difficulty will attend treaties of purchase whenever authorized. For the condition of the Indians in the sub-agency of Astoria, you are referred to the two accompanying reports of sub-agent Raymond.
    The desire of the few Indians on Clatsop Plains to remove further south, and the fact that the great body of the Indians under his care reside on Nehalem River and about Tillamook Bay, have led me to permit the sub-agent's removal to the latter point, and to extend his district further down the coast.
    The report of agent R. R. Thompson, enclosing that of the Catholic mission at the Dalles of the Columbia, is so minute and full as scarcely to render additional remark necessary. A map prepared by Major Hallar, United States army, shows the location and extent of country occupied by the various tribes of this district. I fully concur in the suggestions of Mr. Thompson in regard to the importance of increasing the present military force in middle Oregon by a body of dragoons, so stationed as to move with celerity upon any point threatened with hostilities. To this end, I would respectfully recommend that a military post be established as far east as Boise River. The security it would afford travelers passing through that region; its proximity to the numerous bands inhabiting the country along Lewis's fork, or Snake River and its tributaries; its being near the forks of the road diverging into northern and middle Oregon; and the probability of a third road on the north side of Snake River, passing through the valley of Salmon River into the Nez Perces country and Washington Territory--render this, in a military point of view, an important position. [Material in italics above and below is taken from a version online, to restore a page missing from the Lane papers.]
    Extensive meadows on Boise River would afford abundant supplies of grass and hay for whatever amount of stock might be brought into requisition, and it is believed that the soil, besides producing the usual varieties of cereal grains, is well adapted to the growth of vegetables usual in the northern states.
    Cavalry alone can be effectively used in the required service. The expense of this class of troops at so remote a point will be great, but this will not certainly be regarded as a serious obstacle, when it affords the only means of securing the lives and property of our citizens from the violence and cupidity of the ruthless savage.
    So long as these Indians remain occupants of that district unrestrained by the military arm, we may expect robbery and bloodshed, as they increase yearly in skill and boldness, and are more abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition by imprudent emigrants and reckless traders.
    Should it nevertheless be considered inadvisable to establish a permanent post so far inland, it would appear absolutely necessary to detail a company of mounted men each year to scour the country between Grand Ronde and Fort Hall during the transit of the emigration.
    Official information has been received that an emigrant train has been cut off this season by these savages; eight men have been murdered, and four women and a number of children taken captive, to endure sufferings and linger out an existence more terrible than death. Of this party a lad wounded and left for dead by the Indians alone survives; other trains may meet a similar fate, and none be left to tell the tale. 
    East of the Cascade Mountains and south of the 44th parallel is a country not attached particularly to any agency. That portion of the eastern base of this range extending twenty-five or thirty miles east and south to the California line is the country of the Klamath Indians. East of this tribe along our southern boundary and extending some distance into California is a tribe known as the Modocs. They speak the same language as the Klamaths. East of these again but extending farther south are the Mo-e-twas. These two last named tribes have always evinced a deadly hostility to the whites and have probably committed more outrages than any other interior tribe. The Modocs boast, the Klamaths told me, of having within the last four years murdered thirty-six whites.
    East of these tribes and extending to our eastern limits are the Sho-sho-nes, Snakes or Diggers. Little is known of their numbers or history. They are cowardly, but often attack weaker parties, and never fail to avail themselves of a favorable opportunity for plunder. Their country is a desert, with an occasion spot of verdure on the margins of lakes or in deep ravines and chasms.
    Dry, sandy plains of artemisia; lofty, rugged barren mountains, and chasms of fearful depth threaded by rivers, are the prominent features of this region. Though uninviting and unsuited for the abode of man or animal, the romance and novelty may allure some western adventurer to fix his domicile in these wastes and afford shelter and protection to the weary wayfarer to these western shores.
    On a recent visit to Klamath Lake, I assembled a considerable portion of the Klamaths and entered into a conventional arrangement or treaty of peace, which I believe them inclined to observe. Every manifestation was given by them that such was their desire. Messengers were sent to the Modocs and Moetwas and to the Snakes bordering these tribes, and I confidentially believe little trouble will this year be given the emigration in that quarter.
    The Klamaths were once numerous, but wars with the surrounding tribes and conflicts among themselves have rendered them weak. They now number but four hundred and fifteen souls. Seven villages are around Klamath Lake; ten on a stream called Pli-ac Creek east of the lake, three on To-qua Lake, and one on Co-as-to Lake. Their lodges are generally mere temporary structures, scarcely sheltering them from the pelting storm. Some of them have visited the settlements and obtained tents, camp equipage and clothing.
    They possess a few horses and among them I saw four guns, but they had no ammunition. The bow and arrow, knife and war club constitute their weapons. In one of their lodges I noticed an elk-skin shield, so constructed as to be impervious to the sharpest arrows.
    Their principal food is the camas root, and the seed obtained from a plant growing in the marshes of the lake resembling before hulled a broom corn seed. This seed is encased in a pod of the shape and size of the bell pepper. It is gathered in great quantities.
    Klamath Lake or marsh affords no fish, but To-qua Lake and the stream draining Klamath, below the falls, fifteen miles distant, abounds in suckers of a fine quality. A few antelope are found in the plains and on the mountains around.
    Yellow and sugar pine with spruce constitute the principal varieties of timber, the two former sometimes of immense size. On the elevated table lands skirting the base of the Cascade Range, extending south from the Ta-ih more than a hundred miles, the juniper, yielding vast quantities of berries, abounds.
    Klamath Lake has been represented as the source of Des Chutes or Fall River, and also of a stream flowing south into the bay of San Francisco. None of its waters flow north. A high timbered plain of more than twenty miles in width, strewn with pumice stone, extending from the Cascade Mountains eastwardly a great distance, intervenes between this lake or marsh and the Des Chutes. The last-named river has its source in the mountains twenty or thirty miles northwest of Klamath Lake.
The waters of this lake from its outlet have a southerly course for about twenty-five miles, where they expand into To-qua Lake, a large sheet of water bordered by beautiful meadows, and having an arm extending some miles to the northwest, called Lake Co-as-ta.. Leaving To-qua the course of the river is east of south twenty or twenty-five miles into a lake called by the Indians An-coose. This lake, margined by extensive tulé marshes, lies east of the course of the stream known thence as the Klamath River. Its course is first northwesterly, then west through the Shasta country to the ocean. It is thought the 42nd parallel of latitude lies between To-qua and An-coose lakes. The stream on which is the Natural Bridge, improperly so called, being a ledge of rock resting in the deep the channel and forming a ford, over which the southern Oregon road passes, leads east of Toqua Lake, and is called by the Indians Tak-a-licks. It empties into the Mo-doc, or, as called by the whites, Tulé Lake, which, like many others in this region, has no visible outlet. From the Natural Bridge the road passes round the southern end of Ancoose Lake, where it forks; the one road leads northerly across Klamath River, over the mountains, to the settlements near the head of Bear or Stuart's Creek, in the Rogue River Valley; the other to Y-re-ka, in California.
    The country around Ancoose and Modoc lakes is claimed and occupied by the Modoc Indians, the Klamaths seldom traveling so far south.
    A partial examination of the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes and their tributaries has impressed me favorably with the region as suited to the colonization of the Indians of the Willamette and Umpqua valleys. The only obstacles to be apprehended are the severity of the winters and the depth of the snows, resulting from its elevation. These may not prove serious: No white man has, I believe, wintered there; but the frail, open huts in which the natives reside indicate a favorable climate.
    An abundance of nutritious grasses borders these lakes and streams, a few specimens of which have been sent to your office. The soil is rich, and appears suited to the growth of the cereals and the usual productions of the garden. These fertile plats probably embrace an area of one hundred and fifty square miles, being ample to sustain, besides the native bands, the entire Indian population of these two valleys.
    Isolated and remote from other tracts adapted to settlement, this region seems peculiarly marked out as the asylum of these remnants of the aborigines. On the north and east, and on the south, a few fertile spots excepted, lies a vast desert waste. On the west rises a lofty range of mountains, often towering above the line of perpetual snow, only to be traversed in the summer months, and then with great danger and toil. All necessary supplies could, at the proper season, be transported from the Willamette Valley over the mountains by the middle road to the crossing of the Des Chutes, whence a good wagon road may be easily opened to Klamath Lake--distant about 40 miles.
    The Indians of the two valleys have heretofore generally expressed a decided opposition to removing east of the Cascade Mountains, but I am persuaded their consent can now be easily obtained, should such become the policy of the government, and proper guarantees of sustenance and protection be given. The district recommended is not so remote as to prevent their occasional visits to the settlements--a privation which, having become accustomed to mingle with the whites, they would regard as a great calamity.
    In my first annual report I recommended the appointment of three agents and four sub-agents. I am deeply impressed with the importance of at least this number, in order properly to occupy the field of duty. One of the sub-agents should, as heretofore, have charge of the Indians in the Willamette Valley and those on the southern bank of the Columbia from the Cascade Falls to Oak Point. The other three should be stationed at eligible points on the coast. Our Pacific border is not less than 350 miles in extent; with occasional intervals of no more than twenty miles in a place, the whole is occupied by Indians.
    The whites are also established at several points along this coast engaged in mining, commerce and agriculture, and between them and the natives difficulties often arise requiring the prompt intervention of an agent. The ruggedness of the country and distance to be traveled render a less number on the coast wholly inadequate to efficient action. The Umpqua Valley should be reannexed to the agency of Rogue River Valley. The country east of the Cascade Range erected into two agency districts, divided by the forty-fourth parallel of latitude.
    The extent of the territory, the hostile character of the Indians, and the fact that three routes of immigration to our shores traverse almost the entire distance from east to west, render the establishment of two agencies in that region of Oregon, in my opinion, very important. The agent for the southeastern district should at present reside in the vicinity of the Klamath Lake.
    Should the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes be designated as an Indian settlement, the establishment for a few years of an efficient force of mounted men, within a convenient distance to afford security to the agent and other employees, as well as those passing through the country, and to enforce obedience to the laws and regulations of the government, would be indispensable. But should a military post be established on Boise River, as suggested, and an adequate force stationed at Fort Lane, small parties of soldiers traversing the country between these points, diverging to the right and left, during the summer season, would, it is believed, be sufficient to secure safety and order. [Section deleted from text; paragraph substituted from final version.]
    Treaties for the purchase of the country of the more numerous and warlike tribes of this territory, and the removal and concentration of all at suitable and convenient points, where the agents of the government can watch over, instruct, and protect them, and thus convince them of our humane intentions, can alone secure peace while they exist, or elevate them in the social scale above their present savage state.
    When thus collected and colonized, Congress should enact a wise and equitable, yet stringent code of laws for their government, at first to be administered wholly by citizens of the United States. But as the Indians advanced in civilization and intelligence, let the administration of the laws pass into their own hands; and so also the other powers of government, until they should at last be vested with power to enact and administer all their local and municipal regulations.
    Such a code as I have recommended, superseding their chieftain rule, their tribal distinctions, and savage customs, will alone be of permanent advantage, and restrain them from petty thefts, plunder and violence, deeds which their savage minds regard as tending to ennoble rather than degrade.
    I have been unable to prepare an entirely accurate enumeration of all the tribes and bands in this superintendency, but the accompanying table is believed to approximate very nearly the actual number of Indians in this territory. I also transmit a table showing the size and other characteristics of Indians, with remarks, taken by Mr. Oris Taylor in the Port Orford district; also, a list of many words in the language of the Rogue River tribe.
    A map showing the boundaries of the several districts, and the locations of the various bands and tribes, is in progress of preparation, and will be transmitted to you at an early day.
    The whole amount of receipts for current expenses in this superintendency within the year ending June 30, 1854, is . . . $28,230.77
    The disbursements from June 23rd, 1853, to June 30, 1854 is
. . . $34,014.22⅓
    Leaving an excess of disbursements over receipts of
. . . $5,783.45⅓
    The amount of liabilities [of] this superintendency for salaries, presents, traveling and incidental expenses up to the 30th June last will exceed eight thousand dollars over and above the claims referred to in a letter from this office dated July 25th, 1854.
    The following estimates are submitted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1856.
    Salary of superintendent and three agents
. . . $7,000.00
    Salary of four sub-agents and ten interpreters
. . . $8,000.00
    Clerk hire; house and office rent, light and stationery of superintendent; and office rent for agents and sub-agents
. . . $4,000.00
    Contingent and incidental expenses
. . . $4,500.00
    Presents and provisions for Indians
. . . $3,000.00
    Building two agents' houses and offices, one in Rogue River district, the other in the proposed southeastern district
. . . $3,000.00
    Payment of annuities to Rogue River and Cow Creek bands
. . . $3,050.00
    Traveling expenses of superintendent, agents, and sub-agents
. . . $6,500.00
    Farmhouse and outbuildings on Table Rock reserve . . . $2,000.00
    Pay of farmers on Table Rock reserve
. . . $1,000.00
    For erection of smith shop & purchase of iron and tools for same, and pay of smith
. . . $1,550.00
. . . $43,600.00
    In reference to the superintendency house at Milwaukie, I would reiterate the language of my letter of the 27 May, 1853:
    "The present building, in construction and style of finish, is fitted only for a private residence, and possesses none of the conveniences suitable for an office. This house is so constructed as to require in order to furnish it suitably an outlay of means unwarranted by the limited salary of the superintendent. I feel quite confident that a location more central and much more convenient for the superintendent, agents, and Indians who may visit the superintendency, can be made; and that the necessary buildings--dwelling-house, office, warehouse and other conveniences--can be erected at a less cost than that incurred in the erection of this house alone."
    I would therefore recommend the sale of said building, and the lot of four acres of land whereon it is erected, and the application of the proceeds to the erection of suitable buildings for the use of the superintendency, at some point hereafter to be selected.
Respectfully submitted :

Corvallis Septr. 28th 1854
Dear Father
    I have two letters from you unanswered. I will try in this to reply to both. I have furnished Melissa with all the goods she has wanted up to the present. She sent me word yesterday that she would be down soon to lay in her winter supply. I don't suppose she will take up in money and goods an amount to exceed two hundred dollars in all. I have distributed those documents according to your request.
    I discover that Pratt and other Democrats are trying to create a prejudice unfavorable to you, and to induce the Democrats to believe that you don't do as much for Oregon as might be done by one O. C. Pratt. One way they have taken is this: to make the Democrats believe you are seeking the nomination for President and that, they say, is the reason you got Guthrie appointed Receiver, in order to secure his uncle's influence and secure for yourself the Kentucky delegation in the next convention. You know your business, but I would suggest to be careful who you correspond with and what you say to those you do write to.
    Bush is all right so far, but in my opinion they will have him over before the convention meets. I understand Nesmith is all right. I know Palmer and Curry are for you. Nesmith told me he had written to you to know certain whether or not you would be a candidate. He said he wanted to know where to place himself this time. If I were you I would answer all alike that they might give you the nomination or let it alone, just as they pleased.
    The "Know Nothings" have organized in Portland and in Oregon City, and I am inclined to think they will take all over the Territory, and I fear will exert a strong influence in our next election. I should not be surprised if they carry the entire Territory, Delegate and all. I am satisfied they will have influence enough to beat all such Democratic nominees as O. C. Pratt Esqr.; therefore, if I were you I would lie back and look at the race. You may say this is not very Democratic in me, but I do assure you I am tired of all such party organizations as those that have to use so much intrigue, lying and rascality as our would-be leaders and rulers out here have to do to secure their own aggrandizement. I do think the Democratic Party in Oregon is made of the poorest, hackneyed, rotten-hearted set of office-seeking sons of bitches I ever knew. You know that I don't seek nor would not have an office, and therefore these intrigues look worse to me perhaps than they do to office-hunters. I am satisfied that every effort will be made to secure Pratt the nomination by his (Pratt's) proselytes. I wish you were in a condition to retire from public life. I would then suggest that we all emigrated to some quiet little valley in a pleasant part of California where we might cultivate the soil and have our little herd of cattle, horses and sheep and live a quiet, happy life and be free and far away from this Oregon Democracy.
    Business in this country is dull, money exceedingly scarce. I have been doing a very good little business since I came up here. I make money slow, but I save what is made. You must write to me when you get this. I will write oftener in the future. I understand that Mr. Farrar is down on you about that mill trade, says you was the means of breaking him up &c. &c. But he is small potatoes, in my opinion. I hope you will never induce another man, woman or child to come to Oregon. They are sure to become your enemies after getting here unless they are old and tried friends. Below I give three names that I want you to send documents to (address Corvallis). You will remember of seeing the two first ones in Petersburg. James Kinney, John Murray and Wm. Elliott. Since writing the above I have been told that Pratt does intend to be a candidate before the convention whether you decline or not, and also that Kelly of Oregon City will be put forth by Clackamas County, and Farrar will receive the vote of Washington County and Delazon Smith the vote of Linn County. So you see your chances for renomination are small.
    But as I said above I am of the opinion that, through the influence of the "Know Nothings," the Whigs will elect their candidate, and if I was you I wouldn't care if I didn't get the nomination. Though I would not decline in favor of any candidate. I would let my name go before the convention and there test who is the strongest Democrat in Oregon.
    Floed passed through here the other day accompanied by Mary, Winnie and Lafayette on their way to the Umpqua, all in good health. Floed and Simon are doing well, making money fast. Shelby I think will remain in Portland. He is doing very well there. Andy was down once this summer; he seemed to be very well satisfied. He thinks Oregon will do.
    Produce is worth nothing. I have refused the best kind of flour at 2½ cts. per pound, paid in goods. Butter is worth 20 to 25 cts. in goods. Everything is down. Beef will sell, but is only worth 6 cts. on foot. We have a little boy born I think since my last; he is now four months old, weighs about 20# net.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Indian Agency
    Rogue River Valley
        September 30, 1854
    As directed, I make a quarterly return of the manner in which each employee within this agency discharges his duty.
    Ben, an Indian, is my interpreter for the Rogue River tribe. He is well qualified and faithful.
    Alva Huddleston, Theodore Huddleston and Francis Huddleston were employed, originally, to work on the Table Rock Indian Reserve for and on account of [the] treaty of 10th September 1854. But as the labor performed by them did not equal my idea of propriety, they were discharged the earliest moment practicable. They were only retained in service after planting, long enough to gather hay for the horses in constant use at the agency, and in case it should be necessary enough to keep the cattle that belong to the reserve from starving the coming winter. (There was no money on hand to buy it, nor could other persons be hired without the money to pay them as they worked.)
    An equitable division of the expenses I deem to be that the wages and other expenses of the Huddlestons to 30 June be charged "in and on account of treaty," and all after that date "to the current expenses of the agency."
    Alva Huddleston was discharged on the 3rd and Theodore and Francis Huddleston were discharged on the 25 July last.
    Your obt srvt
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
Supt Ind Affrs
Dayton, Yamhill Co
Oregon Territory

Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs   
    Dayton O T Oct 10th, 1854   
To all whom it may concern
    I have this day and by those present do authorize Nat Lane, of the town of Corvallis, to sell or trade to the Indians visiting that town arms and ammunition in such limited quantities only as may be requisite to enable them to kill game for food; but those to whom it is sold must be made to understand that the continuance of this privilege will depend on their good conduct and that it is not to be given, sold or traded by them to other Indians.
    In determining as to the quantity to be supplied them at any one time, you will take into consideration the number of persons depending on them for food, their necessities, as well as the character of those for whom it may be furnished, so that no aid may be extended to those disposed to be unfriendly with the whites.
Joel Palmer
Nat Lane Esq

Jacksonville O.T. Oct 11th 1854       
Dear General [Palmer?]
    Yours of the 12th ult has just come to hand. I had written to you by express before receiving an answer to my first, and must apologize for making a request the second time for what is due me from [the] government. I supposed that the same appropriation that would pay the bills for farming etc. would pay mine, but your better judgment thinks not and I am satisfied. I hear that John Miller is appointed agent instead of Culver; there was a petition gotten up here last winter and sent on to Congress requesting the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to give me that appointment, but there being no charge against Culver he still held the office, and now I most sincerely believe there are two thirds of the miners and settlers that are in favor of my having the office. This can be shown by a second petition which I will send you should it meet with your approbation. I have just received a letter from Gen. Lane I will write to him relative to the appointment. John Miller is very much of a gentleman and is worthy of any office, but he is a man in affluent circumstances and no better qualified for the office than others who are poor and oppressed. I have had two claims taken from me for Indian reserves, one here and one in Scotts Valley, which would be worth ten thousand dollars now with the improvements I should have been able to have put on them, but the misfortune is my own fault and I quietly submit myself.
    Your most obt servant
        R. B. Metcalfe

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City,
    October 29th, 1854.
    EDITOR STATESMAN--Dear Sir:--I must confess that I am both surprised and pained to hear that there is, among Democrats, dissatisfaction and complaining of my official acts. Why, or how, this can be, I am at a loss to understand; for God knows that my strongest earthly desire is to faithfully and honestly discharge my duty to the people I represent, and in such manner as is best calculated to promote their interests. For the promotion of this great object, I have labored faithfully had honestly. In what have I failed or erred?
    Now, sir, I desire the Democracy to know that I am a candidate for renomination and that I only wish success if they think me honest, capable, faithful and true. And further, I desire them to know that I will not resort to any dishonorable means, in any shape, form or manner; nor will I do anything to disturb, distract or divide the Democratic Party; nor will I backbite, slander or detract from the merits of any man, for the sake of place. I will never attempt to pull down a fellow Democrat, that I may raise myself on his downfall. I will not have office on any such terms. I am a Democrat, and honestly believe that Democratic principles are the true principles of our government, and our party is held together by principle, and he that would set up his will in opposition to the wish of the party is not worthy [of] the confidence of the party, or he who would attempt to build himself up by slandering or injuring an honorable member of that great party is unworthy of their support. Our motto should be "the union of the party for the sake of our country."
    As above stated, I am a candidate for renomination. I submit my official acts in the judgment of a candid and impartial people. By them I am willing to be tried.
    If it can be shown that I have in any way--in any single instance--neglected my duty, or that any one of my official acts has proved detrimental to the interests of the Territory; if I have not labored assiduously, faithfully; if the public interests or private interests have suffered in my hands, I am ready to yield the field to some other aspirant. But let justice be done; let time be afforded me to render an account of my stewardship. For this purpose, I ask that no nomination be made, until I can have time to return home. This boon will not be refused by a generous people to a public servant, who has nearest his heart the honor and well-being of those he represents. And no Democrat, or the friends of any who seek a nomination, and are willing that his claims and merits should be discussed, can reasonably urge objections to this request. With much respect,
    Your obd't. serv't.,
        JOSEPH LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 19, 1854, page 3

Washington, Oct. 30th 1854
My Dear Sir:
    Yours of the 17th inst. is before me, and I return to you my sincere and heartfelt thanks for your kind and flattering expressions of regard and friendship.
    Of the merits of Mr. Tanner as a writer I have no doubt, and I would gladly avail myself of his kind offer to place before the public a record of my humble actions if circumstances permitted me to do so. But, sir, for reasons which I have fully explained to Mr. Tanner, I am compelled to decline a compliance with his and your wishes at this time. I trust, however, that at some future day I may be able to put in Mr. Tanner's hands such materials as will enable him to present to the public a book which, if possessing no interest in the relation of my own acts, will nevertheless be highly prized by all Indianans at least as containing a faithful record of the acts of those with whom I have been connected in the public service.
    Cordially reciprocating your sentiments of friendly regard, and thanking you for the flattering--too flattering--terms in which the expression of those sentiments is conveyed, I am
Ever truly yours
    Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City
    November 3 1854
Dear Bush
    In  my letters I omitted to mention some facts connected with the removal of Culver. The Secretary of [the] Interior informed me that it was a standing rule of the departments in all cases of quarrel or difficulty between a superintendent and agent to remove one or the other. That in this case he should remove the agent, that he could see in charges, aside from the grass or hay speculation, good cause for removal, to wit--a receipt or voucher of the interpreter for money not paid was evidence sufficient of his disregard of law, principle, instruction, etc., and that he could not grant any time for investigation. When I found this thing settled, and that time could not be had, I recommended George H. Ambrose, who has been appointed.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."

Oregon City Nov. 5th 54
Dear Father
    I have just had a conversation with Mr. Guthrie in regard to the mill property. He proposed to me to change the form of the notes and mortgage so he would only be bound for one-half the purchase money, and I have agreed so far as my portion was concerned to take their separate notes and separate mortgages and stand ready to make the change as soon as you can be heard from. I hope you will agree to it, as it seems they will be satisfied with that. But I made another proposition to Mr. G. which is this: That I am willing to take half the amount of the original purchase provided they will cancel those debts immediately, and I feel willing to make the sacrifice in order to get the thing amicably settled and squared up. I hope you will agree to the same provided that will let us entirely out. I think it would be best.
Your son
    Nat. H. Lane
P.S. I mean by the debts above named the Bush & Nesmith debts and other old mill debts.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington City, November 25, 1854
    I take the liberty of submitting, for the consideration of the board of which you are president, a statement touching the management of and as to the experiences incurred in the year 1853, in which our loss was between thirty and forty killed, and between thirty and forty wounded.
    Within a few days after the battle of the 24th of August, all the volunteers except Capt. Miller's company were mustered out of the service. The reason which induced me to retain this company are briefly as follows: Having, from long acquaintance, obtained the confidence of the principal chief of the Rogue River tribes. I learned from him that the Indians had agreed with the Klamath Indians that the war in the valley should be fiercely prosecuted by him, while the Klamath Indians would lay on the emigrant trail, destroy the emigrants, or they should come on, and then hasten to join his people and destroy the settlements, and that his braves were not satisfied with the results of the war, and being convinced that unless steps could be taken to prevent this plan of operations, we would be plunged into another bloody war. I ordered Capt. Miller to proceed with his company to Klamath Lake, protect the emigrants, and prevent the Indians from carrying into effect their hostile designs. Capt. Miller acted with promptness in carrying out my orders, behaved handsomely in several skirmishes with the Indians, whom he [illegible] to their towns and held in check until the emigrants had passed. That I might be the better able to prevent a hostile movement on their part, I remained with the Rogue River Indians several weeks. The movement proved to be as judicious as its results were fortunate in averting the calamity of war. I directed it in good faith as a measure of protection to settlers and emigrants, ordered the necessary subsistence and transportation to be furnished the company, both of which were done on the best possible terms and ought to be promptly paid for, including the pay of officers and men.
    My understanding with those comprising the company was that the men should be paid two dollars per day, and four dollars per day for each horse, those being the rates of compensation allowed by the state of California to her dragoons or mounted men for similar service. It may be proper to add that these remarks apply to the other troops in the service as well as Capt. Miller's company.
    The quartermaster was directed to have the animals in service shod, which he did, as you will see by the accounts and vouchers now in your hands.
    The surgeon general, Dr. Cleveland, was also directed to provide an hospital, furnish medicines, hospital stores, attendants, assistants &c., all of which were done, and the sick and wounded properly cared for.
    Subsistence, forage, ordnance stores, clothing &c. were furnished by different persons, at the then cash price. These and all other expenses of the war were necessary, and ought to be paid, as it was unquestionably the intention of Congress in the passage of the act of the 17th of July, 1854, that they should be.
    In conclusion, allow me to say that everything was done that could be under the circumstances to bring the war to a speedy conclusion and stop expenses, and at the lowest possible cost.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        [Joseph Lane]
Col. Smith
    President Board of Army Officers
        West of the Winder Building
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Washington, D.C.
    December 12th 1854
My Dear Sir:
    I received yours of Oct. 22nd by last mail, and regretted much to learn that there is dissatisfaction growing out of the conduct of the officers of the Territory in relation to the late massacre of the Snake Indians. No man deplores that massacre more than I do; no man can feel a greater desire to see the perpetrators punished. But, my dear sir, you must bear in mind in forming your judgment of this matter that Mr. Curry had no funds at his command with which to pay troops and purchase supplies, and he has no authority to pledge the credit of the general government. Still he might have proceeded on the supposition that the general government would pay all expenses, if there were not another and insuperable difficulty in the way. I mean the utter impracticability, in the opinion of all military men here and elsewhere, of a successful campaign against the Indians in the winter season. You know the native of the country inhabited by the Snake Indians, its elevation, the extreme rigor of its climate, its destitution of all natural products capable of sustaining man and beast under the hardships and privations of a campaign in the dead of winter. I appeal to your good understanding and ask you whether in view of these facts it would not be most judicious to wait for a more propitious season, when the Indians can be more easily found, and subsistence for men and horses can be more easily procured. Besides, by waiting till spring the volunteers from Oregon will have the cooperation of U.S. troops which the Secretary of War has promised to send at the earliest practicable moment. These troops will reach Oregon early in the spring, when, with their cooperation, we may be able to strike a blow which will prevent any massacres hereafter. I say we will strike a blow. By this I mean to say that I shall be on hand, and if my services are wanted, I wish to be considered enlisted for the war. The Indians must & shall be punished, and when the proper time arrives we must all strike together. The wise man has said there is a time for all things. The return of spring will be the time for inflicting a terrible chastisement on the bloodthirsty savages. I trust that all in Oregon will be as active in preparing for the contest as I am here in stimulating the authorities by showing them the urgency of the duty of sending a force adequate to the exigency of the occasion.
    With regard to sending you documents, you may rest assured I will send you as many as possible.
Truly your friend
    [Joseph Lane]
Robert Gilliam, Esq.
    Dallas, Polk Co.
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Salem, Oregon
    Decr. 15, 1854
Gen. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir--
        This letter may be quite brief, or I may spin it out to a length which may render it certain you will not wade through it. The legislature has now been in session two weeks. In the papers you will observe its proceedings and action thus far. I have been here for a week, and have busied myself in ascertaining, with as much certainty as possible, the feelings of the members and of the persons who are here from different parts of the Territory, with reference to the next delegateship.
    General, do you recollect the several conversations we held in Portland when you were there awaiting the steamer for the States? Then you did not credit very many of the facts I communicated to you. Then you thought me mistaken in my estimates of the friendship professed by different men to you. Then you believed that some persons who were loud in professions of friendship towards [you] were really and truly devoted to you. I differed with you then as to those individuals, and now after a further experience of one year in the country I am more fully convinced of the correctness of my positions. I feel certain that you have in a measure changed your opinions of some of those we conversed about. There is a strong effort being made to nominate for next delegate some person other than yourself. There is a strong party in the Territory in favor of the nomination of Judge Pratt. His friends are indefatigable in their labors to bestow upon him the nomination. The Judge has recently ridden from his residence to the mines in Jackson County. He has acquired many influential friends during his trip. He has written letters to everybody upon the subject of his nomination. People have been flattered by being consulted by him, and this little attention to them on his part has converted them into ardent friends and industrious electioneers. The Judge is resolved to obtain the nomination. He will be successful, if diligent, unceasing labor can win success. He has so far committed himself that he is absolutely forced to
push on to the attainment of his object. It is with him a life struggle. You know, General, that if he fails in obtaining the nomination for delegate that he is, through the failure, killed "as dead as the devil." If he is beaten for the nomination he will at once leave Oregon for good. If he should obtain the nomination we shall have the bitterest canvass ever had upon the Pacific Coast. If Pratt should be defeated of an election he would betake himself promptly from the Territory. So far as I can judge, General, Pratt will make a desperate fight to attain the object of his ambition. It is impossible by written communication to furnish you with a living picture of political affairs here. There is so much of it, so many movements, plots and counterplots, so much pulling and hauling, so much pipe laying and wire pulling, that it would require too much space to give you the detail of matters. I can therefore only state to you a few facts, and the results of other facts and combinations. We have from Washington County one Democratic member of the lower house. This morning he told me he should go for Pratt. I interrogated him as to his reasons. His replies were that you never write to any persons except to a few in Salem--that you did not correspond with the masses--that people were becoming dissatisfied with you because you neglected them. Now, General, I write this sort of thing because I feel it is best for you to be apprised of it--that you may know where the shoe pinches, and so that you may remedy these complaints. You may say the reason for Dr. Belknap's opposition to you is puerile--that he talks like a fool. Well, so he does. His reason is sheer nonsense. Still, that little fact has withdrawn from you one member of the legislature, and has transferred him to the support of the Judge.
    Holmes, the member from Polk Co., makes the same accusation. But Holmes and Belknap are only types of a class, and do not constitute the whole number who are committing themselves to Pratt. And these men do not like Pratt personally. They are actuated by their unkindly feelings towards yourself to commit themselves to that man. Govr. Curry has, or undoubtedly will, fully apprise you concerning the complaints made against you in Umpqua and other southern counties. You may not feel inclined to regard them as of much moment. But, General, I assure you that your enemies are making great headway against you in the South. Some of the men you have put into office, at their personal solicitation, are the most bitter, determined and industrious opponents you possess. It is not necessary for me to designate them by name. You know them well. Here in Salem you have some ardent and influential friends and supporters. Even in Salem there are men who favor laying you on the shelf, and there are others who are indifferent as to the result of the contest between yourself and Pratt. Judge Williams has friends here who wish him to be the nominee, and they hope the strife will end by his slipping in between yourself and the Judge and carrying off the prize. Williams has openly said [end of letter lost]
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters.  The handwriting of the letter resembles that of R. W. Dunbar.

Corvallis Decr. 22nd 1854
Dear Father
    Since my last the little "Durham Bull" has been figuring quite extensively. He has been to Rogue River offering to buy "war claims" and votes in the convention, provided he could get the latter to wait until after the convention had made its nominations or take their pay in Benicia water lots, referring them to Dr. Griffin of the U.S.A. for the quality of the lots. He has a couple of tools in this place; one is I. C. Avery, the other Doctor McIlteeny and I think Doctor Wright. Avery & McIlteeny held a caucus in the back room of a Jew store yesterday after reading your letter in the Statesman, and come to the conclusion that the legislature must instruct the committee to call a convention before you can get back and in that way defeat your nomination. One of them will go to Salem after the holidays for that purpose. I have written to Curry, Bush and Nes., telling them to look out for such chaps. I don't think O.C.P. has many friends in this county but what he has are all at work and all understand wireworking, and there is danger in the county meetings to appoint delegates of their [omission] getting his friends appointed by misrepresentation. You would do well I think to write to James A. Bennett, one mile from this place, and to old Doc Richardson and Ben Richardson & Gideon Richardson and others you think of, asking them to see that justice is done you in the county meetings. I will do all I can, but three words from you will do more than I can do in a month. I am sorry you got Avery the postal agency.
    He is determined it seems to oppose you under all circumstances. Palmer is hard at work for you. I think all the influential Democrats about Salem are your friends. I don't have any fears of Pratt beating you if you get half a show. And I am as well satisfied that the party will be defeated if he is nominated as I am that he desires the nomination. I know hundreds of the best kind of Democrats that will vote for any Whig in the Territory before him. I for one will ride over the country with him and do all in any power to help him to a seat in a good canoe bound up Salt River.
    I am still engaged selling goods here, and renting my store from the contemptible Dr. McIlteeny. I have not heard from Mother in 3 weeks--at last accounts she was well. Creed and Simon are doing well. Andy Barlow is getting along tolerable well, very well indeed considering the start he had--times are a little better than they were 4 or 5 months ago. Shelby is doing very well but continually cursing the country and grunting. He reminds me of a hen with young chickens, always clucking and scratching. I expected an answer from my previous letter by this time; why don't you write?
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
P.S. Try and get Dunbar a place if there is any vacancy or new office created. He is poor and under the weather, and the best Democrat in Oregon. He don't plot your downfall as some.
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

Corvallis Decr. 31st 1854
Dear Father
    I will trouble you with a short letter. Since writing before, the "Durhams" have made some astounding discoveries. They have discovered that Palmer, Waterman and many other Democrats are "Know Nothings," and that it was through "K.N." influence that Palmer was made to remove Culver, and from all I can learn an effort will be made to remove Genl. Palmer. But if I was you I would not consent to his removal until I had better evidence of his being a "Know Nothing" than the bare assertion of such men as Pratt and his figurers. My impression is that most of your influential friends will be called "K.N.s," in order to render them powerless in the Democratic convention. I have written to Palmer telling him of his danger. I don't believe him to be a K.N. If I did I would say remove him.
    I wish you would write to Hovey and send him a patent office report on agriculture. He is farming, and would be glad to get one. He is all right. I am working hard to keep things all right. I will have men in the primary meeting to move to instruct the delegates who to vote for.
    I think there is policy in the move, for I am convinced that if the people have their voice you are safe. But through chicanery you may be defeated.
    Most of your friends feel confident of success.
    All well; business dull. I wish you would write to me.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Oregon Historical Society Mss 1146, Lane Family Letters

[1854 or 1855]
To His Excellency Franklin Pierce,
    President of the United States
    The undersigned, a citizen of Oregon Territory, begs leave to represent to your excellency that the present Surveyor General of that Territory, Charles K. Gardner, is rendered by the infirmities of age incapable of discharging the duties of his office with such vigor and promptness as the interests of the Territory and the wants of the settlers require. The office is one of peculiar importance to the welfare of the settlers and involves in the prompt, energetic and accurate performance of the duties appertaining to it the highest interests of a young and growing community, a community rapidly increasing in numbers and seeking by securing as speedily as possible a permanent interest in the soil to themselves and posterity the development of the resources of the country and the building up of a flourishing and populous state. Mr. Gardner is too advanced in years [In 1854 Gardner was about 67 years of age; he lived to 82.] and too infirm for so important a trust. Without wishing to question his scholarship or his fitness for other positions more suited to his age and more congenial with his tastes and habits, and without the slightest design to disparage him as a man and a gentleman, I must in justice to the people of the Territory, in whose behalf I speak, be permitted to say that there are few official positions in the gift of the Executive which Mr. Gardner could not fill with more credit to himself and advantage to the country than that which he now holds. Experience is the test of fitness for official station. Without questioning your excellency's usual sagacity and judgment in selecting officers of the federal government, it cannot be denied that in the case of Mr. Gardner his probation has failed to meet the expectations founded upon the reputation he had previously established in other pursuits.
    In addition to the above-mentioned ground of complaint against Mr. Gardner I would state that his conduct in respect to the subalterns in his office has not been in harmony with his proposed political faith and with the practice of all parties, since parties existed in this country. Mr. Gardner is a Democrat, is the appointee of a Democratic administration. Notwithstanding this fact, he has retained in his office all those employed by his Whig predecessors. Nay, he has without instructions from the Department discharged Democrats who were honest, diligent and capable and appointed in their stead clamorous, violent, noisy Know-Nothings, who have neglected their official duties to serve the interests of their party. The consequence of this neglect is that the business of the office has accumulated, being more than three months behind the field operations, occasioning great inconvenience and loss to the settlers and also some of the deputies, whose accounts, from partiality or some other cause, remain unsettled. Among the cases of this kind that have come to my knowledge, I may mention that of Mr. Murphy, who has been greatly inconvenienced and feels heavily the hardships to which he has been subjected the more keenly perhaps that he has been wounded in the house of his friends, or to speak more plainly, has been subjected to the official insolence and maltreatment of political foes holding their place by appointment of a Democrat under a Democratic administration.
    To the reasons here given, it is almost superfluous to add that the removal of Mr. Gardner is earnestly desired by, and would give great satisfaction to, a large majority of the people of Oregon. They feel that his longer continuance would be unjust to themselves, and a departure on the part of your excellency from that profound regard for and lively interest in the welfare of the people, which has so distinguished your excellency's administration from the beginning to the present time.
    In their name, therefore, with an eye single to the true interests of the Territory, and with no wish to detract from Mr. Gardner's good name, I respectfully, but earnestly, ask for his removal and request that someone may be appointed in his stead possessing more vigor and activity, and who, if not favorable to Democrats, will at least not show undue favor and partiality to noisy partisans who use all the influence of official position, all the appliances which such position places at their disposal, to break down the Democratic Party.
With great respect
    Your excellency's
        Obedient servant
            L. F. Cartee

    Estimate of the time, travel and expense necessarily incurred by the Judge of the Third Judicial District in Oregon Territory for the year begin[ning] January 1854 and ending January 1855 attending three district courts in Jackson County going and returning 200 miles each . . . 600
Attending two district courts in Douglas Co. going and returning 20 miles each . . . 40
Attending two district court[s] in Umpqua Co. going and returning 90 miles each . . . 180
Attending two district courts in Coos Co. going and returning 200 miles each . . . 400
Attending one term of Supreme Court at Portland going and returning . . . 380
Attending same at Salem going and returning . . . 280
Total . . . 1880
    One of the above terms in Coos County was a called term made necessary on [omission] for the trial of criminals who were not arrested at the regular term when indicted, and who could not be kept until the next regular term without great expense for the want of a prison. In addition to the above travel the Legislature have now created a new county in the district from the southern portion of Coos, called ________ County. One regular term of court a year is to be held; going and returning the travel will amount to 320 miles, which added to the travel for the year 1854 will [total] 2200 miles. A small portion of this travel is necessarily performed in canoes and on foot, the remainder on horseback, and it is necessary to keep two horses the year round to [be] ready and able at all times to perform it.
    The expense of traveling through the district for man and horse exclusive of horse hire has been and is about five dollars per day.
    The nine terms of the district court would average about a week each in the year 1854, and are each year increasing in length. The two terms of the Supreme Court were about two weeks each, making in all thirteen weeks of actual session in addition to the time employed in traveling to and from the courts. The expense for man and horse exclusive of horse hire would average about five dollars per day.
    In addition to this should be taken into consideration a considerable amount of chamber business, and time consumed in examining authorities and preparing opinions.
    But a short time out of the year is left at the disposal of the judge for his private affairs, and the expenses necessarily incurred in the discharge of the duties of the office consume the major portion of the present meager salary, leaving little if anything for the support of a family or compensation in a country where all kinds of labor physical or professional commands a high reward.
M. P. Deady
Associate Justice
Sup C Oregon Ty and
Judge 3rd Ju Dis.

Washington Jan. 2nd 1855
    Yours of the 21st ult., inviting me to participate in a festival to be given on the 8th of January in Tammany Hall, on the 8th inst., is before me. The object of the festival, as stated in your note of invitation, is "to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans." Next to the anniversary of the natal there day of independence there is none in the ever-memorable Fourth of July stands the 8th of January. The former there is no day in the American calendar associated with more pleasing recollections and more endeared to the heart of the patriot than the 8th of January. What mighty memories crowd upon the mind and thrill the bosom when the roaring cannon, the "ear-piercing fife and spirit-stirring drum" remind us that it is the 8th of January, the anniversary of that day on which was fought and won the last battle of independence, for without wishing to detract from the merits of the illustrious Father of His Country, notwithstanding the glorious achievements of the Revolution I would ask what security was there had we to the preservation of our liberties until the great seal was put to the charter by the Hero of New Orleans on the memorable 8th of January? Our commerce had been plundered, our flag insulted, our seamen impressed, our very existence as a nation threatened, until the flag of the Union the undisciplined valor of the citizen soldiers of the West, guided by the genius of Jackson, rolled back the tide of invasion and planted the reared our flag triumphant over the carnage of New Orleans.
    To meet with my fellow citizens of New York to commemorate an event so memorable in our history and offer incense to the memory of a personage so illustrious in our military and political annals as Andrew Jackson would afford me great pleasure at any time, and seems to I regard as seems almost a duty at a time like the present, when sectional discord and political fanaticism threaten to obliterate the landmarks of the past and make "chaos come again." But there are a is a duty, which I owe to a people in the Far West which I regret to say the press of my official engagements in serving a people in the Far West who have honored me with their confidence, and entrusted to me the sole guardianship of their interests in Congress, will prevent my attendance on enjoying the pleasure of being present and contributing in my humble way to the objects you have in view.
    In conclusion, gentlemen, accept my profound acknowledgments for the honor your invitation has conferred upon [me], and permit me to offer you the following sentiment:
    Fanaticism & sectional discord--never can they gain the ascendancy while the same flag that waves over old Tammany, the cradle of Democracy, floats over the tomb of Jackson.
Very respectfully
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Office Superintendent of Ind Affairs   
Dayton OT January 10th, 1855.   
Dear Sir
    Enclosed I send you receipts in abstract form, the signatures to which I desire you will cause to be affixed upon the delivery to the respective Indians to whom orders have this day been given on  you for the articles of clothing named therein.
    Each Indian is required to make his mark in the place indicated in the presence of two or more witnesses who certify to the same.
    You will confer a special favor by supplying the goods and
paying over as per order and send me your bill and if it meets your approbation I will pay by your order in Portland or else when as you may direct.
    I desire the coats to be a good winter article the price varying from seven to ten dollars, pants
about three and quarter best not to exceed three, hat cheap article, boots good article not exceeding five dollars, cotton handkerchiefs. The aggregate amount paid each Indian will be placed in the proper column opposite his name. The receipts you will please date etc. I expect to be in Corvallis during the winter and perhaps in three weeks with a bill of paying other Indians. In the event you may not have the articles enumerated I hope you will procure them as it is important they should be paid per agreement. No suitable goods can be had in this place and the streams are too high to get them from below.
    I have succeeded in extinguishing Indian title to nearly all the lands in this valley. The Santiam Valley is yet unpurchased, and a small strip opposite Corvallis, and a narrow strip along the Columbia River between the mouth of Willamette River and Oak Point. The lands treated with have confederated so as ultimately to form an Indian settlement in some district yet to be designated. They are secured in the possession of their usual places of residences or such as may be assigned them by the superintendent or agent, until a suitable home shall be selected and proper provisions made for their removal.
    No news by the last states mail other
than election and European.
Respectfully your
    obedient svt
        Joel Palmer
N H Lane Esq
        O T

Corvallis Jany 13th 1855               
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
Bought of Nat. H. Lane
7 blankets 2.50 each . . . 17.50
5 pr boots 5.00 each . . . 25.00
5 coats 8.50 each . . . 42.50
7 cot hdkfs 37¢ each . . . 2.62
5 hats 2.00 each . . . 10.00
5 pair pants 3.25 each . . . 16.25
7 flannel shirts 2.00 each . . . 14.00
2 pair shoes 2.00 each . . . 4.00
7 pair socks 63¢ each . . . 4.37
5 vests 2.00 each . . . 10.00

Calapooia Indian clothing invoice 1855

Washington City
    January 17 1855
Dear Bush
of the 27th November has been recd. Your account for printing with a deduction of some $30 has been allowed and draft forwarded by last mail. Of this I wrote you by that mail.
    I have exhausted every means in my power to have the Surveyor General's office placed in the hands of an Oregonian but so far have failed. The President addressed the Secty. of Interior on the subject, but up to this time he has declined acting. I do not despair, however, notwithstanding one of the great men out your way says that G-----r [Surveyor General George K. Gardner] is as competent as the one recommended by the central junto. Don't despair, we will see what we shall see.
    Is it not queer that the people of Umpqua should use my success in procuring an appropriation for the advancement of their interests, and that too under the most embarrassing circumstances, for it is a fact worth remembering that the appropriation for the military road from Myrtle Creek to Camp Stuart and the one for a road in Washington Ty. were the first and only appropriations ever obtained without survey, estimate of recommendation. I carried them through without aid, on my own word and effort, and finally obtained a continuance of said road to Scottsburg, by which all Umpqua is benefited. I ask again if it is not queer (that my success in thus promoting the interests of Umpqua) that this very success should be made to operate against me, and perhaps defeat me, is it not strange? Can Pratt be mean enough to try to take advantage of such feelings, prejudices and influences to injure one who has labored faithfully for him? Can he get into Congress by such means? Had he not better hang his chances on a firmer, better, more honest and honorable basis? Don't you think that every aspirant for office had better deal fairly and honorably and trust to merit and fitness? What say you? It is not my purpose to complain, but one thing I will say--that is that I will not resort to anything mean, low or dishonorable for the sake of office at this or any future time. I will not hold office at such a sacrifice.
    I had nothing to do with locating the Scottsburg road, nothing further than to call on the Secretary of War and request him to place it in the hands of an efficient officer who would push the work to a speedy conclusion, and it is unjust and unfair to hold me responsible for any management of that work. I had nothing to do with it.
    By the late mail I recd. only two letters and no papers. What is the matter? Before May I will have a land office in the Umpqua Valley.
    Don't allow me beaten for the Delegateship.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."

Washington City,
    February 3, 1855.
    As I feel deeply interested in the result of the approaching election in Oregon for a Delegate to Congress, I cannot refrain from laying before your readers certain facts touching the result of the efforts of Genl. Lane, your indefatigable Delegate in the present Congress, looking to the prosperity and general welfare of the Territory. But few persons are familiar with the mode of transacting business in Congress who have not been either a member or an attaché of one or the other of the two Houses. Very few, away from the scene of action, can form any idea of the difficulty and labor attending the getting up and passage through the two branches of Congress of any measure whatever. Especially is this true in regard to almost everything affecting the Territories. These outside and far-off citizens of the country are very apt to be forgotten in the hurry & bustle of the general business operations of our legislators. Territorial business, unlike other business before Congress, can only be attended to at stated periods--that is, at such times as the House may see fit to set apart for that particular purpose, and, unless the delegates representing the Territories happen to be men of character, standing & influence, they rarely succeed in obtaining such a hearing for the people as their interests demand.
    Fortunately for Oregon, the people of that Territory are favored with the most useful, energetic, business men in the House, and at the same time one who commands (because he deserves) the respect, confidence and good will of every member of both Houses. Hence he has never failed to obtain for his people everything he has asked for them, and he has not failed to ask everything he believed it right and proper for them to have. In addition to those measures he obtained at the last Congress, he has now succeeded in getting through the House, and will no doubt get them through the Senate, also, bills for the following purposes, viz: One to enable the people of Oregon to organize a state government and appropriating $67,000 for public buildings in the Territory, one appropriating $30,000 for a military road from Salem to Astoria, one establishing an additional land office, one to regulate the locating of bounty land warrants in Oregon. There is a vast amount of business enacted during two of the three days which the House set apart for the consideration of Territorial matters. Who was it that succeeded in accomplishing so much? By whose efforts and through whose influence was all this done? I answer, because I happen to know that it was Genl. Lane who did it--his influence procured the passage of these measures, and no one's else. And can it be possible that the people of Oregon will turn their backs upon one so true to them under all circumstances--one whose whole time, thoughts and objects appear to be directed to the accomplishment of that which promises good to the people he represents? I refer to these things because my position enables me to know all about the matter, and though I feel deeply interested in seeing such men as Genl. Lane continued in the public service, I cannot possibly be actuated by any motive in what I say, other than that of friendship for the General, and a sincere desire to see such men appreciated by the people.
[unfinished, unsigned letter in Lane's hand]

Washington City
    Feby 3 1855
Dear Bush,
    By next mail I will write you fully in relation to the office of Surveyor General. It is by no means certain that we can obtain favorable action, but will continue to try.
    I am surprised and mortified to find extensive grumbling and complaining from many persons in different portions of the Territory about the appointments which have been lately made. I am asked why all the appointments have been made from Marion, Yamhill, Clackamas and Washington. And one writer, an old friend, says that he has recd. letters from three of my appointees begging him to take ground against me, that Lane won't do, he pays no attention to our interests, and a thousand other things. Now what think you? Have you advised me to procure appointments for my enemies? I hope not! Why should friends turn against me? In what way have I done wrong, in what have I erred, or what have I failed to do that the public interests required should be done? I may say that my position is a peculiar one, and if it is true that my friends have turned against me, I shall have a hard row to hoe, a bad row for stumps. I have however one consolation--I have been honest and faithful and true, and if beaten shall have nothing to regret so far as my conduct and doings are concerned. I shall during life stand firm by principle, yea, upon the Constitution, by the Union and the rights of the states.
    Last night I wrote you a letter for publication. You will not, unless you deem it proper, publish the latter or last paragraph.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."

No. 8--
    This may certify that the Board of Commissioners appointed to examine and credit claims of citizens for property destroyed by the Rogue River tribe of Indians or their allies during the war with said tribe in 1853 have awarded to William Thompson and Henry C. Rowland, claimants for property destroyed as aforesaid, the sum of one thousand and twenty-nine dollars.
                                L. F. Grover
                                A. C. Gibbs
                                Geo. H. Ambrose
Jacksonville, O.T.
February 6, 1855

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City, Feb. 2, 1855.       
    Dear Bush:--Since the receipt of the last mail from Oregon, I have been so constantly engaged in attending to the business of the Territory, before the House of Representatives, that I have had an opportunity of writing to but very few of my friends, and therefore have concluded to say a few words to you, which, if you think proper, you may let your readers see.
    The reason of this particular pressure upon my time is that the House, by resolution, set apart these days for the consideration of Territorial business, and as those three days were the only days that could possibly be secured for that kind of business, it became indispensable that all such business should be attended to promptly. Fortunately for the Territory, I succeeded in procuring the passage, through the House, of the following bills, viz.:
    A bill to enable the people of Oregon to hold a convention to form a state government;
    A bill appropriating $67,000 for the completion of the public buildings in Oregon;
    A bill appropriating $30,000 for the construction of a military road from Salem to Astoria;
    A bill for the establishment of an additional land office; and,
    A bill regulating the location of bounty warrants in Oregon.
    Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of this week, were the days appropriated to the business of the Territories; and, notwithstanding this was the only chance we could hope to have, during the present session, to get our bills acted on, there was a disposition manifested, on the part of some, to consume that brief period with the consideration of business not of a Territorial character. This, you may readily suppose, annoyed me greatly, but through the kindness of friends we succeeded much better
than I had at one time expected we should.
    There are two bills yet pending, about which I am very anxious. One of these bills provides for establishing a port of entry at Port Orford, and port of delivery at Coos Bay; and to increase the salary of the collector at Umpqua &c. I am not without hope of being able to get these bills through this season. I shall spare no effort to do so.
    The mail that goes out on this steamer, of the 5th, will carry a great number of valuable documents to the Territory, which have been distributed as generally among the people as the number at my disposal would admit. Your friend,
Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 20, 1855, page 2

Washington Co March 2 [1855]
Genl Palmer
    Dear Sir
        I do not know whether this will please you or not; it may not be my business to say any [thing] for the Indians at present, but hoping for the better, as I have nothing to do with them.
    I have been gone for four days. They have not sent you anywhere, and part of them came last evening to see me, and this morning old Six came and insisted on me to write you informing you as their chief and their great friend that Jam and the rest of the Indians below has made up friends by Jam paying one horse to the husband of the woman. Six wants you to ask Dave if Che-hi-ell had not employed Dave to stab him, as it is reported among them that Dave had told some of the boys so, and if so Dave will only pay him one horse and the horse that Jam pays Six don't want that it shall be for Dave himself. He wishes you answer by the bearer if you please and so greatly oblige.
    P.S. Old Six buys 2 bushels of oats. He will never drink rum anymore if you should send an order for the same. He could get it here some please.
    I was down at Columbia Co. and just arrived home. Our old friend Jo [Lane] is in the lead of Pratt. Campbell of Portland told me on Monday that five counties have given in the majority to Lane. I have been busy while I was down, and I succeeded in getting more votes for him than I [knew] existed. Please to let me know in the answer of the above whether I should say anything to those Indians. I don't want to mix myself where I am not wanted--and oblige
Your humble
    Servant John Flett

House Bill No. 1           
An Act
    To authorize the Secretary of War to settle and pay the expenses of the war with the Indians in the territories of Washington and Oregon in the years 1855 and 1856, and for other purposes.
    Be it enacted etc., that the Secretary of War be and he is hereby authorized and directed to settle and pay all claims for services rendered by volunteers in the war with the Indians in the territories of Oregon and Washington in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-five and eighteen hundred and fifty-six, called into service by the governor of said territories, and by them received into service, according to the muster rolls, and at the rate of pay agreed upon for man and horse, at the time they were mustered into service; and that all volunteers who have rendered service, and been paid by the provisions of this act, shall be entitled to all the privileges and benefits of "an act in addition to certain acts granting bounty land to certain officers and soldiers who have been engaged in the military service of the United States," approved March 3rd, 1855.
    And be it further enacted that the Secretary of War be and he is hereby authorized and directed to adjust and settle on just and equitable principles all claims for subsistence, forage, medical stores and expenditures, as well as for all necessary and proper supplies, furnished for the prosecution of said war, and that on such adjustment the same shall be paid out of any monies in the treasury not otherwise appropriated.

    LETTER FROM GEN. LANE.--We find in the
Yreka Herald of the 31st the following letter from Gen. Lane, which we publish for the benefit of all who are interested in the Rogue River war claims:
Washington City, Feb. 18.
    G. W. Tyler, Esq.--Dear Sir: You will not think hard of me for not writing. I am and have been constantly busy.
    I have finally succeeded in procuring an adjustment of the expenses of the Rogue River war. Some vouchers have been returned for certificate and proper authentication. By this mail drafts for a considerable amount will go out to the care of the Governor of Oregon for the benefit of the parties concerned. By next mail the balance will go out, except such as have, as above stated, been returned. In a few days the rolls for payment will be forwarded to a paymaster, who will proceed to Jacksonville and Yreka and pay the troops, officers and men.
    This matter has been a most troublesome affair, but I have at last succeeded in obtaining justice, and the people will ere long have their pay.
    Your friend,
        JOSEPH LANE.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, April 14, 1855, page 3

Oregonians Read! Testimony from a Distinguished Source.
    Gen. Adair, of Astoria, sends us the following letter from Hon. Wm. M. Gwin, the able U.S. Senator from California, and a champion of the Pacific railroad, and Pacific interests. No other man in the United States has worked with as much industry and success as Dr. Gwin, and no man stands higher there. California owes him a debt she can never repay for the mass of legislation and princely appropriations he has obtained for her.
    As for the calumny Dr. Gwin refers to, it fell stillborn here, where Gen. Lane is known, and where the lying character of its author is known. We doubt if a single man in Oregon has thought of it since Dryer uttered it:--Statesman.
San Francisco, March 31, 1855.
    My Dear Sir,--I have been informed, since my arrival here, that a statement has been published in some newspaper in Oregon that I am a witness to Gen. Lane's having been intoxicated in Washington during his term of service in Congress as a delegate for your Territory. I have not been able to get that publication, and cannot refer to the allegations it contains against Gen. Lane in detail, and my references to his deportment in Washington must be in general terms.
    I presume there is no person in the United States who has had more intimate association with Gen. Lane than myself, since he has been a delegate in Congress. We have met almost daily in consultation in regard to the legislation for this coast, not only in the Capitol but at our private rooms. I not only never saw the General intoxicated, but never saw him touch ardent spirits in Washington, nor can any man truthfully charge him with dissipation of any kind during his residence in the federal city. This is the first time I have heard such a charge made against him.
    He is one of the most laborious and faithful representatives I have ever seen, and his exertions for his constituents have been crowned with eminent success. No Territory in the Union has a more faithful, or so successful, a representative, and without disparagement to any man I hesitate to say that no delegate you can send from your Territory can surpass him in zeal, or equal his past success, which is only an earnest of his future usefulness if continued in Congress.
    With great respect, your friend and obedient servant.        WM. M. GWIN.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 12, 1855, page 2

Port Orford O.T.
    May 19th, 1855
Dear General
    Yesterday on my return from Rogue River I was assaulted in the public street by Benj. Wright, and my life threatened on our first next meeting. I never was more astonished in all my life. I approached Wright as to a friend, to shake hands with him as a friendly recognition after a few days separation. Instead of being received, as I have always heretofore been received, in friendship, I was loaded with all the charges of crime and deceit against him imaginable and my life, by threats, placed in jeopardy. Wright charges me with having said to you, voluntarily, that he, "Wright, was an habitual drunkard, unfit at all times to do his duty, and that if you had any regard for your own reputation you would remove him." Where Wright got this information I cannot imagine, nor will he tell me. I suspect Kautz and Tichenor, both of whom are my bitter enemies, and with whom I am not now on speaking terms. Either of them would cut my throat without scruple, could they do so unsuspected. My difficulty with Mr. Kautz is well known in this community, and I know the public feeling is in my favor. Now, General, I am thrown into serious difficulty from a question of yours, which, out of friendship to you, I answered. I cannot understand this. I do not suspect for one moment that you have occasioned this, or that you have repeated, certainly not magnified, what I said. As to Wright I have always been on the closest intimacy with him--had he been my brother I could not have done more for him. I have assisted him in his matters, of every name and kind, freely and without cost. What I said to you in answer to your question about the habits of Wright is God's truth, known to be true by every honest citizen in this entire community, and I do not take back one word. I did not say this, however, to injure Wright, on the contrary, I believe that at that time I endeavored to shield, indeed, I think I spoke of him in the highest terms as an Indian agent. I now sincerely regret ever having said one word, in fact almost wish I had lied for Ben out and out. This affair has given me an immensity of anxiety for my personal safety, for I assure you it is not pleasant to have a man of Wright's desperate passion howling after you in the public street, threatening at every step your life. If you have been made to doubt my word in answer to your question concerning Ben's habits, please write such men as our postmaster, R. H. Smith, Peter Ruffner, Isaiah Porter, Michael Mills, E. A. Gamble, Aaron Dyer, Seth H. Lount, J. W. Sutton, or any other citizen in the entire town of Port Orford, with the exception of Tichenor and Kautz. Now I do not seek this investigation for the purpose of doing the least injury to Wright, for I would not willingly put even a straw in his way. I hope, however, that the inquiry may be made that it may be determined whether I have maliciously sought to injure a fellow citizen. I am charged by Ben with wishing to supplant him in his office. This is not so. If I once had the hope of succeeding him upon his resignation only, I have abandoned wholly such thought or wish. Nothing in the wide world would now induce me to accept the office, should it be offered me. Of this, at any rate, I have no hope, as I have no doubt your mind has been cruelly poisoned against me. Again, it appears that Tichenor has been busy in his efforts to make Ben believe that I was in favor, and earnestly espoused your removal. This, General, is false. It is true I said on my return from Portland that efforts were being made to remove you. In this there certainly could be no harm. I merely repeated here what everybody knew in Oregon, namely that efforts are being made to remove you. There is not that man living who ever heard me speak one word against you as a citizen or public officer. On the contrary I have ever spoken of you in the very highest terms, prompted to do so from your uniform kindness toward me, and from my knowledge of you as a citizen, and as an officer of government. Someone, who I cannot imagine, unless my suspicions are correct concerning Kautz and Tichenor, has sought to inflict upon me a cruel injury. I fear not to have my character and general conduct fully inquired into, and shall take pains when you come among us to have some things fully exposed. As regards Wright I shall treat him as I ever have done, in kindness, and cheerfully do all in my power to aid him in the performance of the duties of his office. What will be the result of this matter between Wright and myself I cannot tell. At all events I shall do all in my power to avoid further difficulty. I wish, General, you would write to me, that I may, if possible disabuse Wright's present opinion--that he may know that I did not attempt to injure him maliciously . A word from you would be highly appreciated by me.
Respectfully your friend
    F. M. Smith

Winchester May 20th '55
Dear Genl.
    [Major Mark .A.] Chinn & Dryer spoke here yesterday and were quite moderate in their expression of abuse and fault-finding. They evidently adapt themselves to the crowd they address and touched lightly on Nebraska & Know-Nothingism. Stratton & Gibbs made speeches in answer, and I judged the assemblage (of about 100 persons) to be three-fifths or more in your favor. I made a few remarks--such as I deemed most applicable to the occasion.
    They will probably spread themselves in Jackson Co. & I will be in with them at the death and stir up all your good friends.
    D---w has been about Salem all winter & spring & has probably arranged this plan of campaign in your rear, hoping to carry Jackson Co., but they made no calculations about me, and I hope to be a stumbling block in the footpath. Capt. Martin will accompany me; I handed him the money you gave me, and we will canvass every poll & precinct at which we think we can do any good, and that means to say all of them.
Your friend truly
    J. P. Goodall

Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River May 21st 1855
    I received your communication by the hand of Colonel Taylor, also the sum of seventeen hundred and sixty-five dollars and forty-seven cents ($1765.47), for which I have receipted.
    My interpreter is away from home at this time, and as the Colonel is in quite a hurry to return, I will have to return your vouchers unaccompanied by the receipts of my interpreter. I will probably be able to get them this evening and transmit them to you by mail.
    On my quarterly return you will observe that my salary claimed amounts to two hundred dollars. If I have erred you will please correct my returns and inform me, and I will make the correction in the papers retained in this office.
    Also I wish you to inform me how to account for an overplus sent me as pay for an interpreter. I employed him on the first of March from which date his salary commences instead of the 10th of February, for which I have receipted.
    Again the instructions sent me last spring in relation to the distribution of the annuities failed to reach me in time. The Indians were suffering severely for want of their clothing. I accordingly distributed them, and the receipts which I took are not of the form which you afterwards sent me, nor do they call for the same amount. There was one coat less than the bill which I received called for (cost $5.92). Other articles were on the bill unaccompanied by any price, which I presume you understood. I merely mention the fact to know of the difference in the receipt which I took of the chiefs, and those sent me from your office may not have occurred in this way. If it is at all important to change the form of the receipts, I will immediately do so by getting their signatures to the receipts sent me for forms and transmit them to you by mail. I would of course supply the missing coat and would prefer to do so rather than cause you any trouble in altering your accounts. I should be pleased to hear from you. Very respectfully yours
    George H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agent
E. R. Geary
    Clk. Supt. Ind. Aff.

Council Ground May 23rd 1855           
Mrs. Smith
    Dear wife and children you may be desiring to hear from me once more and as an opportunity presents I write a short note to inform you that I am well, that my health is about as common. The Indians have not come as yet but we are expecting them every hour. I hope these lines will find you well. Give Adda a kiss from her father. Tell Andrew J. that you have heard from his papa also tell him I want him to be a good boy. Take good care of the children. Sorry Elizabeth you will please excuse this short note and believe me your loving but unworthy husband while I subscribe myself inordinately yours
Andrew Smith                           
Sarah E. Smith

Council Ground May 24th 1855           
Mrs. Smith
    Another day brings to the ground I should think about 900 Indians, more women and children of the Nez Perces. And we are looking for others constantly but it is uncertain when they will come and consequently uncertain when we can start home and you must not look for us much for 3 weeks yet. We had a fine Indian military parade when the Nez Perces come to the ground. They seem to be very friendly, but there can be but little confidence imposed in the Kinses [Cayuse] and some other tribes.
    While writing Pap sits at my right hand writing also, as an opportunity presents to send our letters direct to The Dalles, from which place they will go by water to Portland. I want you to write me as soon as you get these letters; direct your letters to Dalles, Wasco County O.T., at which point I shall be able to get them on our way down.
    I want you to do as well as you can in managing the business at home. If I should not get back until William wants to lay up the fence; tell him to give it 4½ feet worm and lay it up without the blocks unless the man I hired common so as to cut them without bothering or hindering Mr. Hash. Tell Mr. Hash to lay up the road string just as I told him, which was straight out with the field fence along the road; endeavor to have him do as much summer fallowing in the field as he can and break up the nooks and corners. If you have an opportunity to hire a man to work for a horse you may hire for a month or two, for if I have good luck I shall bring down a few horses one for you and one for Andrew J. and ______.
    Take care of the horses you have and yourselves.
    Sarah I should like to see you and press you to my bosom as my wife but I suppose _______. Embrace the children for me and tell them Papa will come as soon as he can.
    Learn Andrew his letters and tell him that I want him to be a man. I had my likeness taken at Portland and mailed it to you that if I should never live to get back you might have something by which to remember the man that is inordinately fond of you my Sarah. It is now late and I must come to a close although I could write all night. May the blessing of kind Heaven rest on you and on the children. When you receive this tell my folks. I have been rather poorly for a day or two but hope to be better. I hardly know how to quit without writing you many things but paper is scarce and I must stop and subscribe myself your affectionate husband
Andrew Smith                           
Sarah E. Smith

Yreka May 30th / 55
Genl Lane
    My old friend, this is the 1st time since you have been before the people that I have not been able to be in the field and do battle, but so it is from the force of circumstance. I will not be able to come down to Salem, or even to Jacksonville, as I much desired, on the day of trial, but I console myself and the Democratic Party that in Oregon it will be a downhill business from the beginning of the campaign to the closing of the polls for you to run under an easy rein, distancing the old hero of Encarnacion.
    Sure the people have not forgotten the many extra-official acts of Genl. Gaines while Gov. of Oregon, all of which had a direct tendency to impede the prosperity of the Ter., the substratum of which was selfishness and vanity, the political dishonesty of whom together with the federal officers of Oregon compelled me from a sense of duty to myself, to the body politic and to God to forever denounce the party to which I once stood identified. And may God Almighty forgive; I know that all my friends have forgiven me this political wrong, and I do know that you as the standard bearer of the great Democratic Party in the land of your and my adoption forgive me the evil I have done, yet there are some of the political issues that once divided the two great political parties and which comprised the articles of the Whig faith that I shall ever believe to have been the true policy of the genl. government. I say have been from the simple fact that they have become obsolete, having long since been conceded by the honest portion of the Whig Party. I have nothing in the way of news to communicate. Times as you are aware are dull in this vicinity from the scarcity of water. Goods, groceries as well as provisions of every kind are extremely low; whiskey is the only article that remains firm @ 2 bits a mouthful and in demand. Let me hear from you, my old friend, and say when you will leave for the Atlantic states. Your old friend Mr. Hawkins' best wishes for your present success and future prosperity. I will try and see you before you leave, as I have some curiosity in seeing a live Congressman, and in the meantime do the best you can for the good of all, and may you live long to enjoy the fruits of your labors and in your retirement from political life have the pleasing reflection of having honestly discharged with fidelity to our common country your whole duty and may God prosper and bless you, old Jo.
Respectfully yours
    E. L. Massey

Council Ground May 31st 1855           
Sarah Elisabeth
    Dear wife having a few spare moments tonight I employ them in penning you a few more lines not knowing whether my first will reach you as I presume you will be glad to hear from me. One of my first should come to hand I hope you will excuse the intrusion of another as it will come from a man who loves and longs to see you.
    I am in common health but very lonely but must suffer on and wait the tardy movement of the Indians and government. The time since I left home seems like a year and at the present I know not when we shall be able to start home.
    The Indians are friendly but we are in an Indian country and far from friends or home. There has been much rain here since we arrived, in consequence of which it has been disagreeable camping out. The council is being held in the Walla-Walla Valley about 20 miles from Fort Walla-Walla on Walla-Walla River. This valley lies nearly east and west, running back from Fort Walla-Wall to the Blue Mountains, comprising perhaps the richest portion of this upper country. The valley is poorly timbered with the exception of the head next to the mountain. There is some good timber consisting of pine, poplar, fir, birch, etc. The land in the lower part of the valley is rather gravelly but furnishes good pasture up next to the mountain. The land is of an excellent quality, holding out to the farmer great inducements to settle the country as soon as it is purchased of the Indians. It is unquestionably the best grazing country on the Pacific coast. Here on these extensive prairies thousands of cattle, horses and sheep can feed and be fat the year round (unless the snow should fall too deep in the winter).
    The wealth of this portion of the country must always lie in stock, and its inhabitants will only find it convenient to farm sufficient for home consumption. 31st at night nothing of importance more than written above; many Indian rumors float among us and as to the success of the treaty there can be no opinion formed. The weather seems disposed to settle and we will have more pleasant times.
    We shall not in all probability be home for two months and Sarah if you are obliged to manage your business alone, do as well as you can and if I live to get home I will not find fault with you if you should fail in doing as I could desire. Father and Lorenzo are quite well, your father is determined to stay some time or accomplish the object for which he came, and if he should stay too long I shall be obliged to come home by myself, for I am becoming very uneasy about my business at home. All I have is at home and all my heart is at home. By night and by day my thoughts are there Sarah Elisabeth I do not know what your feelings in regard to my being absent are but if you feel as I do your whole heart is constantly involved and as I feel now, as long as my health is as good as at the present I shall never leave home, for I assure you Sarah I am an unhappy man away here in this Indian country; besides we have many very profane men in our company and are obliged to eat meat almost covered with fly blows and bread that I will not attempt to describe. Tea and coffee very good. While at Portland I conferred with Dr. Millard, and he told me that my natural constitution was not broken and said I did not need much medicine but with care and temperance in eating my health would become good and I am of nearly the same opinion yet there are some contingencies bearing on that matter such as climate and peculiar cast of mind which bears materially on the body. This you know as well as I do. Sarah I am afraid there will be some accident happen to you or the children or to some of the connections before I get home. Take care of yourself and the children if you can. I have twice dreamed of accidents one of which Lorenzo was involved and made a narrow escape with my aid otherwise would in all probability have been killed. What future awaits you and me Sarah Elizabeth is hard to divine, but we will live and hope for the best. When  I commenced writing I did not know when an opportunity would present to send it to The Dalles, but I just this moment heard that a gentleman is to start tomorrow for The Dalles. If he goes I will send it by him if I can. I want you to write to The Dalles as I directed you in my note from this place. Now Sarah Elizabeth although I could write from now till tomorrow morning yet for the want of paper I must stop and subscribe myself your unworthy yet very greatly obliged to be your affectionate and loving husband and everything else that should be involved in the relation which we sustain
Andrew Smith                           
Sarah E. Smith
P.S.      Hug and kiss the pets for me till I come and then Oh what a time we will have among and with ourselves.
Andrew Smith                           
Sarah E. Smith

Port Orford June 15th 1855           
Dear Sir
    Agreeable to instructions it becomes my duty to make known to you the present condition of Indian affairs within this district since the 15th of May.
    I have visited all the different bands of Indians within this district and find them doing well though the abundance of rain which has fallen since the fishing season has prevented them from getting their usual quantity of salmon upon which they rely entirely for subsistence at this season of the year. I received the seine and nets for fishing but find they are too small for salmon fishing and have thought it would be best to hire a larger one which is at Rogue River which is either to be bought or hired at a moderate price. The one I speak of is 600 yards long and 14 feet wide; such only is suitable for salmon fishing while the one I received from you is small and adapted only for fishing in small streams and for small fish. I intend trying the large seine and if it succeeds will hire it and assemble the different bands together at Rogue River which is the only stream which affords salmon at this season; all the rest of the streams' salmon do not run up until September, and I think by so doing that is by hiring the large seine and collecting the Indians at that river and superintending and being with the Indians myself that I can furnish the Indians all they may need and I am confident that by bringing them all or as many of them as I can on to Rogue River and being with them myself that I can control them much better than I can as they are scattered the whole length of the district.
    When I visited Chetco the Indians informed me that there had been one of their number killed by a man called Lewis Carley who told the whites that he had killed a Chetco Indian.
    And that he was ready to leave the country and went to Crescent City and there shipped for that purpose which was the last heard of him. The Indians complain but little of it and appear to be willing to submit to their fate let it [be] what it may without retaliating in any way whatever.
    As long as they are so near the line between California and Oregon I am of the opinion that there will always be outrages of that character committed. While it is impossible to prevent it the miners about the mouth of Rogue River have many of them left that place which affords greater security to the Indians as they are always more peaceable in an Indian country when they are few in number.
    And I think that I have it in my power whether they are few or many to control Indians in all cases--better than the whites can be controlled by any power.
Most respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Ben Wright
            Sub Indian Agent
                Port Orford Dist
To Gen Joel Palmer
        Ind Affairs

Port Orford O.T.
    June 19th 1855
Dear Sir
    By last trip of Columbia I wrote you making inquiries concerning a difficulty that had just occurred between Benj. Wright and myself, said by him to have been occasioned in consequence of charges that I had made to you against him. To that letter I have not yet received any reply. At the time I wrote you I was ignorant of the source through which Ben received his information. I could only surmise; Ben refused at that time to give me the name of the person from whom he had received the information. He would only say that I told you that he "Ben was an habitual drunkard, at all times unfit to do duty." Of the treatment I at that time received from Ben, I have made you acquainted.
    I very well recollect the conversation I had with you as we descended the hill in front of the reserve, and I know just as positively that all I said to you was in answer to your question concerning Ben's habits. I replied to your question, as I or you would always expect a man of truth to answer a plain interrogatory. Had you not asked the question I certainly should not have given the answer. I think you will do me the justice to say that I made no effort to injure Wright, indeed I believe you will say that I spoke well of him as an agent.
    Had I desired to injure Wright fatally, I could have done so by statements backed by living evidence. All of this difficulty has been occasioned by Kautz, my most bitter enemy--a man with whom I have not spoken for a long time. The occasion of my trouble with Kautz is well known to all of our citizens, and let me add that it is not much to the credit of Kautz. Of course this is nothing to you. This difficulty between Ben and myself, prompted by Kautz, together with the active efforts of Ben, caused my defeat in the election just passed, and it is my opinion that such was the object of Kautz. In this place, where I have lived near four years, I received 40 votes. My adversary, Tichenor, got but 18 votes. This is certainly an index of my standing here, and is, of itself, quite a commentary upon the efforts of my enemies. And, General, I do not desire to injure Mr. Wright--on the contrary would be glad to see him continue in the office he now holds. I will also add that since my trouble with Ben, he has not tasted a drop of ardent spirits, and has fully determined to wholly abstain from the use of all kinds of intoxicating drinks. No one more rejoices at this resolution than myself. Now then as to the past. The answer I made to your question concerning Ben's habits, I do not, nor have I ever denied. I cannot bear to be considered the base man and liar that you probably have been made to think me. I must therefore refer you to our postmaster R. H. Smith, our justice of the peace John W. Sutton, Isaiah Porter, Nelson Seaman, Samuel Lount, or to any other citizen of Port Orford. I make this reference, not to injure Ben, but to vindicate my character as a man of truth. I hope to see you when you come among us, that this cruel misunderstanding (if it cannot bear a worse name as far as Kautz is concerned) may be properly explained. I assure you General it is not pleasant to have one's life threatened, particularly by a man that you are not disposed to injure.
    Your obt servt
        F. M. Smith

Jacksonville July 1st 1855               
Dear General
    I start this morning to Yreka with Maj. Alvord to attend the payment of the Cal. troops.
    Everything seems to be well enough and the men seem satisfied. The ill feeling displayed by some on account of 50¢ per day to the man is allayed by the fact that the officers (commissioned) get no pay for a horse at all. So I am glad of it although a sufferer myself to some extent as my pay is about that of a private. But this is all right and it seems to me that matters could not have been arranged better.
    I shall rely nevertheless on your promise to me at Corvallis to procure the approval of the Secty. of War to my accounts sent on to you and to Capt. Alden after the papers were sent of the R.R. War.
    It was for extra pay as mustering officer, under your orders for 75 days service from 15th Sept. to 30th Nov. inclusive (say 77 days)--$8 per day will be a just compensation and I will be satisfied as it will thus enable me to come off about even in money matters, which is just I think and I know you will do me this favor.
    If paid a draft can be forwarded to Gov. Curry for me, and I shall get it by letter from him without further expense.
In haste your friend
    J. P. Goodall
(more anon)
    Please take a memorandum of this matter, so that at your leisure when at Washing[ton] you may call the Secty. of War's attention to it, and I shall not trouble you further and regret much that it is necessary to trouble you at all, as I know that in this matter of the R.R.W. you have be[en] troubled--and worried--a great deal.
Yours etc.
    J. P. Goodall

Rogue River O.T.
    July 8th 1855
Dear sir
    I received your kind favor by last mail, and hasten by the earliest opportunity to reply. I should have written you more frequent[ly], but I knew you were at work, and would stop but a short time at any one place, hence it was doubtful where a letter would reach you. The election excitement is over, and with it died the patriotism of the Indian exterminators, so we have peace and quietude. Dryer, poor fellow, labored hard to have all the Indians killed off. He said in his speeches, from a long acquaintance with Indian character he knew we never could have peace so long as any of the redskins lived and these Indians had always got the better in every fight and now it was time they should be whipped. I have no doubt he got his cue from some of our citizens but with all their lies they were not able to make a war. The Indians said they had done nothing, and they would not fight. They were willing to go anywhere for the sake of peace. It is a matter of doubt about their killing anybody on Indian Creek, and it is certain they killed no one in this valley until after they had been driven to the mountains and attacked by a large force of white men and several of their people killed. Three white men were killed; they robbed no train nor attacked none.
    It wielded a heavy influence in our election with a certain class of voters, a floating, unstable class. Our affairs in this country were badly managed anyway. The battle ought to have been fought here just preceding the election and the result would have been much different. We have a large floating, transient population unsettled in their political principles. The Whigs managed to catch that vote, for want of energy in the Democratic Party. However, under the existing circumstances we done the best we could. We might have carried the convention if it had not been lost sight of in other issues.
    Take it all in all I am proud of the result as it is, for it is certainly a great victory, a victory over all the elements of opposition to the Democratic Party, without one single concession. It was a bold and manly fought battle, a contest for principle alone, and we have cause of exultation. We may well afford to have a night of revels, and join together in common rejoicing. I trust you will join Genl. Palmer on his way here. I am quite anxious to see the Genl. If your business is not too pressing your many friends would be pleased to meet with you, and give you a cordial shake of the hand before your departure for the states.
    Yours respectfully
        G. H. Ambrose
Jos. Lane

Sterling O.T. August 5th 1855       
    At a meeting of the volunteer companies of Siskiyou County and state of California, who have been organized for the purpose of apprehending and punishing certain Indians, who have committed depredations in our county, Edward S. Mowry was elected chairman, Dr. D. Keam secretary, and the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:
        Certain Indians composed of the Klamath, Horse Creek, and a portion of the Rogue River tribe, on or about the 27th or 28th of July 1855, came upon the Klamath River and there ruthlessly and without provocation murdered eleven or more of our fellow citizens and friends, a portion of whom we know to have escaped into the reservation of the Indians near Ft. Lane, O.T. from the fact of having tracked them into said valley, and from the testimony of certain responsible and reliable witnesses it is therefore resolved: That a committee of five men, one from each company now present, be chosen to present these resolutions to Capt. Smith, U.S.A., commandant at Fort Lane, and Mr. Ambrose the Indian agent of Oregon Territory, and we would respectfully request Capt. Smith and Mr. Ambrose that they would if in their power deliver up to us the fugitive Indians who have fled to the reservation in three days from this date. And if at the end of this time they are not delivered to us, together with all the stock and property, then we would most respectfully beg of Capt. Smith and the Indian agent free permission to go and apprehend the fugitive Indians, and take the property wherever it can be found.
    Resolved: That if at the expiration of three days the Indians and property are not delivered to us, and the permission to seek for them is not granted, then we will on our own responsibility go and take them wherever they may be found at all and every hazard.
    Resolved. That the following named gentlemen compose the committee. Edward S. Mowry, J. K. Hale, A. D. Lake, Wm. Parrish and Austin Hawkins.
Edwd. S. Mowry, chair               
D. Keam

Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        August 6th 1855
    I acknowledge the receipt of a communication dated the fifth inst., containing certain resolutions passed at a meeting of the volunteer companies of Siskiyou County and state of Cal. and naming you the committee to present the resolutions to the "Indian Agent of Oregon Territory." I have thoroughly considered your requests, set out in your resolutions. In making my reply thereto I do so with the hope you will reasonably and candidly consider its nature and import, and in the expectation that you will cheerfully comply with and be governed by the laws of the land.
    My duties as Indian agent will not allow me to accede to your requests. I can neither surrender into your hands the accused Indians, or suffer you to go upon the Indian reserve in quest of them.
    Whatever may be the number or motive of the "Volunteer Companies of Siskiyou County, Cal.," one thing is clear; they are a mere volunteer assemblage of men without a shadow of authority "for the purpose of apprehending and punishing the Indians," whom you demand, and this without reference to the question of whether those Indians are guilty or innocent of participation in the outrages on Klamath River.
    In this respect my duties are clear, explicit and direct. I must conform to the laws and would recommend you as good citizens to do the same, as the consequences of a contrary course if persisted in by you can only bring evil upon your own heads without facilitating the punishment of the guilty.
    Whenever the civil authorities of California demand the surrender of any Indians upon the reservation in my charge for crimes alleged to have been committed upon the soil of California, no pains shall be spared to comply with the request. Until then you will readily understand that it is my bounden duty to keep the Indians under my immediate control and to prevent at all hazards all unlawful interference with them upon the part of others.
    No doubt exists in my mind that if I were to acquiesce in the demand made by the resolutions, the lives and property of the whole population of this valley would be sacrificed in return.
    Whoever is guilty will in due time be punished, according to the laws of the land, which secures a fair trial by an impartial jury.
    The mode you propose is of an altogether different character, and would most naturally result in an indiscriminate slaughter of both white and Indian races. My views and purposes are sound and legal, and I shall most firmly adhere to them.
Yours respectfully
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
    Mowry, Hall,
    Lake, Hawkins &

Yreka Cal
Aug 17th 1855
Gen Jos. Lane
Dear sir
    Your letter of 10th inst. is just received and I hasten to say in answer to your inquiries that Thos. Hay, late of Capt. Rhoades' co., some time since kept a dram shop in the mines near Yreka, in which a murder was committed in which he was in some manner mixed up, sufficiently at least as not to leave him a very reputable character.
    There is strong reasons for believing that he some time back received hush money from a thief and then informed on him, and it is a fact that he was confined in jail 5 or 6 days, as a punishment by a court for rioting in getting drunk and storming a house of ill fame and the next day, I believe, acted as the hangman or a hangman of two Indians, executed by the mob in Yreka, who may, or who may not have deserved their fate, at least it was a mob, and the Indians had been arrested by G. W. S. Cummings, dist. atty, confined in jail by the sheriff, D. D. Colton, and then liberated, whereupon the mob hung them, pulling them up from the ground and leaving them to hang for about 36 or 48 hours from whence they were taken by Eddy, I think, marshal of Yreka and thrown into a miner's prospect hole. These are literally the facts, and I am ignorant of whether the Indians deserved their fate or not. Mr. Hay for some week or ten days was then mixed up with a mob of persons as a sort of ringleader in attempting to take summary measures with some five white men who were mining on Canal Gulch, and whose crime was their having Shasta squaws for mistresses (I believe this is the term). Four of these white men, viz. Robert Whittle, Wm. Fenning, Jos. Rambough and Alford Woodruff, are known to me to be quiet and industrious miners. Three of them have children by these squaws, are evidently attached to them, and support them decently.
    These men undoubtedly evince a not very refined taste in the choice of their female associations, for which they are amenable in my opinion only to the civil laws, and to public sentiment, not to the cowardly exasperation of a mob, who threatened but performed nothing.
    It was about the last of July that the first difficulty with the Indians occurred on Humbug between two drunken Indians and some whites.
    This led to the outrageous and indiscriminate massacre of some 10 or 12 white miners on Klamath by the Indians, led on by the "laughing chief," who was killed, and who had a young daughter living with a white miner as his mistress. This white man was killed by the Indians.
    When all this occurred it seems that a few of Sam and Jo's Indians from the Table Rock reserve were nearby in the vicinity. It seems also that they did not participate in hostilities but they left at once for the reserve, taking with them two horses belonging to murderous whites.
    Some 150 miners were soon in arms and took to the mountains.
    Capt. Judah of Ft. Jones, amongst them, they went over Siskiyou Mountain, then down Applegate Creek and then to Fort Lane. At Fort Lane, Capts. Smith and Judah, Doct. Ambrose, agent, and the volunteers had some transactions, which doubtless have been properly conducted from the known ability and energy with which both these officers have always acted in promoting the true and real interests of this frontier.
    A detachment of vols. went out some 10 days ago towards the cave and Klamath lakes. They report (having just returned) that the Indians have left the cave locality--that they are principally in the vicinity of the lakes--that they have some talk with them--that the Indians came into their camp, that some emigrants are on the road, which induces them not to make war with their force upon the Indians and that they returned for want of supplies.
    I have as yet taken no personal part in these affairs, as my absence in Oregon and the condition of my private affairs required absolutely my individual personal attention.
    I have to say that I have done what I knew to be my duty in laying before you the case of Hay. I have had no other motion and gave him to understand that I had written to you. He expresses contrition, promises reform, and several respectable persons have solicited me to represent his case formally to you. I have done my duty by writing to you the truth.
    Of Lieut. Ely and Jas. Carroll, I cannot do otherwise than earnestly and respectfully calling your attention to their case for relief, or a pension. I know no braver soldiers, or better and worthier citizens than themselves.
    By last mail I recd. a letter from Capt. Alden dated Paris 14 June. He is in better health, is coming home in October, spent the winter in Rome and came by way of Venice, Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Munich, Strasbourg to Paris. He spoke of Ely and perhaps will aid you in my matter relating to him.
    He spoke too of your efforts in the procurement of a commission in the army for me, a fact which however I might have suspected is of you, only adds to the already heavy obligations I am laying under towards you.
    I have to thank you for the forwarding the accounts I sent you. I shall send you some others by next mail to Washington and will send you a schedule of them, so that you may have some data and can take or have taken such action as you deem proper.
    I wish particularly to say that in forward[ing] these accounts to you and asking your aid that you will not permit it to interfere in any way with more important duties of which no one is better aware than myself that you have your hands full. Believe me sincere in this and that except for the wishes and interests of others I should not have troubled you with them.
    My respectful regard to Mrs. Lane and your family
        Your most obedient servant
            James Pleasant Goodall

Yreka, Siskiyou County
California 22nd Aug 1855
Genl. Joseph Lane
    A day or two since I saw and conversed with Capt. Bill Martin of Humbug who commanded a company of vols. who pursued the hostile Indians (who had committed the depredations on Klamath) to the Table Rock reserve, and he thinks that Capt. Smith comdr. at Fort Lane and Doct. Ambrose, Indian agent, did their duty and acted perfectly right in the premises in regards to the whole affair. He states that there is now some eleven hundred Indians on the reserve, some 400 of whom are warriors, and that the course pursued by the authorities was the best thing that could be done for the peace and quiet of the country not only in Oregon Territory but here, where we are in juxtaposition with your constituency.
    I have to say that here in California our special agent A. M. Rosborough has had recently his powers abrogated and that the political aspect of our state shows a batch of factions, without a party or a head, and that the future promises to be worse than the past, so far as Indian relations are concerned. No attention is or has been paid to our wants or interests here in northern California, and the force at Fort Jones in Scotts Valley some 15 miles hence is and has always been a mere corporal's guard, leaving the officers in command there--however estimable and energetic--powerless to act, and some of the acts of our multitudinous population here towards the Indians notwithstanding their hostile acts (in which they have been no more the aggressors than some of the whites) is a disgrace to a civilized people. The two Indians hung by the mob in Yreka were in my opinion not guilty of any hostile act--there is no proof of it whatever--and not 6 miles from where I live five friendly Indians--known to be so, who had taken refuge in a miner's cabin on Humbug--were taken out and shot in cold blood by some whites--two of whom were boys of 10 and 12 years of age respectively. This sir is true, just as I tell it to you, and I have the information from the best and most undoubted authority.
    Knowing the Indian character as well as both you and myself do, it is easy to foresee that such acts, near a district tending to alarm and exasperate the Indians, and unless the government takes some speedy action in relation to Indian affairs here in northern California, the like scenes will occur, until not an Indian is left. Meanwhile much valuable property and some lives of good and quiet citizens will be sacrificed.
    Will the government look to our interests and wants! We have no hope for action from our California delegation. I regret to say it but we have been most shamefully neglected. Our only hope is in you; although not of your constituency, our local position makes our interests the same.
    I do not believe a better officer than Capt. A. J. Smith could be stationed at Fort Lane, and Capt. Judah comdr. Ft. Jones, is an excellent and energetic officer. But he is powerless to act with the force at his command.
    It is in my opinion preposterous to think of enrolling vols.; the expense here would be enormous, and the experience of the Rogue River War proves to me that it is not advisable.
    There seems now to be quiet, but every day I expect to hear of outbreaks, murders, robberies; past experience proves that it will be so.
    I know that in making these statements to you that all that lies in your power will be done for us.
I have the honor to be dear sir
    Your most obedient servant
        James P. Goodall

Yreka Siskiyou County
California 24 Aug 1855
Hon Joseph Lane
    On this the anniversary of our little battle during the Rogue River War, in which we both (I believe) did our duty to the country, I sit down in my miner's hut on Canal Gulch (where by the way I have a good and rich mining claim) to drop to you a few confidential lines on things past and to volunteer some reflections for the future. I am the more prompted to do this from the fact of your past friendship to me, in all that relates to duty in the camp and field and to social intercourse.
    I should have written to you this letter some month[s] ago, except for the multitudinous private affairs that required my attention, which are now all settled, and I have leisure for rest and recreation till our winter's supply of water comes to set us to gold working.
    You recollect the conversation we had together at Corvallis, as well as the fact that through you, and Captain Alden, I was particularly charged with the arrangement of the muster rolls of the Rogue River War. Since my return from Corvallis, during the canvass, and from then to the period of the payment of the troops by Maj. Alvord, and up to a late period I have, for the best reasons, taken particular care to inform myself of such matters in regards to Rogue River War accounts, as I knew I had a right to do from the position I occupied.
The result of these investigations are that I have no hesitation in venturing the remark that Doc. Jesse Robinson, whose accounts amounted (as sent on) to some $8000, and who has been paid by draft $5507.50, has been paid quite enough. He will be sure to ask for the balance.
    A bill for hay of $2250 paid to George Pierson (now a partner of the late Q.M. and C.S.U.S. Drew) appears by the most incontestable evidence to have really amounted to about four wagonloads (say four tons). It lay between where you first joined us in camp and Fort Lane. I saw it there myself during the campaign, and in a late conversation with Capt. A. J. Smith, comdr. at that post, he informed me that he knew these to be the facts, from the best information he could gather. An account paid to Drew and Clark (Charles S. Drew) by draft, amounting to $1580 for hay, was about six (6) tons, certainly not more than eight. I saw this pile of hay myself; a portion of it was used by my company, and it turns out that this was the only pile of hay they had, thus making a neat little operation of about $720 on "Uncle Sam," by the scratch of a pen in which is to be found "I certify on honor" etc., etc.
    Dean, A. C. Dean, who lives about halfway between Jacksonville and Fort Lane, has been paid by draft a just account for hay which I got myself of $96, but he has a certified account for some $960 or $990 (I forget which) that has not yet been paid, which he is sure to be growling after. It was never furnished to the troops, but was wasted and used in great part by citizens during the war, as I am told. I was quite a stranger in Oregon during the war, and was so closely confined for three months after in writing and arranging the papers that you may be well assured I was ignorant of these matters, but inclination and some leisure has since then enabled me to inform myself pretty thoroughly of "how the cat jumps" around and about in Jackson County. Dean is a "tillicum" of the Drew Kidney [sic], as I have seen by ocular demonstrations, and whatever his antecedents may be, it would not I know and should not have anything to do with the payment of a just account, but it is not just.
    In my speaking of these affairs, I consider that it is not impertinent, but pertinent and proper from the position I have occupied to state to you facts as they have developed themselves to me.
    There were some 460 troops in the field during the Rogue River War, not enumerating captains Martin, Nesmith and Applegate's companies. The expenses of the war as made out, apart from the muster rolls, was about $98500.00, including some $10,000 for hospital bills at Jacksonville. I understand that the accounts of the Walker expedition amount to some $100,000. How is this! In a conversation at Fort Lane with Capt. Smith he stated to me that he had reported to the government that this expedition was got up for purposes of speculation. Was he correct! In my opinion he most certainly was, and the government cannot place a better officer than himself in command at Fort Lane, especially when at the time and for the future we have so many designing men anxious to kick up a dust with the Indians on any pretext whatever for purposes (selfish) and not that they love the peaceful and quiet state, so necessary to us. That there are some lawless savages amongst us in the 15 or 16 hundred Indians about here is true. And either from sinister motives or a natural lawlessness worse than that of these savages (because it is more civilized) an almost constant broil exists that requires the constant and guarding care of the best and most responsible citizens to prevent from breaking out into open war. In fact it is as necessary to check and prevent the impolitic course of some of the whites, as to punish the lawless amongst the Indians.
    As a matter of good policy and of justice too, in regard to the future payment of the "Walker expedition," it will be well to have the officers and men liberally paid according to the rate of things in this country.
    But of the $100,000 of accounts made out under the administration of certain officers, the closest scrutiny is advisable, especially after the experiences of the Rogue River War, which proves that the beak and appetite of the government is only whetted and not allayed upon the spoils of public plunder.
    These are perhaps harsh expressions, but they are doubtless strictly applicable, and in their application rest on no good friends of yours, who at least might have had the gratitude to have stood aloof (if they had different principles) and not used the very money got through your patience and industry, and to which in reality it seems they were not entitled by justice. I know, and was a personal witness, to their having used every influence to defeat you.
    Enclosed I send as near as I can get the data (and you will find I am nearly correct, should you compare it with the duplicate at Washington), a copy of a bill of Mr. George L. Snelling, who was sometimes a partner in packing etc. of C. S. and B. J. Drew. He seems to have lately married and settled in Boston, in which section
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    70,000 Dollars [divided into] 17,000 days service [equals] 4.11 making expenses of the Rogue River War some $4.12½ per day's service.
    They say figures do not lie; if by accident such should happen to be the case let us look at the Walker expedition.
    96 men
  100 days
9600 but say 10,000
    Expenses as charged per paper made out by C. S. Drew (as near as I can get data): $110,000
10,000 [divided into] 110,000 [equals] $11.
    This gives a result of 4.12½ per day for expenses of a soldier of Rogue River War, and $11 per day for Walker expedition. Capt. A. J. Smith comdr. at Ft. Lane (with whom I have had some talk on this subject) calls this speculation; I call it stealing), or government swindling and if upon such accounts "I certify on honor" etc. etc. is to be found--Gov. Curry I think was not far wrong in using the "bow string" [as a metaphorical garotte?] on this officer last summer.
    I am pretty certain that the data here given is substantially correct, and the knowing ones about here, myself amongst the number, think that if the Walker expedition is paid as sent on by Drew and co., that he will "feather his nest" to the tune of some 35 or 40 thousand of the "people's money."
    The Walker expedition having been authorized by ex-Gov. Davis, and it being a good line of policy always to protect and foster frontier interests, I would say let the just expenses of the expedition be liberally paid both to the soldier and those who have furnished supplies, and in order to do so past experience teaches that a commission of one, two or three officers of honor should be appointed to inspect both muster rolls and accounts and take the affidavits of parties interested as to the actual amount of services performed and of the actual and particular supplies furnished and these should then be paid for liberally.
    The soldiers of the R.R. War were not paid enough in having got 61 cents per day.
Rogue River War, Miller    compy. 86 mounted
                                Lamerick    "       65       "
                                Rhoades      "       61       "
                                Goodall       "       98       "
                                Williams     "       30       "
                                Owens          "       33       "
                                Terry            "       50       "
                                Fowler         "       56 infty.
    Days 460 men for 1 month gives a result of [17,400 man-days]. Add to this Miller's compy. for 2 months more on service of protecting--by your order--the emigration to northern Cal. and southern Oregon, say 60 men for 60 days. Add to this the fact that some $10,300 was expended on account of [the] hospital in Jacksonville, as well as many incidental and necessary expenses that occurred during the Rogue River War, which could not have justly been charged for the "Walker expedition" as well as the fact that Miller's command disbursed some 5 or 6 thousand dollars worth of horses to emigrants, which was charged and added to the sum total of the $98,500 of expenses charged to the account of Rogue River War, and finally to include the little bills of Geo. Pierson for $2,250 for hay, Drew and Clark for $1680 (Drew for $1000) and last but not least Geo. L. Snelling's for $10,000 will give the following result:
Rogue River War
460 men 30 days 13,800
  60 men 60 days    3,600
                              17,400 days service
Expenses              98,500
Deduct                  10,000 for hospitals
Deduct                    5,000 for provisions to emigrants
Deduct                  13,500 for stealings (not speculations) of Snelling, Drew, Clark,
                               70,000  Dean, Pierson and perhaps others, and a result is obtained
                                            of $70,000 expenses, for 17,400 day[s'] service of the
                                            Rogue River War.
Goodall's accounting, Snelling's division, 1855 Rogue River Indian War
The amount of vinegar, soap and rice charged in this bill gives a clue to the whole affair, as all the troops together did not use 20 gallons of vinegar during the whole war, and the same may be said of the rice, an article the troops would not eat. As for the item of beef, it is well known or at least asserted that Snelling never had anything to do with beef at all.
Supposed partner of Drew's--Geo. Pierson  about                       2,000
Drew & Clark about                                                                            720
Geo. S. Snelling, supposed partner of C. S. and B. J. Drew     9,270.78
    Independent of this several little bills in the name of C. S. Drew and B. J. Drew have been sent on, about which I know nothing. After these facts (which are stubborn things) it would perhaps be well to look into some of the "certificates on honor" etc. of the Walker expedition.
    The richest and most unblushing thing, however, is (among the hospital bills at Jacksonville) an account of Drew for sundry gallons of brandy at an enormous price for the sick and sundry items for cholagogue at the same rates. Details of them will be seen by reference to the duplicates on file in the proper department at Washington, as Maj. Drew secreted and refused to turn over to Capt. Miller the papers at Jacksonville when he was superseded by order of Gov. Curry.
    From the positions I have heretofore occupied, I should prefer that these communications I make to you should be considered strictly confidential and private, unless it should be found absolutely necessary to substantiate them, which I cannot do, but a host of citizens of Jacksonville and Jackson County, as well perhaps as at Scottsburg, who are intimately conversant with the business relations of the Drew family, can do so.
    At any rate, the fangs of the serpent can be drawn and you will be at liberty to have them used or pass them by unnoticed. From the experiences of the Rogue River War (I advise you! pardon me for the liberty I take) the troops of the Walker expedition should be liberally paid, it will be just so to do and will enhance your popularity, as it justly should. I found every advantage taken by Dryer and Drew in the late canvass, on account of the men being paid 61¢ and the horses $4 per day. By the most absolute lying and false representations, they endeavored to give to Maj. Drew all the credit for this $4 per day because forsooth he was quartermaster, and had I had the evidences of his corrupt and false certificates of "honor" at that time as well as I now have, I should have publicly exposed him. But it is better as it is, I do not wish the blow that levels him to the dust to come from me.
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of the country C. S. Drew appears to have a wife. The bill itself from all the evidence that have been presented to me, and I have taken a good deal of pains to inquire, although I am not positive, is in every part and parcel a complete "myth" fable.
    The most positive proofs I have no doubt can be had in Jacksonville from denizens there of the facts in regard to this account, and should my surmises be true, the government I think have a right to know which way their money went, so that they may guard in future somewhat in relation to these things.
    I have had some hesitation in polluting my pen with these details, from a sensitiveness not to make charges where I have no positive proofs, but when strong hearsay evidence exists--most undoubtedly.
    And it is to you I make them, confidentially, from motives that you will do me the justice to appreciate I know.
    The political aspect of affairs throughout the country seems to foreshadow a storm on the horizon, and from the mass of factions with which the country is cut up, East, West, North, South, it will require a stiff and stern hand to stand at the helm of the ship of state (guided by the Constitution) to steer clear of breakers. I have no doubt of the result myself.
    A private citizen, and one likely to remain so, from both inclination and habit, having seen enough of service about camps and in the tented field, or rather the open prairie, I take however a deep interest in the political affairs of our country and hope that our experiment of republican government may stand the test of both time and every wile that may be brought to bear against it. The kingly wiles of Europe and its governments must not be permitted to gain a foothold on our continent. The destiny that awaits us in establishing free governments in Mexico and all South America, is one grander than old Rome, Napoleon or Britain ever dreamed of through conquest or despotism.
    The day too is not distant when Oregon and California with their immense and as yet undeveloped resources, will take a prominent stand politically and otherwise in the affairs of the nations.
    A railroad from San Francisco Bay to the Mississippi is, and ought to be, the great enterprise of the age. Let its cost be what it may (every cent of which we can bear without feeling it), the fact of its connecting one extreme of the continent with the other, opening the India and whaling trade, the vast islands of the Pacific, connecting us politically in a band of iron, promoting intercourse, the one part of the country with the other, leveling prejudices the one section with the other, too many of which already exist.
    Let us do this, while battling Europe is fighting useless and exhausting wars for the aggrandizement of dynasties, and we will make the world an empire all our own.
    Should my success be as good in mining as I anticipate, next winter I will throw aside my pick and shovel for a short space and pay a short visit to the "states" from which I have been a rambler some 15 years. I shall see my brother in Philadelphia, some rich relations down South, none of whom I have seen for that period.
    I shall pay you a passing visit at Washington, where doubtless (should your official duties permit) you will introduce me to congenial society where I can lionize and roar like any "sucking dove," after the order of Texas Rangers and California miners. I shall doubtless require a little polishing up, but a little tact and a good barber can do this. My destiny, however, my "star" calls me here. I could not live in the dull routine of the states.
    Your friend
    James P. Goodall

Port Orford Aug 24th 55
Dear Sir
    I am an applicant for an Indian agency or the inspectorship of Coos Bay, which I would prefer. I have lost all my property in this Indian war and look to you for an appointment. I have stood by you in times gone by and done my best but have condemned you for your error in the appointments made in the Territory; at the same time I am fraternally and politically your friend and want your aid. Capt. Hedges depends on you entirely. I will tell you one fact, and be on your guard for Deady and all the Drews, for Deady is your enemy and [they] are doing all they can against you. Hedges is posted in the same. Do all you can and trust to your friends.
Yours truly
    Wm. Tichenor
[Tichenor dated this letter August 24, 1854--erroneously, I believe.]

Office of Indian Agt
    Rogue River Valley O T
        August 31st 1855
    I have the honor to transmit the following report of the condition of the Agency for the month ending August 31st 1855. Quite a limited amount of labor has been performed on the reserve in consequence of the surrounding country being involved in war and the Indians belonging to the reserve accused of aiding and abetting if not guilty of actual participation, this being the usual war season. They were accused of beginning the difficulties or acting in concert with the Klamaths at the time. That some from this reserve were there I know to be a fact, and there is good reason to suppose that they were implicated in the murders which took place on the Klamath River on the 27th of July last. On the 24th day of July last six Indians left this reserve to visit the Klamath country; on the 26th and before they reached the Klamath River a white man was killed by the Indians on Humbug Creek, a tributary of the Klamath. They were pursued to the Klamaths' camp and three Indians taken prisoner to testify against some white person who it seems had been in the habit of selling intoxicating liquors to them. The Indians were apprehensive of danger and instead of going forward and testifying, the first opportunity they had they broke and run, and were fired upon by the whites and some of their number killed. The same or following night, ten persons were killed on the river near the Klamath camp. Six Indians belonging to Old John were recognized in the assault. The assaulting party were seen going to the camp where those white men were murdered about fifteen minutes previous to the commencement of the firing. The firing commenced in the evening about half an hour before sunset and immediately upon the return of the Indians who were taken in the morning as witnesses, but [they] had made their escape and returned.
    Those Shasta Indians from this agency still deny any participation in those outrages, but from the fact of their being there, going in violation of orders to the contrary, their returning with the property taken from those murdered men, their horses and some articles of clothing, and of their being in possession of an amount of money that cannot be reasonably accounted for in any other way, and their previous bad character, all tend to induce me to believe they are guilty and accordingly with that impression I have thought it advisable to have them arrested for trial. The Indians belong to Old John, but neither he nor any other chief has any control over them. About fifteen of the different bands, but mostly of Old John's people, have banded together and without doubt are the worst Indians I ever saw. Their kindred feeling no doubt associates them together, and consequently but little good can ever be expected of them. Aside from this band I believe the others could be got along with without difficulty, but those above alluded to are so desperate and reckless that the whole tribe fear them. Chief Bill, son of old man John, led this expedition to the Klamath, and as a matter of course he would not be willing to surrender into our hands any of the accused, even for a trial, when a demand is made. They simply declare their innocence, hence you will readily see that we have no other way than by force to apprehend them. Capt. Smith accordingly surrounded a party of them on the 17th inst. and compelled them to come out, amongst which were found two of the accused. They were arrested and are now in safekeeping to be handed over to the civil authorities whenever demanded. And by awaiting favorable opportunities he hopes to be able to arrest the remainder in a short time without involving the country in a war. For the present they are very shy and keep in the mountains out of our way, and I have but little doubt if they could succeed in getting the others to join them they would involve the whole tribe in a war. They evidently desire it themselves.
    The Illinois Indians have run away from the reserve, and I presume they have returned to their old country. They were much dissatisfied before they left. Their trail led in the direction of Illinois Valley. On Applegate a house was robbed of its contents by them as they passed. A detachment of dragoons was immediately sent in pursuit of them, but without effecting anything, the mountains being on fire and vegetation so dry and parched that it was found impossible to follow their trail. In consequence of the surrounding country being involved in war, the unsettled and uncertain state of affairs here and the consequent excitement in the minds of both whites and Indians, it has not been deemed safe for hands to labor on the reserve. In fact I could not find men who were willing to remain here and work. Five companies of volunteers have been raised and organized about Yreka and sent here to arrest and punish Indians. So far we have prevailed upon them to desist and submit the matter to the legal tribunals of our country, which course it is believed will secure to us peace, but in the event of an indiscriminate attack upon the Indians I fear this valley would be plunged into a most ruinous war, more disastrous occurring at this time of the year (their usual war season) than any other. I would like exceedingly well if you had the time to spare to visit this agency, and see if anything can be done towards getting this band of Indians above referred to out from amongst the others, remove them somewhere else or make some disposition of them, so that those who are inclined to do good should not be made to suffer for the conduct of others. Sam's, George's and Limpy's people are quiet and so far as I am capable of judging manifest a disposition to remain so. They paid considerable attention to their crops before those other people were sent amongst them and seemed to take some interest in agricultural pursuits and were no source of complaint on the part of the whites. It is to be hoped that with the usual fall rains much of this excitement will be allayed as that not only destroys the power of the Indian to do harm by fire, their most effectual mode of warfare in this country, but renders them liable to be tracked wherever they may choose to go; consequently upon such an occurrence they usually set themselves about the adjustment of all existing difficulties preparatory to their making arrangements to go into their winter quarters. On Friday last at the head of this valley about six miles east from the Mountain House a small party of white men were out hunting and discovered a body of Indians with a considerable number of stolen horses, amongst the number one of their own they had lost the night previous. Without waiting to inform the commandant at Fort Lane, believing it would give the Indians time to escape, [they] hastened into the settlements, raised what men they considered a sufficient force to attack the Indians and recover the stolen property, in which however it seems they were mistaken, for upon attacking the Indians the next morning they found they were outnumbered and were compelled to retreat. One man was killed on the ground whose body they were not able to recover, and two others badly wounded, and had to be carried off.
    On Sunday evening word reached Fort Lane and Capt. Smith started a detachment of dragoons in hot pursuit but with what success remains yet to be seen. I may perhaps as well state that those Indians do not belong to this reserve but are supposed to inhabit the country in the vicinity of (Snowy Butte) Klamath Lake and are the same that usually infest the emigrant trail.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer Esqr
    Supt Ind Affairs
        Dayton OT
Compare the perplexing differences between this version of the report and the variant in the files of the Indian Department. Agents were required to submit reports in duplicate or triplicate; apparently those copies were far from identical.

Halstead's Ferry Sept 1st 1855               
Dear sir
    Upon my return here I found by the report of my company that the miners on lower Rogue River succeeding in attacking and killing twenty of twenty-four Indians, sustaining a loss of only one man's services perhaps for a few weeks. This band of Indians I am happy to inform you consisted in chief of the murderers of Taylor's band. The person wounded of my company is better, being able to talk, and states that the party by whom himself and Lieut. Frizzell were attacked was headed by Old  Sam in person.
Yours very respectfully
    E. A. Owens
        Capt. of H. Rangers

Port Orford
September 14th 1855
Hon. Joseph Lane
Dear sir
    Ere this you have seen Genl. Palmer on his way home from a tour along the coast, treating with the various bands of Indians from Cape Lookout to the California line. I do assure you that he has most successfully accomplished his mission. And here allow me to add that the U.S. has not in my opinion a more faithful public officer, or anyone better qualified to fill this important trust than he. It would be wholly unnecessary for me to say even this much, but for the efforts still being made by designing persons to injure him in the eyes of the department and in your estimation. I traveled in company with him the whole distance from Dayton to Rogue River, then back and up to the 2nd forks of the Coquille River, and had ample opportunity to observe his deportment before the Indians, under trying circumstances, often in which his judgment and capacity were tried, but he always proved sufficient for any emergency.
    I am of opinion that his place in the Indian department in Oregon cannot be filled if he is suffered to resign, or is removed. He has at heart the true interests of the government, and the welfare of the Indian, and not that spirit of "public plunder" so often manifested by the aspiring "demagogues" in our midst.
    At Umpqua Genl. Palmer and myself visited A. C. Gibbs, the collector, who informed the Genl. that as late as their last term of court, certain mine workers were trying to spring a new task upon him, charging that Genl. P. was inimical to your election and the Democracy, that he absented himself to avoid supporting you for Congress. I conversed with him prior to his leaving for Walla Walla, and his explanation of that matter, and of the absence of Bob Metcalfe from his home, instead of being criminal or in any way sustaining the charge, is so plain as to forbid the supposition for a moment of dishonesty or design in all that transaction. Besides the reasonableness of the whole thing, I do know beyond a doubt that Genl. Palmer is, and always has been, one of your fast friends in Oregon, none better, while those who now seek to supplant him are and were your enemies, secretly if not openly.
    Thus much I feel it my duty unsolicited to say in justice to Genl. Palmer. He thinks strongly of resigning. I begged him not to do it, or at least if he were determined, to wait until Congress acted upon this coast treaty.
    I made this trip with and at Genl. Palmer's solicitation for the purpose of seeing for myself the entire coast, especially of my own district. At Umpqua I met Thos. D. Winchester, of Elkton, and recommended him for the post at Coos Bay. At Rogue River a growing trade is carried on, and it will not be long before a revenue officer will be needed there.
    At Coos Bay, Port Orford and Rogue River, schooners of small tonnage are constantly arriving, but without yielding any considerable amount of revenue to the government.
    By last mail I received a letter from Hon. Secretary Guthrie, an extract of which is here made, after stating that my compensation will commence when I shall have taken the oath of office before some proper magistrate within my district, while Mr. Whittlesey, when transmitting my commission, accompanied it with a note saying that my bond together with the oath of office had been received and approved.
    Mr. Guthrie goes on to say "that no other officer authorized for your district by the act above referred to will be appointed at this time, and not until the extent and character of the business of the district shall be developed."
    Notwithstanding my district stretches about 120 miles coastwise over a country of as irregular formation and of as difficult access as any on this coast, still he says, "Should you deem it necessary on account of absence or sickness, to appoint a deputy, you may, and advise the department of the person so appointed. Any compensation for such service however must be paid by yourself. You will also furnish an office for the transaction of your business at your own expense." Now in a country like this where everything is high, I have to pay $12 per mo. for an office, $8 per week for board, $3 per doz. for washing, $5 per day for a horse to travel to the points of my district. If I am to have no help besides wood and stationery etc. which Mr. Guthrie will throw upon me also--and yet expects the business of the government to be faithfully attended to. These things cannot long exist. I have made a requisition for funds to meet expenses of the office for one year in advance as was done in the case of Mr. Gibbs, If I receive as I have reason to expect I will liquidate that paper at an early day. I told Genl. Palmer to urge you to come to Port Orford to take [a] steamer for the states. You can do so as well from this point as from Portland. I must see you if possible before you go to explain the business of this district. Genl. P. told me that he would have a horse left with Drew at Umpqua City for you to ride down upon; if not if you will signify your willingness to come I will have an animal ready for you at the above place at a given time. 3 days over a good pack trail brings you from Umpqua to Port Orford, where I shall be most happy to meet you.
    Give my regards to Mother Lane and the family and believe me
Your friend
    Robert W. Dunbar
To Genl Lane

Port Orford
    Sept. 16th 1855
Dear Genl.
    I have just had a conversation with Capt. Ben Wright, sub-Indian agent of this place, who is very anxious to see you in regard to certain claims for services in the Indian department some time ago, and other matters for which he has not been paid, and in which he has expended a considerable amount of his own private funds.
    On hearing me say that I had written you, he requested me to say that any convenience you may require in coming to this point before you leave, he would join me in rendering. I hope you will make it convenient to come, so as to stop a few days at Port Orford. Your answer is anxiously looked for.
Truly yours
    R. W. Dunbar

Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O T
        Sept 30th 1855
    In reviewing the affairs of this agency for the past month I am forced to the conclusion that the prospects of peace are anything but flattering. The month has been passed in one continued series of aggressions. Although taken singly each item on itself appears small, but in the aggregate the sum total presents a formidable appearance. It seems as though they had studied how far they can go with impunity and have endeavored to go no farther. I think nearly or quite all the mischief that has been done was perpetrated by a few Shastas and Scotans. The settlers' patience has become exhausted. They are quite irritable and will not bear the least offense from an Indian any longer. Petitions are handed me weekly and I may say almost daily. One day a theft has been committed in one portion of the valley, in a few days another and in a different portion of the valley. The thefts are quite small as a general thing, not amounting to more than four or five dollars. In some instances a gun, another some powder or lead, again a miner's cabin will be broken open and his little stock or provisions taken. It must be borne in mind that our frontier settlers are, many of them, bachelors, and when they are absent from their houses at work, no one is left to guard what they own, and not infrequently when they return from their work at night do they find their little stock of provisions minus. It has been abstracted during their absence by Mr. Indian crawling down the chimney or knocking a board off and creeping through a crack. In most instances the houses are of rude logs and not very securely fastened, which offers a temptation for Indians hard for them to resist, especially when we consider that they have been trained to steal from infancy. After a repetition of the thefts a few times and the individual after a hard day's work has had to walk two or three miles to get his supper and lay in another small lot of supplies which in a few days may probably go in the same way. He gets peevish and angry and embittered against the Indian race, and would about as soon shoot one as to eat his supper. In order that you may form a better idea of what is going on I will give you a brief account of last week's work. On Monday I was called upon by Mr. Hamilton, who lives twelve miles below here on the river. His house had been entered in his absence and the contents abstracted amounting to eight or ten dollars. From there I was called to Mr. Shough's whose house had been entered and six shirts, half a sack of flour and one chopping ax purloined. Next I was called to Mr. Tufts who had three head of his cattle shot seemingly by a revolver. None of the cattle were killed but some of them badly wounded, apparently done in sheer wantonness. Next to Mr. Gilbert's whose house had been entered through the chimney whilst he was in the field at work, robbed of a sack of sugar, a sack of flour, a small quantity of bacon and a pair of boots, saw the Indians break and run at his approach, was not near enough to recognize any of them. Next comes Mr. Walker whose house was robbed of a pair of boots, one pair of blankets and one pair of pants. From there to Mr. Vannoy's who had a lot of rails burned in the woods, the grass fired near his fence several times, had to be constantly on the lookout to prevent being burned up. Does not suppose the Indians fired the rails, but in wantonness fired the woods and it soon extended to the rails and burned them. And this is but one week's work. Grievances of a similar character are constantly pouring in upon me from every side, and in all these numerous instances not an Indian can be found who is guilty of any of the above acts; one band lays the charge to some other band and they in return charge it on to some other band, and so it goes from one to another and all go unpunished, the loss sustained by any one individual being quite small, he does not care to spend time to ferret it out and if he did I know of no way by which he could do so. All this mischief you will observe was done in the neighborhood of Mr. Vannoy's and in the country occupied by George and Limpy's people, but in justice to them I do not believe they knew anything of the matter, yet they have all the blame to bear. From what I can learn I believe it to have been done by some of Old John's people, and some Scotans of whom I informed you some time since of their leaving the reserve. John's people are constantly passing to and fro from the reserve to the Scotans, who are camped somewhere in the Coast Range of mountains and the lower Rogue River Indians about Galice Creek. I have failed in every instance to bring the offenders to justice; they seem to take no interest in the affairs of the reserve, nor do I believe they will stay on it much longer. From the frequent occurrence of those petty offenses the patience of the settlers of the valley has become worn and threadbare and I expect daily to hear of an Indian being shot should one pass by the vicinity of some house about the time of its being robbed. I have no doubt he would be shot upon suspicion; the idea is quite prevalent amongst the white population that there is a combination [i.e., a coalition] amongst all the Indians and the chiefs, instead of trying to control it, connive at it, which is certainly not the case. I do not believe it is in the power of the chiefs to control it. I entertain the opinion that this little band of Scotans and Shastas do all or nearly all the mischief that is done in pure wantonness, alike thoughtless and regardless of consequences and with the impression that they can charge it to some other Indians, as the devilment is usually done near the camp of some quiet Indians to whom no theft has been alleged for many months prior to bringing these bands of Shastas and Scotans on the reserve. It is with difficulty hands can be procured who will labor on the reserve; they are in constant dread of their lives being taken, nor do I believe the matter will be bettered as long as the Shastas are permitted to remain here. I really fear they will plunge the whole country in a war if some stop is not put to their numerous little thefts. Already the people talk of waging a war of extermination and calling on the citizens of Yreka for assistance, which if they should do it would be quickly granted to them, for they are ready at any and at all times for an Indian fight. Sam's people doubtless desire peace and to remain on the reserve; they have not left it the past summer, nor have they taken part in any difficulty nor been engaged in any thefts that I can ascertain, although from Sam's previous reputation they are charged with nearly everything that is done. At any rate, say they, he knows it, and no doubt some of his people help. The fact of charging crime on innocent Indians and those desiring to remain friendly has the worst possible effect; it impairs their confidence in our people; they have no guarantee of safety be their conduct what it may, nothing to stimulate them to do right, in fact its tendency is to drive them all into that same channel of vice and crime. After the massacre of those men on the Klamath not a single Indian who was concerned in that affair has yet been punished, yet quite a number have been killed, and some that belonged to a different band. If that policy should be carried out here it remains yet to be seen what will be the consequences.
    On Tuesday last two men were killed by the Indians near the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains. The men were teaming, hauling flour to Yreka from Mr. Wait's mill, were unarmed at the time. There were four in company, two escaped, thirteen head of work cattle were shot dead in the yoke. The Indians took six sacks of flour; nothing else was disturbed. The next day on Cottonwood a party of three men, miners, were fired upon by Indians, one killed and one wounded, the third escaped unhurt. Capt. Smith started a detachment of dragoons immediately after them.
    I am satisfied these murders were not perpetrated by any Indians belonging to the reserve. I believe it to have been done by those same Indians with whom a party of white men had a difficulty within a few miles east of the Mountain House, an account of which I wrote you at the time. They were Shastas and "Tipsu Tyee's" people beyond a doubt.
    Of the pecuniary condition of the agency I must refer you to my quarterly returns. Of the amount of labor, number of hands and the occupation of different ones progress &c. of the work on the reserve you will see in an abstract accompanying this report.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt Indian Affairs
        Dayton O T

Oct 4th '55               
    Enclosed I send you a letter, written in answer to one I wrote asking information of when the Rogue River War pay for the troops would be probably paid off. There is a good deal of gratuitous information in it which I happen to have no use for, and which I do not think is improper that I should send you as I am not aware of any violation of faith or confidence--none having ever existed. But during the making out of the rolls, accounts, etc. etc. of the Rogue River War, the war itself, the making of the treaty, Indian policy and politics were frequently discussed in which from my uncompromising opposition to any attacks upon you for your recent policy and conduct of the war, Drew found it best I suppose to speak me fair, and repeatedly gave me the gratuitous assurance that he would remain your fast friend. He had his notion, as I believe, that except for me the papers would not have got to you in six months.
    How this gratuitous pledge was fulfilled, his conduct in the late canvass with Dryer will tell. Of all the low wireworking electioneering plans I ever saw developed, his seem the damnedest. Why sir! Dryer was a gentleman alongside of him.
    Exclosed I send you a printed communication of E. Steele Esqr., one of your old friends here, whom Drew has you over to see and induced to write the article I think by making certain representations. If Steele knew the real position in which he stood he would not I think stick a prop under to hold him up until he consummates his "Walker speculation."
    In giving you my views it is not my purpose to meddle, and I certainly esteem Steele as a gentleman; however, I may from a better knowledge differ with him on some minor points. I repeat there can be no mispropriety in paying liberally the just accounts of both soldiers and citizens of the Walker expedition.
Yours etc.
    J. P. G. [James Pleasant Goodall]
P.S.  Since my last letter to you in relation to Indian disturbances, murders etc., an affair has occurred with the whites and Indians in Rogue River Valley in which one white man was killed and two wounded and another a day or two since on the road to Yreka from Jacksonville in which the Indians murdered two whites and wounded another and shot 12 yoke of oxen wantonly and then went by Cottonwood and shot two more men, one of whom was killed.
    A certain set we have in this country will gloat over this outrage and make all the capital possible out of it, and if any chances for speculation occur, will doubtless take a chance, unless it should be necessary to expose their precious persons and then I should guess they would not take any desperate chances.

    J. P. G.

By the Governor of the Territory of Oregon
A Proclamation
    Whereas certain Indians have been guilty of the commission of criminal offenses, and have combined and are now engaged in hostilities that threaten the peace and security of the frontier settlements, and the chief in command of the military force of the United States in this district, having made a requisition upon the executive of this territory for a volunteer force to aid in suppressing the attacks of said hostile Indians, I issue this my proclamation calling for eight companies of mounted volunteers, to remain in force until duly discharged--each company to consist of one captain, one first lt., one second lt., four sergeants, four corporals, and sixty privates. Each volunteer if possible to furnish his own horse, arms and equipment, each company to elect its own officers and rendezvous without delay on the right bank of the Willamette River, opposite Portland, where they will be mustered into service on reporting to the Adjutant General of the Territory.
    The following named counties are expected to make up the number of men wanted and are in order to facilitate operations the subjoined named gentlemen are respectfully requested to act as enrolling officers in their respective counties.
Multnomah County one company Shubrick Norris
Clackamas        "         "           "        A. F. Hedges
Washington      "         "           "        W. S. Caldwell
Yamhill             "         "           "        A. J. Hembree
Marion              "         "           "        L. F. Grover
Polk                   "         "           "        Fred. Waymire
Linn                   "         "           "        L. S. Helm
Wasco               "         "           "        O. Humason
    The last-named company will organize at The Dalles and report in writing to the Adjutant General.
    Our fellow citizens who may be in possession of arms, rifles, muskets and revolvers are most earnestly desired to turn them over to Assistant Quartermaster General A. Zeiber, or his agents, in order that they may be appraised and supply a deficiency that is most seriously experienced.
    Given under my hand at Portland, this 11th day of October A.D. 1855.
                                                                                        Geo. L. Curry.
    By the Governor.
Benj. F. Harding
        Secretary of the Territory
                        of Oregon

Elkton Umpqua Co. O.T. Oct 11 1855       
Hon Jos Lane
    Sir    Enclosed herewith I send you a bounty land claim. Please send it to the proper office. I am about opening my law office at Winchester and if the L.O. [land office] remains there I shall ultimately move there; if it goes to Roseburg I shall go there. Please advise me if it is likely the office will go to Roseburg.
    From the papers it will appear that the Indians in Oregon are uneasy and give evidence of a united determination to do serious harm. While we are at peace abroad we may quell disturbances but depend upon it I think that Oregon is in a defenseless condition should we at any unexpected moment have difficulty either abroad or with the Mormons.
    It is unnecessary for me to advise you. My object is only to encourage you to every effort possible to have Oregon and Washington placed in a proper state of defense against war external or internal. The brave people of Oregon and Washington territories cannot be permitted to act in advance of wars, Indian or otherwise. The general government should look well to these outposts. I have no personal fears but I must confess that I think that unless the U.S. government shall take higher grounds and use more effective measures for our defense, within and without that for one I shall be willing to take the defense of Oregon into our own hands. If these Indians do much more harm a war of extermination will be waged upon them, you may rely upon it.
    In relation to our town site question, cannot we get a new hearing, so as to allow us to present our side of the case. A new commissioner of L.O. having come in I think our case in much safer hands.
    I think of depositing some money in a few days in the L.O. Winchester to your order and drawing on you in favor of Wm. Masye. If I do so I will send you the receipts.
    I shall be glad to hear from you when it may please you to write.
                W. W. Chapman

Port Orford, O.T.
    Octo 11th 1855
Hon Joseph Lane,
Dear Genl,
    I was much disappointed that you could not have come by land to this place. My regrets are partly selfish and partly on your own account. Could you have remained for a few hours as it was, many matters could have been put to rest which in the mouths of agitators are kept alive.
    The people wish to see you--you are popular amongst these people, but you know it is a good plan to see the masses often, to retain their confidence. Northrup, whom you saw, opened as soon as you left with his abuse, again averring that it was your fault that no mail service was put on this coast route; indeed he did not believe until shown that a law creating a post road from here via Coos Bay to Umpqua had been passed. And reviving the old story he told prior to the election, to wit: That you authorized him, on the way up, to board the steamer on your return from Congress to say to the people of Coos County that Genl. Lane would be a candidate for Congress, whether Judge Pratt was or not--or whether nominated or not! I have given this story the "lie" flat. Thus much on your own affairs, now for private business relating to myself.
    You will recollect that my bond was delayed for a time in the valley, that I filled and accomplished it in Portland. I did so on the 6th day of June last, and as soon after as I could I left by land for this point. Communications from the proper department met me here, stating that my bond and oath of office had been received and approved and commission was accordingly forwarded by Mr. Whittlesey, who stated to me that the oath of office had been approved. Prior and subsequent to this various communications from the different revenue bureaus at Washington [arrived] requiring certain reports and duties to be performed, all of which were strictly attended to in their proper order. Here on the 13th day of Sept. I received from Mr. Guthrie, dated August 10th, giving directions in regard to many things, amongst others that "my salary as collector would commence when I should take the oath of office before a magistrate in my district," without referring to the former oath--and after I had been discharging the duties of my office for nearly a month. I of course drew up and subscribed an oath of office and mailed to Secretary of the Treasury with explanations. I do not know if this last oath has filled the technical requirements and I may be spending my time at heavy expense for nothing, as there seems a disposition in my case to quibble about small matters. This is not all. Mr. Guthrie informs me that I must furnish an office at my own "expense to do the public business in." I had, as I learned that you and others had done before I came here, given a recommendation to Thos. D. Winchester for the post of deputy collector at Coos Bay. Also before I knew the wants of this district, I had recommended a person for secretary, as the law authorized. Mr. Guthrie tells me that no other officer besides myself authorized by the act will be appointed at this time and not until the business of the district shall be fully developed. And that if I by sickness or otherwise have to leave my post [I] may appoint a deputy, but any compensation to him must come out of me. This latter is well enough if I am not expected to leave this port at any time or visit the remote ends of this district.
    I have traveled the entire distance coastwise, and it is over 120 miles in length, about equal either way. I cannot make either extreme of my district up or down in less than 5 days at a cost of not less than $40 either way: horse 5, meals 75 ct., ferriage 1.50 to 2.00 of perfect mountain travel. Now what am I to do; these men do not understand any of these difficulties, and there is a growing trade at Coos Bay and Rogue River--and how am I alone to supervise these distant points and render an exact account under oath. In consequence of the district not being a paying one is illicit trade to be permitted? My position here already has had a restraining influence that which was intended to be landed here has been obliged to go to San Francisco for the reason that if duties are to be paid they will be paid where there is a market. I am still of opinion that a revenue officer ought to be appointed for Coos Bay.
    One more matter of my own, and I do hope you will bear with me, as I seem to be always on the list of complainers. I desire to do always right, but the fates seem to be against me of late with all my efforts.
    I learned privately a day or two since that a systematic effort was about to be tried to get me removed, and Cap. Tichenor appointed in my stead. If any step is taken at Washington to that end advise me of it. Dart, his son-in-law, leaves on this steamer for Washington. If anything can be done by him, of course he will do it for Tichenor. Before such a thing is done, I can satisfy anyone that he is not the person for such duty.
Your friend,
    R. W. Dunbar

Deer Creek Douglas Co. Oct 14th 1855       
Gen Lane
    Sir, I write you a few lines to merely let you know that we are still alive although we have wars and rumor of war all the time. There has been some seventeen men killed in Jackson County since you left and Mr. Wagoner's whole family is murdered and the house burnt.
    You will learn by the Statesman more fully. I shall not take part; I don't this in this war [sic] as I wish to let quartermaster Drew have a fair chance to get some scalps [illegible]. As you know all of your family is well and all things going fine, still dry weather and plenty of grasshoppers.
    Dry weather is bad on a poor miller,; still I shall never give up whilst I have health and strength. Maj. Mosher is getting along fine and is becoming more popular every day, in fact just the man for the place. He has sent us all the public accounts you can. I hope yet to see you president. I shall move back to the claim again in about three weeks.
    Yours truly
        Wm. J. Martin
Gen Joseph Lane
Washington City

By the Governor of the Territory of Oregon
A Proclamation
    Whereas, by petition numerously signed by citizens of Umpqua Valley, calling upon me for protection, it has come to my knowledge that the Shasta and Rogue River Indians in Southern Oregon, in violation of their solemn engagements, are now in arms against the peace of this Territory; that they have without respect to age or sex murdered a large number of our people, burned their dwellings and destroyed their property, and that they are now menacing the southern settlements with all the atrocities of savage warfare, I issue this my proclamation calling for five companies of mounted volunteers, to constitute a Northern Battalion, and four companies of mounted volunteers to constitute a Southern Battalion, to remain in force until duly discharged. The several companies to consist of one captain, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, four sergeants, four corporals, and sixty privates. Each volunteer to furnish his own horse, arms and equipments, each company to elect its own officers, and thereafter to proceed with the utmost possible dispatch to rendezvous [omission?] hereinafter appointed.
    It is expected that Jackson County will furnish the number of men wanted for the Southern Battalion, which will rendezvous at Jacksonville, elect a major to command, and report in writing to headquarters. It will then proceed to take effective measures to secure indemnity for the past and conquer a lasting peace with the enemy for the future.
    The following named counties are expected to make up the number of men wanted for the "Northern Battalion": Lane County, two companies; Linn County, one company; Douglas County, one company; Umpqua County, one company; which will rendezvous at Eugene City, elect a major to command and report in writing to headquarters. It will then proceed immediately to open and maintain the communication with the settlements in the Rogue River Valley, and thereafter cooperate with the Southern Battalion in a vigorous prosecution of the campaign.
    Given under my hand, at Portland, the 15 day of October A.D. 1855.
Geo. L. Curry               
By the Governor
    B. F. Harding
        Secretary of the Territory
            of Oregon

Oct 15th 1855               
Genl J. Lane        Dear sir
    You will perhaps be surprised at my writing to you so soon, but as I know that you will be interested in things that transpire in this part of the world I drop you this line. War has again commenced in the Rogue River Valley. First, the Indians killed 2 men and 13 head of oxen on the Siskiyou Mountains about the time that you left. This has been followed up by their killing the families of Messrs. Wagoner, Harris, Vannoy and some others this week. In all 17 whites have been killed this side of Rogue River. This week Major Lupton is dead, was shot in a fight with the Indians. He was one of the representatives-elect from Jackson Co. The soldiers of Fort Lane have gone out as I learn after the Indians. Some volunteers have gone. Saml. Gradley started Saturday with a petition to the Govr. requesting a call for volunteers. As soon as he can return I expect to go out as Mrs. Hadley is not well and we cannot both leave at once. As near as I can learn the Rogue River and Shasta tribes are the murderers. 2 sons of Joe Knott esq. are out with teams in the valley, and rumor says they are among the slain. Mr. Knott and M. P. Deady esq. started out to see. They went through the Canyon last Sunday morning. Deady postponed court till the first Monday in Nov. on acct. of the fracas. I think Gen. we must destroy the whole tribe this time. The treaty was very good, but the party in favor of the next war will have their way this time, and probably make a treaty of extermination. Mr. Hadley did not get my money soon enough for me to get it to you. I will hand it to Mrs. Lane, as per agreement, hoping this will find you in good health. I will write again soon. And as the war progresses will keep you posted up. But I have already drawn this to an extreme length and will close. Friends are well and as far as I can learn I am, etc. etc. Yours truly
Geo. M. Hammond
Hon Joseph Lane
P.S.     Mr. and Mrs. Hadley send their respects etc. etc.

Grave Creek, Jackson Co. O.T.   
    Oct. 16th 1855   
Dear General
    The mail is just leaving and I have only time to write a single word--by next mail you shall hear from me at length. As you will see by the newspapers which go out by this mail, we are in the midst of another Indian war. Already three families have suffered most severely--some twenty-one persons have fallen. Among the number are Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Haines and Mrs. Wagoner of this valley. Mrs. Harris fought the red devils for several hours and finally escaped. Her husband was killed early in the attack on the house. Maj. Lupton, member-elect of the next Legislature, was mortally wounded in the attack on the 8th inst.
    Maj. Fitzgerald from Fort Lane is in pursuit of the Indians. The people complain very much of the policy of Capt. Smith of Fort Lane--with how much reason I do not now assume to decide. In Rogue River Valley some two hundred volunteers are already raised. A. S. Milton and T. S. Harris are each in command of a company. This place is the headquarters of another volunteer company under command of Capt. Rinearson. Major Isaac Miller of Umpqua Valley and Wm. Ballard of Rogue River are just arrived here from Jacksonville. They were in the attack on the 8th inst. Forty Indians were killed on that day. But the mail cannot remain longer and I must close.
Yours most truly
    J. W. Drew
Gen Jos. Lane

Corvallis Oct 16th 1855                   
Gen Joseph Lane
    Dear sir we are now in a general war with the Indians. It seems to be a simultaneous and a general outbreak both north and south with the Indians, which you see by the enclosed extra of the Statesman. Maj. Hullar with 100 men has been worsted in an engagement with the Yakimas and has been forced back to The Dalles from the Simcoe Valley where they attacked him. He lost 12 men killed and wounded besides losing all of his horses. Gov. Curry has been prompt in making a call for volunteers. The Oregonians are prompt in responding to his call; a company of [omission] start tomorrow from here to go to The Dalles to help thrash out the Yakimas and the Klickitats. That band of Klickitats that resided here in our vicinity have joined the Yakimas (blast the rascals). They have always been treated well by the citizens here. Trouble from the coast Indians is anticipated, with the indications which they have manifested towards the whites of late in consequence of the outbreak in Rogue River. Gov. Curry will call out 1000 or 1200 men; the greatest difficulty in the way is there is no arms. We will have to send to Benicia Cala. I trust you will see that Oregon is provided with an arsenal [illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] can be done. It seems hard to have to have a war with the Indians and a general one at that. It will check the prosperity of the country and put a drawback upon the settlements, and we hope the government will send out 2 or 3 regiments across the plains this coming spring. Rest assured that the people of Oregon have the fullest confidence that you will leave nothing undone for Oregon's welfare and prosperity.
    We know that we can whip the Indians out and make them peaceable. The rainy season being so nearby may prolong the time, but Curry is bound to go ahead and we are bound to quiet them. Some good citizens have been murdered in Rogue River, news of which will reach you soon, as this it is hoped that by a rapid march that force enough can be got east and north of the Cascades to subdue the Indians before the winter gets much advanced. If not I am afraid that much cannot be done. The reason why you will readily understand, the difficulty of subsisting a command. There is a good deal of excitement and a great deal of enthusiasm among the boys and some talk of a war of extermination, but we are bound to give them a good whipping first, and then what is left if we think they won't behave themselves then we will exterminate them.
Your friend well wished
    L. A. Davis
Gen Joseph Lane
    Washington D.C.

Office, Supt. Ind. Affairs
Dayton, O.T. temporarily at Portland
Oct 19th 1855
Dear sir
    You are appointed a special sub-Indian agent, in conjunction with Berryman Jennings, and local agent for the tribes residing along the south bank of the Columbia River between the cascade falls and the mouth of the Willamette River. And as such you will proceed without delay to carry out these regulations and orders from this office, given under date of 13 inst., a copy of which is herewith enclosed. After conferring with Col. Jennings as to the point of locating the encampment for the Indians in your district and those on Clackamas and its vicinity of Oregon City, you will proceed to [the] Indian village on the bank of the Columbia River, a few miles above Switzler's, and direct those Indians to repair at once to the designated encampment in accordance with these instructions. You will then visit St. Helens and confer with Thomas H. Smith of Milton who has been appointed local agent for the Indians in that vicinity, and aid in maturing the business of that encampment, after which you will proceed to collect the Indians along the south bank of the Columbia from that point to Hunts Mills (in the event Mr. Smith has not already done so) and afford Mr. Smith such other assistance as may be deemed practical to carry out the regulations referred to. You will then visit Clatsop Plains and ascertain the security and condition of the Indians in that district. And if the safety of the settlement require[s] it, you will proceed in like manner to establish an encampment for the Indians in that settlement. Should sub-agent W. W. Raymond be near that point, you will confer with him and leave with him a copy of these regulations, and if he deems it necessary he will establish similar encampments at Tillamook. On returning you will report the conditions of Indians at the different encampments, their number, feelings, probable expense of keeping up the encampments through the winter if found necessary etc. On the arrival of Mr. Metcalfe from California you will call upon him for five hundred dollars to defray the expenses in carrying out these regulations, giving him a receipt for the same, the amount of which to be accounted for under the appropriation for adjusting difficulties and preventing outbreaks.
    I need not say that it is expected a judicious economy will be observed in all matters connected with this business. Strive to convince the Indians that it is a measure for their good and is believed to be the only means by which they can hope for protection
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt Ind Affairs
Lot Whitcomb, esqr
    Local Indian Agent

Office Supt Ind Affairs
    Dayton Oct 21, 1855
E. T. Stone esq.
    You are hereby appointed to collect the Yamhill band of Calapooia Indians at some suitable point, where you will keep a close watch over them and will not permit any of the men to be absent without a written pass from you. You will draw up a roll containing the names of the men and place opposite each name the number of women, boys and girls belonging to his family should he have one. This roll you will call daily and mark all absentees who unless they can give good reason for their absence will be subject to such penalty as may by the proper authority be deemed just, such as confinement, the forfeiture of his share of annuities etc., and if anyone is refractory or insolent you will immediately cause him to be arrested and placed in confinement.
    You will also purchase and issue subsistence to the Indians while they collect. The daily ration will be one pound of flour to each adult and less in proportion to the children. If you find it necessary you may also issue a pound of beef to each adult daily. You will keep a correct daily account of the amount and kind of subsistence issued to each family or individual, and have the same daily attested by at least one witness. Of your roll and all your proceedings and issues you will make due return to this office. You will be careful to incur no unnecessary expenses, and all proper and reasonable charges connected with the oversight of this band will be allowed you.
    Be careful to impress the Indians with the importance of conducting themselves quietly, and to give no offense to any white person, also to remain at the camp assigned them, for if they wander about at this exciting time you cannot be accountable for what may happen.
    Also assure those who are so greatly alarmed and excited of the white population that there is not the least occasion for it, that nine out of ten of the reports of suspicious movements among the Indians of this valley are utterly false; that the reports of the collecting of large numbers of Indians on the Santiam and Calapooia is utterly without foundation, that measures are afoot in the Ind. Dept. to ascertain the locality of every Indian in the valley and to appoint suitable local agents to watch over the several bands.
    It is earnestly hoped that no one will be led by the excitement at present existing to do any rash act of violence which may drive the peaceable Indians of the valley to desperation and use them to commit acts of violence which otherwise they would not think of. If any wish to make themselves useful in punishing the reckless savages who at the north and south are now spreading abroad the horrors of war let them join their fellow citizens on the field of strife as they can do no good and will only disgrace themselves by attacking and killing the helpless and friendly.
By order of supt.
    E. R. Geary Secy Supt Ind Affairs
"Instructions of E. R. Geary to E. T. Stone, local agent, relative to management of Yamhill Indians" is written (presumably by Lane's secretary) on the back of the letter.

Portland Oregon Oct 24th 1855.           
Dear General
    Since you left an Indian war has broke out upon our northern and southern frontiers of a very serious character. It is firmly believed throughout the territory that there will be a combination of nearly all the tribes west and north of the Nez Perces, and I am informed by Mr. McKinley, who is just in from Ft. Colville, that a large number of the young men belonging to the Nez Perces had already joined the war party. He thinks they are three thousand strong.
    The governor by proclamations of the 11th and 15th October instant has called for a regiment of mounted volunteers to go north and two battalions to go south, which will make a force of nearly two thousand men. The people has responded promptly, and by the 28th of October inst. the regiment will be at The Dalles ready for the field. And I assure you they are a fine-looking set of boys, and will do good service for their country.
    The governor has been untiring in his efforts, up night and day preparing for the campaign. You will very readily conceive the embarrassment which is felt by the executive of this territory in sending a force into a foreign country without a dollar of money, entirely upon credit.
    But the citizens of this place and the territory generally have come forward and turned over their property without any reluctance, and all feel confident that the government will see them paid. The depredations committed by the Indians you will be advised of through the papers, and the governor will forward to Hon. Elisha Whittlesey the assessments which contain all the particulars which will be handed to you to read.
    The governor has honored me with an appointment to his staff as aide de camp. He intends taking the field in person, and I shall go with him, but shall return before the legislative assembly meets. I shall collect all the facts and embody them in a memorial to Congress this winter, asking for an appropriation to defray the expenses of this war, and I know you will use your best endeavors to get it for us. I shall leave tomorrow for The Dalles with the governor. I have not time to write more. Let me hear from [you] whenever convenient.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt servant
        A. P. Dennison

Territory of Oregon
        Portland Octo 25th 1855.
Genl. Jos. Lane,
    Delegate for Oregon.
    The northern frontier of the territory, and the valley of the Rogue River, are now the theater of the most serious Indian hostilities which this country, so famous for troubles of that sort, has ever been afflicted with. Full details have been communicated to the Hon. Secty. of War, and to the Adj. General's office, to which I beg leave to refer you. For your more particular information you will find transmitted herewith a [illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] matter. The crisis is really
[illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] for me to meet, and my measures have been adopted promptly, and I trust effectively. You will readily appreciate the difficulty of procuring an adequate force to be mustered into the service of the U.States, and be prepared to vindicate the course which I have been constrained to pursue in maintaining a distinct military organization of the territorial troops. This necessity has forced upon me the equipment, transportation and subsistence of our force in both sections of the territory. The means for doing this have been placed at my disposal by the generous confidence of my fellow citizens, trusting entirely for reimbursement to the candor and justice of Congress.
    The campaign at the north, unless a decisive blow is struck early, will I fear be protracted, expensive and bloody. Our troops take the field fully impressed with the importance of the undertaking in which they will be engaged.
    A perfect understanding with the commanding officer of the U.States troops is necessary to insure cordial cooperation
[illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] of the campaign, to secure [illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] repair myself to The Dalles of the Columbia. I leave today. The entire force of volunteers from Oregon will be on their way by tomorrow night.
Very truly yours,
    Geo. L. Curry,
        Governor of Oregon.

Yreka Cala. Oct. 29 1855.           
Hon Joseph Lane
Dear Sir
    Enclosed I forward to you a power of attorney of Lieut. Bodwell of my late company of volunteers. It is all correct and duly attested.
    One sent to you by me last summer at Winchester for transmittal to Washington may not answer, as Maj. Alvord (who was particular) refused to pay upon it.
    Please pardon me for trespassing upon your good nature so much in these petty matters when I tell you I do it for others who ask it of me.
    Should you draw the pay, transmit it in draft payable to my order by mail to Yreka. It will doubtless come safe.
    The war with the Indians has again broken out--worse than ever, notwithstanding Capt. Smith's efforts to maintain peaceful relations with the Indians. Murder after murder has recurred, brought on in some cases by the acts of our own people, it must be confessed, until peace is not to be thought of till the Indians are well "whipped." Sam, chief of the reserve Indians, seemed to desire peace and is under the protection of the flag at Fort Lane, but the Indians generally are in a state of hostility. About a month since then detachments of the citizens, highly incensed at recent Indian murders, attacked three camps of Indians on or near the reserve, the result was some 30 killed, some 10 or 12 of whom were unfortunately squaws and children. Eight or ten of the whites were wounded in the affair amongst them; Maj. Lupton, member-elect to the assembly--mortally--since dead.
    The Indians "broke" for Evans Ferry, and from there to Wagoners', played hell--murdering, robbing and burning as they went--sparing neither age or sex. Mrs. Wagoner's child being massacred and burnt, and a Mrs. Jones, also, murdered. Maj. Fitzgerald from the fort with some regulars and vols. overtook and chastised them.
    Since then they attacked a party of miners on Galice Creek, who taking cover in a board "shanty," fought for 8 hours, losing 2 killed and 9 wounded out of the party of fifteen men.
    I cannot give you a detail of all the atrocities that have been committed, for want of space.
    Four or five volunteer companies are out under Jim Bruce, Smiley Harris, Bob Williams, Abel George and others.
    You will get official reports of all these things, soon, more fully and correctly than I can give them. Col. Jno. E. Ross is enrolling the vols. for service, and if it necessary I shall raise a few choice spirits and go over to the scene of hostilities. Just now my business affairs absolutely forbid it.
    Should it actually be necessary to carry on a war of what is termed here "extermination," which I fear will be the case, I would not hesitate to go heart and soul into the affair if I had an assurance of my company being paid. This would seem mercenary, but when it is considered how enormous expenses are and how many pecuniary sacrifices an officer especially of vols. must make to render his command efficient, it will not appear so to those initiated in California and Oregon life, where gold, though found in abundance, is acquired only by ceaseless toil and hardships.
    Believe me my dear sir when I say that both policy and humanity dictate that government should absolutely increase the regular mounted force on this frontier or enroll vols. under an efficient officer.
Yours truly, your most obedient servant etc.
    James P. Goodall
Nov. 20th 55               
 P.S.  Enclosed is a p. of atty. of Wm. McKay. In a late letter recd. by me from P. Clayton 2nd auditor I am informed that all the accounts of my company yet unpaid--a part of them sent through to you--have been duly recd. and referred to the 3rd auditor of the treasury, to whom the settlement of such accounts properly belongs.
    He also sent me form of how to properly make out properly the accounts etc.
    The enclosed powers of attorney I hope will pass muster.
    In order to save the expense, delay and trouble of appointing attorneys at Washington I have transmitted this to you through my brother, A. G. Goodall, who is connected with the firm of Bald, Cousland & Co., 74 Walnut St., Philadelphia. If you draw the money or drafts, please hand it to him, or remit it by mail to me, as is most convenient. I believe he has already introduced himself to you.
I have the honor to be etc. etc.
    Jas. P. Goodall
Pay of Lieut. Bodwell   140.60
   "    "   Private McKay     66.13

Gold Beach Oct. 30th 1855
    To General
        Joseph Lane
Dear Sir
    I take this present moment to say that I have just heard from Rogue River Valley. An Indian war has again broken out there in good earnest. The first battle was fought at the mouth of Butte Creek in which 40 Indians were killed and 13 whites wounded, 2 mortally. Major Lupton is one of the mortally wounded. He has since died.
    Men are enlisting and the boys are now fixing to clean them out in toto.
    You probably do not recollect me, as I have but recently came to Oregon. I had the pleasure of an introduction to you at Jacksonville last spring the time that you so used up Gaines in your stump speech in May last.
    General Gaines would of done much better to of never come, as many of his friends said if those were his principles on the question of suffrage and naturalization and slavery they should have to throw him off after this.
    You will please consider me one of your warmest political friends. I take pleasure in your success and hope that still higher important stations in public life await you. I shall always take pleasure in doing you any service in my power in Oregon. Be assured that your friends in Oregon are not few. But they are men true to their country and true to Democracy and have ever found in you a true representative of themselves.
    I shall at all times be glad to hear from you and hope you will do me the favor to send me such books of speeches etc. etc. as may from time to time be distributed by you to your friends.
P.S.  Will you please to send me a copy of the land law or law that relates to the donation to settlers in Oregon. Direct your favors to Klamath County, Crescent City p. office.
With the highest respect
    Your obedient servant
        Ogden Barrett
            Attorney at law
General Joseph Lane
    Washington City

Oregon City 31st of Oct 1855           
Dear Genl
    I suppose before this you are comfortable located at Washington. Doubtless you are fully advised as to what is transpiring here, but still I will give you some items. Gov. Curry has called into the [service] ten companies of volunteers to act beyond the Cascades against the Indians. They are in arms and have banded together; various estimates are made as to their strength but none put down the hostile warriors at less than 2500. There is some uncertainty as to the Nez Perce tribes and the Spokane, but all the other Indians are supposed hostile. All the companies called for are in the field.
    In the south the Indians are hostile. Four companies were called for from Jackson, a major command and six companies from the counties of Lane, Linn and the Umpqua Valley, making a major command.
    I think the Gov. has acted well in calling out the 20 companies called for. The Indians had determined on a general rising with the design of driving the Bostons out of the country, and they need a lesson. I trust you will not find difficulty in getting the sanction of the genl. government to decisive action. Aside from the war little else is going on. Produce commands a better figure than it did last year. And after the Indian troubles are ended I trust Oregon will take a new start. Kelly went out as cap. of Clackamas Co., Pawnall is 2nd Lieut. and Dolph Hanna as 1st Lieut. A good set of boys made up the co.
    I wish to ask you to attend to some matters for me with commissioner Hendricks. In my vouchers are some disallowed for articles I got for the office. In I. A. Pawnall acct. dated 29 of March 1855
One item two cords of wood                          8.00
Sawing same                                                     4.00
10 pounds of candles L. N. Prescott           10.00
Amt. paid Indian sawing wood by myself      4.50
Copy press and book for register                25.00
Every dollar of that money I paid out for the office and I could not have avoided it any way. It seems strange that there should have been any difficulty about such items. We could have got on without the book and copy press but not without wood and lights. I trust you will explain the necessity for lights. After four o'clock we have to have lights here during the rainy season, and often school commissioners are here at night, to say nothing of others who are anxious to get through this business. I paid out $8.50 for wood sawing last winter, yet the commissioner has deemed it extravagant or from some other cause rejected it. I have written to you about these matters so that I may get them corrected. By last mail I made a requisition for funds for the quarter ending 31 of Dec 1855, and by this mail I will make a requisition for quarter beginning the 1st of Jany 1856. Will you be so good as to see that funds are transmitted. I feel anxious to keep my accounts adjusted. I mentioned to you the propriety of something being allowed me as depository. I wish you would see Mr. Guthrie about it.
    The commissioners' letter to me about these matters is dated 6th of Sept 1855.
    I saw Shelby the other day; all are well with him. There is nothing of interest going on except the war. I do not think we can get any action on a state move this winter. By the New Orleans Delta of 20 of Sep I see he is out for you as President. I trust you may be our nominee, and if so I shall feel easy as to the result I regard your nomination for President and R. M. T. Hunter as Vice-President as the desired result of our next convention. I look on the position taken by the Delta as tending to give you the South if so you are sure of a good support from the Northwest and in that event you can name your successor in Congress from Oregon. I do not regard you as having any competitor except Buchanan. However, should our friends select elsewhere a candidate it will only be a delay of four years. My health is good.
    As ever your friend
        James Guthrie

Winchester Douglas Co.
Nov. 1, 1855.
Dear Gen.
    Your esteemed letter in answer to my letter, which was delivered by Mr. Winchester, was duly received, and now that you have arrived at the capital I venture a reply. For the friendly feeling manifested and expressed, you have my warmest regards, and to that portion which refers to the steamer I trust in all conscience that your labors will be attended with success, for if ever there was a case where an agent was needed to bring out the commerce of a people it is here, and by the use of a steamer.
    Immediately after you left, the Indians south began again their murderous attacks upon the whites, commencing at Wagoner's. You well remember Mrs. Wagoner, and her little Mary, about five years old; both were horribly butchered, and her house burnt within an hour after Judge Deady left the house on his return from court at Jackson. The remains of Mrs. W. and child were found together. I am informed that Mrs. W. was about to be confined at the time of the murder. Among the hostile Indians engaged in that murder was Wagoner's pet Indian who washed the dishes that morning. The Knott boys were camped near there; they saw the smoke from the burning buildings and the approach of the Indians and fled. Mr. Cathcart's son was killed. Mr. and Mrs. Jones were killed; they lived this side of Wagoner's, also Mrs. Harris. After Mr. Harris was shot Mrs. Harris took the old gun and continued the defense by shooting between the house logs. She fired sixty-four times aided in getting means by her little daughter, until at last she ran to the yard, pursued by an Indian, who cursed her, knocked her down, and then shot her through the arm. She was left for dead. Immediately however she rose, ran to a ravine nearby and fell into it, where she remained. The Indians gave her up for dead, and turned their attention to the house. She was finally rescued by Major Fitzgerald. See for particulars Statesman of Oct. 20, 1855. Since this several whites have been killed, and every house but Elliff's, Twogood's and I think widow Niday's have been burnt on the road between the Canyon and Rogue River, and those will not last long. All the pet Indians are engaged in the war on the part of the savages. On Monday last "Louis" was taken prisoner with some 10 others, and scouting parties are out now bringing in the remaining tribes to Deer Creek. From thence they will be placed on their reserve, on the Umpqua, and there guarded. Gen. McCarver is at Deer Creek, engaged in his duties of commissary; several companies are there also. People throughout the valley are forting up, and the greatest excitement prevails. Troops are needed at the mouth of [the] Umpqua, and more at Port Orford. Just as soon as the Indians rise down there they have the power to destroy every white among them, and should they join the hostile tribes God only knows where this will end. The Indians east of the Cascades are in constant communication with the Indians in this valley and also in the Willamette Valley, and the Indians here, who have been friendly, now give evidence of hostile intentions. They are saucy and exacting. One thing is certain, this is the last war which we will have. Every man will fight, and fight well, up to the last moment. The war here is progressing rapidly. Last night an express arrived for ammunition to attack a party of Indians near Cow Creek, which were surrounded when the express left. No particulars. The mail carrier is marked, pursued and shot at constantly. Great fears are entertained for the safety of the lives at this end of the Canyon. The regiment of volunteers for this valley will choose a major and other officers, I think today. Mr. Mosher, who is getting very popular with the people, will be elected major if he desires it. I have heard several mention his name, all of whom were working for him. Lawson has nothing to do with the war as I know of as yet. Your family are well. I see different members as often as I visit this place. Mr. Winchester, and Gibbs, are quite well. As danger increases families will gather in.
    Mr. Knott had every wagon and work axe which he owned destroyed on the road near Wagoner's. The goods which were in the wagons belonged to Peters and Ladd; they were totally lost. The goods are valued at 6000.00. Thousands of dollars worth of goods have been destroyed, and are being destroyed as the enemy approaches. The horrible butcheries that are committed baffle all description.
    I have engaged the service of an attorney at Washington, and I wrote him that I would pay his fees at Winchester here, and draw on you for them in Washington. The amount will be small. Simon, your son, told me it would be all right and that he would mention it to you. I did not have a chance to see you on the subject. The proposition is this to take a receipt here, forward it to you, with direction to whom to pay the money when called.
    The amount will be too small to send by draft, which I cannot do if I desired to. If you could oblige me in this way it will be a great favor to me, and to those for whom I solicit the service at your hands. Mr. Neely is the gentleman to whom I have written. You will not pay any money until a receipt of deposit is sent you, and none will be sent until Mr. Neely sends me his bill.
    The present excitement and confusion will be a sufficient excuse for the haste in which this letter is written. I will write again soon and continue to post you in our affairs south. Write me at Winchester for the present.
    Yours truly
        S. F. Chadwick

Jacksonville O T Nov. 5th 1855       
Gen Joseph Lane
    I want to ask one favor of you which I hope you will grant being that I have supported you in your official capacities and still intend so to do unless my mind should be wonderfully changed. There is a war going on at present with the Rogue River Indians in which many of our valuable countrymen have fell. The Indians broke the treaty by murdering over 60 whites during the past summer. They have damaged me greatly by stealing my stock. They took one hundred and thirty-two the first haul which I have proved by four good men, all beef cattle, and they have just taken a number more. There is a company of men now after them but I have but little hopes of recovering a head, for they have defeated one co. already.
    My cattle would meet [net?] six hundred and fifty at the lowest calculation and are worth seventeen and a half cts. per pound in this market and is on the rise. If I don't recover the last lot of cattle taken I will write you again and lay in another bill of damages, and I wish you to appear before the war department in my behalf, and I will pay you well for your trouble. If my bills are not allowed I am ruined and considerably in debt with a family to support. General, I hope you will attend to this business and I will return you a favor by electioneering for you hereafter.
Yours with due respect
    Washington L. Riggs

Jacksonville, O.T. Nov. 6th 1855       
Friend Miller
    Sir--Since I last wrote to you, I have been to Crescent City to purchase supplies for the volunteers under John F. Miller, who is appointed Quartermaster Gen., and from whom I am commissioned to purchase all the supplies that cannot be purchased at this place, and from present appearances this war will cost the govt. in my opinion at least eight times as much as the war of '53. There has been one general fight back in mountains northwest of the Grave Creek House. Capt. Smith with his regulars was there, and I think the Indians got the best of the fight, for the troops and the volunteers left the field to the Indians. There were several of the regulars killed and a number wounded, and several of the volunteers killed and some twenty or more wounded.
    Jack Kennedy it is thought will not live till morning. The battle was fought on last Wednesday (31st of Oct.). On the night following both parties camped on their own ground. The next morning while the troops were preparing their breakfast, the Indians made a charge on them but were repulsed with a loss of six or seven but continued to menace and challenge the whites, by inviting them to chahko (come on), calling them damned Boston (white) sons of bitches etc. Thus threatened, tantalized and menaced, our troops thought it best policy to withdraw and recruit, and try them some other day. So on the 8 or 9th inst. they intend to try them again.
    We have not only the Rogue River Valley Indians to fight but all the neighboring tribes, and it is hard to tell how long it will last. At least it cannot be terminated before spring, and you know that it is a hard task to chase Indians among these mountains, especially in winter.
    I think the place the Indians chose to fight would require at least 2,000 men to whip them. They are now skulking around and stealing stock all the time. They are well mounted on good horses and plenty of cattle with them. Last night they burnt some thirty tons of hay on Applegate Creek. No person is safe to travel alone in any direction. Some ten or twelve days ago [they] attacked a pack train on the summit of the Mooney Mountains, and killed two men and wounded one other. No Indians were seen until the two men were shot down. There were four mules killed, and their loads fell into hands of the Indians. Another train lost one man killed and 16 mules. There is another train lost entirely, supposed to have fallen into the hands of the Indians. The Indians also made an attack upon some miners upon Althouse Creek--killed one man and wounded another--got their guns, fired three or four houses and made their escape. The greatest difficulty under which [we] labor is the want of arms.
    I leave tomorrow morning for Crescent City with 100 mules to pack up groceries and supplies for the volunteers. I will have an escort of 22 men. They will accompany me to Illinois Valley and from thence escort back some trains loaded with govt. supplies for Fort Lane. Now I assure you that the whole country is under arms and there is need of it too. It is said that the Indians have two or three white women prisoners; how true that is I cannot tell. There are several missing, and it was supposed that they were killed, as the houses were burnt from which they are missing. Everything is destroyed from the Canyon to Evans' Ferry except the Grave Creek House.
    So you can imagine how things are here now.
In haste, yours etc.
        W. W. Fowler
Jno. A. Miller, esq.

Headquarters, Yakima expedition
    Roman Catholic mission
        November, 13th, 1855. 
Hyas Tyee of the Yakima Indians
    Your talk by Padre Pandozy is just received. You know me and I know you. You came among the white people and to my house at The Dalles with Padre Pandozy and gave me a horse, which I did not take, as Pan-a-wok had given Lieut. Wood another horse for him. You came in peace. We came in war. And why? Because your land has drank the blood of the white man, and the Great Spirit requires it at your hand.
    You make the sign of the cross, and pray to the God of truth for mercy, and yet you lie when you say you were very quiet, the Americans were our friends; our heart "was not for the war," until Governor Stevens changed your feelings; for long before the treaty, which you agreed to, you proposed to the Walla Walla chief, Peu-peu-mox-mox, to go to war and kill off all the whites. He told us so. You had been preparing for this purpose a very long time; and your people agreed with the Cayuse, at the Walla Walla council, before the treaty was made, to murder all the whites there, which was only prevented by the Nez Perces disagreeing.
    You know that you murdered white men going to the mines who had done you no injury, and you murder all persons, though no white man had trespassed upon your lands. You sent me a delegation to stop Hamilton and Pierce settling in your country. I wrote them a letter, and they left. You murdered your agent Bolan for telling you the truth, that the troops would come upon you for these murders. Has his death prevented their coming? I sent a handful of soldiers into your country to inquire into the facts. It was not expected that they should fight you, and they did right to return back. Your foul deeds were seen by the eye of the Great Spirit, who saw Cain when he killed his brother Abel and cursed him for it. Fugitives and vagabonds shall you also be, all that remain of you upon the face of the earth, as well as all who aid or assist you, until you are gone.
    You say now, "If we will be quiet and make friendship you will not war with us, but give a piece of land to all the tribes." We will not be quiet, but war forever until not a Yakima breathes in the land he calls his own. The river only will we let retain this name to show to all people that here the Yakimas once lived.
    You say that you will fight us with thousands, and if vanquished, those of you that remain will kill all your women and children, and then the country will be ours. The country is ours already, as you must see from our assembled army, for we intend to occupy it, and make it too hot to hold you. We are braves, and no brave makes war with women and children. You may kill them as you say, but we will not; yet we are thirsting for your blood, and want your warriors to meet us, and the warriors of all tribes wishing to help you, at once to come. The snow is on the ground and the crows are hungry for food. Your men we have killed; your horses and your cattle do not afford them enough to eat. Your people shall not catch salmon hereafter for you, for I will send soldiers to occupy your fisheries, and fire upon you. Your cattle and your horses, which you get from the white man, we will hunt up, and kill and take them from you. The earth which drank the blood of the white man, shed by your hands, shall grow no more wheat nor roots for you, for we will destroy it. When the cloth that makes your clothing, your guns, and your powder are gone, the white man will make you no more. We looked upon you as our children and tried to do you good. We would not have cheated you. The treaty which you complain of, though signed by you, gave you too much for your lands, which are not all worthless to the white man,  but we are not sorry, for we are able to give, and it would have benefited you. After you signed the treaty with Governor Stevens and General Palmer, had you have told us that you did not wish to abide by it, it would have been listened to. We wanted to instruct you in all our learning--to make axes, plows, and hoes to cultivate the ground; blankets to keep you from cold ; steamboats and steam wagons which fly along swifter than the birds fly, and to use the lightning which makes the thunder in the heavens to carry talk and serve as a servant. William Chinook at The Dalles, Lawyer, chief of the Nez Perces, Sticcas and We-atti-nati-timine, hyas tyee of the Cayuses, and many others of their people, can tell you what I say is true. You, a few people, we can see with our glasses a long way off, while the whites are as the stars in the heavens, or leaves of the trees in summer time. Our warriors in the field are many, as you must see, but if not enough, a thousand for every one man will be sent to hunt you, and to kill you; and my kind advice to you, as you will see, is to scatter yourselves among the Indian tribes more peaceable, and there forget you ever were Yakimas.
G. J. Rains
    Major U. S. A.
        Big. Gen. Washn. Terry.
            Comg. troops in the field.
Frances Fuller Victor's Early Indian Wars of Oregon gives the context for this letter, page 429.

Grave Creek Novr. 18th 1855           
Dear Genl.
    I feel some little delicacy in writing you after the proclamation of the organ of your party in his paper of Novr. 3rd. But I can't believe that a man of your known patriotism and devotion to the best interests of Oregon will sanction a doctrine that is destructive of all union and harmony among us in our present trying emergency; and yet I am sorry to say that the doctrine has been carried into practical operation within the last few days so far as the southern war is concerned.
    Since the introduction of party into the war nothing has been done, although it is well known that the Indians are in force where we left them on the first inst. patiently waiting another attack, and within the last three days they have sent a party on the road from Evans' to this place who burned the only two houses they had previously left standing and yet no movement is yet made to distract them. Three of Major Martin's companies are now in the Umpqua Valley where there is no more danger of Indians than there is in Washington City.
    Col. Ross had made all his arrangements for renewing the attack on Monday the 5th inst. when the agent of the gov. arrived with his order No. 10 requiring the troops there in the field under his command to be disbanded which has been done, and a southern battalion has been organized under a good set of Democratic officers down to the assistant quartermaster. I have been driven from the hospital, where I had been placed by Col. Ross in charge of the wounded in the battle of the 31st of Oct. and 1st of Nov., to make room for a man notoriously incompetent on account of his habits of intemperance. I would remain in the field if I could do so without a sacrifice of all personal self-respect.
    I was in the hottest of the fight as a common private in the ranks, dressing the wounds of the men where they fell, no other man capable of doing it being on the ground but Lt. Stone of Capt. Williams' company.
    After having labored night and day for the last six weeks without hope of reward, I am driven from the field to make room for political gamblers that would sink one-half of the territory to promote their own selfish ends.
    I leave for Yamhill in a day or two, where I shall hold myself in readiness to take the field whenever Governor Curry shall publicly disavow the doctrine promulgated by the Oregon Statesman, (viz.) "that none who voted for Gov. Gaines at the last election are to be allowed to hold office in the army." If it is not disavowed, I will leave the territory just as soon as I can get out of it, and when it comes to that, that Whigs, Democrats and all other parties can't meet together on the battlefield on terms of political equality, it is time that all honest patriots of all parties should leave the territory to be occupied by heartless demagogues and the Indians.
    I have never acted with you politically and probably never shall, but I have never questioned your patriotism or bravery, and would now sooner fight under your lead than any man in Oregon. I have nothing to ask or expect from your influence politically, but as the representative of the whole people of Oregon, I have a right to expect that you will discountenance a doctrine that is destructive of all union and harmony in times of danger, that had heretofore characterized us as a republican people.
    It is my opinion that the Indians will have things their own way during the winter. The whole country needs to be occupied with troops--the two battalions are not sufficient for this purpose. A thousand men now is needed to trail up and drive from their strongholds the strong bands now in the mountains. Get the Indians into the open ground where they can be charged and regular troops are more efficient than volunteers, but I saw enough the other day to satisfy me that they are comparatively useless in the woods. If we had a thousand regulars in the valley, the Indians would destroy every dwelling not actually occupied with troops before six months. There can be no more safety or peace in this valley so long as a dozen Indians are above ground. To talk of treaties is worse than folly, for if made, neither party would live up to them.
    It is extremely unfortunate for the prosecution of the war that the tocsin of party has been sounded. It is difficult enough anyhow to obtain supplies under the most favorable circumstances, and every movement lately has aggravated them. If Whig talent and energy are not needed for the prosecution of the war, their capital is. If I had a million I would not contribute a single dime to prosecute a partisan war. Congress may do it if they please, but I doubt their doing it. Please let me hear from you addressed to Lafayette, Yamhill Co. Please remember me to Genl. Shields of the Senate [sic--Col. George K. Sheil was a Congressman].
Yours truly
    A. G. Henry

Yreka Nov. 20th 1855.               
Dear General
    The war with the Indians is being carried on in R. R. Valley with various success and is likely not soon to terminate. It was a total defeat of the whites and a retreat in the affair on Cow Creek Cañon just after Mr. Wagoner's massacre. 400 vols. of the regulars under Capt. A. J. Smith of Fort Lane were driven back, Capt. Smith distinguished himself! There seems to be bad management somewhere as many of the vols. were shot by each other, and the night after the battle a volunteer raised a false alarm of attack by the Indians and two or three more were shot.
    A general war seems to be on hand from the Cascades to The Dalles.
    "Tyee Sam" and some 30 or 40 of his warriors are quietly ensconced under the flagstaff at Fort Lane. Sam says he wishes all of the "sullix" Siwashes killed off, so that the annuities under the treaty we made in '53 will not have to be divided amongst so many.
    Lamerick has been appointed mustering officer and adjt. genl. by Gov. Curry. There could not have been it seems to me a better appointment. Jim Bruce was elected mayor of the battalion now in the field over Bob Williams by a majority of 25. Both were captains in the last battle. Col. Ross and his adjt. the late Maj. Drew, were displaced by order of Gov. Curry.
    Private business, of a pressing nature, including a lawsuit of some magnitude in a family point of view, has only kept me away from the scene of action. Should the war, as will probably be the case, take the shape of petty attacks, scouting parties and stockades, or in other words a perfect system of guerrilla warfare, I suppose I shall have to take a "chance" and bring to bear some of my old Texas Ranging propensities.
    I am satisfied that now, under the present aspect of affairs, that it will be necessary--let the cost be what it may--to give the Indians a thorough beating before a treaty of peace with them is to be thought of.
    Apart from this conducing to the interests of the country, public sentiment and feeling demands it.
    My long experience of frontier life warrants me in venturing this opinion, and yours will doubtless agree with me. The repeated broils [i.e., brawls] that occurred antecedent to this little war now raging precludes the probability of any amicable arrangement, and the less said about treaties the better, so far as public sentiment goes on this frontier.
    The regulars from home (Ft. Jones) have, under Capt. Judah, all gone over to R. R. Valley.
    Two Indians concerned in murders on Klamath last July have just been turned over by Capt. Smith to the authorities here. Mob law made an effort to try or rather execute them under "code Lynch," but the good sense and law-abiding sentiments of the mass overruled it.
    They deserve death, but let it be meted under the laws of the country.
Very respectfully
    James P. Goodall

Winchester Nov. 22, 1855               
Dear General
    Your family are all well and the land office is going on finely, considering that we have not yet received any instructions, books, etc. Everything in quiet in this valley, but there is the devil to pay both north and south. You will be likely to know about the northern war as much as I do, but as I have just returned from Jacksonville, where I went to see how matters stood, I can give you a more reliable history than you will be likely to receive from other quarters, as there are two parties on the war question, and both of them wrong in many respects.
    It appears now, although it was not known at the time of the outbreak, that ever since those two Indians of Old John's band were arrested by Capt. Smith for participation in the Klamath murders, he (John) has been trying to induce Sam and the other Indians to fight. In this he was for a long time unsuccessful. In the meantime the exterminators took every occasion to excite the people to a general attack upon the Indians. At last a party of volunteers, among them Maj. Lupton, Jim Bruce and I believe John F. Miller made an attack upon Jake's band near the mouth of Little Butte Creek, off the reserve. Unfortunately, the most of the warriors were absent, but they came very near "cleaning out" those that were there. This attack was, I think, very ill advised, but still the provocation was great. The band had been for a long time very troublesome, stealing etc., and had been repeatedly warned by Sam, as well as the whites, to go onto the reserve, and Lt. [Nelson Bowman] Sweitzer had been twice sent with a detachment to move them there. Besides, the Indians who made an attack on a train on the Siskiyou Mountain and killed two men were trailed towards Jake's camp and were probably harbored by them.
    The night that this attack was made the Indians held a talk, Old John insisting that they should go to war, as the whites were evidently bent on extermination. Sam refused and Mary (Jim's wife) made a long speech for peace. Just before day John with six men started down Rogue River, killing and burning as they went from Jewett's Ferry to Wagoner's. There they were joined by George and Limpy's bands. Maj. Fitzgerald came on a party of them the next morning and killed six. John crossed near the mouth of Applegate and went up near where you had the talk with Tipsey, and at the last accounts Smiley Harris with his company were going to fight him. He had about forty warriors. George and Limpy made an attack on some miners at Galice Creek and were repulsed. Here they were joined by some Indians from Tyee Bar on lower Rogue River, and returned into the hills between Grave and Cow creeks about six miles N.W. of the Six-Bit House. From this place they made a foray into Cow Creek Valley, burning every house except Elliff's and two others that were defended. A few days after they were attacked by the troops, regulars and volunteers, and after a day and a half fighting the troops were compelled to retire for want of provisions. The loss on our side was 14 killed and 26 wounded. Among the wounded is Lt. Gibbon and Arty. The Indian loss it is impossible to ascertain, but was at least equal to the loss of the whites. The attack was to be renewed in a few days but was delayed by the order of Genl. Wool, sending Maj. Fitzgerald to The Dalles. The last news I had, the Indians had divided, some going down Rogue River and the rest towards Evans Creek. Maj. Jim Bruce followed the last and Capt. Bob Williams had attacked the first, killing six and losing one man.
    Now for the quarrelling--Col. Ross on the first outbreak called out the militia (very properly) and with Charley Drew as A.A.G. was going to whip the Indians directly. This they failed to do, and when the proclamation of the Governor came, Drew and Dr. Henry undertook to make the men believe that Curry had disapproved of what had been done, in order to induce the men to disband. They failed in this. A battalion was organized and Bruce elected major. Bush persists in saying that there is no war in the south and Curry that there is war all over. So it goes--Curry, to avoid making a party question, has made nearly all the staff appointments from the Know Nothings, which of course "raised a muss."
    I forgot to say that George's force of Indians is probably 120 warriors. Sam, Elijah and Sambo with their bands, about 80 warriors, with their women and children are encamped near Ft. Lane, and cannot be induced to fight.
    Maj. Bruce and Maj. Martin both wish me to run for colonel, but I shall not do it, unless I think I can be of some use. I don't intend to mix up in any quarrel about the war.
    Give my respects to all friends
        And believe me
            Yours truly
                L. F. Mosher


Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Nov. 27th 1855
Dear Genl.
    Sir.      I have but little war news of interest to relate. The people are getting tired [of] it, and nothing effective has yet been done. Since active hostilities commenced, very few Indians have been killed. They have taken to the mountains in small bands, and it will be far more trouble to find them than it will be to kill them. By some mysterious and unaccountable strange maneuvering, the Know Nothings have crowded themselves into all the clerkships and vacancies in the commissaries and quartermaster's department. It is time it may be remarked what has politics to do with war. Had these damned Know Nothings the same feeling in common with the rest of mankind, it would have nothing to do. Their only aim is to render the war as obnoxious as possible and hold the Democratic Party responsible for all the evils which result from it. In this valley Charley Drew has had the entire management of it so far. Fowler and Briggs are both in the quartermaster's department, appointees of Miller. Headquarters is at Drew's ranch. The business is being conducted more loose if possible than it was in '54. I hope however this will soon be remedied. It is the Governor's intention to have some changes made soon. I regret to see Bush and Governor Curry have had some little clashing. I trust, however, that will be amicably adjusted shortly. I saw Governor Curry last week; he was at Roseburg in company with Genl. Barnham, who is now at Jacksonville.
    It was with difficulty that men could be enrolled under the proclamation of the Governor. They could not bear restraint. They wanted to carry it on in the regular Know Nothing manner, in a filibustering sort of a way, that they would neither know themselves, nor could anybody else know anything about it. However, this has finally been obviated, by organizing according to the proclamation, and active preparations are now being made for a winter campaign.
    It seems that Drew, and Ross, Fowler and Briggs had the entire management of this war and no doubt have endeavored to hold the Democratic Party responsible for their acts, and a few Democrats were found shallow enough to listen to their cry of no party, and aid and assist them in their endeavors. I think it will all work out right in the course of time. Their success will only be temporary. As the mail is just leaving I will cut my communication short, and write you again soon.
    Yours respectfully
        G. H. Ambrose
Genl Jos. Lane M.C.
    Washington City
    I will however make one suggestion which has occurred to my mind. Would it not be well for government to buy their horses and pack animals and save the enormous expense of hiring at $4 per day, which is the price expected. There is no probability of a speedy conclusion being put to this war. The Indians don't want peace. Sam's whole tribe is at Ft. Lane; Limpy and George have both joined the war party.
    Sam has 81 men, 124 women, 55 boys and 54 girls, making a total of 314.

Oregon Mounted Volunteers
Nov. 20, 1855.  Jacksonville, O.T. November 25th, 1855
Quartermaster Department to Willard Spencer, Dr. [debit]
(1050) One thousand and fifty pounds Beef @ 25 Cents per pound
    Two hundred sixty tons 50/100 $262.50

Ninth Regiment Oregon Mounted Militia
Jacksonville, O.T. November 5th, 1855
Quartermaster Dept.
1855    To Willard Spencer Dr. [debit]
Nov.     (7200)  Seven thousand two hundred pounds of Hay @ 6¢ per pound
    Four Hundred and thirty two Dollars $432.00

Ninth Regiment Oregon Mounted Militia
Jacksonville, O.T. November 10th, 1855
1855        To Willard Spencer Dr. [debit]
Nov.         Seven hundred pounds of Beef @ 25 cents per pound
        One hundred and seventy-five Dollars         $175.00

Ninth Regiment Oregon Mounted Militia
Jacksonville, O.T. November 30th, 1855

Quartermaster Department

To Louis Felton Dr. [debit]
To use of one team of three yoke of Cattle and teamster from November 1st to November 8th inclusive six days @ twelve Dollars per day.
    Seventy two dollars $72.00

Ninth Regiment Oregon Mounted Militia
Jacksonville, O.T. November 10th, 1855
Quartermaster Dept.
    To Louis Felton Dr. [debit]
Nov. 8  16,000 Sixteen thousand pounds Hay @ 6¢ per pound   $960.00
            (448) Four hundred and forty-eight pounds of corn @ 7 cents per pound $32.00
              Nine hundred and ninety-two   992.00

Fort Orford, O.T.
Dec. 1st, 1855
Dear Genl.:
    Agreeable to promise, I write you, and I think it will take about a sheet of this size to hold all I have got to tell you. I returned a few days ago from my expedition to Fort Lane after a trip varied with adventure and hardships more than I bargained for when I set out. I left here on the 1st of October, and succeeded in satisfying myself that a road can be made from here to Fort Lane with some expense. I had set out with ten men armed with axes only, and we had a guide, making twelve of us. On the 14th we reached Big Bend and learned from peaceable Indians that the bands in the valley had broken out into a war. So I abandoned the axes and went back for guns to arm my men with. I relied but little on the rumor but I thought best to prepare. I had given up all hopes of seeing any Indians and had reached within six miles of the Oregon Road on the divide between Grave Creek and Cow Creek on the 25th ult. when I suddenly ran right into a large encampment of them on a high knoll on the top of a spur of the divide. I was not certain that they were hostile until they fired into us. We were ready for them and fought them for half an hour, my men were raw recruits and knew nothing about Indian fighting and were considerably "flustered," and the guide he wanted to back out so I had difficulty to keep them to the mark, but suddenly the Indians got upon our flank, and three shots in quick succession from our right killed two of my men dead, and the third knocked me over, when the rest broke and all h_ll would not have stopped them. Fortunately a small memorandum book in my right flannel shirt pocket prevented the ball from penetrating, and I jumped up immediately and tried to rally my men but it was of no avail, I could not even get them to drive off our animals and I was compelled to make a "glorious retreat" with the loss of two men all my animals, and provisions and "traps." Night favored our escape; we doubled on the Indian camp and got down upon Wolf Creek and going up it we reached the "Six Bit House" which we found abandoned but were fortunate enough to find a few potatoes and a little butter which served to help us on to Grave Creek where we found a stockade around Harkness and Twogood's stand. There were about ten men there who were thrown into a great excitement by our approach, and if we had not called out to them they would have fired into us for Indians, from which you may infer the state of affairs. I then learned the particulars of the war, and how the troops and volunteers had been scouring the country (up and down the high roads) for two weeks and had not been able to find an Indian. I immediately dispatched an express to Maj. Fitzgerald at Evans Ferry; it was two o'clock at night when we got in and the next evening he arrived. On the 27th I went up with him to the ground where I had lost the two men and found their bodies and buried them. The Indians had moved their encampment about three miles, back from the spur to the main divide. We had seventy men and intended to fight them but when the Maj. saw the camp which they had abandoned, he came to the conclusion that they were too strong for us and we marched back to Grave Creek as though we had not discovered them, though they saw us. Here we found Capt. Smith who had arrived with some additional men. Expresses were sent out to all the volunteer forces and the Capt. sent to Fort Lane for more ammunition, arms and provisions enough for a fifteen days campaign. As they intended to organize a regular expedition, I concluded that I would join them and when they had driven the Indians off my trail I would return to Port Orford by the way I came, so I proceeded to Fort Lane and fitted out my party anew and was back again in three days. Maj. F. had returned to the fort sick. I wanted them to take the howitzer but no one at the fort would take the responsibility of taking it along, and I was also astonished that Dr. Crane did not accompany us, but he said he could not go without Capt. Smith's orders. When I returned to Grave Creek I begged of the Capt. to send for the Dr. and for the howitzer; he said it was too late, that we would have to do without them. I replied that late or early he would send for the doctor anyhow, and that he would wish he had the howitzer before he was done. My experience had taught me that it would be no child's play and I also felt that the Indians would make a stand, yet they prepared for the fight as though they expected the Indians to run and that the great difficulty would be to get the red devils to stand. When I reached Grave Creek all the troops had arrived. There were about two hundred and fifty volunteers under Col. Ross and about 130 regulars under Capt. Smith. A beautiful plan of battle was agreed upon. One detachment of volunteers was to occupy the divide on the west; another was to start out from the Six Bit House and take position on the north, and Col. Ross with the volunteers was to come in on the south and all were to wait for Capt. Smith to make the attack on the east. We set out about 12 o'clock on the night of the 30th and moved along with as much precision and silence as could have been desired at first, but the nearer we got to the enemy the more careless and noisy they were. When we got upon the ground where I had met the Indians, Col. Ross was to separate from Capt. Smith. The party that had to occupy the west had already left us. I pointed out to Capt. Smith the position of the Indians, the course he was to take and the way Col. Ross must go, and as it was already daylight I urged the necessity of going on rapidly. Col. Ross thought he had better wait until the other party had taken position on the west, and the Capt was anxious that the only two officers he had with him, who had indiscreetly filled their canteens with brandy instead of water, should get sober, and they delayed an hour and a half or two hours. In the meantime the detachment that was to occupy the north came in behind us on our trail; they had mistaken their trail, and adopted ours. It was a cold foggy morning, and the men started up fires to keep warm. I pointed out the position of the Indians to the Col. and the Capt. but they said they could see no Indians and they did not believe there was any Indians there. No sooner however did the smoke curl up between the trees than the hillsides were covered with Indians driving in their stock and preparing for battle. It was now too late for a surprise, but I again urged the Capt. to move and not delay any longer. He said he should move immediately. But before he got started a party of "harum scarum" volunteers got the start of him and led the way down into a deep gulch some fifteen hundred feet which intervened between us and the enemy. Instead of complying with the plan of attack agreed upon and going around on the ridge the Capt. followed them, leaving his train and Lt. Alston, who was not yet sober. Gibson made out to follow. By the time we got up with the Indians, we were very much used up and the plan of attack was effectually knocked in the head by the fourth party joining, so instead of having surrounded the Indians we were all together. In the first meet the Indians gave up their position. One of ours was killed and several wounded, and this one dead man won the battle; two thirds of the men never got past this one dead body. The Indians took up a position just beyond a sink in the ridge that protected their squaws and children who were moving to their rear, along the main ridge. The north side of the ridge was covered with a heavy growth of fir timber and thick undergrowth, the south without trees but a dense brush of hawthorn, hazel and oak. Totally unfavorable for a charge, but the most desirable for flanking. Some thirty or forty men succeeded in advancing to the brow of the knoll the Indians had abandoned and which they commanded now, where we kept up a fire quite sharp for three hours or more when we gradually hauled off and before night it had ceased. The rest of the troops were behind and occasionally fired at those of our men in front who had the courage to advance towards the Indians. Everything was "helter skelter." Capt. Smith and Col. Ross were behind taking care of the wounded. At night we hauled off down on the hillside about four hundred yards into a little gulch where the Indians had got their water from some dirty little springs. I begged the Col. and the Capt. not to camp there, they thought it was a bad place, but still they camped there. I had represented during the afternoon to the Capt. the necessity of either moving back to our train, or else to send for it to come up as we had nothing to eat since the night before and no blankets. Neither was done, and we hovered around little brush fires, cold and hungry, the sides of the little gulch so steep that we could scarcely find room for the wounded. Things were very gloomy. I never was so depressed in my life. I felt certain that the Indians would attack us and if made in the night with a proper skill would complete our overthrow. Everybody felt this so much so that when a tremulous volunteer on post accidentally pressed too hard upon the trigger of his revolver and off it went, so did everybody else for the brush, stumbling over the wounded, whose shrieks could be heard above the tumult. One sleepy volunteer, when the stampede [began], started out of his sleep, snatched up a musketoon and cracked away at what he conceived to be the enemy and wounded two of his brother volunteers, one mortally, and a third slightly. Old Doctor Henry called them to order and explained the difficulty and thus settled their nerves. At daylight the Indians came down upon us. The attack however was not well sustained, and after several hours firing they hauled off in consequence of the arrival of a company of Willamette volunteers who were very anxious to fight, and I supposed that the attack on the Indians would be renewed now that the force was considerably increased, but instead they packed up the wounded and moved off and we did not reach Grave Creek until between two and three o'clock that night, having fasted for fifty hours, and had no sleep for three nights. Thus [illegible--paper missing] fifteen days expedition for Capt. Smith returned with all haste back to Fort Lane, and the volunteers were billeted out to various [illegible--paper missing] in the valley. We lost ten killed and twenty-seven wounded, several of these were killed and quite a number of the wounded were shot by our own men. The Indian loss of course is not known; I do not think that they could have more than four or five killed and wounded, but if we are to believe the statements of all those in the fight there is scarcely a man that cannot give the particulars of how he killed one Indian "certain, sure." I believe I had as good an opportunity as any in the fight and I can't say that I killed one. I don't believe that the Indians numbered over seventy warriors in all; the volunteers say however that there was three or four hundred; when I ask them where they came from, they cannot make over a hundred and fifty supposing that all the hostile Indians were there that are in the valley, and at the same time they assert that there are other bands in various other portions of the valley that could not have been in the fight. It is asserted however that they have reinforced their ranks very much from the coast, but I happen to be posted up on the subject and know that there could not have been any coast Indians present. The unpleasant truth is that the whites were cowards, that they were whipped out by one-fourth of their number of Diggers, and had it not been for thirty or forty good men the rest would have broke and run, and they would have caught h__l. As it was some did break and never stopped until they got through the Canyon 25 miles distant the same day the attack commenced, and some thirty or more men came in to Jacksonville express from Col. Ross, and never returned. The great secret of the failure is that the volunteers expected the regulars to do all the fighting, whilst the regulars were expecting the same thing from the volunteers. I do not think much of the conduct of the officers, nobody attempted to lead the men, and I don't think that Col. Ross or Capt. Smith attempted to fire a gun. There was a want of confidence all around. On the morning of the 1st of Nov., when the Indians attacked us (which attack was made by about twenty Indians according to my estimate), Capt. Smith was as usual attending to the wounded and Col. Ross did for once show that he was in command by standing down in the gulch and quoting all the gallant speeches that had been made from the Revolution [days? illegible--paper missing] such as "Stand your ground men and don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes and know he is an Injun." Altogether it was an affair that I would never boast of and no one shall even now that I was there or had [anything] to do with it, unless he gets it from somebody else. I had no one under me except five, my men who would have abandoned me five days before had I been so badly hurt as not to pack myself off. I determined to leave them to fight their own battles and took advantage of my orders "to return to this post as soon as possible," to leave them. It is a war they have brought on themselves; the Indians are fighting in self defense and they fight well. I have every reason to believe that it has been gotten up expressly to procure another appropriation. I fear you paid them too well for their meritorious services of '53. War is a money making business. When I left they had nearly a thousand troops in the field and I venture to say they will get whipped again notwithstanding the comparatively small number of Indians, unless they fight. Capt. Smith wished me to stay and promised the affair should be differently conducted. He felt that it was all wrong and acknowledged it. As I prophesied, he sent for Dr. Crane before we had come up with the Indians 20 minutes and he would have given anything for the howitzer. I told him that there must be more courage displayed all around or he would get whipped again. I returned in time to relieve the people here who were in the greatest consternation at my prolonged absence. The whole country is one grand stampede; even in Portland they kept a night watch. There have no doubt been several fights before this, and the steamer that takes this away will no doubt bring us the intelligence from the north as well as the south, of some big fights. With regard to the road from here to Fort Lane, it is quite practicable and will cost no more than the other roads in the territory that have been appropriated for. I shall complete my drawings and report as soon as possible and it will no doubt reach Washington by the middle or last of January. I must close or you will never read this. I hope I shall hear from you.
Very Respectfully Yours &c
August V. Kautz, U.S.A.
Hon Joseph Lane,
Washington D.C.
P.S. Dec 15th I enclose a hasty map that may be of service to you. I shall get my maps and report of the road ready by the 1st of January. They will reach Washington about the middle of February. We have had no steamer for more than a month is the reason this letter has not gone off; she is expected in the morning. Please send me one of Preston's maps as soon as they are out. We have no news of the war since my return. Very severe weather for six weeks back.                                                                                                                                                                           K.
August Kautz' map of Southern Oregon and the Hungry Hill battle site, December 1, 1855
August Kautz' map of Southern Oregon and the Hungry Hill battle site

Port Orford       
December 7th 1855       
Genl Palmer
Dear Sir
    By this time you will have heard of the safe return of Lieut. Kautz and of the result of the battles he and party have had since they have been absent. No difficulty exists amongst the Indians on the coast so far. Ben [Wright] has been amongst them keeping reckless white men from committing violence upon them and so far has succeeded, not without much care and watchfulness on his part. As soon as he leaves a point, only for a few days, these restless lazy devils are at work stirring up a muss. At the forks of the Coquille, advantage was taken of his absence and some disgraceful acts committed. A company has been organized by Packwood (who is a discharged soldier) and have drawn up a muster roll and provision list, with all the pomp of authority, calling themselves the "Coquille Guards" and claiming to be in the service of the U.S. assisting the sub-Indian agent in maintaining peace. This maintaining peace is all poppycock, as they have well nigh involved those bands in a war with the whites by their rash conduct. Packwood has bought stores and ammunition on the faith of Uncle Sam and expects not only that it will be paid but that they will be paid for their services.
    These foolish and uncalled-for movements in certain quarters, and the eagerness of many to fan this firebrand, has brought me to reflect upon the cause, as these men do not seem anxious to fight the war bands near us, but are anxious to be quartered where there is no danger. I have examined their material and find them composed of the most trifling, lazy, no-account white men in the whole country. Squaw keepers, etc. who take this occasion to get up an excitement for the purpose of extracting from somebody subsistence to put them through the winter. I have advised Ben to discard all connection with them, and he will have nothing to do with them. Great care will have to be taken to prevent [omission] in all this excitement south or the department will be awfully swindled in the outcome.
    Your instructions to agents giving a discretionary power in the matter of temporary reservations, provisions etc. Ben interpreted to allow him to keep his Indians at their homes, if he thought he could maintain peace. This he has done, notwithstanding the whole length of his district on the east was exposed to invasion by the hostile tribes, and his Indians to be tampered with by them.
    The Indians at Coos Bay have been in corral by the sub-agent, and marshaled, enrolled and fed, at the expense of the U.S. While no chance of a connection between them and the hostile band could possibly take place, this in my view of the case is another means of tapping Uncle Sam's bank. Everybody here sees it; it is so plain as to be ridiculous. But then you will say, "This is out of your line of duties." I cannot be still notwithstanding the government have not used me as they should have done. Still while my friends are in a position to be imposed upon I must speak out. If I have done wrong have the kindness to tell me so, and I will cease to write.
    It is intended by Ben and I to come up on the steamer about 25th ult. and hope to find you at home. As Ben has business of importance to lay before you and through you to Gov. Curry, let us find you at home if possible.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar

Port Orford
    December 11th 1855.
Dear Genl
    With the steamer due, going down Saturday, I suppose that our accumulated mails since the 28th October will commence their journey to the States. I regret this exceedingly, as matters of interest will be necessarily delayed thereby. You will find some business in which I am personally interested that should have reached reached you long ago but for this unavoidable delay. It is necessary to say that the cause of this delay has resulted from the unprecedented storms on this coast, perhaps the greatest ever known to white men.
    Part of my communications has reference to two seemingly conflicting grounds taken by the Secretary of the Treasury and Mr. Whittlesey, which I have forwarded to you in the same envelope, with a letter explanatory of my cause of complaint. These I wish to have brought to the notice of the department as early as the nature of your engagements will allow, as it involves a sum of much importance to me. Up to this hour I have not received a dollar, nor anything relating thereto, further than the Secretary's letter, which I send to you for your information, being a clearer outline of the intentions of the department towards me than I could give you by me only writing. Please to take care of, and send those letters to me when you have done with them.
    I should be glad to hear from you and to receive any documents you may please to send me.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar
Hon Joseph Lane,
    Washington City

Ho. of Reps.
    Washington, Dec. 12th 1855
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
        You will please favor me with a tabular statement of all appropriations made by Congress for Indian purposes in Oregon since the organization of that Territory together with the amounts disbursed thereof, for what purpose, and the sums remaining yet in the Treasury, and why not paid out as per appropriation. Allow me to invite your early attention in answer of these interrogations.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Oregon Historical Society MSS 1146, Lane Family Letters

Deer Creek O.T.
    Douglas County 18 December / 55
    General Joseph Lane sir after my best respects to you I am well & I hope these few lines will find you well and in good spirits. We are surrounded by savage Indians, which I have no doubt you have heard of the same before now, and the officers in the field is not worth a darn for the Indians has out-generaled them in all their attacks so far, and I have told them all I wish that you were here one month. They would not follow you and dare you for a fight as they have them. I was after a band the other day which came in west & south of me and burned 14 houses & granaries, 1 Indian killed and 26 head of horses taken from them which had been stole by them the day before. I was not in the fight or I think they would [have] been one more Indian killed. I and W. Stark were a little too late for the scene. N.B. I saw a petition the other day to Congress for Congress to appoint commissioner to assess the damage done by the Indians. I have heard some say they was damaged so much & others so much and I think if you do not select some good prominent men that won't be swayed you will see some of the hardest and the largest bill you ever seen. All men [are] out to have their just rights, but you know as soon as they have the advantage they will cry out for a large price. I hope for to hear of your name for the next President in the convention and that you will receive the nomination, for we want something to kill off what Know-Nothings we have in Oregon and I think that would do the work for them. N.B. I would like you would if not too much trouble to you you would send me a few garden seeds & one agriculture book and the news in general. So nothing more at present; all your friends is all well so far as I know. I remain your friend until death,
Thomas Owens           
General Jo Lane

Deer Creek
    Headquarters Dec 24th 1855
Hon Joseph Lane
    Sir I hasten to write you a few lines. The war drags along and in fact it has some time since become a serious matter. As you may readily suppose from your perfect knowledge of this part of Oregon, all the Indians in this and Rogue River is hostile except old Sam and his one band. I have been out all the winter so far without tent, cup or spoon and shall leave again in the morning for the head of the Coquille and west fork of Cow Creek, where I hope to find the Cow Creek Indians and clean them out. The snow is at this time from two to six feet deep on the mountains and storming every day. You can readily see what man has to endure in order to fight Indians. I have but small hopes of getting rid of the Indians until spring. In the meantime we have to watch all the mountains from Umpqua River to California or let the settlements be laid waste. For the moment anyplace is left the Indians pitches in and plays the very devil indeed. Now, Gen., we are going in; if you can't procure an appropriation to pay the expense of this war. I know you will do all you can for us, pay or no pay we have to fight and no mistake. We have already lost near one hundred men, and that is but the beginning of our loss. Now, Gen., you may rest assured that we have all the fighting we can do and rather more than we like to be compelled to do in the winter.
    Just imagine men in the snow and mud for twenty days at a time, sleeping in wet blankets, all to defend our firesides from the blamed redskins, who kills all they meet with without regard to sex, age or condition.
    This is not the time or place to ask what brought on the war; we are in for the war whilst certain gents is back by the fire crying war to the knife and the knife to the hilt. There will come a time when all these things will come out. You know my situation, compelled to leave a large family to fight Indians or let them come to my door and there fight the red devils. There can be no peace until they are all killed or nearly so, which will take a long time. Now, Gen., we all look to you to procure the means of paying of the expense of this war. If we don't have some money soon I fear it will be hard to keep the field. If we have to withdraw for the want of means to prosecute the war then Umpqua Valley will be laid waste. I will keep the field, pay or no pay, as long as I can support my family, and after that will move them to Yamhill and return to the field to remain until we get rid of the diggers.
    We must beg of Congress to furnish the monies to pay the expenses of this war. I wish you was here but for one day, that you might be an eyewitness of what is going on. Please write when you can and let us know what is doing in Congress. Your family I believe is all well.
    I am Lt. Col. of this regiment and have just received from Linn County the sword you took from Santa Anna [Martin wrote "St to Anny" or "Lt to Anny"] in Mexico and feel proud of it and will take special leave not to disgrace the sword whilst I live and will draw it for once in defense of Oregon.
    Yours truly
        Wm. J. Martin

Winchester, Doug. Co. O.T.
    Dec. 26, 1855.
Dear Gen.--
    Owing to the detention of the mails by high water, I have omitted to write you as often as I otherwise would have done. This winter has been a severe one. About forty days of rain, which has fallen incessantly, has been followed with a very large snow storm. The waters have been higher than formerly, and quite up to those of '52; in the smaller creeks it has been higher. The ground is prepared for this snow in such a manner that it will last some time. Never before have I seen here the ground so well prepared by being thoroughly frozen. Considering the devastation of the grasshoppers and the consumption of what little grain remained by the stock belonging to the volunteers, the stock will suffer exceedingly. Many must die. Our Christmas here was not "merry," but just as pleasant as circumstances could make it, not more so.
    In war matters, a word of news gossip will suffice, inasmuch as there has been no fighting. For colonel, R. Williams, familiarly known as "Bob" Williams, is elected. Mr. Mosher was his rival. Bob Williams and his friends were very free with their funds and favors. He was popular with volunteers from the south. Wm. J. Martin was chosen lieut. colonel. Dr. Drew has been appointed quartermaster general, in place of John F. Miller resigned. Stratton is Drew's clerk--also Boyd. J. F. Miller is running against Col. Ross in Jackson Co. for councilman. T'Vault is running for the House. Both of whom, that is Miller and T'Vault, will be defeated I judge from all we can get from the south. Some circumstances growing out of this war it is said will defeat them. I never knew a county so poorly provided for by active politicians, on behalf of the Democracy, as that county. Yet it is in fact Democratic--but Whig by good management--at almost every important election. The cause of the trouble is this, "that those men who made the attack near the reserve on Sunday morning, prior to the breaking out of the Indians on the following Tuesday at Wagoner's, etc.--made the attack upon Indians and squaws who were not hostile and killed them, men, women and children, which caused this war." This statement or a charge similar to it was published in the Statesman, and circulated by a few to the great annoyance of the people of Jackson County. Because some of her best citizens were in the charge, or attack, and in which Lupton was killed, every man therefore in that county is compelled to array himself on one side or the other. And most, if not quite all, have declared against the statement published in the Statesman, and have censured Bush also. Judge Deady has been blamed for entertaining similar views, or writing them. Miller is looked upon as a friend of the Statesman, and its past position, although I was informed by Dr. Drew that he denounces publicly the course it has pursued in reference to the war, and particularly the correspondent who has treated lightly the causes of the war, and censures the conduct of those volunteers who made the first attack. Miller has not been able to overcome the damage those charges produced to the Democracy, consequently Ross, it is said, will beat him badly. Why the party should be held responsible for those charges I know not. But such is the fact.
    The truth is those men who made the first attack, that in which Major Lupton was unfortunately killed, were fully justified in what they did, and are deserving of credit for it. A short time before, some men were killed on the Siskiyou Mountains by the Indians. Pursuit was made by Major Fitzgerald, a few regulars, and some citizens. No Indians were taken, but some of their encampments were found, I think some Indians seen. At all events they were traced to the ranch which was afterwards attacked, which as I have said, was made on Sunday before the outbreak. The Indians have for some time sought for a pretext for this outbreak, which is at this time a decided state of war. I have never heard of but two or three men denounce this war, or rather the cause of it. Bush has meant well, but he has been misled regarding the very important step of this whole war. He however has got right. The idea that the whites have got this war up, or that it might have been prevented, is perfect stuff. Friendly Indians I know informed the whites of this general war both north and south as early as August last. This knowledge to the settlers followed by the general and simultaneous outbreak is what caused so much excitement as first, and for the abatement of it we are more indebted to Bush than anybody else. He is the only editor that did not go into spasms.
    The election then in Jackson County will turn on the cause of the war--or the justification of it, which I think in a serious moment will appear to all as not having been disputed. People everywhere are jealous of their own interests. The war exists, and almost every man has turned over to government his horses, mules, oxen and grain, if he is not a volunteer himself, and anything that may arise to delay the payment for them would be equal to bankruptcy--or to arise to defeat the payment would be ruinous to him, to his neighbors, and to Oregon. Hence the sensitiveness. Hence it is that but one opinion exists. And hence it is that this war may actually retard the prosperity of Oregon for years. Could Congress be as prompt in making payment as the people were in making the U.S. their debtor, it would be a blessing to this people, and I have no hesitation in saying that your efforts and services will not be wanting to further their interests and their rights. Certain it is that your services were never before required in a cause where the peace, prosperity and pecuniary condition of a people were more at stake, or in danger of ruin. The fact that Oregon has to pass through this struggle has long existed, and a united effort, as of one man, is the only thing that will help Oregon through it.
    But the war still exists, yet nothing is being done in the valley except to prepare for the winter; in fact, the snow has prevented the army from participating in active service; want of clothing, want of subsistence and forage have added very much to the hardships endured by the army when last out, and which caused their return. The Indians are in the mountains, and will remain there until the weather will permit them to travel with ease and speed. Seven of them met and hailed the expressman a few days since near Wagoners' old place. They were well mounted. They asked the messenger if he was the "paper Boston," if he "potlatched paper." He told them no. They wanted to talk with him, and asked him to stop and come near them. He told them he would if they would send one of their number to talk with him. This they refused, when all pursued him. He escaped and went to Jacksonville. They knew he was the expressman as well as if they were whites; they know the mail and mail carriers. William Abbott, the mail carrier, was picked out of a party riding at full speed, and was shot at eleven times. They threatened him often, at last from a distance. There is no doubt that they have as correct an idea of the movements and intentions of the whites as they need to have--much better than that which the whites have of them. They have spies, and runners, undoubtedly. On the Coquille, 4 Indians were killed, and one hung--some houses burnt in an outbreak down there recently. Fifty men have been stationed at the mouth of the Umpqua River.
    Your family are well, that is they were but a few days since when I saw them.
    One thing I forgot, and that is since I wrote you last, or about that time, I have married. This is right, because it is natural, I know of no other ground of justification, however we were over to Mrs. Floed's to dinner a few days since, at which Mrs. Lane was present. She came in that morning from the farm, looking as healthy as usual.
    Royal P. Daniel, whom you will remember, and who is and has been your friend, requests me to send his application for bounty land to you, and state the apparent embarrassment under which it is made, which is as follows. His name is Royal P. Daniel; he was in the Black Hawk War, where he was called "Ryle Daniel." His discharge reads "Ryle" instead of "Royal." He makes his application for land as Royal P. Daniel. He has made a statement of the error, and has other proof of it as the papers show. Now what he wants is then to know if the correction is sufficient, and if you will ascertain for him? This may seem but a small matter, but to him it is considerable, and but a favor returned, which I hope he may receive if convenient at your hands.
    Some time ago I wrote to you and requested to draw on you, by paying the money at Winchester, and taking a receipt for it which I will forward to you. The amounts will be small. If this is agreeable to you, then I desire to have the Congressional Globe sent to Richard Smith Esq., Oakland, Umpqua County, O.T. Mr. Smith requested me some time since to inquire of you, and see if you would make the exchange. If you would, then to have the Globe sent to him with bill which he will cash here. Can this be done? There is no way by which money can be remitted, and the sums being so small that we are subject to individual favor for what we desire. The Congressional Globe for this Congress is what he desires to have.
    This morning--Dec. 28. Thermometer 12½ degrees below zero, with a heavy body of snow on the ground--also very much ice. No news, and nothing to talk of but the heavy storm which has just closed.
    Jesse Applegate has written to Gen. McCarver, commissary gen. etc., complaining of the illegality and unconstitutionality of his orders to steamsters [sic]. The letter is long, I am told, and closes by stating to the general his opinion of him as follows: Applegate says, "Although not entertaining an exalted opinion of your capacity to fill the station you occupy, I cannot but think that (one of steamsters named) misunderstood your order, etc."
    Applegate says or intimates that McCarver has ordered his steamsters to press forage on the road, and then in a long letter shows the unconstitutionality of such order. However, McCarver did nothing of the kind, but Jesse needed an excuse to write one of his letters, and has now got it. I hope it will be published. A copy of the letter has been sent to Bush.
    I have nothing further to write at this time. We have not heard from you since your arrival at Washington.
Yours truly
    S. F. Chadwick
        J. Lane

Dayton January 5th 1856           
Hon Joseph Lane
    Dear sir--permit me to address you a few lines, and ere this reaches you you will have learned of the state of affairs in Oregon I have no doubt, and in such a conflicting a manner that you may find it difficult to make up a verdict upon the facts. The Legislature has thought proper to censure General Palmer in the most severe terms, in terms that would be unbecoming in a gentleman, much more so as coming from a legislative body. As to the premise, you know the country, the people and their habits as in the mining region and the Indian with his habits. Whether they can continue long in peace where there are no strong moral public sentiment[s] to restrain them but where the greatest incentives to vice are to be found. Intoxicating drinks like floods of water deluge the country, disport in disappointed hopes of fortune the white men, and Indian in confused amalgamation pursuing each one to gratify themselves, although marked by party lines as distinct as they are in color of their skin. And on such a state of things how is it possible to avoid the calamities of war. And then to charge that Palmer is the whole cause of the war is an act of as great injustice as if they were to charge him with being the cause of there being gold found in the Indian country and making it a crime. But General Palmer ain't alone under censure by the Legislature, all the offenses of the government have their passion meted out to the Governor Stevens of Washington Territory, General Wool of the army all have their passion, yourself not excepted, nor is this all but it seems to be the province of this legislature to excite the public mind to a spirit of extermination of the Indians and a surplantment of all the present offenses of the government. Here this state of things together with the burning of the statehouse at Salem and the loss of the territorial library in connection with the circumstances of that disaster seems to look toward the spirit of seventeen hundred and ninety-two and three of the French people as well as the greatest injustice and inhumanity toward the Indian to contrast the past with the present when the Indian had the power, to say nothing of the right at least to object and expel the white man from their country. I say how strikingly it contrasts, the one driven from all that he has and no place to go to by a power which he can't resist and which they admitted in their midst with the doctrine sounding in their ears that might make[s] right, and is this the return that the white man makes to the Indian for his forbearance? The Indian might ask for what were governments instituted if it were not to protect the weak from the aggression of the strong, and yet this doctrine is proclaimed on the floor of legislative council. But there is justice in the great American heart, and I ask you sir to save our country from such a foul blot upon its national history. Stain it not with such injustice, but let it go down to posterity in living proof that a free people are a just people and that their strength is in their love of justice, virtue and intelligence, having been guided by their sentiments to unparalleled prosperity. Let us not abandon them now in accordance with this view of the subject. I must say in all truth that I conceive that General Palmer is doing nothing but what I think the government in the possession of all the facts would heartily justify. The present point of difficulty between Palmer and the Legislature is the bringing of the friendly Indians from the Umpqua Valley over on the coast reservation, the object of General Palmer so to have the friendly Indians separated from the hostile ones, as the friendly ones can't be secure there; the hostile Indians will kill them. And the volunteers breathe the spirit of extermination, indiscriminately, friend and foe, male and female, old and young. We have been in a perfect state of frenzy for which there has been no justification, and I don't know how to account for it. The whole country has been a scene of the greatest agitation, but I am happy to say to you that it is becoming quiet and there is a reaction rapidly coming on, and I hope for the credit of Oregon that such a scene may never arise again. Please send me some of your surplus books for Clatsop County. I should like to have the Census, secretary reports, maps or what may be convenient. Small favors thankfully received, large ones in proportion. My voice is for Palmer, as will be the people.
Yours truly
    Joseph Jeffers

Salem, January 19th 1856.           
To His Excellency
    Geo. L. Curry
        Governor of the Terry. of Oregon
Dear sir:
    In compliance with your personal request, I hasten to give you such information as I possess. Much of the information that you desire is not in my possession, and in fact there is no means of obtaining the same.
    The first murder was in May last on Indian Creek, which occasioned considerable excitement. In the last of May, or first of June, John's band of Indians killed Philpot on Deer Creek. A few days afterwards the same band killed Dyer and McCue near the ferry on Applegate River. In July the Indians killed some seventeen persons on the Klamath and Humbug rivers, whose names I have not been able to obtain. On the 2nd of September Fields and Cunningham were killed on the Siskiyou Mountains, and 12 or 15 head of oxen; Sept. 3rd, Warner was killed on Cottonwood. In September Keene was killed some six miles from the Mountain House, and another man wounded; 8th of October Lupton and Shepard were killed; 9th of October, Goen. [sic] W. Hamilton, Isaac Skelton, Hague and a man name not known, John P. Jones and his wife, Samuel Belcher, Cartwright, Mrs. Wagoner and daughter, Mr. Harris, one other man, name not known, Frank Reed, Mr. Haines, Mrs. Harris and daughter [sic--they survived]; 10th of October, Saml. Grahame, John B. Powell and George Fox; 17th of October, Picket, Saunders, Ben Taft, J. D. Adams and John, a Chinaman; 18th of October, a Spaniard near Mooney's ranch; 23rd of October, Bailey and Charley Johnson; 30th of October, Mr. Wiley on Althouse. In Jany. 1856 Martin Angel, Hull and Dr. Myers.
    The foregoing is a correct list of those persons that were killed, except those that were killed in battle. There is but little doubt that many murders have been committed of which I have no information. The Indians also report that they have two white women prisoners and it is probable that they have. If so it is conjectured that they are Mrs. Harris and daughter, or Mrs. Harris and Mrs. Wagoner.
    In the meantime should I obtain any further information it will give me pleasure to inform you at an early period.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        W. G. T'Vault

Washington City, Feb. 3, 1856.       
    John O. Waterman, Esq.--Dear Sir:--The Hon. N. P. Banks of Massachusetts has, by virtue of the plurality rule, been elected Speaker by 3 votes over Aiken of South Carolina. This is the first time in the history of our country that a Speaker has been elected upon sectional grounds--may we hope that it is the last--I would that we could think so. Every man who voted for him is Black Republican; and seventy-five out of the hundred and three who voted for him are Know Nothings. Thus we see the workings of this secret midnight organization. Through their wigwams many abolitionists got into Congress that could not otherwise have reached there, and we have the result.
    The Democrats behaved nobly and are entitled to all praise. They have left a glorious record--no dodging--but a strict adherence to principle throughout this protracted struggle. We will have a clear record to go before the people in the coming contest for the Presidency. We have much to cheer us on--victory and the Union. How can we be defeated when it is apparent that the prosperity of the Union depends upon our success? Already the people in the free states see the mistake they made in '54 and are anxiously waiting an opportunity to correct it. It may therefore be set down as certain that the nominee of the Convention to come off in Cincinnati will be elected; mark this.
    I shall endeavor to pass a law for paying volunteers and expenses of our war with the Indians as soon as possible. I hope and trust that Kelly and his command are safe. I believe they are safe, for I do not believe that the Indians can defeat his force, composed as they are of Oregonians. I shall therefore say that I know he is not defeated.
    The weather for the last six weeks has been terrible cold, and is now as cold as it ought to be in Canada.
    Your friend        JOSEPH LANE.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, March 15, 1856, page 2

Rogue River Indian War Proclamation

Port Orford, Oregon
    February 15th 1856
Dear Genl Lane,
    By last mail I received the message and other documents for which please accept my thanks. The message is an excellent document, and is worthy of a Democratic President. It is well received here.
    I think that it would be well to send to the following gentlemen documents. S. H. Lount, Peter Ruffner, John W. Sutton, R. H. Smith, J. Edson, Benj. Wright, Lieut. Jno. J. Chandler, of Port Orford. Also Major Reynolds and Mr. Blakeney, Mr. Dyer, Mr. Dodge, Mr. Dean, Capt. Davis, Mr. Flannegan and Jno. O'Brian,who get their mail matter at Port Orford, and when convenient a few in package, which I could distribute.
    Perhaps I may be thought to meddle in matters in which I have no concern, but I cannot refrain from speaking of things brought to my notice daily. I mean in reference to our relations with the Indians. On the coast we are at peace, though the war party of the south are known to be quartered about 50 miles from us. The certainty of this requires the most active vigilance on the part of the agents of the Indian department amongst us, while we are thus situated, liable and exposed to the danger of the now-peaceable Indians becoming disaffected towards the whites from their close proximity to the war parties. Lawless whites, who are more disposed to abuse the defenseless Indians amongst us than to meet those whose arms are raised against the whites, are constantly maltreating civil, peaceable Indians. All, or nearly all of the present difficulties in Oregon, north and south, may be traced to this cause. We have a low, miserable set of white men among us who prey upon the Indians, coax, buy or steal their women, and if they refuse they are beaten and abused. Many Indians beg for redress, and reason thus: "What would white men say if we took in this way their wives or daughters?" And, strange to say, many white men sanction or wink at this conduct, though there are some who do not. Two days ago 3 or 4 men who belong to a volunteer company, officers commissioned by the gov., came in from their camp on business, got into a drunken spree with others, went to a peaceable Indian's ranch and tried to take the squaws, and upon a refusal the head of the ranch was beaten. He applied to the fort for protection. Maj. Reynolds, U.S.A. promptly sent a file of men and warned the rowdies that he would put them in irons if they were found again in a like predicament.
    On the day previous some of the same, with others in a like condition, fell on an unoffending boy (an Indian), beat him and ran him out of town with clubs and a drawn pistol in the hand of one I am told holding the office of commissary in said volunteer company. Of course no great damage was done, as the boy got off as fast as he could, but what an example is this to the Indians, who are told that the white man is his friend. And what inducements for him to join the party now so successfully at war with the whites. The class above referred to act out the worst principles of their natures and seem to regard the Indian as having no rights. These lawless white men are running riot over the country, and are many of them throwing obstacles in the way of the removal of the Indians to the reservation selected for them, because they will be forbidden to go upon the reservation. Why, sir, it is a matter of serious concern that nearly every single man in this part of Oregon is living openly with squaws. It is lamentable, when every man of cool reflection knows that one of the principal causes of our present Indian difficulties grow out of this lawless conduct. A few of us the other day declared against the maltreatment of the Indians, but it was by others hushed up. Nothing is doing with the warlike tribes south, all are quietly lying still. I do hope that these coast tribes may be allowed to go onto the reservation at an early day.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar

Port Orford, Oregon
    Feby 22nd 1856
Dear Genl,
    Since I last wrote you, Capt. Tichenor has returned from Salem; from him I learn that Congress has been memorialized, recommending that Coos Bay be made a port of entry. My opinion is that it is wholly unnecessary for a change to be made in this district, that no other member knew or cared whether such an act was passed or not, and that it was done solely with a view to his individual interest.
    As is seen by their acts, the members of that legislature did little else than parcel out the offices held by other Democrats, and lay places for the creation of new ones for themselves.
    Coos Bay I have already represented in as favorable a light to yourself and the Secretary of the Treasury as its merits deserve. A small trade is done at Empire City. The coal mines, though extensive, are not attracting a very extended notice from men of capital. The coal company made arrangements, with gentlemen of San Francisco for a steam tug, to ply upon the bay and bar, for which certain landed interests were to be given. Also a certain tonnage tax, for towage etc. Early in January those parties brought a "steam tug," which upon trial proved unseaworthy, consequently another delay in the facility of their business must ensue. Add to this, the people of Coos Bay had no petition asking the change, and the absence of mail convenience at Coos, rendering it impossible for prompt correspondence between that place and the department is an obstacle. But, sir, waiving all these considerations, should the memorial referred to meet with favor by Congress, then I have a word to say as to the fitness of Capt. Tichenor for the post. It must be fresh in the minds of many that said Tichenor while owning a vessel on the Pacific coast, and at the mouth of Columbia River, in perfect disregard of the duties of the officers of the customs, and in violation of the revenue laws of the U.S., asserted the outlaw's authority by "slipping cable," putting to sea, and carrying off the proper officers of the customs, thus setting at defiance the laws of the U.S.
    At a later day, since my arrival within this district, he has voluntarily admitted to me that he had followed smuggling, on this coast, and that he would do it again. At another time, in a private conversation he used the following language to me: "You want to make some money, I suppose."--"I know how it can be done."--"Will you engage in it?" To which I replied that "If the scheme would not compromise me or my oath as an officer of the government, or a citizen--I say yes." Then he added that "No law would be violated or oath compromised, that it was a case only in which Congress had neglected to legislate." I asked what it could be then. I was asked at once, "Are you a Mason?" I said "No, I am an Odd Fellow," at which he hauled off, under promise to lay his plans before me. Up to this time I am in the dark as to the intended developments, which may have been but a visionary notion of his. Still those who know the man believe him competent for any lawless act.
    Further evidences of Tichenor's recklessness can be given, of his conduct in connection with the Indian department, to some of which I was a witness and stand ready whenever called upon to verify by oath or otherwise.
    You will excuse me for the liberty I haven taken in addressing you on this subject, as you know me
    Your friend
        R. W. Dunbar
To Hon Joseph Lane

Port Orford Feb 22nd 1856           
Genl Joseph Lane
    Sir I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt through your kind consideration of some public documents. Rest assured your kindness will not soon be forgotten.
    Genl., allow me to trouble you still further. I understand there is now in contemplation a move to organize a new regt.of mounted rangers for frontier duty, said regt. to be enlisted on this coast. I would like much a lieut. commission in such a regt., for a frontier life is what suits me.
    I came to California in 1849 as a member of Col. J. D. Stevenson's regt. Since that time with the exception of the last two years I have led a monotonous life. For the last two years I have been merchandising at this place.
    I accompanied Capt. Geo. B. McClellan in 1853 on the expedition of the northern rail route from Fort Vancouver to Fort Colville. I say with pride I believe I gave satisfaction. Should the regt. be formed I believe you can procure me the appointment I ask.
    As reference allow me to refer you to R. W. Dunbar, collector at this fort, Capt. Geo. B. McClellan and Lieut. Joseph Mintu of the army, Col. Nesmith, Judge Williams, Mr. B. F. Harding, Capt. Wm. Tichenor and Capt. B. Wright of this place.
    Trusting you will give this your kind consideration I have the honor to
Sign myself
    Your obt servt
        S. H. Lount

Corvallis March 1st 1856
    Yours of Feby. 20th with a copy of Capt. Wygant's letter is before me. In reply I have to say that Mr. Flett told me to contract for the transportation of two hundred or two hundred and fifty Indians, that the Indians would be ready to go in about ten days from the time he was here. On your instructions to him and his word for the number to be taken I contracted (verbally) with Capt. Wygant to take them at $2.50 per head, a much smaller rate than I could have contracted for only 100 head.
    On Theodoris finding that there was but 100 or less he refused to take them unless myself and Doc Wright would agree to use our endeavors to procure the payment of $400 for the trip. I told him I would write to you advising you of the circumstances which I did, but suppose the letter was miscarried, as you say you have recd. nothing on the subject. Now I think under the circumstances that the $400 should be paid, as I know he refused freight, supposing the full number of Indians would be on hand, and also the Indians could not at that time [have] been taken by land for less money. I hope you will think in your judgment that a settlement with Capt. Wygant will be best. I don't wish to be compromised in the matter. I did what I thought for the best, and my word in a contract I hold more sacred than a deed. I hope you and him will be able to come to a settlement.
Yours truly
    Nat. H. Lane
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 81.

Deer Creek March 3 1856           
Dear Genl
    An express has just reached here from Crescent City bringing us the sad news that the Indians made an attack upon the miners at the mouth of Rogue River on the 23rd February and killed over twenty persons, among whom was special Indian agent Capt. Benj. Wright. He fell at last by the hands of that foe whom he has fought so long.
    The news of this outbreak has created considerable alarm here for the safety of those white people who live along the coast between the mouth of Rogue River and the mouth of the Umpqua. They are in a measure destitute of arms and ammunition, and if these Indians once pass Port Orford I think they will desolate the entire coast, as there are at present no organized troops in that part of the country.
    Brig. Genl. Lamerick sent what men he had south today. Lieut. Col. Martin went to Cow Creek last week. Three companies have arrived here from the Willamette, one from Umpqua, and one from this county. The Genl. is very anxious to raise men to send down the coast.
    The war has now become general, and of a most serious nature requiring all the men and means that the people of Oregon have at their command. I must say, however, there has been a most commendable spirit manifested by the citizens, both soldiery and capitalist. Through the whole war men have come forward, and those having property to dispose of have at all times been willing to sell it on such terms as the proper office could offer. But I fear notwithstanding the patriotism of the people, if the Indians continue to enlarge their field of devastation that the entire population of Oregon will not be sufficient to keep the enemy in check without being able to conquer or subdue them.
    I suppose you have seen by the public prints that J. W. Drew has been appointed quartermaster general. I will also say that R. E. Stratton holds the appointment of asst. quartermaster genl. Mr. S. is here now. I see Mr. S. F. Chadwick a few days ago; he has opened a law office in Winchester. He spoke most kindly of you. I spent a month with our friend Gibbs this winter, an honest man and proud Democrat. "Uncle Ben," I mean Mr. B. Brattain Esq., shouldered  his rifle and enlisted, the first man in Umpqua County, and has been in the service ever since, a true patriot and an honest man. I am like many others at this time in the employ of government at this place. Genl. Lamerick will go south in a day or two. He means to give the Indians battle the first opportunity.I hope to hear from you soon.
I remain your
    Friend T. D. Winchester

Roseburg O.T. March 3rd 1856
Dear Sir
    I arrived here yesterday and found the volunteers en route for south of the Canyon, one company starting today. Genl. Lamerick has been busy in stationing the forces at several important points, keeping open the roads, and preparing for a fight. The volunteers express a great desire for fight and seem more sanguine of success than ever before.   
    Capt. Chapman's command is now in the street and has just given three lion-voiced cheers for Genl. Lamerick, to which the Genl. responded in a brief though appropriate manner. I find my department in a tolerable condition. I was fortunate in obtaining such supplies in Corvallis as was required.
    The Whigs and  KN's south are making some objections to Lamerick and myself.
    It is said that Belt is still claims [sic] and is Surgeon Genl. and you do not intend to remove Belt. This babble I do not regard but intend to discharge my duties impartially to the best of my abilities, consulting economy and general comfort and employing men of known capacity.
    In making appointments in all cases party friends will be regarded first if competent, but as yet few such men have been found. In fact I have found but two Democratic surgeons in the Territory. There is a rumor that Sam, chief of the Rogue River Indians, has been attacked on his way to the Grand Ronde Reservation, before reaching the Canyon, but the reports need confirmation. Sam was escorted by 100 regulars.
    I shall leave for Fort Leland tomorrow to establish a hospital at that point, as it will be more contiguous to the field of battle, should there be a battle where it is anticipated.
With high consideration I have
    The honor to be very resp.
        Your obt. servt.
            M. C. Barkwell
                Surgeon Genl. O.T.
His Excellency
    Geo. L. Curry
        Gov. O.T.
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 3, Document 856.

Commissary Genl Office
    Company's Department
        Portland March 10th 1856
Dear sir
    The express is just in from the south and brings most startling news in relation to the Indian massacres between Port Orford and Crescent City. An extra from the Crescent City Herald states that the two Indian agents Wright and McGuire together with some twenty or more persons are known to have been massacred by bands of Indians on the coast hitherto regarded as friendly and numbering as stated in the extra about three hundred and sixty warriors. They have two white women as prisoners. Their success in this last outbreak has enabled them to arm themselves with guns and pistols, as the arms of Capt. Poland's company, who has been cut off, had forty-odd guns, and were generally provided with revolvers, all of which fell into their hands. They have also taken three stores where powder was kept. At last accounts the work of destruction was still going on and houses in flames. God knows where it will end! Genl. Lamerick of the southern division has called upon Govr. Curry for further volunteer forces. I am not advised yet what will be the response of the gov., though from present indications should he call for reinforcements, there is good ground for believing that the people of the territory would be loath to respond to his call, not from any disrespect to Gov. Curry, or for want of patriotism, but simply because they have through force had the burdens of the war thrown upon them by those whose duty it was to at least render them assistance, but who instead thereof have assailed and misrepresented them in the California papers, in the most vindictive and villainous manner that their high polished "West Point" education would allow them until the poor beggarly volunteer who is only allowed by our legislature (they having assumed the war debt) $2 per day, are offering them discharges daily in the streets for 25 cts. to 30 cts. on the dollar, and this is not the cash value for all the scrip issued by the company and quartermaster's department. Such is the value of the war claims of Oregon, on account of Genl. Wool's opposition to the volunteer forces and to the genl. govt. paying them for their more than successful winter campaign. Had Genl. Wool placed part of the 9th Regiment at Port Orford in the vicinity of the southern hostile tribes of Indians, or sent them into southern Oregon (where there was an abundance of all necessary supplies) for the protection of our citizens and the overawing of the tribes that were professing friendship, he might have made some show towards terminating the war. But the ball has now just opened and we shall have a war now for several years, and no mistake, and a much more bloody one than that of Florida, or there is nothing in the signs of the times. So far as the protection of our citizens by the regular forces, since the war has commenced is concerned they had better have been in Kamchatka, for then no harm could have been done to those who were willing to protect us. But as Genl. Wood is becoming daily convinced that perhaps there is a little war in Oregon, he may yet do good service and retrieve in some measure his lost reputation in this region: At least so I hope. The regular troops are now being moved in the direction of The Dalles and I learn will reach the Walla Walla and Yakima country by the middle of April. Col. Wright who is all right with the volunteers, has on the receipt of the news of the massacre at Port Orford dispatched one company of his regiment, all he could spare, to their assistance, but they are unfortunately yet detained at the mouth [of] the Columbia River on the steamer Republic. Unless we can have more assistance than we have at present or more encouragement that we are in the discharge of our duty while in the volunteer service, we had better abandon the country to the Indians and grasshoppers, as they are in a good way to take it.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        W. W. McCarver
            Com Gen
                O M V
Genl Jo. Lane
    House Representatives

By the Governor of Oregon
A Proclamation
    Whereas; in consequence of the renewed and continued attacks of hostile Indians upon the settlements in the southern counties of the territory, and the present force in the service in that quarter being deemed inadequate to successfully repel those attacks and to afford such protection as has been petitioned for and is essential to the safety and welfare of our citizens, it is judged advisable to increase the force already in the field by an additional battalion of three companies of mounted volunteers, expressly for service in southern Oregon. The gallantry and patriotism of the people have sustained the territory under the most trying circumstances, and it is confidentially believed that in the present emergency the same commendable spirit will be displayed as heretofore in the prompt enrollment of the companies called for. Time is pressing, and the utmost dispatch is desirable to enable Gen. Lamerick's command to be completely successful. This proclamation is therefore issued asking for three companies of volunteers to serve for three months, unless sooner discharged, each company to be composed of one captain, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, four sergeants, four corporals, and sixty privates. Each volunteer to furnish his own horse, arms and equipments. Each company to elect its own officers, and the battalion to be entitled to elect one major to command.
    The following named counties are expected to make up these companies and the gentlemen hereinafter named to act as enrolling officers:
Marion County                     one company Capt. A. M. Fellows
Polk County                            "           "        Hon. Fred. Waymire
Lane and Benton Counties     "           "        E. L. Massey
Linn County                             "           "        Hon. H. L. Brown
    The companies as they are organized will report to the Adjutant General at Corvallis. Citizens of exposed localities in the southern counties should organize into companies for the protection of their several settlements, to be as "minute men" for special service as circumstances may require. Should the emergency demand the temporary employment of such companies of "minute men," the captains will report such service to the Adjutant General of the territory. The company of Capt. Thomas Whitted in the vicinity of Canyonville, Douglas County, will be so considered, as well as that [of] Capt. W. H. Harris of Empire City, Coos County. Such munitions of war as are at the command of the executive of the territory have been forwarded to the counties of Curry and Coos, in accordance with the prayer of sundry petitions from the people of said counties, and such practicable measures taken as may tend to their future security and welfare.
Geo. L. Curry                                       
Given under my hand, at Salem, in
the Territory of Oregon, this 11th day of
March A.D. 1856.
    By the Governor
        B. F. Harding
            Secretary of the Territory of

Port Orford, O. T.
    March 15th 1856
Dear Genl. Lane,
    I wrote you some days since in regard to the Indian difficulties around us. No further intelligence has been received from the fort at the mouth of Rogue River, except that in an exchange of prisoners our people recovered Mrs. Geisel, infant and daughter 12 years old! Whether the little band in [the] fort have since been reduced or not we have no means of knowing. They are in a fort built of "grass sods" breast high.
    120 men from Garrison here, under command of Maj. Reynolds, left yesterday for Rogue River to form a junction with other U.S. forces at the mouth of Illinois Creek, with the view of hemming in the war party of savages now in force at the mouth of Rogue River and to prevent their escape to the mountains. If they are successful in this movement I think a speedy termination may be put to this war south. The Indians are commanded by a Canadian French man named Aeneas, formerly of Hudsons Bay notoriety--the fellow who once traveled over California with Fremont.
    A letter was shown me some days ago addressed to you, asking a military commission by S. H. Lount of this place. I was referred to. I am sorry to say that I cannot back the recommendation in any manner.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar

Rogue River March the 16th 1856       
General Lane dear sir
    It may not be amiss notwithstanding my limited acquaintance with you to favor you with a few lines. Since I returned home from the Legislature upon reflection I thought it could not be out of place to remind you of some of the business entrusted to you from this region of Oregon in which the citizens here are most deeply interested, and there ought by rights to be paid, as many of them have been since '53 in a suffering condition, having had their all destroyed by the Indians.
    There is the memorial for the liquidation of the spoliation claims of the Rogue River War of 1853, also a memorial for the payment of the volunteers under Capt. Jesse Walker out on the plains to assist the emigrant etc. and last though not least a memorial for the relief of John Q. Tabor, who was wounded last fall before the date of our now existing war. I was one of the party when Mr. Tabor was wounded and know the facts set forth in the memorial to be correct and as he would be unprovided for by any law now existing I hope you will urge his claims as a pensioner. I might further state for your satisfaction that at that time we did not know that it was the intention of the Indians to be hostile. Our intention was to go to their camp and demand the horse they had stolen and not to molest them unless they showed hostilities, but as their camp was in the thick fir timber, and we was approaching it on a side that was open, they saw us and fired on us first. I then ordered the boys to take the timber that they occupied, which we did, and killed 2 of them, but in routing them from that place we only drove them into a stronghold where they had all advantage of us. This was about 250 yards from their camp. I saw that they had about 3 times our number and all the advantage so far as position was concerned and ordered the boys to get in a position for defense, but before they had time to execute the order we had one man killed and 2 wounded. One of [the] wounded was only stunned, the ball striking just outside of the corner of his eye and passing above his ear leaving the skull naked for about 2 inches. He was helpless and senseless for some time. He has got entirely well. Tabor was only about 10 steps from me when he was shot directly below where I was on the hillside. Our charge was up the hill, but we had passed a part of the Indians who had dropped off in the brush while the main body ran to the top of the hill. I had taken a tree for protection, but seeing Tabor bleeding to death from his arm, the artery being cut, he fainted and fell from loss of blood and the Indians approaching at every opportunity. And right at this critical time 3 of the men took fright, believe[ing] their fate was sealed if they stayed longer and left, leaving but 12 of us that was living and 2 of them wounded and nothing but the promptest and most daring act could save them. At this moment I left my tree with a man by the name of Hedden for the rescue of Tabor where he lay helpless on the ground. We got him and then commenced a retreat, and it was with the greatest difficulty that the men could be kept in a position for defense, there being but 6 left now to fight, as it took 2 to each of the wounded men. The Indians, seeing our position, seemed determined to take us. They was always ready at every point to take advantage of us, and at one point there we had a branch to cross and a steep hill to rise that had but one tree on it in the vicinity where we was. They opened on us from the other hillside, and strange to say out of some 50 shots we received no further injury though they made the little rocks bound around us, but we did not forget that we had a tree on our side. We crowded close by it and left a man who had a good gun and was an excellent marksman. We had not gone far before he got a shot and I had the satisfaction of seeing the red devil turn a somersault which appeared to throw them into confusion and stopped their pursuit. This was on the 2 day of Sept. 1855, something over a month sooner than our war is dated from and is a true statement of the commencement of it. I have wrote this that you might know something of the justness of Tabor's claims and I hope that he may be cared for by Congress if others of our citizens should be neglected, for they are able to work; he is not.
    I have received some public documents from you, for which I am obliged, and for which you will receive my thanks.
Thomas Smith                   

Jacksonville O.T.
March 20th 1856.
Hon. Joseph Lane--
Dear sir:
    This will be handed you by my friend Elijah Moore of Scotts Valley, California, who will visit his friends in Pennsylvania and Washington City next summer.
    I have given him a power of attorney to collect the balance due me under the act of the 17th of July 1854, according to the decision of the Secretary of War. The tobacco I suppose will not be paid for unless you can get a special act passed to pay it. I think equity and justice requires that it should be paid. I have also drawn drafts in favor of Mr. Moore for all of the balance due me for supplies furnished in the Rogue River Indian War of 1853, except the tobacco.
    Mr. Moore is one of the firm of E. McCarty and Co. who furnished considerable quartermaster stores in the R.R. War and there is a balance still due them for hospital stores. I hope you will assist him in getting his claim and mine both paid. He is a young California bachelor of high moral worth and sterling integrity. Any kind favors shown him will be reciprocated by him, and gratefully acknowledged by
Your humble
        B. F. Dowell

Jackson Co O Ty
    March 21st 1856
My Dear Genl
    As you do not write to me I must write to you.
    To let you know, I have my scalp yet although I've had some close calls for it. Our country is still the scene of bloodshed, and we have no prospect of peace as yet, for the Indians have had the best of every fight yet. Oh, General, I wish you was here. I think there would be something done, for the people have confidence in you, more than any other man in the territory. We have at the head of our army one J. K. Lamerick, whom you are well acquainted with. The people and officers and men have no confidence in him, and there is a general dissatisfaction and the Indians not whipped. You have lost a many a good friend by the red devils in this country, among the rest Martin Angel, my neighbor. Now, General, please drop us a line once in a while, for we are always anxious to hear from you, and now Oregon's whole salvation depends upon your efforts in having this war paid. And among the many things that you have to call for do not forget the spoliation of '53, for among others I am interested slightly.

    Allow me to present to you my friend Elijah Moore, in whom you will find a gentleman and any kind favors shown him will be reciprocated by
    Your humble
            John E. Ross

    I have had the pleasure of believing my friends
        or supposed to be such
at Salem would deem it a pleasure to have the opportunity to confer upon me a favor, but if correctly posted up in regard [to] matters there, I have only to regret thanking aloud my friends to ask for my service as surgeon, since the Southern pillar of the Democratic Party has endeavored to brand me as a Know-Nothing.
    Having believed that the above pillar or Democratic standard by which the members thereof are gauged has been in the habit of taking a horizontal position in the gutter with Capt. Hall, my being destitute of this and many other alike qualifications I am weighed and found wanting and of course have nothing further to ask. Since we are all free born and of lawful age to vote being sound in mind and member we can serve as high privates.
    Let me be as free as they are that moves, performs and [are] known under the tongue of good report, rather than sacrificed to the shrine of party, or serve under General Aesculapius and his old backers.
    I have just reached Jacksonville and find that Barkwell has been misrepresenting matters in a most shameful manner for the purposes of working upon the sympathies of and misleading the citizens for the purpose of getting them to sign a remonstrance to counter the influence of the portion praying for the service of Barkwell, which has just been forwarded to the Governor. Unless said B. is so removed, it will serve to break up the Democratic Party in the south, as the more substantial portion of the party have thrown him off.
J. Braman
Jacksonville March 24 / 56
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 2, Document 619.

Deer Creek March 26th 56               
Hon Jo Lane
    Dear sir, times here have been so fluctuating since you left that I have never written I shall now give you a few items of what is going on.
    In the first place we have got a destructive Indian war. The devils keep in small bands dodging from hilltop to canyon, and in that way evade the pursuit of five times their number. So it is seldom they are seen unless when they see fit.
    You are so familiar with the country they inhabit; a description from me is unnecessary. Suffice it to say the scenes are in the Cow Creek, Grave Creek, Jump Off Joe and Rogue River mountains.
    The express arrived last night with news of a pack train being taken, four men killed, at or near Vannoy's Ferry. Five Indians were killed. The whites are gaining ground. [The] two last actions they have been victorious. The Indians have taken within 4 days 40 pack animals, 10 head of horses, 30 head of cattle and burned two houses and one barn. They took the horses, cattle and done the burning in 18 Mile Prairie.
    30 men pursued 70 Indians and run them out of the valley, killing one Indian and wounding several. On Cow Creek the whites [who] were pursuing the Indians had found three dead ones so you know it was a tolerable hot chase. The whites had one killed, several slightly wounded; among the wounded was Jim Burns.
    The matter of money I mentioned to you last fall I have deferred until now. If my brother from Delaware, Ohio should draw an order on you for one hundred dollars $100 you will much oblige me by letting him have the money on it, and I will pay it to your family or [Mr.] Floed by the first of June. My brother's name is Norman D. Perry; his residence is Delaware, Delaware Co., Ohio.
    If I should be able to spare more before you come home I will deposit it with your family and direct my brother to draw on you for it to the amount of four hundred dollars in all. It is for my sister that the money is to be used, which she needs.
    One week from Monday we hold an election for convention. We are doing all that lies in our own power to gain it, which I think we shall do. It is our only salvation.
    Martin's commission has come on as receiver of the land office. He got the bond filled without any difficulty and could have got as much more.
    We are looking forward with much anxiety for the President's nomination with considerable speculation on where it will fall.
    It is generally thought here that had you have been here to take the field at the head of the volunteers our Indian war would have ended long ago. God grant it may soon be done.
    The expenses of the war is reaching far beyond what was anticipated in the first start, but yet we cannot anticipate the end of it. No more at present.
I remain your
    Most obedient
            Wm. T. Perry
Hon. Jo. Lane

 Jacksonville March [1856]
Gen Jo Lane
        Dear Sir
                I received your favor of Jany. 11th for which I return you my best thanks. I have just arrived from a trip to Willamette (Corvallis). I had the pleasure of spending a few pleasant evenings with your family at Winchester. We celebrated Simon's birthday in due form. Your folks is all well and doing well Cap. Mosher included. Uncle Billy I met going down, I understood he was appointed receiver. That will suit him better than to be a soldier.
    I met Dr. Ambrose at Applegate's with Sam's people ere this. They have reached near their new homes. I think it is a good move. The volunteers under Genl. Lamerick is still very inefficient to suppress the Indians, the people have but little hopes of their doing any good. It would be a great deal better for the country and the government if they would send us men enough and take the job in their own hands then it would be but a short one.
    Cap. Smith has gone down Rogue River with 150 men all on foot to meet Col. Buchanan and his men 200 at some point. Much good may they do.
    Convention or no, from what I have learned (no) by a small majority slavery prevails. I observe you have at last got a Speaker. Better late than never. I hope you will all make the best of it you can, and not weary in well doing.
    I hope the people in Washington will not overlook this remote corner of the world. Tell them we have no railway, have our steamboats hence the necessity of good roads for there is great room for improvements, that you know. The Indian spoliation bill of '53 I hear nothing about the payment of, that would do good to us now for what with a dry winter and supporting a force of volunteers we are nearly run ashore some are in hopes that a something will be done for us this Congress to defray some of the present expenses. We have full confidence in you, all we ask is for you to do your best.
    The weather still keeps dry and fears are entertained for the crops.
    I have wrote to Mr. Gaylord to send to you for the money.
    I have got my farm back again in its old shape.
    We hope to hear from you again soon and may you succeed in your efforts and keep good health is the wish of many. No further news of any importance.
From your sincere friend
    and well wisher
        John Anderson

"Fort Miners"
Gold Beach, O.T. April 7, 1856
To the Hon. Genl Joseph Lane
    Washington, D.C.
    We take the liberty to address you at this time in reference to matters pertaining to the interests of all persons who have been sufferers by the recent Indian outbreak in this territory and district, believing that your experience and the deep interest always manifested by you upon all occasions to redress the grievances of its citizens and point out the speediest as well as the most satisfactory course for us to pursue will meet with that prompt and efficient action from you that the case demands. On the 23rd, 24th and 25th Feby. last the Indians of this district raised the war cry of extermination against the whites, massacring large numbers of men and children and carrying helpless females off captive, burning and destroying houses, merchandise and in fact everything that it was feasible for them to destroy, also killing and driving off nearly all our stock, horses, mules, oxen, cows etc. etc. in this section of the country. The Indians were under the supervision of an Indian agent appointed by Genl. Palmer, and a treaty concluded by Genl. Palmer no longer ago than last August bound the Indians to an observance of its requirements. We for a long time apprehended an outbreak and frequently solicited assistance, but our appeals were never responded to. The fearful time came [that] our fears were more than realized, and many, very many, of us are reduced to extreme want, and circumstances require that the speediest as well as the most advantageous course should be pointed out to us. We know of no one so qualified by a long residence with us or so willing to assist us in our misfortunes. And then [illegible--one word's worth of paper missing] is to you we look for advice. Government without an assisting power is tardy in administering justice, yet we believe in her magnanimity. It has been suggested that commissioners would be appointed and selected from the residents of the district when the property was destroyed and supposed to be familiar with the losses sustained, thereby being enabled from their own knowledge of the facts and such other testimony as would be required to render such awards as would indemnify the sufferer for his losses.
    Will you have the kindness to give this your early attention and point out to us the speediest manner to bring our claims before the proper tribunal for adjustment.
Please to accept
    Assurances of high esteem
        Very respectfully
            Yours etc.
                Alex. Sutherland
                S. B. Blake
                Dennis Tryon
                Isaac Warwick

No. 13
Oregon Mounted Volunteers
Jacksonville, O.T. April 9th 1856
Commissary Department
    To H. A. Overbeck
February 27: 526 lbs.   Five hundred and twenty-six pounds of Bacon @ fifty cents per                                         pound: $263.00  Two hundred and sixty-two Dollars.

Oregon Mounted Volunteers
Jacksonville, O.T. May 10th 1856
Commissary Department
    To H. A. Overbeck
December 12th: 16 Sixteen pounds Candles $25 per pound: $32.
        "             "   : 50 Fifty pounds of soap 50 cents per pound [page torn away]
        "             "   : 20 Twenty pounds Saleratus 75 cts. per pound [page torn away]
                Seventy-two Dollars

Territory of Oregon
Jacksonville, O.T. January 5th 1856
Quartermaster Department
    To H.A. Overbeck
For the following hay sold to James R. Peters for the use of the Oregon mounted volunteers called into service by proclamation of his excellency Gov. George L. Curry to suppress Indian hostilities.
(50,000) Fifty thousand pounds hay @ seven cents per pound . . . 3500.00
      Thirty-five hundred dollars . . . $3500.00

Territory of Oregon
Jacksonville, O.T. May 11th 1856
Quartermaster Department
    To James T. Glenn
For the following forage sold to James R. Peters for the use of the Oregon Mounted Volunteers called into service by proclamation of his excellency Gov. George L. Curry, to suppress Indian hostilities
4656  Four thousand six hundred and fifty-six pounds Oats @ 16⅔ . . . $776.00
 Seven hundred and seventy-six Dollars
Territory of Oregon
Jacksonville, O.T. May 1st 1856
Quartermaster Department
    To James T. Glenn
For the following articles sold to James R. Peters for the use of the Oregon Mounted Volunteers called into service by proclamation of his excellency Gov. George L. Curry to suppress Indian hostilities:
38  Thirty-eight grain sacks @ 1.00 . . . $38.00
       Thirty-eight dollars

Ninth Regiment Oregon Mounted Militia
Jacksonville, O.T. November 20th 1855
Quartermaster Department
    To Charles Williams
Oct. 12th: For finishing and setting (127) one hundred and twenty-seven horse shoes
                  @ $3 per shoe . . . $381.00
Three hundred and eighty-one dollars
Jacksonville, O.T. June 26th 1856
I certify on honor that Charles Williams served as expressman for John K. Lamerick, Brigadier General, O.T. from the 20th of March to the 25th of June 1856 inclusive.
Ninety-eight days @ $10.00 per day . . . $980.00
Nine hundred and eighty dollars

Empire City, Coos County, O.T. 13th April 1856
To Genl Joseph Lane, Delegate to U.S. Congress from O.T.
Dear Sir,
    I take great pleasure in sending the Genl. a few lines which I hope may be welcome and acceptable, even should the Genl's. official duties as our worthy delegate to the U.S. Congress occupy his whole time and attention in his efforts to obtain for Oregon her rights and for her people justice. The Genl's. speech made on the 2nd of last April has been received, and the Genl. may feel assured that the sentiments expressed by him in it are responded to warmly, both far and near, by the people of Oregon and felt to be just and due us, as a people, in order to silence the voice of our unjust and malicious accusers and denouncers who have said no war exists in Oregon.
    Let them live here, and know the number of good citizens, in almost all sections of our territory, where bones are bleached by the night dews of heaven, and searched by the burning rays of our summer sun, for want of Christian burial. See the farms, lying waste for want of men to cultivate them, the ashes and smoldering ruins of houses yet smoking and warm from the diabolic work and hands of the merciless and bloodthirsty savages, the horses, cattle, hogs and other domestic animals that make life pleasant roaming at large in the mountains and valleys for want of a master, who if asked for would be either numbered with the dead or in the volunteer forces of the territory. In face of all this let our denouncers and maligners say no war exists in Oregon, and when they do so, guile will be in their hearts and a perjury and falsehood on their lips.
    By yesterday's express from Port Orford, we received the most encouraging news we have had for a long time. On Rogue River (near the Big Bend) the U.S. troops under command of Col. Buchanan and the volunteers under command of Capt. B. Latshaw and Lieuts. Abbott and Lowe surprised and defeated a large body of Indians, killing some twenty, completely routing them, taking some prisoners and a large quantity of Indian provisions, only one white man killed and one or two wounded. Forty-eight canoe loads of Indians escaped and went down the river, and a number of Indians escaped to the brush. The above is the most signal defeat experienced by the Indians in southern Oregon up to this time, and will have a great and good effect for us, as it will not only dispirit the Indians but tend to inspire a degree of confidence in our soldiers, both regulars and volunteers, hitherto unfelt on account of the many unsuccessful and discouraging battles fought with the Indians under disadvantageous circumstances, in which numbers of our own soldiery lost their lives without having accomplished any signal success over the Indians for their country, but the memory of their actions, their deeds and their deaths is now, and will be, held in grateful remembrance and embalmed in the hearts of the hearts of the people of Oregon.
    Some three weeks since (near Big Bend of Rogue River) the Indians under pretense of making a treaty surrounded Capt. A. J. Smith's command of dragoons etc. and kept them two days without water, killing and wounding some twenty-nine men of Capt. Smith's command which would have been entirely destroyed had it not been for the timely arrival of Col. Buchanan with a sufficient force to raise the siege and put the Indians to flight. Genl. Joel Palmer was with Col. Buchanan's command and took part in the fight that ensued with the Indians on Col. Buchanan's arrival for the relief of Capt. Smith. It is said the Genl. had no arms but a revolver when the fight commenced, and remarked that he would like to have a rifle when someone answered there's a dead soldier; take his musket, which the Genl. done, and probably avenged the soldier's death with the soldier's musket. We are all extremely anxious that the war may be brought to a termination at the earliest moment, and have been doing all in our portion of the country (which has suffered less than other sections of the country by the war) we possibly could do to forward and accomplish the wished-for consummation--peace, and peace once more a permanent one and the great resources of the wealth of our country will be developed by capital, and the enterprise of our citizens. We have now three coaling operations under way and two large steam sawmills going up. We have an extensive farming country on Coos and Coquille rivers (almost unoccupied and unsettled, on account of the Indian war), and in the latter river a large amount of grazing and gold mining country, all of which must come to our place for to trade and find a market for their produce. The citizens of our place have drawn up a memorial to Congress asking for a little assistance to have our harbor and bay surveyed out etc., and although the war debt is one of the greatest importance to us and to Oregon, yet we feel sure the Genl., our delegate to Congress, will use his utmost endeavor to assist us in our petition and prayer to the Congress of the United States of America, knowing well that the peace interests of the country must not be laid aside more than is absolutely necessary for to promote the war interests of the country.
I remain as ever your
    Friend and obdt servt
        With respect,
            Dr. A. N. Foley
To Genl. Joseph Lane,
    Delegate to the Congress of the
        U.S. of America from O.T.
            Washington City, D.C.

P.S.  The Genl. if suitable and agreeable to him will please publish the above letter, and in doing so please to have the grammatical errors of said letter corrected and please send me answer upon the receipt of this, as I am extremely anxious to hear from the Genl.
Yours truly
    Dr. A. N. Foley
N.B.  Since the 20th of last October 1855, up to this time 13th June there has been 13 vessels of various drafts of waters in and out of this harbor. Out of the 13 vessels 2 was wrecked, 1 an old vessel of little value. The other vessel is only ashore and will be got off in a few days. The vessels in this trade are principally schooners, brigs, barks, and one steamer, The Newport, makes her regular trips between this place and San Francisco. The average soundings at low water is sixteen feet on the bar, so reported by the regular bar pilots.
Dr. A. N. Foley

[March 22, 1856]
Mr. Joseph Lane
        Dear friend
                The present is an important period in our history. The volunteers south has not been able to make an impression on those bloodthirsty savages in that part of our country.
    Col. B. Williams and Col. Martin has resigned. As it is Gen. Lamerick has the sole command in the South there seems to be a feeling that the war will be conducted with more energy and vigor. I expect to hear a good account of the Gen.
    The people have found out by dear experience what you told them in '53 was no joke or idle conjecture that when we exterminated those Indians south they would cost us some of our best and bravest citizens and not improbably man for man. Your predictions has more than been realized.
    The resources of this country has been nearly exhausted and without an appropriation by Congress for the expenses of this war or the speedy termination of it so we can get our beef and other products to their usual markets the country must suffer. The people has put into the quartermaster and commissary departments all they have to spare and many even more than they can spare without great inconvenience. Relief we must have either by an appropriation or a speedy terminus of the war, both would be very desirable.
    The Damned Know-Nothings and abolitionists as usual are a-kicking against the state government question. I think the best thing they can do is to move into some British colony where they can have all their officers appointed over them. They would be her most loyal subjects for they do not prize the elective franchise worth asking for.
Yours Fraternally
    Daniel Stewart

    Mr. LANE. I am very much obliged to the gentleman from Tennessee for calling my attention to the paragraphs which he has just read; and I am very glad to have the opportunity to vindicate the character of the people of Oregon. And, sir, when the time shall arrive that I can have a full opportunity to do so, I shall be able to satisfy every gentleman upon this floor that the people of Oregon Territory are in no way to blame for the war with the Indians, which is now in progress in Oregon, and which has been going on since last October. We have, sir, in that Territory a Governor who has lived in Oregon since the year 1845. He is a peaceable, quiet, orderly, sensible and practical man, and in all the troubles which the settlers have had in settling that Territory, he has uniformly been found upon the side of peace, whenever peace could be had with safety to the people and security to the lives of families in that Territory.
    The people of Oregon Territory are a peaceable, law-abiding, orderly people, and they are also a gallant people. They have taken pains ever since I became acquainted with the country to cultivate the most friendly feeling with the Indians. They lived in the same valleys and districts of country with the Indians, and they were anxious to do all they could to maintain friendly relations with them, for we had among our earlier settlers many missionaries, who had been sent there for the purpose of civilizing and Christianizing the Indians, and of teaching them the arts of civilization, and the habits and customs of men in a higher and improved social position, as far as the dispositions and habitudes of the aboriginal tribes admit of their elevation to the social and moral attainments of the European races.
    To this end many devoted men labored with an assiduity and a zeal which attested the sincerity and earnestness of their desire to reclaim these untaught children of nature, and place them on the catalogue of Christianized and enlightened nations. Among those who thus labored faithfully and unremittingly, and with a singleness of purpose and self-sacrificing zeal which commanded the admiration and respect of all who observed his devoted and untiring labors, was the Rev. Marcus Whitman. Never, in my opinion, did missionary go forth to the field of his labors animated by a nobler purpose or devote himself to his task with more earnestness and sincerity than this meek and Christian man. He arrived in Oregon in 1842, and established his mission in the Waiilatpu country, east of the Cascade Mountains, and devoted his entire time to the education and improvement of the Indians, teaching them the arts of civilization, the mode of cultivating the soil, to plant, to sow, to reap, and to do all the duties which pertain to civilized man. He erected mills, plowed their ground, sowed their crops and assisted in gathering in their harvests. About the time he had succeeded in teaching them some of these arts, and the means of using some of these advantages, they rose against him, without cause and without notice, and massacred him and his wife, and many others who were at the mission at the time.
    I mention these things, Mr. Chairman, to give you an idea of the treacherous and ungrateful character of the Indians in Oregon. The blood of Whitman, their greatest benefactor, was the first blood of the whites which was shed by them in that Territory, and from that day to the present they have commenced all the wars which have taken place between them and the white settlers. This I say in justice to the people of that Territory, and to vindicate them from what I consider unfounded and unjust imputations upon their courage and honor. I regret very much, sir, that it is necessary, in defense of truth and justice, to place myself in opposition to the reports of General Wool. He is my old commander. I know him to be a good soldier, a gallant man, and an accomplished officer. But I know, as far as the reports are concerning relating to Oregon Territory, that he is mistaken, and that the reports are not true. The war was commenced in Oregon, as I stated the other day, by the Indians on the white people. It was not instigated by any act of the whites--not induced by any violence on the part of citizens of that Territory. As I then stated, the Indians commenced the slaughter of the white people, from the southern portion of Oregon to the northern extreme of Washington, at the very same time, the same week of the same month, the 8th, 9th and 10th days of October.
    In confirmation of this statement, I will send the following extract from the letter of Captain Hewitt, dated November, 1855 [in the Yakima country]:
    "After two days' hard work, we reached the house of Mr. Cox, which we found robbed. We then proceeded to Mr. Jones'. His house was burned to ashes, and Mr. Jones, who was sick at the time, was burned in it. Mrs. Jones was found about thirty yards from the house, shot through the lungs, face and jaws horribly broken and mutilated. The bones of Mr. Jones were found, the flesh having been mostly eaten off by the hogs. We found Cooper, who had been living with Jones, about one hundred and fifty yards from the house, shot through the lungs, the ball having entered his left breast. Proceeded to the house of W. H. Brown. Mrs. Brown and child were found in the well, her head downwards; she had been stabbed to the heart, also stabbed in the back and the back part of the head. The child was below her, and had no marks of violence upon it. Mr. Brown was found in the house, literally cut to pieces. His arms and legs were badly cut, and I should think there were as many as ten or fifteen stabs in his back. After burying the remains of the bodies as well as circumstances would permit, we proceeded to the house of Mr. King, which we found burned to ashes, and the most horrible spectacle of all awaited us--Mr. Jones, who had lived with him, and two little children, were burned in the house; the body of Mr. King, after being roasted, was eaten almost entirely up by the hogs. Mrs. King was lying about thirty yards from the house almost in a state of nudity, shot apparently through the heart, and her left breast cut off; she was cut open from the pit of the stomach to about the center of the abdomen, intestines pulled out on either side. We performed the last sad rites over the slain, and returned to our camp."
    Now, sir, but a few days before these massacres were perpetrated here, on or near Puget Sound, hostilities had commenced in southern Oregon, more than six hundred miles distant. Can General Wool or any other sensible man pretend to say that killing of Indians on Rogue River was the cause of these murderous outrages?
    I will present another extract of a letter from Rogue River Valley, a few days before this massacre occurred:
    "The greater portion of the enemy have taken to the mountains, carried with them a large amount of stock and other property. Thirty persons have been murdered by them between Jewett's ferry, on Rogue River, and Turner's, on Cow Creek. It is now ascertained that Haines' family have also been massacred."
    Now, to show you that General Wool is mistaken, that his judgment has been hastily formed and upon erroneous and false data--perhaps the willful misrepresentations of others, who thought by traduction of our people to subserve their own interests, or at least to gratify their passions--I ask your attention to the maps which I have caused to be placed in view of the members of the House, and upon which they can observe the relative position and distances of the several localities which form the seat, or more properly speaking, the seats of war. On the east of the Cascade Mountains, which you observe running parallel with the coast, at an average distance of one hundred miles, is the region or district called the "Yakima country." In this country, before hostilities had commenced in the shape of regular warfare, the Indians killed Mr. Mattice, a gentleman who was traveling through the country. The agent, Mr. Bolon, hearing of the outrage, went into the country to ascertain the facts and if possible bring the perpetrators to justice and prevent further disturbances. Although an agent, personally known to them, and from whom they had received the bounties of the government, he was barbarously murdered; and to give the strongest possible manifestation of their hostility and exasperation against the whites, they made a funeral pyre of himself and horse, determined that not a vestige should remain to tell the tale of his savage and inhuman murder.
    When the fact of the death of Bolon was made known, the regular forces at Fort Vancouver were under command of Major Rains, who ordered Major Haller to proceed to the Indian country and chastise them for the murder of Bolon and others. In obedience to the orders received, he proceeded to the enemy's country, was attacked by them, surrounded, and narrowly escaped after a desperate and most gallant defense of several days' duration, with the loss of one-fifth of his command. Here was the first commencement of hostilities, not by volunteers, but by regular forces, who were defeated, notwithstanding the gallantry of their commander, and driven from the country. This country, you will bear in mind, lies east of the Cascade Mountains, and on the Washington side of the Columbia River.
    Colonel Rains, when he found that Haller had been driven out of the country, and had only succeeded in bearing away his wounded, leaving his dead behind him, called on the Governor of Oregon Territory for volunteers. It was a call for aid and assistance to suppress Indian hostilities, to punish the Indians; first, for killing our people and then for driving his gallant major and his whole force out of the country. To that call the Governor of Oregon promptly responded. He called for volunteers. They turned out immediately, and having joined with the troops they marched into the Indian country. The Indians on that occasion avoided the fight. They avoided a general battle. The force against them was rather strong.
    Now, Mr. Chairman, the position of Major Haller, at the time he was surrounded by the Indians and badly whipped, was up on the Columbia River here, on the northern side of this river, in Washington Territory, in the country known as the Yakima country. This country, till within a few years past, had not been settled by white people, but within the last few years the white settlement has extended east of these Cascade Mountains, into Washington and Oregon Territories. When General Wool arrived in Oregon Territory he found the volunteers up in that country, against the warlike Indians. Now, I will ask gentlemen and the writer of that letter which has been read, whether the troops ought to have been recalled at once from that country, leaving hundreds of defenseless women and children, scattered about on their claims, exposed to the attacks of Indians who had driven the regular forces out of the country? If they had, what would have been the condition of these people? Would there have been one single family left in that country? Would there have been one woman that would not have been burned at the stake, or one child that would not have been tomahawked? General Wool, when he arrived, took up his headquarters west of the Cascade Mountains, on the north bank of the Columbia River, or Fort Vancouver (pointing out the location on the map). He ordered the regular forces that were engaged in the Indian country to fall back on Fort Vancouver. The volunteers did not go up there of their own accord. They went out at the call of an officer of the United States Army. If they had left the country with the regular forces they would have exposed the life of every woman and child there to certain death. Ought they to have done so? Will any man say to the people of Oregon that these volunteers should have fallen back upon the settlements, or gone into quarters and put themselves under cover, leaving the women and children of the country to fall under the tomahawk of the savage? No, sir. It is a slander when it is said that the volunteers of Oregon went there with a view of making war upon any other Indians than such as murdered our people, and as were ready to bury the tomahawk in the heads of women and children.
    What would have been said of the Governor of Oregon, if he had acted as General Wool did, and ordered the volunteers out of the country, leaving it exposed to the savages? So far from doing it, he maintained his position. Those troops were commanded by a noble and gallant young man, by the name of Kelly, who went out to that Territory a few years ago from the state of Pennsylvania. He is known to some of the members of this House. He is a brave and gallant man, a lawyer by profession, and a peaceable, law-abiding citizen. He took the command of these forces in the place of my gallant friend Nesmith, who was compelled to quit the service on account of sickness in his family. Soon after his taking the command, the Walla Wallas, Yakimas and other tribes of Indians throughout the whole extent of country east of the Cascades made a general attack upon his command. And, sir, while fighting for life, when his ammunition had been expended, when he had fired his last volley, with ammunition almost exhausted, and scant of provisions--for he was for four days surrounded with these hostile Indians--I say while thus fighting for his life, under these circumstances, the regular troops, under the orders of General Wool, were marching to their winter quarters. And, as I am informed, when Kelly applied for powder and other supplies, that officer shut his magazines and refused the supplies.
    Now, sir, shall this man be quoted here against the people of Oregon Territory? Shall his evidence be used in condemnation of the people of that Territory, who volunteered to save the women and children of the settlements from massacre? Shall such an argument be introduced here against the appropriation now asked for? I hope not.
    Mr. ALLISON. If the gentleman will permit me for a moment, I desire to say a single word. He asks, why should we bring the evidence of General Wool here as testimony in a case of this kind, under such circumstances? Now, I am sure the gentleman from Oregon will not object to an inquiry, such as was propounded to him, for the purpose of giving him an explanation which he is now making to the House. We find in our executive documents here, official communications from the officers of the government which can alone speak officially upon the subject. How is it possible that we can disregard these communications thus officially made, unless some explanation were made to remove the difficulties with which we are surrounded in making this appropriation. If we are to take the statements of these officers, to which alone we can go for information, we cannot, consistently, make this appropriation. The gentleman from Oregon certainly cannot therefore object to such a statement being made by a member of the House, as it will afford him an opportunity of making such an explanation as will relieve us from the embarrassments with which we are surrounded in making the appropriation which he asks for.
    Mr. LANE. I am very much obliged to the gentleman. I have no disposition to cast imputations upon General Wool. I think as much of him as any man in this House, but I do not like his conduct in Oregon. Now, Mr. Chairman, these volunteer forces have been organized and maintained for the purpose of protecting the settlements in the Territories of Oregon and Washington, and nobly have they done it, while the regulars were comfortably housed in the snug barracks at Vancouver.
    By the last mail I have received a letter, from which I will read the following extract:
    "Will you please present our thanks to the Secretary of War for his dispatch in forwarding the Ninth Infantry. How much it is to be regretted that such promptness has been rendered unavailing. General Wool is now in California, and would have kept that regiment there had he been there when it arrived. He passed them at sea this side of San Francisco, and made unavailing efforts to have the steamer bringing them return to San Francisco. This, I am informed by Mr. Hoxie, of Jackson County, who was a passenger with General Wool. Mr. Hoxie was sent down by the quartermaster general, and succeeded in making his purchase, as he tells me, when General Wool's interference and influence caused the settlers to decline furnishing the powder, and Mr. Hoxie came back empty-handed. Had it not been for the Hudson's Bay Company, at Vancouver, we should have been unable to procure this, and other essential supplies."
    This extract I give with undoubting confidence in the truth of the statements it contains, knowing, as I do, the high respectability of the author, and simply from a desire to do justice to all concerned, either American citizens or British subjects.
    My friend from Tennessee (Mr. Ready)--and I am proud of having the opportunity of answering his inquiries--I have always known to exercise the soundest judgment upon all subjects except politics. (Laughter.) I say, in reply to his inquiries, that at the time these hostilities commenced in the north of Washington Territory, hostilities also broke out in the Rogue River Valley, and in one night the Indians traveled many miles and killed every man, woman and child on the road, with one or two exceptions; they burned every house but one; they killed every woman except one--Mrs. Harris--for whom I intend to introduce a bill granting a pension. The savages surrounded her house, killed her husband, and wounded her daughter. She defend herself in her dwelling nobly; she loaded and fired her rifle eighty times, and made her escape during the darkness of the night. Every man on that whole route was killed with the exception of Wagoner, whose wife and children were murdered, and who himself fell, on the 22nd of February last, at the mouth of the Rogue River. Since that time the Indians have proceeded to Umpqua Valley, and murdered people within a few miles of my own house, and yet General Wool says there is no war in Oregon! They have driven off the cattle of the country. Thousands are shot and left to decay upon the plains. The last steamer brought us the news that the Indians had attacked the settlements of the white people at the mouth of Rogue River, and destroyed every house and every farm. Every settler--men, women and children--was killed, except one, and he saved himself by hiding.
    It is said that the Indians are few, and that they will soon be forced into submission. Whether there are two hundred or one thousand of them, General Wool will not be able to hurt one of them. I know them. They will fight, but they will never permit themselves to be attacked by any considerable force. They will keep out of the way. The old General has passed the age when he could overtake the Indians. The country which is the theater of hostilities is mountainous, steep of ascent, and affords the best and most secure hiding places in the world. How is he to go there with his regular forces and punish these savages? Yet his friends said that it was for that purpose that he intended to start from San Francisco. He has not done so, and he is the man that has arraigned the people of my Territory!
    Sir, the people of Oregon occupy a remote and far distant part of our domain--a sort of terra incognita to the people of the Atlantic States. If their character was known here, as I know it, it would require no eulogium, much less a vindication, at my hands. For several years I have lived in the midst of that people, and I know them. I have seen them under all the vicissitudes and circumstances incident to this varied and checkered life--in prosperity and in adversity, in affluence and poverty, in the repose and security of home, in the din of battle, where the fight raged hottest and the bullets flew thickest. They are an enterprising and adventurous people, or they would never have traversed sterile and inhospitable wastes, scaled lofty mountains, and braved the perils and privations of the wilderness in search of homes on the shores of the Pacific. That they are brave no one can doubt who has read of their deeds of heroism in defending their families and homes from the tomahawk and the torch of the remorseless savage. Aye, sir, and they are a patriotic people. Think you that the men from Missouri, Illinois, Ohio and Kentucky, who have made their homes in Oregon, have been so changed by distance that their hearts have ceased to pulsate with patriotic devotion to our country's flag and our country's honor? Believe it not. They are Americans still--not aliens and interlopers from foreign lands. Hear it, gentlemen of the so-called "American" party, you who oppose this appropriation, your countrymen--not foreigners--are imperiled. American blood is being shed--aye, sir, and on our own soil. Americans call on you for succor. Mountains rise and wide deserts intervene between you and them, but they are still on our own soil; they have but changed their chamber in the paternal mansion; the same banner which waves from the dome of this Capitol spreads its folds over them. Is it an emblem of protection which the government affords to all our people, or a piece of painted bunting--a rag spread to the winds in derision and mockery of their perils and their woes?
    One trait of character the people of the Territory of Oregon possess in common with their countrymen, but even this seems to be denied to them by those whose occupation appears to be to malign and traduce all that is generous and noble in a people or an individual--those professional scribblers, the vultures of the press, who feed upon character which has been first polluted and destroyed by their own poisonous breath, and who never soar except it be in an atmosphere of detraction, like those birds of ill omen which are found in no other country except where grows the upas. I allude to that trait in the character of the Oregonians so characteristic of the population of the western states--magnanimity; the chivalrous sense of honor, the pride, blended with innate generosity, which scorns a mean, a dishonorable, or a cowardly action, which revolts at the idea of oppressing or being oppressed, which is quick to resent an insult from an equal or superior, but bears with meekness and patience the peevishness, the taunts and even the deliberate insults of inferiors. In this spirit the people of Oregon have borne with patience and forbearance the injuries and insults of the inferior race by which they are surrounded. They have thought their mission to be to subdue the proud and intractable spirit of the savage by kindness, to soften his rude nature by manifesting towards him a friendly and paternal spirit, to reclaim him from his savage condition by example--the example of a life spent in peaceful industry, instead of unprofitable and wasting wars with each other.
    I am sorry that these humane efforts of the Oregon settlers have not been appreciated by the savage. Humanity has been mistaken by him for a tame submissiveness of spirit; forbearance for pusillanimity. The consequence has been that, instead of being benefited by his contact with the whites, the Indian has brooded over what he has erroneously deemed an unwarranted intrusion upon his domain, until at length a general uprising has taken place for the purpose of exterminating the intruders, or driving them from the land. Who that acknowledges the right of the white race to occupy and improve the lands of the natives (and I know of no one who will deny it)--who that acknowledges such right will deny to them the right of self-defense when assailed in their pioneer homes; and who will not go further than this, and say that, where their numbers and their means are inadequate to their defense, it is the duty of the government to afford them protection, and save them, not from destruction merely, but from a destruction by a refinement of cruelty, and exquisiteness of torture known only in the annals of Indian warfare?
    I will have an opportunity of explaining these things more fully at some future time. I will not consume the time of the committee now. I am prepared to go into the subject fully. I have anticipated, I think, nearly objection which can possibly be made to the conduct of the Oregon volunteers, or of the settlers in that Territory. I shall be prepared to furnish all the information on the subject which gentlemen may desire. I only ask what is right--nothing more--and if I do not greatly mistake the character and feelings of the members of this House, I am sure they will not refuse my just demand.
    The purpose of the appropriation as stated in the bill is "to restore and preserve friendly relations with the Indians."
    Another object of the appropriation is to furnish the means of ransoming the prisoners who have already been taken by, or who may hereafter fall into the hands of, the Indians. Already several prisoners are in their hands, men, women and children, liable at any moment to be put to a cruel death. Perhaps by a timely appropriation of the kind asked for the lives of these prisoners may be saved. Does anyone begrudge the application of the public money to a purpose so humane? Does anyone dare to say that the whole $300,000 would be an extravagant price to pay for the ransom of one--only one of those helpless infant captives, whose wailing cry is music to the ears of his cruel captors, drunk with the blood of his slaughtered parents. There went from Missouri, in 1853, a party of nineteen. In August of that year I saw, in Oregon, two boys, the only survivors of that party. Where were the others? They told me where they were--they had left them among the mountains, father, mother, sisters--all slain! At my request they undertook to give me a narrative of the massacre--to detail the fiendish barbarities of the murderers. I listened while, with the simple eloquence of truth--a pathos which only children can impart to a story of bereavement and sorrow--they proceeded with the recital of what they saw and what they suffered. But I did not hear them to the end; my heart sickened with the revolting details. I told them to pause; I could hear no more. Ah! sir, could the members of this House have stood around those friendless orphans, as they stood among strangers, relating the story of their sufferings and their wrongs, there would have been no occasion for me to speak here today. They would have heard a speech such as they never heard before, and such as, I pray to God, I may never hear again--the speech not of two untutored, friendless orphans, but nature, sir, nature speaking to the great heart of the American people, heaving it up, as with a giant's power, from its cold apathy into a burning thirst for revenge, a stern resolve to avenge the wrongs and defend the rights of outraged humanity. An attempt was made, as already stated, to punish the perpetrators of this outrage. Major Haller was sent forward with several companies of regulars, and succeeded in procuring the surrender of a few Indians, who were put to death as the perpetrators of the massacre. But whether the innocent were surrendered, and the guilty escaped, is a question I am unable to answer. From my knowledge of the Indian character, I would not be surprised if, in this instance as in others, they had recourse to vicarious punishment--shielding the guilty by substituting the innocent.
    Unless such means are taken as General Wool will not take--but such only as the volunteers will take--to put an end to these outrages, settlement in Oregon Territory will be retarded. Already thousands of acres, once cultivated and repaying the labors of the husbandman with abundant harvests, are now in the possession of the Indians--the houses burnt, the field desolate. The eighty thousand people of the Territory are scattered along the coast, from the mouth of Columbia River to the southern boundary, on both sides of the Cascade Mountains.
    Mr. BOYCE. How many warriors can these hostile Indians bring into the field?
    Mr. LANE. I am glad that I am asked the question. In my remarks published in Saturday's Globe, I am made by a misprint to say that the number is twenty-nine thousand. I meant to say that it was twenty thousand. There are fully that number in Oregon and Washington. They are not all at war with us, and we are thankful that they are not. If they were united, they could sweep off the entire settlements. A portion of them are friendly to us. It is the purpose of this appropriation to preserve their friendly feelings, and to secure amicable relations with such others as may not have joined the war parties.
    One word more, and I have done. My friend from Tennessee (Mr. Ready) read an account of a massacre which is said to have been perpetrated by the whites. Now, one word of explanation of that occurrence. In 1853 a general war broke out between the Rogue River Indians and the whites. That was brought on by the Indians. I recollect that, on receiving the news, I mounted my horse and joined the troops, and on the 24th of the month of August we fought the last battle that we had during that war. In that battle my friend, Captain Alden, while leading his men to the charge with that impetuous valor, so characteristic of the American soldier, fell, severely but not mortally wounded. It is due to Captain Alden to say (and I cannot permit this opportunity to pass without bearing my humble testimony to his merits) that, though educated at West Point, he combines in the highest degree the qualities which distinguish the American "citizen soldier" from the military automatons, the "fighting machines" of this and all other nations. Brave without rashness, accomplished, a thorough master of tactics, as taught in the schools, he has sufficient talent not to be trammeled by the antiquated ideas embodied in the moldy volumes which plodding dullness and octogenarian imbecility are wont to consult, as containing all the mysteries of the military art. In addition to these qualities, his warmth of heart and ever-genial flow of spirits endear him to his soldiers, as his valor and conduct inspire them with confidence in him as a leader. I rejoice that to the aggregate of mischief done by the Indians in Oregon they have not added that of destroying the life of this brave and valuable officer.
    But to proceed. The enemy asked for a talk. I entertained their application, and ordered the talk, and the result was, we made a peace. I then disbanded my troops for the purpose of preventing further expense, which was every hour accruing.
In this I was sustained by the people, who did not, and never have desired that troops should continue under arms longer than was absolutely necessary for the purposes of defense and protection. A few of the tribes would not come in and make peace, and they have been making war upon the whites ever since. Last summer they commenced hostilities against our people as they were going to or returning from California. Upon information of this outbreak being received at Jacksonville, Major Lupton raised a company and proceeded to the scene of trouble. He there found the bodies of the murdered, and pursued the trail of the perpetrators to their encampment on Butte Creek. These Indians did not belong to that portion of the tribe who had made peace. He found stolen property in their hands. A fight ensued, in which the Major himself was killed, and many of the Indians were slain. They were not peaceable, inoffensive people, as has been stated by some of the reports put in circulation, but a murdering, thieving set, who were in the habit of waylaying on the road, and robbing and killing, the unwary traveler.
    The Indians who were placed upon the reserve near Fort Lane were under the care of an agent who had done all in his power to maintain friendly relations, and was ably seconded by an able and gallant officer of the army, Captain A. J. Smith, in command of the fort. A portion of these Indians have not since made war upon the whites, and have not joined the war party. The bands which did not come into the peace terms have been waging war ever since, and Major Lupton was right in punishing them. That was no just cause of war.
    Now, let me give you an idea of the character of these Indians, their mode of warfare, and their ability to cope with our forces. Soon after the massacre of our people, on the 8th or 9th of October, Captain A. J. Smith, of the army, attacked the Indians in their position, with about three hundred and fifty men. The Indians had about the same number. He fought them from daylight until dark, but he was not able to dislodge them; and at last was obliged to fall back, leaving them in their position, and the same Indians, with reinforcements from other bands, have since attacked the settlements and destroyed many families, and they will continue to do so until they are met with a sufficient force to subdue them. That is the only way to secure peace with the Indians.
    I will here read, for the information of the House, an extract from the New York Tribune, presenting a graphic, but truthful, sketch of the condition of things existing in a portion of Oregon, and I will ask the apologists of General Wool, after reading this, whether a state of war exists in the Territory, whether it was provoked by the aggressions of the whites, and what plea they can offer in defense of the conduct of General Wool in leaving the Territory a prey to Indian rapacity and outrage? Understand me, sir, I am not the accuser of General Wool. The people of Oregon are his accusers. I will not say that he stands in the attitude of Hastings, when accused by the people of India of oppression and corruption in office, but I will say that he stands arraigned before the great tribunal of public opinion, and as one who was once his comrade in arms, one who followed where he led, I sincerely hope that no severer verdict may be pronounced against him than that he has committed an error of judgment. But here is the extract:
    "Yesterday (Sunday) morning we were favored with the perusal of a letter written by Robert Smith, a settler up the coast, to Mr. Miller, living in the neighborhood of Whaleshead, informing the latter that on the 22nd February, while William Hensley and Mr. Nolan were driving some horses toward Rogue River, two shots were fired at them by Pistol River Indians. Mr. Hensley had two of his fingers shot off, besides receiving several buckshot wounds in his face. The horses fell into the hands of the Indians.
    "The letter also contains a request to urge forward from Crescent City any volunteers that may have been enlisted.
    "From F. H. Pratt, Esq., a resident at the mouth of Rogue River, who arrived last night in the schooner Gold Beach, we received the startling news that the Indians in that district have united with a party of the hostile Indians above, and commenced a war of extermination against the white settlers.
    "The station at Big Bend, some fifteen miles up the river, having been abandoned several weeks previous, the Indians made a sudden attack on Saturday morning, February 23rd, upon the farms about four miles above the mouth, where some ten or twelve men of Captain Poland's company of volunteers were encamped, the remainder of the company being absent, attending a ball on the 22nd, at the mouth of Rogue River.
    "The fight is stated to have lasted near the whole of Saturday, and but few of the whites escaped to tell the story. The farmers were all killed.
    "It is supposed there are now about three hundred hostile Indians in the field, including those from Grave and Galice creeks and the Big Meadows. They are led by a Canada Indian, named Enos, who was formerly a favorite guide for Colonel Fremont in his expedition.
    "List of Killed--Captain Ben Wright, H. Braun, E. W. Howe, Mr. Wagoner, Barney Castle, George McClusky, Mr. Lara, W. R. Tullus, Captain John Poland, Mr. Smith, Mr. Seaman, Mr. Warner, John Geisel and three children, P. McCullough, S. Heidrick, Joseph Seroc and two sons.
    "Besides three or four, names unknown, Mrs. Geisel and daughter are prisoners, and in the hands of the Micano band of Indians, about eight miles up the river. Dr. M. C. White escaped by jumping into Euchre Creek and secreting himself under a pile of driftwood, remaining there for an hour and a half, and until the Indians had given up the search."
    I will say no more upon this subject, but beg the House to pass this appropriation, so that it may go out under the direction of the President of the United States, for the purpose of maintaining the friendly disposition which now exists among many of the tribes in that Territory, and to give security to the settlements, and safety to the women and children whose lives are now in extreme jeopardy.
Congressional Globe, Washington, D.C., March 31, 1856, pages 776-779   This speech was circulated as a pamphlet and widely printed in Northwest newspapers.

Grand Ronde Agency April 21st 56           
Dear General:
    In my previous letters I have refrained from mentioning anything that would have a tendency to impair the confidence you have had in Gen. Palmer, but facts are so palpable now that he is your worst enemy; I feel that I am doing injustice to you not to give you the information which will enable you to judge for yourself. There is no longer a shadow of doubt but he is a most virulent Know Nothing and endorses soul and body all of their views, and he is now using the influence his office gives him to destroy the Democratic Party, finding fault with all because some few have had the audacity to oppose his Know Nothing plans. There is no doubt but he is now against us with all of his untiring energies, aided by immense sums of money placed in his hands for disbursement. I will here mention a few of my objections to him and hold myself responsible for what I write.
    First, his appointment of C. M. Walker, a K.N., [Know Nothing] as special agent at five dollars per day, when he knew him to be a bitter enemy of yours and worked like a dray horse to defeat you last election, and whom I checked several times in crowds when making false statements in regard to yourself and other Democrats.
    Second, the appointment of Cris Taylor K.N., first to act as clerk for me at $1200 per annum, and now has gone to three hundred dollars expense government funds, building him a store house and given him license to sell goods to the Indians.
    Third, the appointment of Capt. Rinearson, a prominent K.N. as special agent at $5 per day to come and reside at the same agency with myself.
    Fourth, appointment of head carpenter here at $1500 per annum, K.N.
    Fifth, appointment of two friends here, one a president of a K.N. lodge, the other a prominent member of that order at $1000 per annum each.
    Sixth, his efforts to debase and oppress his agents whom he cannot subserve to carry out his designs, in fact every man whom he has employed (with one exception, Mr. Jeffers) to fill a lucrative post is a K.N.
    And I here make the assertion that there is not a prominent Democrat in Oregon who is not particularly hostile to Palmer. And you have lost one thousand voters in Oregon in the last six months by Palmer being held in office, whether he is supported by your influence or not it is charged to you and you are to be the sufferer. It is painful to me to write this letter, but it is just and true. And that you may know I have no selfish motive in writing this, I will under no circumstances receive any situation or involvement that might result from his removal. I have asked you for the appointment of a full agent, but Palmer will recommend that, therefore his removal would not better my situation, but he should be removed because he is injuring you, and the Democratic Party. The reason I have not written this long since is I could not see where we could better ourselves, but any man whom you know to be a sound Dem will better us.
Very respectfully
    Yr obt srvnt
        R. B. Metcalfe
Gen Joseph Lane
    Washington City

Port Orford, April [illegible] [1856]
Dear Genl
    We have had no [illegible] by mail since the 8th March and it [illegible] a furious gale. We are at a loss to [illegible] other than the war news. All around [illegible] is forted up yet, although a considerable [illegible] force is now in the field. The [illegible] under Col. Buchanan are at the [illegible] [Rogue] River, numbering about 240 men, [illegible] the women & children who were [illegible] for more than a month. [illegible] to the fort some days since in [illegible] Mrs. Geisel, infant and daughter [illegible] and have been recovered from captivity by an exchange of prisoners before the regular forces came into the field. The loss of the whites at R. River is about 40, the Indians but few as yet. The loss of property has been very large, everything between this and Crescent City has been burnt or carried off by Indians. The entire coast bands, with the Upper Rogue River Indians, were in league and unsuspected until the outbreak on the 23rd, 24th & 25th Feby. The regular forces have had one fight, about 10 miles up the river, killing many, with only one wounded on our side. [illegible] to concentrate, take Rogue River [illegible] mouth to its sources, and make a [illegible] the Indians, who are said to have [illegible] is up Illinois River.
    [illegible] Indians from this to Umpqua have [illegible] on to reservations and fed to keep [illegible] under the eye of agents. Those of Coos [illegible] Bay and those of Port Orford, Elk, Sixes, [illegible] and Coquille were brought on the [illegible] [Coast] Reservation here, but white men have [illegible] and the Coquille bands numbering [illegible] ran off, giving reason to believe [illegible] would join their people with the [illegible] company of volunteer "miner to [illegible]" numbering 35 men have [illegible]. An express came in Sta[illegible] in an attack on the first rancho. 10 Indians were killed, without the loss of any whites. [illegible] expect further news in a day or two. Our volunteers and indeed the citizens are without supplies. Even the regular troops have only 10 days provisions to start a campaign with.
    Unfortunately for Oregon, the quarrel between Genl. Wool & the citizen soldiery, in which all are under the genl condemnation alike, he acts as though he were careless of everything but revenge. Troops were not sent here until a month after the outbreak, and then only 140 men to repel a force estimated at [illegible] Indians, equal man for man with [illegible].
    To add to our dilemma the [illegible] upon which alone we are compelled [illegible] for the transportation of troops & supplies [illegible] at this post, when convenient, not [illegible] the United States pays her largely [illegible] contract to do so. Our postmaster [illegible] this mail. Special communications [illegible] of her failures to land, passing in [illegible] although heretofore unsuccessful in [illegible] of that Department.
    Now on the 17th March, 1856, the [illegible] Cap. Dall passed down was [illegible] above and by the men in [illegible] the reservation at 8 o'clock [illegible] fog. I could see to the mouth [of the] River, [a distance] of 30 miles across the bay, and on the [illegible] March, she passed up to Columbia River just as [illegible] was seen off R. River, very near, weather very fine, with only a light breeze, nothing to prevent her from landing the mails if she had been disposed. On the following day a small 9-ton schooner came from R. River (with the distressed from that fort) with the greatest ease.
    I do not like to complain, but this state of things has & does continue, and unless the proper department takes notice of it, they [illegible] contract with the Pacific [illegible] their own discretion, whether [illegible] will have any mail facilities and [illegible] answer for them, we will get none. [illegible] those is a reason for this neglect on [the part] of that Company. The government [illegible] hands only for carrying the mails [illegible] can be had at Portland every [illegible]. Crescent City supplies the mining region [illegible] [while] Port Orford is reduced to only a [illegible] trade, to permanent settlers and [illegible] whose all is here and who are [illegible] [build] up this country. Consequently [illegible] to afford a large trade [illegible], wishing to give such facts [illegible] the [illegible] of the case, and circumstances [illegible] conduct with this mammoth company [illegible] us with mail facilities.  But the [illegible] these carriers must or ought to be [illegible].
    I wrote to Mother Lane by an express the other day and to Simon--asking them if I could get for a time your large field glass (Santa Anna). I have much need of and cannot now get one.  I will take good care of it for you.
Your Friend,
    R. W. Dunbar
To Hon. Joseph Lane
    Washington City, D.C.

Washington City, May 3, 1856.
    A. Bush, Esq.--Ed. Statesman: I have received many letters from different portions of Oregon containing important information, for which I feel deeply obliged, but which my great press of business prevents my answering immediately, as is my custom to do. My correspondents will please continue their favors, which are highly appreciated, and very useful in enabling me to understand the true position of affairs in the Territory, all of which I will answer as soon as possible.
    I am sorry that it is not in my power to furnish Patent Office reports and other documents to those who have applied for them; they are not yet printed for the old members of the present Congress, but when they shall be, then I will, with pleasure, send them on. I have sent many speeches, and will continue to do so. And I believe that I shall be able to procure the passage of a law for paying volunteers and expenses incurred in our Indian war; at all events I will try. Our officers and soldiers have behaved nobly, gallantly, and they shall all be paid, and all expenses incurred in prosecuting the war.
    By this mail I send you a paper containing Gen. Wool's letter of the 2nd ult., in which he devotes two columns and a half in slandering the good people of Oregon, and enters his protest against paying our volunteers, though he must have known at that time that the Indians had taken and burned to ashes Cascades City, and killed many of our people, and that the Indians had attacked the settlements in Southern Oregon, on Illinois Creek, and killed our people. He says nothing on that subject, but goes on to abuse and slander our people. From this letter it would seem that he feels the deepest interest in the Indians, and cares nothing for the citizens of the Territories. What will the people of Oregon think? What will the American people think of a commander of the American army who can write such a letter? This old hero, who has been paid large salaries for years, who had grown rich and overbearing, who, instead of establishing his "headquarters in the middle," and affording protection to the settlers in their troubles and dangers, is employing his time in publishing long letters for the purpose of forestalling public opinion with the view of preventing Congress paying our gallant volunteers, who have in spite of him continued in the field from October to this time, without tents and without blankets, and scant of subsistence, baring their breasts to the enemy, laying down their lives for the defense of the unprotected women and children of the settlements; is he vain and weak enough to think that his conduct will meet the approval of the American people, or that he can prevent Congress paying our brave volunteers? If so, he is mistaken. Congress will pass a law approving the action of the Governors of Oregon and Washington by providing for paying volunteers and expenses incurred.
    I have written these lines in great haste, and have not time to revise. The mail will close in three minutes.
Your friend,
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 17, 1856, page 3

Winchester May 6th 1856               
To Genl Jos. Lane
    Washington City D.C.
Respected sir
    By this time you have heard of our war in southern Oregon as well as that your humble servant has been made a Brig. Genl. of the territory. Well, I have just returned from a trip to the Meadows on lower Rogue River, which was intended for a campaign, I am happy to say, with considerable success. We met with the entire force of the Indians six miles above the mouth of John Mule Creek on a large bar on Rogue River, gave them fight and completely routed them, capturing some stock and other things taken during the winter. The command lost but one man during the action, the Indians quite a number. For further particulars I refer you to my report to the gov. of the territory or some of the papers of the territory for I presume it will be published. I came here to get clear of the congratulations of friends and the curses of enemies and having heard a letter read by Mosher from you about the war it came into my head to drop you a few lines [on] our mutual enemies. Drew, Ross and co. had endeavored to create as much mutiny in the ranks of the volunteers as possible, but I had with the assistance of some good men got a good state of discipline amongst some of them, at least enough to ensure success. My thanks are due to Major Jim Bruce, Capt. Jim Barnes [Daniel Barnes] and Major Latshaw, but you are well acquainted with volunteers and I may spare you this part of my description of their want of discipline. There is at this time no Indians in or near Rogue River Valley, and I have established a military post at the Big Meadows with some two hundred volunteers to guard it and fight the Indians whenever they can find them. Southern Oregon is at this time in a very bad condition, although it is better than at any time since the present war broke out. An organized force should be in the field under the same discipline of the regular army, otherwise very little can be done, for when commissioned officers are compelled to be subject to the caprice of their companies they are not apt to enforce discipline amongst their men. All commissioned officers should be appointed so they could act independent. I am sick of this present organization, but will do what I can to protect the settlers and whip out the enemy of both kinds in this part of the country, the K.N. faction of Drew, Ross, Abel George and Captain M. Bushey to the contrary notwithstanding. Your friends here are all well, Mosher and Cole, Bill Martin are now in this office talking about you. Aaron Rose is the Democratic nominee for representative for this county. I think him a good man and a patriot. You have now more friends in this county than at any time previous. All are anxious for to hear of your success, politically and personally. Your own good judgment will dictate to you the necessity of a disciplined force in this part of Oregon. The troops at present under my comd. are out of sugar and coffee and none to be bought on the credit of government. For god's sake exert yourself to get us assistance as soon as you can. No one but you can form an idea of our condition. I must disband most of the troops now in the field for want of provisions, but will keep the best men who will live without grumbling on bread and meat. If Genl. Wool would not act so d___d headstrong we could do better, but he is an old soldier and knows his business. With my best wishes for your present and future success
I am my dear sir
    Your obt servant
        John K. Lamerick

    May 8th 1856
Dear Father
    About one week since the volunteers under Genl. Lamerick came upon and gave the Indians battle near the Big Bend of Rogue River. The Indians, being on the opposite side of the river, made it impossible for the volunteers to surround and cut them off from retreating as they would otherwise have done. The number of Indians supposed to be killed was fourteen or fifteen. The volunteers had two wounded, one since died. None killed dead on the field.
    It is to be hoped that Lamerick or somebody else will give them a genteel flogging soon and bring them to some terms of peace, as business is very dull here and no prospects of its getting better until the war is terminated.
    Mr. Floed has gone to San Francisco to lay in our spring and summer stock of goods. He will be back in two or three weeks. Last month we held the county convention to nominate candidates for the different county offices. A. Rose of Roseburg recd. the nomination [for] representative, who I think we can elect very easy at the next annual election.
    Mother and family all in good health.
Your son
    S. R. Lane

Memorial to Gen. Joseph Lane,
    United States Representative from Oregon.
    Your memorialists would respectfully inform you that they are volunteers, engaged in the Indian war, now raging in that territory, of which you are so faithful and active a friend. That at the date of these presents, we, your memorialists, are encamped in a small fort, created by ourselves, near the mouth of Rogue River on the north side.
    That ever since the 23rd of Feby. of the current year, which was the date of the first Indian outbreak in this vicinity, we have had to be constantly on duty.
    That we had gathered into our fort 8 grown-up women, a girl of between 11 and 14, 10 children and an infant; 106 men, and ten friendly Indians.
    That we had at first 74 guns, mostly fowling pieces, and the Indians were so numerous that we were, for the most part, obliged to keep within the fort for the protection of the females and those who had no guns.
    That on Sunday the 2nd of March 18 of us sallied from the fort to procure beef, and 6 of this number were killed by the Indians, thus depriving us of some of our best men and our best arms. The number of men left in the fort was now just 100, and the number of guns was reduced to 68, and the proportion of fowling pieces to rifles was greatly increased.
    That we were so completely hemmed in by the Indians and by stormy weather, that we had no means of communicating with our fellow citizens of our existence, either to solicit their aid or to inform them of our disagreeable and dangerous position.
    That we did indeed send the schooner Gold Beach to Crescent City, but on returning she dared not enter the mouth of Rogue River.
    That although we had sent from us three messengers by other routes, we still remained in the same uncertainty as before. We knew not what steps were being taken for our relief, if any, and we sometimes conjectured that the whole coast might soon be in possession of the savages.
    That we remained in this state of uncertainty until Thursday the [illegible--paper chewed away] of March, when a considerable body of men appeared on the side of the river, and we were relieved from our long and painful siege.
    That the men proved to be Col. Buchanan with the company of about 160 men and 31 volunteers.
    That these last had left Crescent City, previous to the arrival there of the regular troops, for the humane purpose of reaching and aiding us.
    That on Tuesday 18th March, this small company of volunteers crossed Pistol River and burnt the Indian village located on the north side of that stream.
    That they were there attacked by a very superior number of Indians, and compelled to withdraw to the south side of the river, where they had left their animals.
    That here they threw up a breastwork upon a sand hill, carried their provisions into it, picketed their animals  on the south side of the mound and kept the Indians at bay.
    That as soon as they had re-crossed the river they sent two couriers back to inform Col. Buchanan, who was encamped as they had heard at the mouth of Chetco River, about 20 and not more than 25 miles from Pistol River.
    That the regulars did not arrive until about half-past one o'clock p.m. on Wednesday 19th of March, although the courier of the volunteers reached Col. Buchanan's camp about 10 o'clock a.m. on Tuesday 18th. Had he (Col. Buchanan) sent on a detachment or hastened his pace a little he could have come upon the Indians in great numbers around us. We think his forces could have killed many of them, at all events they would have saved our animals, of which we lost 31 mules and horses.
    That instead of sending relief to the volunteers this [illegible--paper chewed away] the col. merely vented some oaths against them, said that they ought to have fallen back upon him, and that we would get our animals and our provisions taken, and some of ourselves killed.
    That when he did arrive at the breastwork, he blamed everything volunteers had done, said they had interfered with his plans by [illegible] down the Rogue River Indians to Pistol River where [illegible] not want either to fight or to kill them, and he advised the [illegible] should each go to his home, his farm or his trade, not [illegible] the fact that many of the volunteers had no home; the Indians had destroyed their dwellings and all they possessed.
    That when told that he had acted strangely in neither bringing nor sending relief to men who he had every reason to believe were in imminent danger of losing their lives, he replied that he belonged to the government, that such a step would have interfered with his plans, and that the government could not and would not alter its plans to relieve every self-constituted body of men who chose to get themselves into difficulty and that he neither could nor would recognize them in any way, shape nor manner.
    Your memorialists (those of them who were present on this occasion) would respectfully lay before you the following comments upon the language of Col. Buchanan, as embodied in the last written paragraph.
    1st--That it seems almost incomprehensible, how a little acceleration of power, to reach us sooner, could have interfered with the plans of the government!! The volunteers were literally in his (Col. B's) path.
    2nd--That we were not a self-constituted body of men, we were obeying, or rather responding to, a call from the governor of Oregon for volunteers, that we had started from Crescent City before Col. B. arrived there, and before we knew of his coming, and that our object was to reach Rogue River and bring relief to those who were there sustaining a long and murderous siege, some of whom were our wives, our children and our friends.
    3rd--That had we been a self-contained body of men, allowing that we had committed a fault in not consulting him when [illegible] heard of his arrival, had we even belonged to a hostile [illegible], had we been criminals of the deepest dye, we think that no civilized government on earth would have refused us succor under the circumstances. We cannot help thinking that no plan except one involving an equal risk of human life could have been of so much importance as the lives of so many citizens whose only alleged faults was their injudicious haste in obeying the impulses of humanity. Dearly we paid for this fault if [illegible] for we not only lost our animals, but one of the best [illegible] of our number was killed. Candor must acknowledge [illegible] Col. B. could scarcely have prevented this last calamity, as [illegible] man, whose name was Kirby Miller, was killed a little after [illegible] on the 18th, and unless Col. B. had sent us a detachment of light infantry, nothing else would have been in time to save our lost companion.
    That in looking back upon the 32 hours we spent in fighting the Indians from our breastworks there is one circumstance to which we turn with honest pride. We killed many of the enemy. We cannot exactly tell how many, as those who fell were quickly borne away by squaws and by Indians on their and our animals. The moon was shining brightly. We could take a good aim at 40, 50 and 60 yards distance. We were aware of the importance of making every shot tell. We had some of the very best of marksmen, and we fired just 110 [sic] shots. We think that it would be a low calculation to say that a digger was killed for every 5 shots. This would give diggers killed 42. Prisoners, both squaws and Indians, taken since confirm this calculation, a squaw saying that we killed 44 and [an] Indian that we killed 45.
    Your memorialists would now most respectfully direct your attention to the fact that a most unaccommodating spirit exists between the superior officers of the regular army and the volunteers. As far as we are concerned, we have [illegible] formally expressed our readiness to assist in destroying [illegible] in any way Col. B. might deem best, either in hunting [illegible] Indians, or in fighting them when found. Everything of [illegible] we have suggested has been treated not only with abrupt rejection but with a supercilious disdain which is most hurtful to our sensibilities and which we think is unbecoming and altogether out of play in a republican officer.
    That such a feeling existing between the two orders of [illegible] engaged in this war, viz., the regulars and volunteers, it is [illegible] evident to us that whatever power or influence Col. Buchanan [illegible] with the government in this connection will be exerted [illegible]. We have nothing to expect from him but the most strenuous opposition, and from all we can learn Col. B. acts in accordance with his instructions from Genl. Wool, viz., not to recognize the volunteers in any way, shape or manner.
    That in view of the foregoing facts, we have, sir, taken the liberty to lay before you this memorial, that when our claims come up before the government of the United States you may be our friend. Some of us who now address you have been your soldiers and have fought under you heretofore. And we personally know the interest you take in the welfare of a soldier.
    That we should not have troubled you with this long memorial but for the purpose of showing you to what extent the feelings of opposition exist towards us, when those who entertain them would not move a single step out of their way, nor hasten their pace in their way to save us all from being sacrificed.
    That in addition to the Indians we killed from our little fort amounting to at least 41, we have since killed 11, a party of us going up Rogue River, in the night, lying in ambush and surprising the enemy in their canoes in the morning. This makes 51 Indians killed by our little party since the 18th of March besides some 35 more or less killed previously. This we think is a number not equalled, and surely not exceeded by any equal number of men, volunteer or regular, in Oregon.
    We would be most grateful to you, sir, should you acknowledge [illegible] of this memorial. We would proudly follow any suggestions you might make, either in regard to conducting this war or dispelling this unnatural state of things between those who have the same object in view.
    We now commit the advocacy of our cause into your hands, well knowing that if you stand not up for us, influences will be brought to bear against us, which may injure us all and ruin many of us. We were first in the field, called there by stern necessity as well as by the governor of Oregon, and it would be hard indeed if our claims were disregarded.
    We see by what appears to be an official article in the San Francisco Herald that Col. Buchanan claims to [illegible] the Tututni rancheria, the Mikonotunne [illegible]. Now the former was destroyed by us, without either his knowledge or order.
    Forgive his long draft upon your time and patience. Many of us are absent procuring supplies, else all would sign this memorial.
We are respectfully yours
    O. W. Weaver
    L. S. Myers
    A. Barber
    Robert A. Forsyth
    John Chaduck
    G. S. Arnold
    I. S. Morrison
    Henry R. K. Lockman
    James G. Didway
    James W. Taggart
    F. Cliffton
    Thos. Calahan
    Seth Merell
    Joseph McVay
    N. McNamara
    Mathew Nolan
    Relf Bledsoe
    J. M. Lewis
    John G. Signor
    Joseph Hiester
    Charles H. Arnold
    E. A Lane
    Thomas McCormick
    Jas. McVay
    George Denef
    J. W. Wilkinson
    C. Brown
    Andrew Hunter
    S. B. Blake
    J. M. Alvord
    J. C. McVay
    David Libbey
    [illegible] Monaghan
    [illegible] Sutherland
    R. J. McKnight
    James Lowe
    L. J. Pierce
    E. H. Meservey
    G. S. Ramsay
    G. H. Abbott
    S. B. McCullough
    A. W. Sypher
    C. Haight
Fort Miner 11th May 1856
2nd Regt.
Company K Oregon Mounted Volunteers
R. Bledsoe, Captain
P.S.  Col. Buchanan has gone up Rogue River with the whole command. The Indians in this [illegible] seem to be eager to treat and we expect a permanent peace will soon be established. The individual who has been appointed to draw up this memorial was a soldier in the Yreka Mounted Volunteers under Capt. Goodall in the war in which you got wounded. He takes advantage of this postscript to sign his name to it and to state that he remembers with sincere pleasure your address to us when you first came to take the command. Your expression "fellow soldiers" contrasted so agreeably with the neglect and contempt which have lately been conferred upon us. If I can serve Gen. Lane in the territory of Oregon or in northern California, the General has only to make his wishes known.
With much respect
    I am, sir
        Your very obedt humble servt
            G. S. Ramsay
            Acting surgeon and physician in Company K, O.M.V.
 P.S.  By writing to the care of Dr. Mooney M.D., Crescent City, a letter will always reach me.  G.S.R.

Rogue River Valley O.T.
    May 11th 1856.
Dear sir
    I arrived home on yesterday from Dayton, where I had been on business connected with the removal of the Rogue River Indians. I left them all in peace and quiet, and in charge of R. B. Metcalfe and his brother, who is equally as good a hand among Indians as Robt. I tendered my resignation to Genl. Palmer before I left Dayton. It however was not to take effect until the 30th of June, which is now near at hand. I reserved until the 30th of June in order to enable me to settle the business of the agency.
    I trust you will have Robt. Metcalfe appointed in my stead, and a better selection or a more competent person than Robt.['s] brother James K. Metcalfe could not fill his place, and should a vacancy occur in which you have no particular person to fill, you could not confer it upon a worthier man than James K. Metcalfe. To his superior knowledge of Indian character I certainly stand indebted for much useful information and assistance while in the discharge of my official duties.
    The war still continues, but it is not prosecuted with much vigor. I do hope something will be done by the present Congress to relieve the wants of the settlers in the present emergency. It is futile and worse than that it is even folly to stop to inquire into the cause or origin of the war while the savages are at work spreading desolation and ruin on all sides. No alternative is now left but to fight it out, and in order to do so Congress must do something for us. I expect to be in the States this summer or fall. I am anxiously waiting for the war to wind up to start.
    I suspect Genl. Palmer will hardly recommend the Messrs. Metcalfe, but for all that they are good men for that position.
    In retiring from office permit me to return to you my sincere thanks for your kind patronage, which I trust I duly appreciate and shall remember with lively gratitude the more so from the fact that it was unsought and unlooked-for on my part
    Very respectfully
        Your obt servt
            G. H. Ambrose
Genl. Lane M.C.
    Washington City

Port Orford, O.T.
    May 15 1856
Dear Genl,
    I am happy to say that by last mail I recd. from Washington some "material aid," and will be able to pay on the note $500 which I shall send to Shelby--who has the note.
    I regret to know that this country is in absolutely a languishing condition on account of Indian troubles. How unfortunate it is that our regular and volunteer forces should occupy antagonistic positions and views of this war, when the whole energy of the U.S. and people of this territory ought to be united. The breach I fear is so great that no essential good can be done by either. There is not a proper thinking man in Oregon who does not deplore it. "But what shall be the remedy?"
    The regular army (I mean south) are in active service. I think Col. Buchanan has under his command now in Rogue River Valley some 400 men exclusive of officers, enough to whip out all the Indians, but can he find them in the mountain fastnesses. It will require many more than are actually engaged in the field. Positions ought to be taken and kept, which cannot be done with so small a force. How advantageous[ly] the volunteer forces could be used in this way, but for this quarrel. Much blame may be attributed to the people for bringing on this war, for speculation, etc., but some part of the want of success in its prosecution may reasonably be attributed to the course Genl. Wool has taken in regard to this perplexing question. The volunteer forces, by their own choice, refused to be placed under the rules of the regular army, claiming an independence which in my opinion has worked ruin and defeat on almost every occasion. Seeming to take advantage of their liberty, they have refused anything like obedience to their own officers. Who can take up the papers and reports made of their movements and not be convinced of this fact? It is but today news reached this place that Genl. Lamerick, having a large volunteer force under him south, was about to, or had resigned on the grounds of utter indifference of his men to submit to any orders. What is said of these may be said to some extent of all, better men never went into any field, but blind to their own interests. Whole trains of horses are taken by the Indians from our volunteers, and done too under our best officers, and this is of frequent occurrence.
    Genl. Wool, on the other hand, has manifested a degree of neglect towards Oregon in not actively placing a sufficient force of troops in the field until the patience of the people were worn out, their property burned or destroyed, and their wives and children murdered before their eyes, or belief relief could come. The stand he has taken in the unfortunate controversy between the territorial officers and himself has so far weakened the military arm of the territory that nothing is left for it but a dishonorable abandonment of the field. Its reputation gone, its credit bankrupt. This, too, has been accomplished by the exercise of an undue spirit of resentment, or revenge, which is to cost the government millions of dollars. I look upon it as the cause of the inability of the territorial officers to procure sufficient supplies and the exorbitant prices paid for those which could be had. "But the remedy." I am far from attempting to offer, or suggest, a remedy. I saw and conversed with Genl. Adair last week, who told me in a hasty manner on the steamer that he had written you fully on the subject, that he urged you to accept the command of the Pacific division, come home, and take the field. As to the correctness of this position, I am but illy prepared to give an opinion whether Oregon most needs your services in Congress, or in the field. Would your return settle the controversy; would it restore order and obedience amongst volunteer and regular forces, or would your services in securing the payment of the enormous war debt, upon which depends the credit or bankruptcy of the territory, be better applied in Congress are questions of the greatest moment to the people of Oregon.
    I have uniformly adhered to the opinion that no man in or out of Congress could carry this war debt through but you, if indeed it can be done at all, when the claims shall all be reduced to one grand total. Still I would say that if you shall decide upon assuming command of the Pacific forces against these savages and conceive it your duty to return in that capacity, you would carry into the field my best and warmest wishes. All I ask is that you may not be sacrificed to gratify the schemes of enemies.