The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Notes on Joseph Lane

For more on Lane, see here.

Joseph Lane Campaign Ferrotype, 1860

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 11, 1848
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd inst. directing the sum of $6,902.85 to be turned over to Govr. Jos. Lane on account of the Oregon sub-agency, and to inform you that he left here about the 1st instant for Fort Leavenworth, at which place I have just learned from the clerk of the steamer Mandan he was on the 6th last and making his preparations to start on the 9th for Oregon. From another gentleman I learn that there was some uncertainty about his starting so soon, and have accordingly written to him this day by mail and steamboat, informing him that the money, instructions, blanks, commissions &c. are on hand here for him.
With great respect I am sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        John Haverty
            Clerk Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 414-415.

    GOV. LANE.--The steamer Martha arrived from Weston last night. We learn from her officers that Gov. Lane left Fort Leavenworth with an escort of 25 men, under the command of Lieut. Hawkins, on Sunday, the 10th inst., for Oregon, via Santa Fe and California. The officers also report that Gen. Price was expected to arrive in Santa Fe on the second of last month.
Unidentified clipping marked "Sept. '48," pasted onto letter below. Weston is a town in Ohio; the Martha plied the Ohio River.
Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 28, 1848
    On the 11th inst. the clerk of this office had the honor to inform you of the departure of Govr. Jos. Lane from this city for Fort Leavenworth on or about the first of this month, and of his having written to him by steamboat & mail, advising him of the amount of funds &c. These letters have since been returned by the postmaster at Fort L. to this office, the Governor having left there on the 10th instant on his way to Oregon.
    The remittance of $6,902.75, advised by your letter of 2nd inst. for the use of Govr. Lane, was recd. here on the 13th. It being no longer available here for the purpose intended, I have respectfully to ask your instructions to redeposit it to the credit of the Treasurer of the United States.
    The documents recd. from your office for Govr. L. have been returned here up to this time, in the hope that an opportunity would occur of forwarding them to Oregon; none such having presented itself, I have this day returned them as directed by the postscript of your letter above referred to.
I have the honor to be sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        T. H. Harvey
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. W. Medill
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 416-417.

A Territorial Government for Oregon--A Supreme Judge Arrived--
A Governor, Other Officers and an Escort on the Way.--Uncle Sam a Gentleman

    From passengers arrived from the Undine, we learn that a Territorial government has been organized for Oregon; that a Mr. Pratt, of Illinois, has been appointed Supreme Judge for the Territory, who came on board the Undine, and will be in the city in a few days; that Gen. Lane of Indiana has been appointed Governor, and messenger Meek Marshal, who with other officers and an escort are on their way here by land, and may now be wintering at Fort Hall. We have been unable to learn the names of the other officers, also whether or not any land law has passed for Oregon. Trusting that Uncle Sam has done or will do justly by the citizens of Oregon, we doff our hat and call him a gentleman of the first water. With the passage of a just land law, nothing prevents Oregon from speedily becoming the strong right arm of America upon the Pacific. In the name of the good people of Oregon, their Spectator joyfully greets the arrival of Judge Pratt into Oregon.
    Gen. Lane is a young man, self-made, and has won many and imperishable honors in the Mexican War. No Territorial government has been organized for California.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, January 25, 1849, page 2

    It appears that "Judge Pratt" is not the Supreme Judge of Oregon Territory, as supposed by his fellow passengers, and so announced in our last.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, February 8, 1849, page 2

United States of America   )
Territory of Oregon            )
Clackamas County               )
March the 24th 1849
Whereas Joseph Lane, Governor of the Territory of Oregon, arrived in Oregon City in the said Territory of Oregon on the second day of March A.D. 1849, and on the third day of March 1849 was duly sworn to support the Constitution of the United States and faithfully to discharge the duties of Governor of Oregon Territory during his continuance in office as Governor of the Territory of Oregon;
    Said oath was administered by S. M. Holderness, the Secretary of the Territory of Oregon, under the provisions [of the] government of Oregon under the belief that the 18th section of an act to establish the Territorial Government of Oregon authorized said Secretary to administer said oath, but as doubts may arise from the express language of the eleventh section of said act, and for greater caution;
    The Governor takes and subscribes the following oath of office:
    "I do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States and faithfully to discharge the duties of the office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon during my continuance in office, so help me God."
Joseph Lane
Clackamas County
Territory of Oregon, United States
    I, Gabriel Walling, justice of the peace of Clackamas County, Oregon Territory, certify that the above-named Joseph Lane personally appeared before me this day, and although he deems himself qualified to perform the duties and exercise the powers and office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon without any other oath than that which he has taken before the Secretary of the Territory of Oregon under the provisional government of Oregon, yet as doubts may arise and for greater caution took and subscribed the foregoing oath before me.
Gabriel Walling J.P.
Oregon City 24th day of March 1849

Gov. Lane's Departure.
    It will be seen from the proceedings of the Steamboat Company that Gov. Lane has consented to visit the States as agent of the company. No one acquainted with the condition of things in Oregon can justly take any exception to the course pursued by his excellence in this matter. The commerce of the Territory by the mere force of circumstances has crowded itself to its present flourishing condition. But it has reached its ultimate extreme. Nothing but steam power can force it any farther. This power it is now proposed to apply, and there is perhaps no man in the Territory better qualified than is Gov. Lane for giving direction and energy to this enterprise. We regard its completion as involving the permanent prosperity of the Territory.
    As for any exception that may be made to the propriety of the Governor's leaving his official post, we are persuaded that all who sincerely regard the prosperity of Oregon will agree that in the present peculiar conjuncture in our affairs he can serve us more extensively in this private enterprise than he could in his public station. The civil government of this Territory is virtually dissolved, and hence the Governor being literally alone could effect but little as Governor of the Territory. Under these circumstances it must surely be proper for him to serve the country and promote its welfare as best he can.
"Gold in Oregon!" Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, January 24, 1850, page 2

    GOV. LANE.--His Excellency Gov. Lane has gone up the valley, expecting to be absent a week or two. We are not officially informed on the subject, but our impression is that he has gone in pursuit of the soldiers who deserted from this city. Hope he will be successful.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, March 7, 1850, page 2

Gov. Lane--The Cayuse Murderers.
    Gov. Lane, immediately on his return from the Umpqua, left for the Dalles, on business connected with the Cayuse affairs. The murderers of Dr. Whitman have at length been arrested, excepting one or two who are dead. The nation are willing to surrender them and make peace. The Governor is anxious and will spare no effort to bring this matter so long in agitation to a final issue.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 18, 1850, page 2

The Deserters.
    Gov. Lane has returned from the Umpqua, having arrested and brought back some 70 or 75 of the deserters. Col. Loring continued the pursuit after the remainder, some 50 men. There is a rumor in town that after progressing as far as the Kanyon, he was obliged to return to the Umpqua, having found two of the bodies of the deserters. Strong fears are entertained that the whole band will have perished by starvation ere they can be reached with provisions.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 18, 1850, page 2

From Oregon.
    It will be remembered that the Rev. Mr. Whitman, together with his lady and family, were massacred by the Indians at the Mission above the Cascade, in the Cayuse country, Oregon, sometime in the year 1847. There were some eight or ten other families temporarily stopping in the place at the time, the male members of whom were also murdered. The women and children were taken prisoners by the Indians, and the young women compelled to become the wives of some of the chiefs. Soon afterwards, Maj. Ogden, commander at Vancouver Island, assisted by Gen. Gilman, started with a file of soldiers into the Indian country, to rescue the unfortunate prisoners and punish the Indians for the outrage. They found the Indians, gave them battle, in which many of those engaged in the murder at the Mission were killed, and finally succeeded in recovering the women and children, some fifty in number, by hiring the savages to deliver them up. Thus the matter ended for the time. But we learn by a Mr. Field, now in this place, who left Oregon City fifteen days ago, that Gen. Lane has taken decided steps to have a more satisfactory settlement. In March last he formally demanded of the Indians the remainder of the murderers, and nine of them, including two Catholic priests, have been delivered into the possession of the government of Oregon. By proclamation of the Governor, the Legislature of the Territory was convened on the 13th of May inst., at Oregon City, to give the prisoners a trial, and our informant thinks that ere this they have been convicted and put to death.
    The chiefs of the Klickitats and Calapooias have tendered the services of their tribes to Gov. Lane. When our informant left, they were encamped at Linn City, opposite Oregon City, awaiting the sentence of the murderers on trial before the Legislature. They are to join the forces of the Territory and march under Gov. Lane over the land route towards California till they reach the neighborhood of Rogue River. It is known that there are hostile tribes of Indians in this country. It was infested by them last season, and several helpless companies of Oregonians were murdered while on their way to California. Lately, some friendly Indians have given information in Oregon that the wives and children of some families who journeyed over this route last season are now prisoners among the Digger Indians--the men having been murdered. The Oregonians are highly incensed at these outrages, and it is thought they will not be satisfied until the offensive Indians are exterminated. The energetic steps taken by the Governor will doubtless be the means of opening a safe overland communication between California and Oregon.
Sacramento Transcript, May 28, 1850, page 2

Gov. Lane and Rogue River Gold.
    Gov. Lane has gone to the Rogue River country to negotiate, if possible, a treaty with the Indians in that region, preparatory to working the gold mines there. It is the Governor's intention to explore that section of Oregon pretty thoroughly with reference to its mineral resources.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, May 30, 1850, page 2

    News from the gold mines comes in slowly. We learn that Gov. Lane has gone on to Rogue River. The washings on South Umpqua yielded a fair remuneration to the industrious. It was confidently believed, however, that Rogue River would pay much better, and most of the companies have passed on to that river.
"News from the Gold Mines,"
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, June 27, 1850, page 2

    RESIGNATION.--Gov. Joseph Lane has resigned the office of Governor of this Territory. The resignation took effect on the 18th inst. The executive functions devolve for the present on the Hon. K. Prichette, Secretary of the Territory.

Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, June 27, 1850, page 2

    Gov. Lane, of Oregon, has resigned his office as Governor, and is contemplating a trip to the Illinois River, in search of the gold region.
"Items from Oregon," Burlington Hawk-Eye, Burlington, Iowa, September 5, 1850, page 2

News from the Gold Mines.
    Persons have come in from the Rogue River country who are confident that gold may be found there in considerable quantities, though the waters were still too high to "prospect" satisfactorily. Gold, however, was found. Gov. Lane, not finding things to suit him on Rogue River, after negotiating a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians had gone on to Trinity, on his way to California.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, July 25, 1850, page 3

    By arrival of steamer Carolina three days from Astoria, and four days from Fort Vancouver, we have advices from Oregon. We learn that Gov. Lane and party, whose departure to Rogue River has been previously announced, had been unsuccessful in his explorations for gold in that region, and had proceeded to the Umpqua.
"Oregon News," Sacramento Transcript, August 9, 1850, page 2

    Gen. Lane, the Governor of Oregon, had left the city on the 1st of June with seventy-five Klickitat Indians and a few regulars for Rogue River, on an exploring expedition, and also for the purpose of making a treaty with the Rogue River Indians, who have lately been committing robberies and depredations on the emigrants. Gen. Lane's party had proceeded as far as the South Fork of the Umpqua River, where gold dust was discovered in quantities on the bars of the river. Here the party stopped and went to mining. As they had but few utensils, however, they only averaged about ten dollars per day. Great excitement prevailed in Oregon in regard to the flattering rumors of the existence of great quantities of gold in the Spokane country, north of the Columbia, which had been confirmed. Great quantities had left for the mines.
"From Oregon," Illinois Daily Journal, Springfield, August 21, 1850, page 2

By Fred Lockley.

    "In the spring of [1850], after returning from the California gold fields," said Cy Mulkey of Roseburg, "I went to work on William Martin's farm. After digging gold and fighting Indians, plowing seemed pretty prosaic, so at the end of the month I said to Mr. martin that he need not pay me anything if he would give me his white pony with blue eyes. He agreed to this, so I rode to my home in Yamhill County
    "A few days after I had gone home General Lane passed our place. He was following some soldiers who had deserted at Oregon City, and he wanted a posse of citizens to go with him. He promised to give a reward of $30 for each deserter captured and returned. These soldiers were mounted dragoons who had come across the plains the year before. A good many of them were soldiers who had served under General Lane during the Mexican War.
    "Stories of the fortunes being made in the California gold fields were too much for them. A large number of them had deserted and had started for California. General Lane knew that the men were not prepared to make the 800-mile trip. They had left without supplies except what they could carry on their backs. We overtook 83 of them at Grave Creek in the Rogue River Valley. Their clothes were worn out. They were out of food and were not at all unwilling to be captured. We took them back to Oregon City, and General Lane paid the reward to those of us who had gone with him.
    "On this trip General Lane told me that he himself was going to California on the first of June, and on his way he was going to stop, hold a peace council with the Rogue River Indians and try to get them to cease their attacks on the miners traveling through their country. As I had lost two good horses and a silver-mounted saddle, bridle and spurs and $3600 in gold dust the fall before, I was anxious to go along in the hope that I might recover some of my property.
    "General Lane offered me a position as interpreter. I gladly accepted his offer. At this time there were a good many Klickitat Indians in the Willamette Valley. Their chief was very anxious to make a raid on the Rogue River Indians to get the horses which they had stolen from miners and packers. They had several hundred stolen horses.
    "'Quatley,' the head of the Klickitat Indians, asked General Lane if he would let 40 of his warriors go along with him so that if General Lane failed to make the treaty ,the Klickitat Indians could make a raid on the Rogue River Indians and secure the horses. General Lane agreed to this and took the Indians along.
    "We had with us about 500 head of beef cattle which belonged to General Lane, Phil Thompson and Mr. Martin and Mr. Angel.
    "We reached the South Umpqua River, near what is now the town of Canyonville, without special incident. We camped there several days while the Klickitat Indians were out scouting to find the Rogue River Indians. They located a small band near the head of the South Umpqua. They brought these into camp. With them there was a boy about 15 years old whom the Rogue River Indians had captured from the Calapooia Indians. This boy could talk good Chinook; so could I. General Lane would give me his message which I would translate into Chinook to the boy, and he would translate into the tongue of the Rogue River Indians. The Rogue River Indians agreed to send runners out and get all of the tribe together at a council on the Big Bar on the south side of Rogue River, just above where the town of Gold Hill is now located. They kept their promise and met General Lane as agreed.
    "After a two-day council they signed a treaty. We named the chief who signed the treaty for his people Chief Joseph, naming him after General Joseph Lane. General Lane killed two beeves and gave the Indians a big barbecue. In return, the chief of the Rogue River Indians made General Lane a present of an Indian boy whom they had captured from the Calapooia Indians. During the treaty I saw an Indian on one of my horses which had been stolen from me the year before. General Lane had my horse returned to me, and one of the Indians gave me $100 of the gold dust that had been taken from me. The rest of it, about $3500, they had thrown in the river. They had taken from our party the year before over $20,000 in gold dust, and of this entire amount they had only saved $100 in nuggets, throwing all of the rest away.
    "General Lane was afraid that as soon as he left the Klickitat Indians would make a raid on the Rogue River Indians, steal the horses and break the treaty he had just signed. He called the chief of the Klickitats and told him that I was his personal representative and would go back with them to the Willamette Valley and that he would hold him responsible for any harm his Indians did on the way back.
    "The Indians made no trouble whatever on the way back. General Lane went on to California, while I returned to Oregon City, where I spent that winter."

Oregon Daily Journal,
Portland, December 29, 1913, page 6

    Persons have come in from the Rogue River country, who are confident that gold may be found in considerable quantities, though the waters were still too high to "prospect" satisfactorily. Gold, however, was found. Gov. Lane, not finding things to suit him on Rogue River, after negotiating a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians, had gone on to Trinity on his way to California.
"From Oregon," Illinois Daily Journal, Springfield, October 2, 1850, page 2

    A gentleman who arrived a few days since informed us that the Indians on the Sacramento are inimical to the whites. They are constantly committing all kinds of depredations upon the whites. They have committed several murders, to which he was a witness. One was represented as having been killed in the coolest manner, and another whilst lying in his tent in a helpless condition.
    Our informant states further that Gen. Lane was about to abandon the mines, his success not having been encouragingly large. He was under the impression that Gen. Lane intended to repair to Sacramento City. For anything further deponent knew nothing.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 14, 1850, page 2

(From the Louisville Democrat.)
Letter from Oregon.

Sketch of the Journey of General Joseph Lane to the Pacific,
and of His Course as Governor of Oregon Until His Removal
by the Federal Government.

Astoria, (Oregon) Dec. 6, 1850.
    Since General Joseph Lane's removal from the office of Governor of Oregon, we have noticed in several papers of high repute attacks upon his character and political reputation, which, if left unanswered, may produce erroneous impressions upon the public mind, not only as regards the course he pursued while in office, but also as to the motive and principle which actuated his conduct.
    We will notice no particular slander, coming as they all do from political opponents, for we have no sinister motive in view--"no political projects to build up"--and must be excused from shaping this article only to subserve the purpose of a refutation to partisan declarations or heated political assertions. Our sole object is to do justice to the character of one who has devoted a large portion of his life and services to his country, and is now in the eyes of his countrymen an example--verifying the truth of that maxim, which belongs to the vocabulary of the sneering monarchist, that republics are ungrateful.
    Let these simple facts attest: Gen. Lane, at the time he was commissioned Governor of the Territory of Oregon by President Polk, resided on the banks of the Ohio River, one hundred and fifty miles below the city of Louisville. He was absent from home, and received the first telegraphic news of his appointment at Madison. On his return he visited General Butler, to whom he expressed doubts as to the correctness of the news previously heard, for he had never asked for or in any way solicited that or any other appointment from the administration. Gen. Butler, with characteristic judgment, assured him that he had no doubt of its truth, for, said he, when I was in Washington Mr. Polk spoke to me on the subject, and I told him if I had the appointment to make, and the whole world to choose from, I would say Gen. Lane is the very man. Gen. L. proceeded home, where he arrived the 27th August, and found his commission in the hands of Major Meek. On the morning of the 28th, at one o'clock of that morning, he, with his eldest son and Major Meek, started for Oregon.
    It is to be regretted that so few officers, and particularly the recipients of executive favors, display that decision of purpose and energy of character that mark the conduct of Gen. Lane on this occasion. The distance to be traveled, the obstacles and almost insurmountable difficulties attending it, the political condition of the people of Oregon, their utter destitution of any effective social organization, and their distant cry for the protection of their homes and families from the merciless tomahawk of the savage, all demanded of the President the appointment of a man to their chief magistracy of the Territory who would quickly repair to his post of duty, and discharge faithfully and fearlessly the responsibilities of his office. President Polk doubtless knew well the man of his choice; he knew, as the history of the Mexican War fully attests, that he was selecting one whose stern integrity, undoubted courage, firmness and decision of purpose, had been sufficiently tried and fully established by the annals of "times that try men's souls."
    Gen. L. arrived at St. Louis on the evening of the 30th August, visited Gen. Kearny at Jefferson Barracks on the morning of the 31st, who promptly furnished orders for Capt. Roberts, of the Rifles at Leavenworth, to hold himself in readiness to escort the General and party to Oregon. Gen. Kearny, seriously doubting the possibility of making the trip so late in the season, attempted to dissuade them from starting. Gen. Lane, however, feeling the responsibility incurred by accepting his office, moved on. He arrived at Fort Leavenworth on the 4th September, and was told by both officers and citizens that it was impossible to cross the mountains so late in the season. An outfit was purchased, and with an escort of 20 men under Lieut. Hawkins they left the fort on the 10th September, and arrived at Los Angeles, on the Pacific coast, on the 30th December following. The party camped out more than one hundred nights, and from Santa Fe to Los Angeles, a distance of several hundred miles, were without tents and compelled to pack their provisions. They encountered the deepest snows, covering rugged mountains, and slept on the rocks without the common comforts of the camp. They traveled, at one time during the trip, over one hundred miles without water, necessarily suffering the most painful sensations of thirst. It is remarkable that Gen. Lane, a man, we suppose, more than fifty years of age, should have retained the physical ability to undergo the toils and hardships of the journey, and to no other agency can we now attribute it, other than that fixedness of purpose which belongs to the energetic mind of the man.
    Gen. Lane arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon, on the 18th February, at a time when there was no means of transportation to Oregon City, one hundred and fifty miles above, except the small canoe of the Indian. There were but five white families at Astoria, and the dangers attending a voyage up the river were sufficient to deter many from undertaking it. The new Governor, however, promptly chartered a Chinook canoe, and taking the bow oar himself pushed off for the capitol of the Territory, where he arrived 2nd March, 1849. He took the oath of office, and commenced the discharge of its duties on the day following.
    It is necessary, in order to a fuller understanding of the arduous duties of the executive of Oregon during the time he was in office, that we make a brief statement of the political and local condition of the country, and the relations which at that time subsisted between the white settlers and the various Indian tribes. Oregon was without a territorial government, and thus for several years had the inhabitants lived exposed to internal convulsions and the dangers of anarchy. True, they had established with the view of protecting individual liberty and property what was termed a provisional government, but from the necessity of the case--the absence of a sufficient population, as well as the want of power to enact and enforce laws--their organization was weak and inefficient.
    After the organization of the Territory by Congress, for the want of proper officers, no writs of election had issued to convene a Legislature, and nothing had been done towards the organization of courts or the election of any officers, judicial or ministerial--those appointed by the President had not yet arrived.
    The Indian title to the lands remained unextinguished, and no treaties had been established between the United States and the savage tribes; the fierce warriors of the Cayuse and the white man had never smoked the pipe of peace together, and the temple of Janus had never been closed west of the Rocky Mountains. Depredations were almost daily being committed by the Indians upon the emigrants and peaceful settlers, and some of the tribes seemed already to have resorted to murder and rapine, not only as an occupation by which they accumulated wealth, but with the more savage intent of exterminating from their midst the intruders upon their soil.
    At this time the arrival of  Gov. Lane, the first officer under the territorial government, was hailed with joy by the people of Oregon. They could now anticipate a brighter future, a more desirable destiny, and looked forward with hope to the time when their country should become one of the bright and fixed stars in the American constellation of sovereign states. What did Gov. Lane do towards the realization of these hopes and these anticipations? Again let facts attest:
    His first official act was to appoint officers to take the census of the Territory, to cause apportionment to be made preparatory to the election by the people of members to the legislative assembly. This accomplished, in but a few days after his installment, he visited the Indians on the Columbia at the "Dalles," and having assembled the tribes in that section of the country, held a talk, and established our relations with them upon a proper basis. Immediately on his return to the seat of government, having learned that some bad white men had been stealing horses from the Indians, he set out in quest of the guilty persons; he arrested and brought them back, and delivered the property that had been taken to its rightful owners. It will be remembered that there were no territorial officers to aid him in the execution of these duties. While out the last time, Governor L. learned that the Snoqualmie Indians had murdered a party of white men at or near Puget's Sound; he immediately proceeded to the Sound, a distance of more than 200 miles, through a wilderness country--took with him arms and ammunition, and placed the settlers there in the best state of defense. On his return, he convened the first Territorial Legislature of Oregon. He then crossed the mountains, a distance of many miles, to Yacoac [sic], and visited and established friendly relations with all the Indians in that region.
    At this time some seventy or eighty soldiers of the Rifle Regiment, stationed at Oregon City, determined to go to the gold mines of California. They armed themselves, and in defiance of law and the threats of their officers marched boldly off in broad daylight. The officers in command of the regiment and various companies were unwilling to risk their lives in an attempt to arrest men who declared themselves ready and willing at all hazards to resist any efforts that might be taken to prevent the success of the undertaking. As soon as the news of their departure reached Governor L., he together with some of the officers and a small body of men started on the trail of the deserters. He followed them to the Canyon, three hundred miles--was out 35 days, 32 of which it rained, and was in swimming water over 100 times--he succeeded in arresting and bringing back about 60 of the men. After his return, still acting in the capacity of a ministerial officer, he went to the Cayuse country and brought to the seat of government the murderers of Whitman and his companions.
    These facts are stated because they best show with what energy and indomitable perseverance Governor L. discharged the duties of his office; they are "stubborn facts" that more clearly exhibit the real worth and merit of the man than any eulogy that we might write. It is the sentiment of nearly every man in Oregon that deep wrong and great injustice was done by the cabinet at Washington to a great and good man, when they issued their premature edict proscribing Governor Lane. His policy in managing the Indians was ever open and honorable, and had gained for him the unbounded confidence of that unfortunate people. His removal from office is deeply regretted by the nation as well as the adopted sons of Oregon, and for months to come must occur to the memories of the people only to arouse in the mind mingled feelings of regret and indignation.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, February 27, 1851, page 2

    Up to February 1851 after my arrival in California I was a resident near Shasta in Shasta County in that state. Whilst there in the fall of 1850 I made the acquaintance of Genl. Joseph Lane, now delegate in Congress from Oregon Territory. Genl. Lane, being quite a favorite with the frontier men, was early informed of the prospects of Scotts River and vicinity and as early in the season of 1851 (and I think February) as the weather would permit set out for the new diggings and invited me to accompany him, which I did. We arrived on Scotts River in the last of February of that year. Upon our arrival on the upper waters of Scotts River the Indians, who had heard of Genl. Lane through the Oregon Indians, learning that the Genl. was leader of the company, came into camp and expressed a wish that all hostilities between them and the whites should cease and that Genl. Lane should be "tyee" or chief over both parties. Up to this time during our journey, which had been protracted to eighteen days, we had been under necessity of standing guard both over animals and camp both day and night. This proposition of the Indians was a great relief to us. Among the Indians who came in at that time were the chief of Scotts River Indians (calling themselves Otte-ti-e-was), whom we have christened John, and his three brothers, Tolo, now called "Old Man," chief of the band inhabiting that part of the country upon which Yreka is now located, and the chief of the Cañon Indians as they are called inhabiting the cañon and mountains on the lower part of Scotts River including the bar. He is since called Charley and has not been any way implicated in any of the difficulties since that time though previous thereto he was the most formidable enemy that the whites had to encounter.
    In March of that year diggings were struck on what is now called the Yreka Flats and on Greenhorn. In company with Genl. Lane I then moved from Scotts River to those diggings, where a little town was established called Shasta Butte City. The news of the new discovery was soon spread by the traders, and the exceeding richness of the district caused a sudden and heavy influx of miners who, excited by the prospect of suddenly realizing their fondest anticipations of wealth and competency, would turn out their horses and mules on the Shasta plains and pay no further heed to them until they had either realized their anticipations or had met with disappointment from not striking it and were again in want of them to either start for their far distant homes or in search of other and to them more lucky diggings. . . .
    As a consequence of the inattention of the miners to their horses and mules they frequently strayed off a long distance, and when wanted could not be found by their owners and but for the influence of Genl. Lane much irritation and difficulty would have grown out of that source, which would have involved us in a fatal Indian war. Genl. Lane commanded the respect of the whites and had won the confidence and affection of the Indians, and at a word from him Old Tolo would send out his young men to look up any lost animals desired. Upon bringing them in and delivery to him he would award to the Indians a shirt, pair of pants or drawers or some little trinket according to the value of the animal and the trouble in finding. This duty which by common consent was awarded to him was a heavy drain both upon his time and his means, but was performed with a cheerfulness which has endeared him to all of the old settlers here. Many times the owner of the animal had nothing with which to reimburse the Genl., and the horse was his only means of exit, in which case he never allowed the owner to go out on foot, but bid him take his animal and ride.
    After the Genl. left for his home in Oregon the Indians, from having seen me frequently in his company and at his tent, came to me with their troubles, and I had to take his plan with them, they styling me for some time "Tyee Joe Lane's codawa," meaning Genl. L.'s brother.
Elijah Steele, letter of November 13, 1857,
Cayuse, Yakima and Rogue River Wars Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Bx47, Box 1, Folder 47.

    Mr. BRIGHT. Mr. President, I have taken my seat in the Senate today for the first time during the session, and consequently have had no opportunity of hearing in person the arguments that have been had upon the resolutions now under consideration. I learn, however, in conversation with Senators around, and from the remarks of my colleague this morning, that in discussing the relative merits of the persons removed by the late Executive, the name of General Lane has been noticed, and I understand that the Senate from Ohio alleges that he was removed for causes not political, but connected with the discharge of his official duties. I had the pleasure of hearing the remarks of the honorable Senator from North Carolina (Mr. Mangum) this morning, and he puts the removal of General Lane upon other and very different ground than that of the Senator from Ohio. As I understood the honorable Senator from North Carolina, General Lane was removed for the reason that he had given publicity to falsehoods against the late Executive of the United States. I will preface what I have to say with the remark that I am not now prepared to discuss this question at length, but at a proper time I propose to do so. I think I can show most conclusively that the Senator from Ohio, to say the least, is mistaken, and that General Lane was never removed from office for a dereliction of his official duties as Governor of the Territory of Oregon. I think I can show most conclusively that he performed his duties while in that position, under the embarrassing circumstances surrounding him, in a manner that may well challenge the scrutiny of all, even those who seek to find fault with him.
    I am as conversant with General Lane's official acts, and perhaps a little more so, than any gentleman upon this floor. I know the circumstances under which he took the office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon. I know something of the toils and privation he underwent in reaching his new home in that far-off Territory. I think I may say, without fear of successful contradiction, that he performed those duties in a manner highly creditable to himself and eminently satisfactory to the citizens of Oregon. Hence, sir, I am unwilling, as one of his friends, and he one of my most valued constituents, it should be announced that he was removed for a failure to perform his duty. No, sir, he was removed for political considerations--none other--and not for the reason assigned by the Senator from Ohio.
    I think I am in possession of proof to show that from the hour that General Lane received the telegraphic dispatch advising him of his appointment--and at that time he was a guest in my domicile--until the day he was dispossessed of his office, no public man ever labored more industriously or faithfully to discharge his duties as became an American patriot than he did. But I do not propose pursuing this point at this time.
    I now turn for a moment to the remarks made by the Senator from North Carolina. I say to him, in all kindness, that he is mistaken when he charges that General Lane ever made a publication derogatory to the reputation of General Taylor.
    Mr. MANGUM. I have an indistinct recollection of the circumstances. I heard of the matter about two years ago. My impression was derived from the public prints of the country, that not only a publication was made which reflected upon General Taylor's personal honor, but went to the extent of insinuating an impeachment of his veracity as a gentleman. And I have heard further, since I came into this hall this morning, from a Senator, that a gentleman in whom he reposed confidence, a man of character, had informed him that General Lane had repeatedly stated in public addresses to the people of Indiana that General Taylor's view of the subject, as presented to the world, was false in reference to the Indiana volunteers. I did not speak upon my own knowledge; I only assumed that if the facts were so, General Taylor could not have done otherwise than discharge him from public service under him.
    Mr. BRIGHT. I did not misunderstand the honorable Senator from North Carolina. I did not say that he had asserted that General Lane had made such publication, or that he uttered such declarations, but hypothetically that if General Lane had done so, he ought to have been removed. I concur with him in that opinion, unless he stated the truth, but I venture to assert that General Lane made no such publications, and I will say that in the public addresses which I heard General Lane make--and I heard him on several occasions--he made no such statement as that to which the honorable Senator from North Carolina alluded. If time be extended to me, and I should hereafter go into an investigation of the reports, the unfortunate reports, made in reference to the troops that volunteered from the state of Indiana, I trust I shall be able to show that they have been more misrepresented than any troops that ever took up arms in defense of their country. I will go into that investigation hereafter, if this discussion is continued. I think I shall be able to show that the fault in that case was not attributable to the men, to the soldiery, to the volunteers from the state of Indiana, not attributable to General Taylor, not attributable to General Lane, but attributable to another officer, who gave the order to retreat, and concealed the fact from the commanding general at the time he made his official report. And I will here take occasion to remark that a braver set of men never fought upon a battlefield. I will call upon the honorable Senator from Mississippi (Mr. Davis), a distinguished participant in all that occurred, to sustain me. To use his language, in talking to me on the subject some months since (and I am sorry that he is not now in his seat to repeat it):
"The second Indiana regiment gave that unmistakable evidence of bravery that challenges contradiction; it was the number of dead left upon the ground they occupied."
Congressional Globe, Senate debate of December 19, 1850, page 84  For much more on this, including incriminating quotes from Lane, refer to subsequent debate here, or in the Globe here, January 2, 1851 session of the Senate, pages 154-157.

    Up to February 1851, after my arrival in California, I was a resident near Shasta, in Shasta County, in this state. Whilst there in the fall of 1850 I made the acquaintance of Genl. Joseph Lane, now delegate in Congress from Oregon Territory. Genl. Lane, being quite a favorite with our frontier men, was early informed of the prospects of Scotts River & vicinity, and as early in the season of 1851 (& I think February) as the weather would permit set out for the new diggings and invited me to accompany him, which I did. We arrived on Scotts River in the last of February of that year. Upon our arrival on the upper waters of Scotts River, the Indians, who had heard of Genl. Lane through the Oregon Indians, learning that the Genl. was leader of the company, came into camp and expressed a wish that all hostilities between them & the whites should cease, and that Genl. Lane should be "tyee," or chief, over both parties. Up to this time during our journey, which had been protracted to eighteen days, we had been under the necessity of standing guard, both over animals and camp, day & night. This proposition of the Indians was a great relief to us. Among the Indians who came in at that time were the chief of the Scotts River Indians (calling themselves Ot-te-tie-was), whom we have christened John, and his three brothers, Tolo, now called Old Man, chief of the band inhabiting that part of the country upon which Yreka is now located, and the chief of the Cañon Indians, as they are called, inhabiting the cañon and mountains on the lower part of Scotts River, including the bar. He is now called Charley, and has not been in any way implicated in any of the difficulties since that time, though previous thereto he was the most formidable enemy that the whites had to encounter.
    In March of that year diggings were struck on what is now called the Yreka Flats, and on Greenhorn. In company with Genl. Lane I then moved from Scotts River to those diggings, where a little town was established called Shasta Butte City. The news of the new discovery was soon spread by the traders, and the exceeding richness of the district caused a sudden and heavy influx of miners, who, excited by the prospect of suddenly realizing their fondest anticipations of wealth and competency, would turn out their horses and mules on the Shasta plains, and pay no further heed to them until they had either realized their anticipations or had met with disappointment from not striking it, and were again in want of them to either start for their far distant homes, or in search of other & to them more lucky diggings.
    The Indians now called the Shastas were then quite numerous, including the band occupying the Yreka Flats, under the chief Tolo, and those inhabiting the valley of the Shasta River and the contiguous mountains, under chiefs called "Bill," and another called "Scarface" (the latter so denominated from a deep scar on his cheek, caused by a cut received at the time he killed the chief of the band & usurped his authority). These Indians were all congregated on what is called Yreka Flats when we moved over and received us in a very friendly manner. They, with those of Scotts River and Rogue River, all talk the same language and were formerly under the control of one chief, but each of the bands being under the control of a subordinate chief. This head chief, who was the father of "John," of Scotts Valley, had been killed accidentally a few years previous, and John being young, a strife for the supremacy had been carried on for some time by Sam & Joe of Rogue River & Scarface of Shasta, and John of Scotts Valley, old Tolo remaining neutral in the contest. The whites coming in among them, their difficulties ceased, and each chief took supreme control of his separate band. At this time they had no stock among them, knew nothing of the use of horses & mules except for food, except what they had seen of their use when white people had passed through their country in the transit from Oregon to California or when the Modocs (a word signifying with them strange Indians) came in among them in war parties. The Indians were naked and lived an indolent life, game, fish & roots, upon which they subsisted, being then very abundant and easily obtained. As a consequence of the inattention of the miners to their horses & mules, they frequently strayed off a long distance & when wanted could not be found by their owners, and but for the influence of Genl. Lane much irritation & difficulty would have grown out of that source, which would have involved us in a fatal Indian war. Genl. Lane commanded the respect of the whites and had won the confidence & affection of the Indians, and at a word from him old Tolo would send out his young men to look up any lost animals desired. Upon bringing them in & delivering to him, he would award to the Indians a shirt, pair of pants, or drawers, or some little trinket, according to the value of the animal and the trouble in finding. This duty, which by common consent was awarded to him, was a heavy draw upon both his time & his means, but was performed with a cheerfulness which has endeared him to all the old settlers here. Many times the owner of the animal had nothing with which to reimburse the Genl., and his horse was his only means of exit, in which cases he never allowed the owner to go out on foot, but bid him take his animal & ride.
Elijah Steele to Charles S. Drew, November 15, 1857

    GEN. LANE IN THE MINES.--That gallant officer is now laboring in the mines on Olney's Creek, Redding's Diggings, about four miles from the Springs. He is represented as being one of the most steady and hard-working miners in that whole region of country, being engaged from early morn to the close of day. He has in his employ two half-breeds, but neither they nor any around him have the same powers of endurance with himself.
    Gen. L. is represented as doing quite well in the mines. Although he has made none of those large strikes, yet by diligence and frugality he is getting what will soon constitute a snug competency.--Sac. Transcript.
Western Star, Milwaukie, February 20, 1851, page 3

Gen. Lane in Tennessee.
    We publish today the proceedings of a meeting of the Democracy of Indiana on the subject of nominating a candidate for President of the United States. It will be seen that the meeting consisted of members of the Constitutional Convention of the General Assembly, and of the citizens of the state. It seems to have been a large and enthusiastic meeting. General Joseph Lane was nominated, subject to the decision of a national Democratic convention, as the choice of the state of Indiana for the Presidency of the United States. Gen. Lane's reputation as a civilian, and a military man, is national. Indiana may well be proud of him, and style him the "Marion of the Mexican War, the Andrew Jackson of Indiana." There can be no doubt the unjust conduct of Gen. Taylor's cabinet--we suppose the Old General himself had about as little to do with this as with the other acts of his administration--towards General Lane, and the late violent attacks in the Senate of the United States by prominent Whigs, will largely tend to strengthen him in popular favor. We take pleasure in spreading the proceedings of the meeting before our readers.--Nashville Union.
Indiana Sentinel, Indianapolis, February 20, 1851, page 1

Gen. Lane.
    We have been kindly furnished, by Mr. R. R. Thompson, with the following extract from a letter received by him from Gen. Joseph Lane, in answer to solicitations of numerous friends asking his consent to run for Delegate to Congress:
    "As to the Delegateship, I will leave the matter entirely to my friends. Oregon is, and shall be, my home. Should I be elected, I will try to be useful to the Territory. I am not ambitious for office. If it is agreed that I am to run, I will perform my part promptly."
    It is expected, from the tenor of the letter alluded to, that he will reach Oregon in two or three weeks.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, March 6, 1851, page 2

    BUTLER AND LANE.--The Roseville Democrat
has hoisted the banner of Col. Butler for next President, and Gen. Lane for Vice.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, March 20, 1851, page 2

Yoncalla, Umpqua,
    March 14, 1851.
Editor of the Spectator:
    The announcement contained in the Spectator of March 6th that Gov. Lane was shortly expected home, and was willing to serve the people of Oregon as their Delegate to Congress, will doubtless be hailed with pleasure in all parts of the country, as it has been in this valley.
    Permit me here to observe that by giving your support to a man with whom not only political, but in the case of the proprietor even personal, differences exist, you vindicate the neutrality of the Spectator, give the best evidence of the disinterested patriotism and magnanimity of its owner and conductor, and deserve the highest meed of praise from the people of Oregon.
    I most cordially unite with you in supporting Gov. Lane as the people's candidate for Delegate. And as his eulogium is written in the history of his country, and the page is too bright to be sullied by the detraction of his enemies, or to receive additional luster from the praise of so humble a friend as myself, I shall briefly give the reasons why, in my opinion, he should be chosen as the Delegate to Congress in preference to any other citizen of Oregon.
    As he is known in the United States aside from his military renown as a man of truth, probity and honor, he will be able to exercise a greater influence with the government than an individual less known to fame.
    As he has adopted his political and religious sentiments from his honest convictions, he extends to others all the rights he claims for himself, and will hereafter, as he has heretofore, in the discharge of his public duties, know neither party nor sect.
    And as he has served his country here as elsewhere with that devotion that knows no selfishness--being found ever at the post where he could best serve the people regardless of personal comfort or official dignity, the interests and honor of Oregon will be safe in his hands.
    For these reasons our selfishness alone should prompt us to support the election of Gov. Lane, but there are others of a higher character. He has been removed by a Whig administration from an office he filled faithfully and impartially, for opinion's sake, and the honor of the Whig party is concerned in rebuking this anti-Whig spirit at the ballot box.
    And lastly, the people of the southern frontier (of which I am one) owe to Gov. Lane a debt of gratitude too strong for party prejudices to cancel, and too great for time to erase. When we cease to do honor to the man who--casting aside the high dignity of his station, and the exemption from excessive fatigue and exposure he might claim from his age--rifle in hand, gallantly braved the floods and storms of winter to save our property, wives and daughters from the rapine of a lawless soldiery--may the finger of scorn point us out, and the curses of all good men follow us.
    I send you this communication because the partiality of some friends has caused my name to be mentioned in connection with the office of Delegate--and while deeply sensible of the honor their preference does me, I wish them distinctly to understand that I have no political aspirations whatever, and I am proud of the opportunity of so far justifying the high confidence they place in my integrity thus publicly to point out the man whose claims infinitely exceed my own, both in services rendered and ability to render more.
With the highest respect,
    Your obedient servant,
        J. APPLEGATE.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 1   See the letter of August 5, 1851, below.

Gen. Lane.
    "The adjourned meeting of his friends in Indianapolis, held on Saturday last, unanimously nominated Gen. Lane as a candidate for the Presidency in 1852, subject to the decision of a national Democratic convention. The General has not yet reached home from Oregon, but is expected daily."--[Cincinnati Enquirer.
This is quite a mistake. The General's friends are looking for him here every week. This is not all; they expect to elect him as the next Delegate to Congress to represent Oregon.
    There are now three candidates in the field. One has announced himself through a circular containing some 16 pages. In this it is made to appear that he has fought, bled and almost died for his people. The Western Star has placed at the head of its columns Judge Lancaster, who is said to be a very fit man for that post. The Oregonian has hoisted the name of Gen. Lane, in large capitals, and enters into his support with a hearty good will. Our bellicose neighbor has not hoisted his colors--the man who tells "my people" who to vote has not come along yet. Our neighbor professes to be a Democrat. The friends of Gen. Lane are asking themselves the question--how can he serve two masters? This is a question they have a right to ask, and they have a right to expect a candid answer. It is rather queer that the same mouth can blow both hot and cold at the same breath. General Lane has strength, and what is more of it, it lies along the bone and sinew of the country. The times are increasing in interest.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
The Administration and the Removal of Gov. Lane.
    The article in the Statesman, under the above caption, is as unjust as it is injurious to His Excellency Governor Gaines. The statements therein set forth are to this effect: That Mr. Ewing of Ohio vindicated the action of the Administration of President Taylor as to the propriety of the removal of Gen. Lane as Governor of Oregon upon the ground that he had vilely and calumniously slandered Gen. Taylor touching his official report upon the conduct of the Indiana volunteers at the battle of Buena Vista. The question is simply a question of veracity between Gen. Taylor and Gen. Lane. The people of the United States were the jury to whom this question was submitted by Gen. Lane. This verdict is recorded and is part of the history of the age. The removal of Gov. Lane, therefore, was but the executive act demanded by the verdict. No one ever questioned the right of appeal from the decision of Gen. Taylor to the Great Tribunal of the people. The people having decided, it is a reproach to the people to liken the action of the executive to the enforcement of the "sedition law."
    The defense of Mr. Whitcomb, the Senator from Indiana, against what the editor of the Statesman terms "assaults" upon Gov. Lane, is just about as accurate in point of logic and in point of fact as the editor upon the conduct of President Taylor.
    Mr. Whitcomb declares, and the editor of the Statesman adopts the declaration, that Gen. Lane came to the Territory overland "in the garb of a western man with a small company of men, with a rifle in his hand at his own expense, an exile from his family." Whereas Gen. Gaines came "out at the government expense in a government vessel."
    The editor has stated these things which he and Mr. Whitcomb, his authority, call facts, and asks the verdict of public sentiment in the premises. Let the public decide--but let the jury have the facts before them. Gen. Lane did not come out alone--his son came with him to California and went into the mines to dig gold. Gov. Lane did not come hither at his own expense. He came under an escort of twenty-five soldiers commanded by an officer of the United States army, at an expense of not less than $50,000. Gov. Lane did not therefore come at his own expense. What now are the facts in regard to Gov. Gaines? He had permission to embark himself and family on a ship sent with supplies to the Pacific Coast--a ship whose destination and the expense of whose voyage was not in any manner affected by the transportation of Gov. Gaines. He received no favor from the government in this regard that has not frequently been accorded to citizens of the republic who held no official rank whatever. He paid for his traveling expenses as much, if not more, on the public vessel as he would have been required to pay on a merchant vessel. He came, in his own emphatic language, to become a citizen of Oregon. Embarked his fortunes and his family--and truly "burnt his ships behind him." He gave the strongest pledges known to men--all his pecuniary wealth, and that wealth which none but a father can truly estimate, his family.
    "Dearer than gold! Richer than Pluto's mine" as guarantees of his devotion to the rights and interests of his devotion to the rights and interests of the people of Oregon. What man among us did or could do more? Can Oregon ever repay him the sacrifice of those "dear ones" who fell by the wayside on their journey hither? And how does the character of the two men, presented for the public judgment in their conduct here, contrast? What has Gov. Lane done here? With what recollections or with what interests is the public mind of Oregon familiar, public or private? No breadth of imputation reaches the conduct of Gov. Gaines regarding the sacrifice of public interest to private purposes.
    We impute no neglect of duty to Gen. Lane, but we demand that a just statement of facts shall be presented to the people if the decision of the people is to be invoked as to the conduct and character of the late and present executive of Oregon.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 1  See the Statesman's reply to this letter, below.

The Removal of Gen. Lane.
    A correspondent of the last Spectator, who signs himself "Justice," and whose signature contains all the justice comprised in his article, complains that our remarks in the first number of the Statesman upon the removal of ex-Governor Lane, and the reasons therefor, as given by Mr. Ewing, were "unjust and injurious to his excellency Gov. Gaines." The article has a semi-official air about it, and was probably written "by authority."
    After making proclamation of the "injustice" and "injury" to Gov. Gaines, without stopping to establish it, the writer proceeds to the statements of Generals Taylor and Lane respecting the conduct of the Indiana volunteers at the battle of Buena Vista. He says--
    "The question is simply a question of veracity between Gen. Taylor and Gen. Lane. The people of the United States were the jury to whom this question was submitted by Gen. Lane. This verdict is recorded, and is a part of the history of the age. The removal of Gov. Lane therefore was but the executive act demanded by the verdict."
    The "verdict" referred to as being "a part of the history of the age," can be nothing else than the result of the Presidential election of 1848. We were not before aware that this "question of veracity" was an issue, either local or general, in that campaign, but if this vindicator of Gen. Taylor and Gov. Gaines is disposed to have it so, we will meet him upon his own ground. If it was an issue at all, it was confined to the state of Indiana, the people of which were immediately interested in the decision, and the "verdict" of that state is anything but flattering to Gen. Taylor. Its vote was cast against him by an unprecedentedly large majority, and if, as "Justice" asserts, that vote involved the question of veracity, it acquitted Gen. Lane and fastened the charge of falsehood upon Gen. Taylor. This is his own "accurate logic and fact," and he has no right to complain of the inference.
    When "Justice" asserts that "the removal of Gen. Lane was demanded by the verdict" of the people, does he really believe that if that question had at any time been submitted to the people of the United States, it would have been decided against Gov. Lane? Would the Democratic divisions which gave Gen. Taylor New York and Pennsylvania, and elected him, have existed? Or would the thousands of Democrats who there and everywhere supported him have been united as one man against the ruthless act of proscription? If "Justice" was in the States when this removal was announced (and we doubt not he was), he knows that it received the decided condemnation of the public press and popular voice. And if he has had authentic information from there since, he must be well assured that the United States Senate would have expressed their disapprobation of the act by the rejection of his successor, had not Gov. Lane's resignation been received before they were called upon to act in the matter, and had not that successor been far on his way to Oregon.
    But Mr. Ewing says Gen. Lane was removed for his "vileness of abuse" and "gross calumny and slanders" of General Taylor, and that "abuse," "calumny" and "slander" consisted in his vindication of the bravery of his soldiers, and his complaint that Gen. Taylor had done them injustice in the official report of the battle of Buena Vista. For this he was removed by a man who had "no friends to reward, and no enemies to punish." According to the confession of one of the then cabinet officers, that removal was based upon personal prejudice and hatred. By the act President Taylor disgraced his exalted position, and forfeited his character for high-mindedness and generosity. It was in the genuine spirit of the old sedition law of John Adams' "reign," and received, as it merited, the unmistakable condemnation of the people.
    "Justice" finally comes to the defense of Gov. Gaines, and asserts that he came out here without expense to the government, and that "he received no favor that has not frequently been accorded to citizens of the Republic who held no official rank," while Gen. Lane came out, accompanied by his son, who went to California to dig gold, under and escort of twenty-five soldiers, and "at an expense of not less than $50,000." As "Justice" has placed the two men and their manner of transit to this country in contrast, he will not complain if we examine the facts.
    Gov. Gaines came here in a government vessel, at the government expense. This "Justice" will not deny. Nor would we be understood to say that censure attaches to Gov. Gaines for so doing. But does "Justice," as he states, know of a single instance where "persons who held no official rank whatever" have been transported thousands of miles with their families, freight &c. at the public expense, and if so, will he cite as to it. It may have been done by the "Galphin" administration, but we question if it ever was by any other.
    Gov. Lane came here under an escort of twenty-five soldiers, as "Justice" asserts. But those soldiers were intended to remain permanently in Oregon, and would have come here had they not escorted him. He purchased animals for himself and son, and the provision necessary for the trip, and paid for them out of his own private fund. And from the same fund was also paid all their personal expenses. The only favor they received from government was the use of one wagon. So that, with that trifling expedition, their passage here cost the government not one dollar. And had not Governor Lane's son, coming here at his own expense, the same right to "dig gold" or pursue any avocation his interest or fancy dictated, that any other citizen had? Then why this ungenerous insinuation of "Justice" that he came here at the public expense to pursue his private interests? Would he consider such insinuations, even if based upon fact, fair in the case of the present incumbent? And is he disposed to invite inquiry and contrast in this particular?
    But whatever excuses "Justice" may make for those misrepresentations, we do not see how he can escape the imputation of willful falsehood in asserting that Gov. Lane came here at an expense of not less than $50,000. How could that sum have possibly been expended if the troops had come here expressly to escort him? If he will make a calculation he will see that the pay of the soldiers and men could not well have exceeded $2,000. That leaves "not less" than $48,000 to pay the salary of the officer who commanded, and the expense of the outfit. A pretty large margin, but no larger than this writer uses in all his statements. He seems to think that the employment of truth is not at all important when speaking of a political opponent.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, April 18, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Mr. Editor:
    Considerable has been said of late in the newspapers in relation to "removals from office," and if you will give publicity to the subjoined extract of a "Speech of Mr. Ewing of Ohio," delivered in the United States Senate upon that subject, January 7, 1851, you will probably confer a favor upon the citizens of Oregon.
    Although some speeches are very plenty here, such, I apprehend, is not the case of Senator Ewing's speech:
    "This general fact I mentioned, and I stated it the other day from memory, and I remembered, too, that there had been complaints against General Lane by individuals from Oregon, who were entitled to credit, which I designated as the most reliable sources. I know that the Senator from Indiana says, with respect to the alleged complaints against General Lane, that he has searched the Department and can find nothing of the kind. He goes into the curious exposition of the imaginary contest between the Departments for power and patronage, by way of showing that he had found the proper place to make search for papers, if there were any, and that he had found nothing. Where he searched, in the State Department, he could of course find nothing, and he certainly ought to have known it. It was matter that belonged to the Indian Bureau of the Home Department, and he had but to go there and find it.
    "Mr. Whitcomb. That is the very place to which I did go.
    "Mr. Ewing. I referred to the Senator from Indiana, not now in his seat (Mr. Bright), who says that he searched in the Department of State and found nothing. He was truly fortunate, for, if he had found something, perhaps it might have interfered with the beauty and perfection of his speech, especially that part of it in which he gives vent to his virtuous indignation for my unfounded aspersions of the official character of General Lane. The Senator saw fit to say he wished it understood that the statements made by me with respect to those complaints rested on the authority of my assertion alone.
    "Well, suppose it did rest there; is not the statement of a Senator in his place sufficient authority for a fact within his knowledge? It used to be so when I was a member of this body some years ago. The Senator from Indiana is better able than I am to determine how it is now. But that Senator cannot have his wish; the fact does not rest on the statement of the Senator from Ohio, but is also sustained by a document which I have before me. The Senator demands, however, specifications, and he has a right to them. He requires me to designate what were these complaints, and I will do it. The first charge was that General Lane did not exert himself as he might and ought to have done to separate the Indians from the white population, and to prevent them from camping in the towns, where they became, from their gross habits, offensive to decency. Whether this charge be true or false I know not, but it was vouched by the Delegate from Oregon in two letters, which I now have before me, subject to the inspection of the Senator from Indiana, whenever he chooses to examine them. The first is as follows:
"'Washington, February 6, 1850.
    "'Sir: This morning I had a conversation with Mr. Brown, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, relative to the Indians located in Linn City by Governor Lane, and concerning which I had an interview with you last night. He, like yourself, heartily concurs in their removal from the limits of the town. He said it would be proper that it should be stated in the order to the Governor that the removal was in no way to affect any title said Indians might have to the lands. To this I very willingly consented. Now, the town there was laid off out of a part of two claims, the Linn City part by Robert Moore, and the Multnomah City part by Hugh Burns. I am aware that the Indians will not be removed unless the order is peremptory and unequivocal. I have to desire you, therefore, to cause an order to be issued to Joseph Lane, Governor of Oregon Territory, or to his successor in said office, or whoever may be discharging the official duties of Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs when said order shall reach the seat of government of said Territory, to cause all Indians now camping or living within the towns of Linn City or Multnomah City, as laid off in lots by Robert Moore and Hugh Burns, in Oregon Territory, at the Falls of the Willamette River, to be removed outside the limits of said towns and not to allow the same to return within said limits for the purpose of camping and dwelling.
    "'I have been thus specific because I believe your order should be so to the letter to ensure obedience. I should have added, provided the order and removal consequent thereon shall in no way affect any title which said Indians may have to the lands included within the limits of said towns.
    "'Let me assure you, sir, that such an order will be greeted by the people of said towns or villages with gratitude, and the modesty of our women not a little relieved by its prompt execution.
    "'I would suggest that your order go as soon as possible, and if you will cause me to be furnished with a duplicate, that I may inform the people, in case the order should not be obeyed, that the Department has desired otherwise, you will oblige me.
    "'I have the honor to be, sir, with high consideration, yours, truly,
"'Hon. Thomas Ewing, Secretary of the Interior.'

    "The second letter I will not read. It refers to and enforces the same charges.
    "Now, I wish it understood that I affirm nothing and know nothing of the facts stated in these letters, except that I know they come from the Delegate from Oregon, who is of course entitled to attention and respect in all things which he states touching the interests of the people of that Territory. Whether he represents the case truly or not, T cannot determine, and I assume no responsibility concerning it.
    "The next charge is that General Lane not only did not prevent the British Hudson's Bay Company from keeping up trading establishments in the Indian territory of the United States in Oregon, but that he encouraged, and patronized, and maintained them there, to the injury of the rights of American citizens. One paper goes further, and says that he purchased, or directed to be purchased, from the Hudson's Bay Company, blankets in considerable quantity, and then suffered that company to distribute them as presents from themselves to the Indians. I cannot say that this is true, but it is the charge, presented by the Delegate from Oregon, certified to and sustained by the Chief Justice of Oregon, both Democrats, and both supposed to be responsible men. These charges come, then, as I said, from authentic and reliable sources.
    "Mr. Dodge, of Iowa. Will the Senator from Ohio allow me to make an inquiry?
    "Mr. Ewing. Yes, sir, I yield to an inquiry.
    "Mr. Dodge. Were these charges, which the Senator asserts were made, before the removal of General Lane?
    "Mr. Ewing. They were not, and I did not say they were--nothing of that kind. Being called on suddenly, the other day, touching the official conduct of General Lane, I threw out my impression at the moment as to what had been objected against him, without stating the time when the charges were made. These charges, however, were made orally long before the papers which I have produced bear date, for I had frequent conversations with the Delegate on the subject, and he pressed the alleged grievances of his people strongly upon me long before he presented them in writing. I produce them now only to sustain my own statement of fact, indirectly questioned by the Senator from Indiana (Mr. Bright), not to sustain the removal of Governor Lane, which, as I find on examination, rests on other and very different grounds.
    "It is but fair that I should say that the specifications in the last charge, namely, that the blankets purchased of the Hudson's Bay Company for the Indians were distributed by the servants of that company as presents from them, upon investigation, proves to be unfounded. I have looked at the evidence taken upon the spot, which disproves it. But the general charge which I have referred to above is sustained--namely, that he suffered the Hudson's Bay Company to trade with the Indians in Oregon, and it is further shown, by Governor Lane's own vouchers, that he bought from houses of that company, at some five or six places in the Territory, sundry articles of merchandise for the Indians."
    Thus it will be seen that Mr. Thurston has been representing at Washington that Indians had been "LOCATED in Linn City by Gov. Lane," when it was known to him (Thurston) that the houses of the Linn City or Fall Indians were fired and burned down in their absence, and that Gov. Lane as Superintendent of Indian Affairs only allowed them to rebuild upon and occupy the site of their former residence, as he felt it his duty to do.
    I have no doubt but that the good people of Linn City would be very glad if the Indians were removed, but I trust that no one man in Linn or Multnomah cities will commend our sustain Mr. Thurston in his departures from truth.
    The allegation that "one paper goes further, and says he has purchased, or directed to be purchased, from the Hudson's Bay Company blankets in considerable quantity, and then suffered that company to distribute them as presents from themselves to the Indians" refers to the 80 blankets purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company and paid to the Indians as a reward for bringing in the murderers of Wallace. The fact that the blankets were bought at the company's store at the Sound, where there was no American store, and at a time when, perhaps the amount of blankets could not be bought in all the American stores in the Territory, would surprise no one here, but persons unacquainted with the affairs of Oregon might suppose that American merchants had been passed by with a view of favoring a foreign company.
    The truth is that Gov. Lane did not suffer the Hudson's Bay Company to distribute those blankets "as presents from themselves to the Indians." Again the truth is that the Indian agent purchased the blankets, and not Gov. Lane. And again, the truth is that the blankets were delivered to the Indians by the U.S.A. captain of artillery stationed in the neighborhood of the Sound, and not by the H.B. Company or any of its agents or servants. This charge has been investigated by the governor, and Senator Ewing says, "I have looked at the evidence taken upon the spot, which disproves it." It must have been extremely mortifying and painful to Mr. Thurston that a Whig Senator, who was attempting to justify the removal of Gov. Lane, felt constrained to say "It is not fair that I should say that the specifications in the last charge, namely, that the blankets purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company for the Indians were distributed by the servants of the company as presents from them, upon investigation, proves to be unfounded," publicly acknowledging the falsity of one of the main charges of his own witness.
    If Mr. Thurston is the best man in Oregon, he should be re-elected.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 24, 1851, page 2

    We have been requested by Gen. Joseph Lane to announce him as a candidate for Delegate to the next Congress.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 2

General Lane.
    On Monday evening last many of our citizens had the pleasure of greeting the arrival of Gen. Lane. His arrival had been anxiously looked for and expected for several weeks past by his numerous friends. It was not our lot to have had a previous acquaintance with the General. Upon receiving a grip of his hand (hardened by labor) and after witnessing an exhibition of his affableness, we could not help thinking that he is truly the whole-souled man that his friends had previously represented him to us.
    It will be seen by today's paper that Gen. Lane is regularly announced as a candidate for Delegate to Congress for this Territory. We predict that the General will have a clear field; though we do not intend to make the Spectator a party political paper, we cannot deny, however, that we would be much gratified to see the Territory so ably and honorably represented. And though we differ, individually, with the brave old veteran in politics, yet we would spurn to deny our support to any gentleman merely because we happened to have some personal differences. We go for the interest of our whole country and will give our support to the man that we think will best advance that interest.
    We say the General has a clear field. It was expected that our much-esteemed, talented friend and neighbor, the lamented Samuel R. Thurston, who so ably represented the Territory for the last two sessions in Congress, would have been a candidate in opposition to Gen. Lane, but Providence has seen fit to deny the country and its citizens the benefits of his labors and talents. It becomes us now to look around and select from amongst our other great, talented and valuable citizens to find someone to fill his place in our national councils. Gen. Lane seems to be the man.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 2

    Will address his fellow citizens of Oregon City and vicinity today at 3 o'clock p.m., at the Main Street House.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 3

    We raise today the name of GEN. JOSEPH LANE for Congress, and take down that of Judge Lancaster's by his request, who declines in favor of his personal and political friend Gen. Lane. Judge Lancaster by this patriotic course has done honor to his noble heart, which will be fully appreciated by the people of Oregon.
    General Lane has received the formal nomination of a public meeting in Yamhill County, and believing him to be the people's choice--we therefore acting upon the platform of Jeffersonian democracy--which we adopted at our commencement--we go in for General Lane heartily, and shall give him all the support in our power. We believe him deserving, and well qualified to fill this most important place--and we know that he will wear his honors meekly, and labor hard with heart and hands for Oregon's growing interests.
    General Lane is the people's man--a farmer by occupation, a wise and discreet legislator from experience, a soldier from patriotism, and a most accomplished and successful general from bravery and noble daring, as the history of many a hard-fought battlefield in Mexico bears ample proof. And we having commenced the first Democratic newspaper in Oregon, it is with pride that we are now enabled to be the first Democratic paper to run up that man's name who universally receives the honor of the "Marion" of the Mexican War. We are proud to inscribe the name of Joseph Lane upon our banner and nobly defend it free from stain or blemish. Gen. Lane is a noble champion of honesty, patriotism and fidelity, and we are most happy to announce his name and honestly advocate his cause--having confidence to believe that our friends will approve our course and unite with us in bestowing deserved honor upon him [to] whom it is due. We go in for honest JO. LANE, "live or die, sink or swim, survive or perish."
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 1, 1851, page 2

Gen. Lane in the Field.
    It will be seen by the following notice that Gen. Lane proposes to canvass the Territory previous to the election. He had made up his mind to run for Congress before the news of the death of Mr. Thurston was received in Oregon, and had notified his friends to that effect. We are authorized to say [that] the particular object of Gov. Lane in canvassing the Territory is to become well acquainted with the wants of the people and the interests of Oregon, having been absent for some time. We are not aware that there will be any other candidate in the field; therefore, the election of General Lane is almost certain.
    Gen. Lane met his friends in Oregon City on Thursday, at Milwaukie yesterday, and will be in Portland today. He will also be at the following places at the time specified:
    Harrison Wright's, Monday, 5th inst., 2 p.m
    Salem, Tuesday, 6th inst. at 3 p.m.
    Syracuse, Santiam, Wednesday, 7th, 1 p.m.
    Jacob Speere's, Lane Co., Thursday, 8th inst., at 3 o'clock p.m.
    E. Bristow's, Friday, 9th, at 2 p.m.
    Richardson's Ferry, Long Tom, Butte Co., Monday, 12th, 1 p.m.
    Marysville, Tuesday, 13th, at 1 p.m.
    Leggett's, Forks of Luckiamute, Polk Co., Wednesday, May 15, 2 p.m.
    Nesmith's Mills, Thursday, 15th, 10 a.m.
    Cincinnati, Polk Co., Friday, 16th, 1 p.m.
    Lafayette, Saturday, 17th, 2 p.m.
    Hillsborough, Monday, 19th, 1 p.m.
    Vancouver, Wednesday, 21st, 1 p.m.
    St. Helen's, Thursday, 22nd, at 1 p.m.
    Astoria, Saturday, 24th, 1 p.m.
    Lexington, Clatsop Co., Monday, 26th, 1 p.m.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, May 3, 1851, page 2

    We this week place at our masthead the name of Gen. Joseph Lane as the people's candidate for Congress. We recognize in the General marked characteristics: firmness, independence, honesty of purpose, a well-balanced and discriminating mind; just such points as a man holding an office of this kind should possess.
    It was our good fortune to have listened to his speech, delivered in this place on Thursday of last week. He says he is an out-and-out Democrat; he was brought up in that school, but he can see no reason why this Territory should be distracted by party politics. The Delegate in Congress has no vote--we are one people--we have one common interest, and that should be uppermost in the minds of both Whigs and Democrats. The General, it seems, had made up his mind to run for Congress previous to his arrival here, thus showing that he would not be the tool of a party. As an independent, honest and decided man, we give him our support, with the consciousness that the wants and interests of the country will be well cared for and the mantle of power will not be inappropriately placed.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    The intelligence from the mines is rather encouraging than otherwise. Quite a large number have returned from the mines, or, rather, gave up the trip before they arrived there, having become disheartened at the bad state of the roads, and the unsettled weather that caused them. Gen. Lane reports rather favorably of the mines. He says that the most of the miners, by proper exertion, can make from $6 to $12 per day. There are some instances where men do much better. The General is of opinion that the mines in Oregon and California, the Shasta and Klamath diggings, will pay well for the next fifty years. There is a large scope of country in that part of Oregon that is decidedly rich. But the great obstacle in the way is the want of protection going there in the Rogue River country, those Indians having sworn eternal hostility to the whites. Several persons have been brutally murdered lately by the savages near what is generally known as the Umpqua Canyon. The General thinks government should by all means establish a garrison in that country, to protect persons going to and returning from the mines. It appears to be a well-conceded fact that up through the Willamette Valley is far the most preferable route to go to the mines, and that eventually the greater part of the supplies will seek this channel. The location of the Territorial road to the Umpqua, and the improvement of the small streams by bridging, etc., will remove many of the difficulties that are now in the way. This portion of Oregon is well represented in the mines. We hope they may all be successful, and live to return loaded down with the "root of evil."

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    The Western Star, with the consent of Judge Lancaster, has taken down that gentleman's name and hoisted the name of the old war horse, Gen. Joseph Lane, at its masthead. The General is stumping the Territory. He spoke in this city on last Thursday evening, in Milwaukie on Friday, and in Portland on Saturday. The General having doffed his mining suit and brushed up, he may now be said to be himself again. He had a large and attentive audience when he spoke here. The Western Star goes for Gen. Lane entire, as the following will show:
    "General Lane is the people's man--a farmer by occupation, a wise and discreet legislator from experience, a soldier from patriotism, and a most accomplished and successful general from bravery and noble daring, as the history of many a hard-fought battle in Mexico bears ample proof. And we, having commenced the first Democratic newspaper in Oregon, it is with pride that we are now enabled to be the first Democratic paper to run up that man's name who universally receives the honor of the 'Marion' of the Mexican War. We are proud to inscribe the name of Joseph Lane upon our banner and nobly defend it free from stain or blemish. Gen. Lane is a noble champion of honesty, patriotism and fidelity, and we are most happy to announce his name and honestly advocate his cause--having confidence to believe that our friends will approve our course, and unite with us in bestowing deserved honor upon him whom it is due. We go in for honest JO. LANE, 'live or die, sink or swim, survive or perish.'"

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    This noble old veteran of the West, having recently returned from the Oregon mining districts, and being brought out for Congress, is now on a tour, addressing the people in different parts of the Territory upon subjects of public interest--and for the better understanding of the wishes of the people in different sections of the country.
    On Friday evening, May 2nd, the citizens of this place and vicinity convened at Union Hall and organized by appointing proper officers and a committee to wait on General Lane and invite him to the hall. He was accordingly ushered into the hall and introduced to the chairman, and by the chairman introduced to the meeting, when General Lane proceeded to address a full house upon public affairs generally.
    Gen. Lane spoke of the immense resources of the Territory, giving a flattering account of the Oregon gold mining districts, stating them to be healthy and furnishing rich placers for years to come. Miners were averaging from $8 to $10 per day when he left. He advised those who were doing well to remain at home and cultivate their farms. He spoke of the importance of a military station in the Umpqua Valley, to protect those who were passing to and from the mines from Indian depredations. He was opposed to the removal of the Oregon Regiment of Mounted Riflemen--and spoke of the land law as being a very good one, but if elected to Congress he would endeavor to get it amended so as to provide for such as were not included in the bill as it now is.
    He said that if elected he would faithfully represent all sections of the Territory and their varied interests. He said that Oregon was his home and always should be, and that as soon as practicable he should bring his whole family to Oregon. His opinion was that Oregon would become a state within two years--and he anticipated that Oregon would be one of the most flourishing states in the Union, and her destiny was onward. His whole theme was for Oregon--and we think he can do more to advance her interests than any other man in the Territory.
    We were extremely well pleased with the man--and it gave us pleasure to shake the hand that had been hardened by honest toil. And when we considered how that hand had nobly drawn the sword of his country in defense of her honor during a whole war, and how many laurels clustered round the head of the brave old hero, our feeling of love for him was enhanced when every act and word showed him to be one of the noblest works of God, an honest man.
    Gen. Lane addressed the people at Portland on Saturday evening last, and is now on his way up the Willamette Valley, where he will address the citizens at different points.
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 8, 1851, page 2

    Our neighbor thinks he has satisfied the people at Salem that Gen. Lane had not intended to run as Delegate to Congress previous to hearing of Mr. Thurston's death. He may succeed in making persons at a distance think so who were not present when he addressed the people in this city, but everyone present knows that the reverse of what our neighbor says is the fact. He came out for Gen. Lane in his last--he is truly the eleventh hour man. He no doubt thought it was better late than never. Bro. Waterman, like a man, came to the work at once.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 15, 1851, page 2

    As the time for the election approaches, matters of political interest are discussed, and men and measures are freely commented upon, with all that freedom which is their especial privilege and guarantee by our republican institutions. We love those institutions which give all free men, whether high or low, rich or poor, the priceless privilege of thinking and voting as they think best--"without fear or favor of any man"--"unawed by influence, and unbribed by gain." We always repose the greatest confidence in the people, the hardy yeomanry, that pride and strength of every state and government. And let us ask who can they confide more trustingly in than he who is a yeoman, and earns the bread for himself and family "by the sweat of his brow," and whose calloused hands and sunburnt face gives truthful evidence that he is a true republican? None, of course. Who among the people in Oregon stands out as that man we have described? GENERAL JO LANE, responds the yeomanry. We require a Delegate who will represent Oregon, the whole of it; one who has ascended her remotest hills and traveled her extensive valleys and knows the whole Territory--its wants, and its resources. Who has done this but LANE, and who so well prepared to give the information required at a Delegate's hand? We want a man of known and acknowledged character, both here and at home. Who so well answers this requirement as GEN. LANE? His character is well respected throughout the broad Union; his fame belongs to the Nation, and his name is inscribed upon her scroll of fame, along with those who have won unfading laurels in her defense. Is there another man in Oregon whose position, worth and knowledge combined can procure for us the amount of consideration in Congress that GENERAL LANE can? If there be one, we have yet to learn his name. We consider it fortunate for Oregon that LANE has consented to be a candidate--and that no one will ever have a reason to regret voting for an honest, deserving man like him.
    We understand that Dr. Wm. H. Willson, of Salem, has come out as a candidate to run against General Lane, and is going to canvass the country for Delegate. Dr. Willson we only know from reputation, and have formed a very favorable opinion of him, as a man--but we never heard until quite lately that he had aspirations for Congress. It will be no dishonor for him to be beaten by General Lane--and we presume that Lane will be just as well prepared for opposition as he was at Buena Vista. There is a saying that "there is no honor in victory where there is no opposition," and for that reason have no serious objection to a little opposition, but we cannot for a moment give any countenance to the proceeding of a professional Democrat like Dr. Willson, if his intent be to defeat General Lane. We are satisfied with Lane; we take pride in supporting so deserving a man, and if every fifth man in the country comes out against him, we will stand by him; we will "never surrender," and if vanquished we'll spike the cannon.
    We can see no cause for Democrats to get up opposition--and can foresee bad results which will naturally grow out of such a course. The Whigs lose no political strength by supporting Lane for Delegate, as he has no vote in Congress--and both Whig and Democrat in Oregon will be equal participators in every measure he brings about for Oregon's advancement. We cannot see as there is to be any newspaper opposition, as the four papers in Oregon are all committed for General Lane, and have his name at their head. If any of them wish they were free, and now regret their committal, we are not of that number; we are committed just where we want to be and could not be induced to change our position on any account whatever. We are confident that Jo Lane will get one vote, if we are able to get to the polls on the first Monday of June.
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 22, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Astoria, O.T., June 8, 1851.
Mr. Schneely:
    I suppose you have had communicated to you the result of the election in Clatsop County, so I need not repeat it. The election went off finely at this place, no event occurring to mar the good feeling always existing here.
    Everybody was glad to have an opportunity to throw in a vote for old Jo.--the Lane that has no turn in him.
    At eleven o'clock, a.m., the troops at this point paraded under the banner which had been painted for the occasion by one of the servants, and which certainly looked splendid. Upon the banner was the following:
Candidate for Delegate,


Candidate for Representative,



    Forming a procession, they marched to the polls, where each man deposited his vote, many of them voting for the first time in their lives. A more orderly set of men on the day of an election it would be difficult to find, and I doubt if ever they will have the fortune to vote for a better man that that same old Jo. Lane, for a more honest or more capable man I am well convinced does not exist in Oregon. Success to him.
Yours,            T. J. E.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 3, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane passed here [Yoncalla] last week en route to the mines. During his absence from the mines, one of his Indian miners has been murdered, and others driven off. The unfortunate Indian was shot by--it is supposed Oregon men (after being so frightened so that he was speechless)--simply because he would not speak. There are several reports of the matter in circulation--all of which agree that it was an unprovoked attack on the Indian.
"Arrival of Gov. Gaines," Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 4, 1851, page 2

    GEN. LANE arrived in this city last Thursday evening from the mines and the Indian country. He intends to leave for Washington on the first steamer out. Several interesting letters from him will be found in another column.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2

    GEN. LANE arrived in this city on Thursday evening last, direct from the Rogue River country. He leaves here tomorrow on the mail steamer for the States. We wish the brave old soldier a safe journey.
    When the General arrives in Washington and lays the true state of affairs before the government, we feel assured that justice will be done to the people of Oregon.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane was met at the landing at Astoria, on his way to Washington, by a procession of the citizens, and addressed in their behalf by John A. Anderson, Esq. He replied in a short and appropriate speech.

Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 29, 1851, page 3

    ARRIVAL OF THE COLUMBIA.--By the arrival last evening of the steamship Columbia, Captain Leroy, from Oregon, we are indebted to the purser for the ship's memoranda, a list of her passengers, and a file of papers down to the 22nd inst. . . .
    Among those who have arrived we notice the name of Gen. Lane.
"Later from Oregon," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, July 30, 1851, page 2

Oregon City, July 26, 1851.
Editor Spectator:
    Sir--Your paper of July 22nd is before me, and in it I notice a communication purporting to come from the pen of one of the deserters from the Rifle Regiment in the winter of '49 and '50, containing some very green slanders upon the character of Jesse Applegate, Esq.
    I regret that I have not time to enter into a full history of the case and to wholly refute this most base attack.
    To those who know Mr. Applegate any denial of these charges is unnecessary, but persons unacquainted with him may be led to believe them if no reply is made.
    From the article alluded to, I quote as follows:
    "A party of these men, numbering 97, arrived at Mr. Applegate's in the beginning of March 1850, and remained there some fourteen days, during which time they expended with him, in the purchase of cattle and other necessaries, something over six hundred and fifty dollars. In addition to this they split him over four thousand rails and eight hundred clapboards, to be used in the improvement of his claim, for which nothing was asked, and he had not the liberality to offer a single cent of compensation. This took place on the party's progress on the route to California. On the return of the same men in a short time after, with Gov. Lane and Col. Loring, he did endeavor to detain and entice several of them to run away the second time, offering to conceal and furnish them with provisions and other necessaries until such time as all search for them might be discontinued, and then to assist them on their route to California."
    Being myself a member of Gov. Lane's party, I had an opportunity of knowing something about the matter in question, and know these charges to be wholly, totally and outrageously false.
    The deserters arrived in the Umpqua as stated, in March 1850, and immediately applied to Mr. Applegate to purchase beef, &c., at the same time plainly intimating that if he did not see fit to sell they would take what they wanted by force. He was alone and unprotected, and choosing the least of two evils he preferred to sell his cattle rather than be robbed of them.
    A portion of the men, however, had neither money nor provisions, and by reason of the inclemency of the weather were compelled to remain. To these Mr. Applegate (being compelled to feed them) proposed that they should work while they remained in the neighborhood, and receive a fair compensation for their labor. They accepted his proposition, and he and the other settlers employed them in making rails, for which they were paid $1 per hundred (and board). I saw Mr. A. pay a portion of the money myself ($18, I think).
    The clapboards mentioned were not made for Mr. Applegate, or ever used by him, but were made by the deserters for their own benefit, and used by them in building a shed to protect them from the rain and snow.
    The charge that Mr. A. endeavored to "entice several of them to run away a second time, offering to conceal them and furnish them with provisions," &c., &c., I know to be foully
and flagrantly false.
    Mr. A. never offered any inducements to the men to desert, but on the contrary endeavored (and in one or two instances succeeded) in persuading them voluntarily to return. He also gave to Gov. Lane and Col. Loring every assistance in his power in effecting their object of overtaking the men, and accompanied Col. Loring as far as the Klamath in the capacity of guide.
    I am at a loss to conjecture what could have been the motive of this perjured deserter in thus vilifying the character of a man who not only has never injured him, but on the contrary has often extended the rites of hospitality to his fellow soldiers and perhaps to himself.
[no signature]
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, August 5, 1851, page 2  On August 12 (page 2) the Spectator ran an apology for printing the letter in the July 22 issue.

    GEN. JOSEPH LANE.--This renowned hero of the Mexican War arrived in our city yesterday from Oregon, on his way to Washington, as Congressional Delegate from that Territory. He was warmly received by his hosts of friends and admirer, but "old Joe," who always wished to avoid display, took advantage of the first opportunity and ensconced himself with a few friends in a private house, much to the disappointment of many who wish to pay their respects to him. He looks in fine health and spirits, and we have no doubt will, in his civil capacity, render good service to his constituency. We regret that he has determined on leaving us so soon, but the General has been always celebrated for rapid movements.--San Francisco Star.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, August 19, 1851, page 2

Gen. Lane--His Supporters.
    The Statesman is laboring desperately at this time to gain the favor of General Lane. It is trying hard to make up for delinquency--for its coming out in his favor at the eleventh hour--after all three of the other papers had declared unconditionally in his favor. We think the Gen. has sense enough to understand such fealty and can appreciate fully the twattle of the eleventh-hour man. The Oregonian took the lead in favor of Gen Lane, the Times next--and then the Spectator and the last of all the Statesman. Yet he has the hardihood to cry over the General's election our, the Statesman's victory! "Oh! shame where is thy blush?! echo answers where!! Now, we do not court the favor of Gen. Lane, nor anyone else of the officials. He can have our support always if he does not violate the trust confided in him. But to say he can have it "right or wrong" is something he must not expect, much less count upon. He was not elected on party grounds. It is too fresh upon the minds of every person here for the cringing sycophant of the Statesman to pervert the facts and make anyone believe differently who was a resident of the Territory at the time. We repeat it, we ask no favor at his hands, save to serve well his country. That will please us and every other reasonable man.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 4, 1851, page 2

General Joseph Lane.
    We publish in another column a letter received from a gentleman in Oregon announcing the triumphant election of "the Marion of the Mexican War," as the delegate of Oregon to the next Congress. Every effort was made to defeat General Lane, but it was unavailing, and a tried and gallant soldier has been vindicated by his own people from the aspersions which political malice has sought to heap upon him.--Washington Union.
    We regret exceedingly to see such a gross perversion of facts as the above in a paper occupying the position of the Washington Union. It is characteristic of the vilest recklessness, and is not warranted even by the correspondence to which it alludes. The facts are, Gen. Lane was first taken up by the Oregonian (professedly Whig) some three or four months in advance of all the other papers, and the only opposition the General had to contend with was the two-penny opposition found in the person of Dr. W. H. Wilson, a brother Democrat, who was most gloriously defeated even in his own county, and who, when the votes were counted, could scarcely convince his friends that he had been a candidate. But immediately in the fact of all these facts, the Statesman would fain create the impression that his (Lane's) election depended mainly upon itself--whose support was only secured by the death of the Statesman's first love [Samuel R. Thurston]. Every paper in the Territory lent the General support, and the last to "give in" was the Statesman, "the eleventh-hour man." The second love of the veritable sheet is of the most enthusiastic order. We should not be surprised if it would go off "in a conniption."
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 4, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Mr. Schneely,
    I have been noticing, for some time past, that the truth-loving editor of the Statesman has been laboring diligently to convince his readers that it was mainly through his instrumentality that the people's Delegate to Congress is indebted for the present elevated and responsible position which he now occupies. And it would seem, from his weekly quotations, that he had been successful in palming these willful deceptions off upon at least a portion of his foreign readers--that the election of Gen. Lane was warmly contested on party grounds, and that his opposers, the Whigs, had sustained a most disastrous and glorious defeat--that the only opposition with which he had to contend was of this complexion, but that he had been triumphant over all, by a majority, or voice of 2,000 freemen. I would ask this editor, by whom the General was first put in nomination, was it by the Statesman or those who adhered to its teachings? This community would answer, No; he was first nominated by a convention of the people assembled at Lafayette, Yamhill County, for the purpose of nominating a candidate, independent of party, to be run in opposition to the then incumbent. This convention was not composed of Democrats, for the majority of them declined any participation in its deliberations; accordingly the Whigs and a few Democrats who had assembled brought forward the name of Gen. Jos. Lane as their first choice for Delegate to Congress, who received the nomination without a dissenting voice.
    When the Oregonian, the only Whig paper published in the Territory, hoisted at its masthead the name of the veteran soldier, next the Star, a Democratic paper, that was then discarded by the Statesman, and its followers, came to the General's support. Shortly after the Spectator, neutral in its politics, volunteered its services in the Governor's cause. And a few days prior to the election, the Statesman editor found himself compelled by public sentiment to follow in the sentiments of his predecessors. The General, while canvassing the Territory, declared himself to be a Democrat, but he thought that the time had not arrived in Oregon when distinctions of a party character should be drawn. And it was his desire, owing to certain past political transactions, to receive nearly as possible the unanimous support of the people of Oregon, and, if elected, no party or particularly locality in the Territory need expect his services or favor to the exclusion of another. And if asked by the President or his cabinet with reference to the political views of persons appointed here to office, that he might be expected to speak the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Those were Gen. Lane's views as expressed by himself publicly while a candidate before the people, and I doubt not for a moment that those promises will be strictly adhered to. Now, where and by whom did the General meet with opposition? This is all perfectly understood in Oregon. The most violent effort to defeat the old soldier, the "Marion of the Mexican War," was in and around the late defunct capital, by men who profess
to be Democrats. Some of the would-be teachers of democracy in Marion County mounted the stump in opposition to the people's candidate and proclaiming from this pinnacle of fame that Gen. Lane was not worthy [of] the confidence of the people of Oregon! That moneys entrusted to his care by our government for disbursement he had converted to his own private use &c. Now, this is the only county, and those the only men who have organized themselves into what they term a Democratic party, and it is well known here at home that those organizers voted in mass against the Hon. Jos. Lane. But those foul calumniators who thus labored to deceive the people are marked, and can be pointed out for years to come as was Cain in the land of his banishment. But I fear this condemnation will be more than they can bear, for such officious worthies always have a very ravenous appetite for office, which the people will be sure never to gratify.
    O.T. Nov. 8.                MARION COUNTY.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 18, 1851, page 2

Headquarters, Pacific Division,
    Benicia, July 9, 1851.
WHEREAS, it has been represented that a great portion of the men who were induced to desert from the army of the United States have expressed a desire to return to the service, it is therefore announced to all deserters from the army in California and Oregon that a full pardon is extended to them--on condition that they will deliver themselves up at some military post on [or] before the 15th of September next--forfeit all pay and allowances that may have been due them at the date of their desertion, and make good the time lost.
    By order of Bvt. Brig. Hitchcock
(signed)    J. HOOKER,
                       Asst. Adj. General
July 29, 1851.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, December 9, 1851, page 2

    "It will be remembered that Gen. Lane was the first victim of Whig proscription under Gen. Taylor."--Oregon Statesman.
    Another falsehood. Gen. Lane resigned before he had any notion of his removal.--Oregonian.
    Gen. Lane had notice of his removal, and the appointment of his successor, months before he resigned. This attempt of the odium of the act is as silly as futile. "Butcher Ewing," who was a member of Taylor's cabinet at the time Gen. Lane was decapitated, last winter defended the removal in the Senate of the U. States, and was seconded and sustained by every Whig member of that body.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, December 16, 1851, page 2

Oregon Territory.
Circular of Hon. Joseph Lane, Delegate from Oregon, in reference
to the Settlement, Soil and Climate of Oregon Territory.
Washington City, January 1, 1852.
    The great number of letters I am constantly receiving, making inquiries in reference to the Territory of Oregon, has induced me to embody in the form of a circular such information as is usually desired, that I may thus be enabled to furnish it more promptly and more in detail than a due attention to my other public duties would allow me were I to endeavor to give a written answer to each. I hope this course will not be considered discourteous to my correspondents, for in pursuing it I will more effectually and satisfactorily serve them, which is my chief desire.
    Oregon is a mountainous country, interspersed with many extensive, rich and beautiful valleys, watered by cool, pure streams, having their sources among its snow-clad mountains. It is exceedingly healthy--no country is more so. The atmosphere is pure and the climate delightful, especially during the summer. From April to November there is but little rain, but a cool, gentle breeze blows almost perpetually from the north. The winters are rainy, but mild, for during this season warm south winds constantly prevail.
    The country is well watered, and the soil very fertile and well adapted to the growth of all the small grains, grasses, potatoes and other culinary vegetables--and yielding most abundantly, except Indian corn, which is not regarded as a successful crop. Many of the hills and mountains are covered with inexhaustible forests of fine timber, generally fir and cedar. Those forests frequently skirt the valleys and streams.
    As is well known, the Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope, and stretches from the seacoast to the Rocky Mountains. From its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, there is an uninterrupted navigation for vessels of the largest size. The Willamette empties into the Columbia about ninety miles from its mouth. This river is also navigable for the largest vessels to Portland, fifteen miles from its mouth, and many have ascended as high as Milwaukie, seven miles further.
    At the risk of some little repetition, it may not be deemed improper or unnecessary to give a more detailed and minute description of the valley of this and some of the other streams of Oregon.
    The Willamette Valley is bounded by the Coast Mountains on the west, and the Cascade Range on the east. The soil is excellent, and is not surpassed, if equaled, by any portion of the continent in its adaptation to the growth of wheat, rye and oats. Potatoes are produced in great abundance and of a superior quality, while wheat is invariably a certain crop, subject to none of the diseases and uncertainties peculiar to it in the States: it matures slowly, hence the grain is always full and plump, and the straw unusually solid and elastic, and not subject to fall. In consequence of the cool, dry summers, and the entire absence of rain during the harvest season, the farmer is enabled to gather in his grain without waste.
    This valley is about one hundred and fifty miles in length, and thirty-five in breadth, and is sparsely settled throughout its whole extent. Many fine locations are yet unoccupied which will richly repay the labor of the thrifty husbandman. Natural meadows, as yet untouched by the hand of cultivation, afford abundant and rich pasturage for immense herds of cattle. The valley is mostly prairie, skirted by beautiful groves of timber, while through its center runs the Willamette River.
    The Umpqua Valley is distant from the Willamette about twelve miles, and is separated from it by the Calapooia Mountain. It is about ninety miles in length and varies from five to thirty-five miles in width. It is made up of a succession of hills and dales and furnishes but little timber, yet abounds in a natural luxuriant growth of the richest grass.
    North and South Umpqua rivers run through this valley, and form a junction about forty miles from the bay of the same name. The entrance to this bay is found to be practicable, as many ships and steamers have crossed the bar at its mouth, finding from three to three and a half fathoms of water upon it, without the aid of pilots, buoys or lighthouses. A few slight accidents, however, have occurred for the want of such improvements. A port of entry has been established here, and appropriations have been made for a lighthouse and fog signals.
    This bay is destined to be an important point to the southern portion of Oregon; here will be the outlet for the produce of the Umpqua Valley, and, consequently, here will be its commercial city. Many pack trains are already employed in the transportation of goods and provisions from this point to the "gold diggings" on Rogue, Shasta and Scott rivers.
    Rogue River Valley, which takes its name from the river that passes through it, is about seventy miles by the main traveled route from the Umpqua. The valley is well watered by never-failing streams; the soil is generally good, and it is skirted and interspersed with groves of fine timber. As it borders upon a rich gold region, it must eventually become densely populated. As yet, however, it contains no white settlement, but is occupied by the Rogue River Indians, who have rendered it the seat of much trouble and suffering from their depredations.
    There is no portion of the Territory, and, indeed, I may almost add of the world, better adapted to grazing than this valley. In extent it is about fifty by thirty miles. Surrounded by mountains, the eye seldom rests upon a more beautiful, picturesque and romantic spot. It extends to within a few miles of the boundary between Oregon and California. These valleys all lie west of the Cascade Mountains, and south of the Columbia.
    There are also many small valleys, rich and fertile, in this part of the Territory, affording good inducements to settlers, and which no doubt will be speedily occupied so soon as suitable protection can be extended over them by the government.
    A very interesting portion of Oregon lies north of the Columbia, and is being rapidly settled. The Cowlitz, which rises in the Cascade Mountains, north of the Columbia, runs through a large tract of fine, arable land, entering the Columbia some forty or fifty miles from its mouth.
    A French settlement, of many years growth, commences near this river, about thirty miles from its mouth, and now embraces some large and valuable farms. Americans also, have, within the last six years, settled between it and the Chehalis, and are doing well. The country is level and fertile, and beautifully interspersed with prairies and timber.
    The valley of the  Chehalis is also fertile, and well adapted to cultivation. Between it and Puget Sound the country is level and well timbered, with occasional small prairies. This Sound is one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation into an important portion of the Territory. Surrounded by a large district of country, rich in soil, with immense forests of the finest timber in the world, and combining many advantages, agricultural and commercial, it is destined to be, at no distant day, one of the most important points on the Pacific Coast. A low pass in the Cascade Mountains offers a route for a good road from the Sound to Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia. Such a road would be important for military purposes, and would also be a great saving of distance and time to emigrants going to the Cowlitz and Chehalis rivers, Puget's Sound, or to any other point north of the Columbia. At present, emigrants are compelled to take the road across the Cascade Mountains, south of the Columbia, to Oregon City, from whence it is as far, by a road almost impassable, to Puget Sound as it would be from Walla Walla by the road suggested.
    There are, also, east of the Cascade Range, north and south of the Columbia, now in possession of the Indians, large districts of country finely adapted to grazing, with occasional good tracts of farming land, which will, no doubt, ere long be occupied by the whites.
    Oregon City is situated at the Great Falls of the Willamette. Steamboats run daily from this place to Portland, and those of a small class also run daily up the river, above the falls, from thirty to fifty miles, and in some instances, recently, as I am informed, they have even gone up one hundred and fifty miles. A small, judicious expenditure would render the river constantly navigable for such boats that distance.
    The population of Oregon, including the immigration of the last season, is probably twenty thousand. The immigration is rapidly increasing, owing not only to the natural advantages of the country, but the liberal provisions made for actual settlers by a late law of Congress. By that law liberal donations of lands are made to all who will settle upon them previous to the first day of December 1853. To a single man one hundred and sixty acres, and to a married man three hundred and twenty--one half in his own right and the other half to his wife in her own right, upon condition that they will live upon and cultivate it for four years.
    The population is of a substantial character, much better than is generally found in new countries. The people are enterprising, industrious, frugal and orderly. Many of the earlier settlers have large well-cultivated farms; indeed, agriculture everywhere in the Territory may be said to be in a flourishing condition, remarkably so for a new country. California and the Sandwich Islands afford markets and good prices for all our surplus products, and will undoubtedly for years to come.
    Many of the various religious denominations have established churches in the Territory, to some one of which the majority of the settlers belong. Great interest has also been manifested by the people in the establishment of good schools, and admirably have they succeeded in their laudable efforts. The Institute at Salem, under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Academy at Tualatin Plains, under the control of the Presbyterians, are excellent and flourishing institutions. There are also two female institutes in Oregon City. Portland, Lafayette and other small towns have good schools. Indeed, they are common in the country wherever the population will justify them. A grant of land was made by the last Congress for the endowment of a university--the site of which has been fixed by the Territorial Legislature at Marysville.
    The Indians immediately bordering on or near the settlements are perfectly friendly and well-disposed; settlers have nothing to fear from them. Those upon Rogue River are troublesome to persons passing through their country, and will probably continue so until a garrison shall be established to overawe and keep them in subjection. This I hope will soon be done, for their depredations upon travelers have already caused much trouble and suffering. They are upon the great thoroughfare from Oregon to California, a fork of which leads to Fort Hall, being the road frequently traveled by emigrants from that point to Oregon.
    Emigrants have the past year suffered considerably from the Snake Indians, who infest the great road west from Fort Hall, and who are scattered over a large extent of territory through which the road passes. The establishment of a garrison in their country is essentially necessary for the maintenance of peace, and the protection of the lives and property of persons passing to and from Oregon. A number of emigrants have, during the past season, been murdered by the Indians, and many of their animals and other property stolen from them. Emigrants should exercise great care and prudence in passing through this district of country, and they should remember that it is essential to their safety, upon all parts of this road, that in no case should they suffer themselves to be taken by surprise, or the least advantage had of them by the Indians, for the least carelessness, or want of proper precaution, often seriously endangers the safety of not only their property but their lives.
    Those who contemplate emigrating to Oregon should be ready to leave St. Joseph, on the Missouri River, with a proper outfit, by the first day of May. Ox teams are much to be preferred. Provisions for the trip, and sufficient blankets for bedding, with such tools only as are necessary to repair a wagon, should be taken. Each man should also carry his gun and plenty of ammunition. The journey is a long and tedious one, and all who undertake it must expect to endure fatigue, privations and hardships. I would advise every person, or at least every company, to procure Palmer's Emigrants' Guide. It correctly lays down the fords across the streams, the camping grounds, and also the places where grass, wood and water can be found. No article not necessary for the journey should be taken, as there is great danger of overloading and breaking down the teams.
    Dry goods, groceries, furniture and farming utensils of all kinds are abundant in Oregon, and no one should think of taking such things with them. It must not, however, be supposed that no inconveniences are to be experienced by emigrants after they arrive there. These are always incident to the settlement of new countries, especially for the first year, but they are fewer in Oregon than are usual in the settling of new territories.
The Sabbath Recorder, Alfred Center, New York, March 11, 1852, page 156

The Determined Grumblers.
    One of the curtained editors of the Oregonian continues the attacks upon, and misrepresentation of, Gen. Lane in the last number. He says:
    "Is not Oregon possessed of interests which might not profitably be looked after by the general government? She has rivers and harbors--the property of the United States--which, as far as sound policy in the government might justify, should be improved with lighthouses and the safe means of a safe navigation. She receives an annual addition to her numerical force of several thousand, who cross a barren plain of two thousand miles--through hostile Indian tribes against whom their government have instituted no defense--And why are these things so?"
    And there have already been appropriations made for lighthouses in Oregon, and the work is now under contract. For the reason it has not been before commenced, ask the federal department at Washington.
    The resolute effort of Gen. Lane to get troops upon the emigrant road in time to protect the immigration of the present season is well known. His speech in the House on that subject we published several months since. And he only desisted in his efforts to obtain protection from Congress when solemnly promised by the federal Secretary of War that the would immediately order troops upon the route, and in time to effect Gen. Lane's object, the protection of the immigration which is now entering the valley. That promise was utterly violated; for the reason why, as the federal Secretary at Washington. After having been deceived by him, Gen. Lane has again caused the matter to be brought to the notice of Congress, and by reference to the proceedings of that body, which we publish today, it will be seen that they have a bill under consideration which provides a remedy for this grievance.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 11, 1852, page 2

    We have received, per Adams & Co., the Oregon papers up to the 14th inst. They are usual very interesting to people not residents of the territory, being filled with discussions of the local politics, and the most bitter personal invectives. The great bone of contention seems to be Gen. Jo. Lane. While one paper would deify the new Governor, another would immolate him. If his friends do not kill him with praise he can probably survive the attacks of his enemies. For our part we could stand the latter much better than the former.

"From Oregon," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, May 20, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane was hourly expected at Portland. His arrival was to be signalized by the firing of a national salute of 13 guns.
"From Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, May 23, 1853, page 2

    Maj. L. F. Mosher, from Cincinnati, Ohio, arrived last steamer in company with Gen. Lane. The Major, we are happy to say, has stuck his stakes in this city, where he will practice the profession of the law. And it might not be out of place to remark that he ranked high in the profession at Cincinnati, and we predict for him a most brilliant and useful career here--as brilliant as were his services as an officer in the Mexican war, when led by Gen. Lane, the "Marion" of that service.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, May 28, 1853, page 2

    For Delegate to Congress, there are two candidates, Gen. Lane and "Judge" Skinner. Gen. Lane is a Democrat, undisguised; the nominee of the Democratic Party, and runs as the exponent of their principles. He shows no false colors, and attempts no deception. He is a man of affirmative character, of great mental and physical energy--full of life and vigor--Whatever he does, he does "with all his might," and whatever he undertakes, he performs. He knows "no such word as fail." He has a reputation as a spotless Democrat and an honest man, as wide as the extent of our nation. He is the warm personal and confidential friend of the President, and of many if not all the heads of departments. All have unbounded confidence in his political and general integrity. He is the political friend of the ruling party in Congress, and the valued personal friend of many of the individual members. He has had much legislative experience in Indiana, and represented Oregon in the last Congress--has thus become familiar with her wants, and the means of obtaining them. He knows the members of Congress--knows who are the earnest friends of the Territories, who indifferent, and who hostile.. In the last Congress he accomplished more for Oregon than did the delegates from all the other Territories for their constituencies. No well-informed man can doubt that he can accomplish far more in the next.
    Opposed to him is A. A. Skinner, a clever
man, in the American sense of the word. A harmless, inoffensive citizen, against whom, as such, nothing can be said; far is it from our wish that anything should be. His is a negative character, so far as he has any, which makes neither warm enemies or friends. Men have little for or against him. His mental capacity is, to say the most, extremely moderate, and his mind, like his body, having for a lifetime remained dormant, has in a great degree become torpid, and to some extent ceased to function. He is an embodiment of idleness, inertness, and inefficiency, and he is as much distinguished for either, as for his proverbial cleverness. He is as destitute of resolution, life, or energy, as men "ever get to be." An effort of mind or body is made with reluctance, made seldom, and not long continued. . . . His own impulses and motives are honest enough, but he has not the courage and firmness to resist the influences which surround him and carry out his convictions of right. Thus he can be and has been made the passive instrument of wrong. When, in times past, he attempted to act the "judge," this defect in the man, we are told, was often remarked. And later, Gaines availed himself of it, and made him the passive participant in the corrupt squandering of $40,000 in the Indian treaty swindle.
"The Interests of Oregon,"
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 21, 1853, page 2

    IS GEN. LANE A CITIZEN OF OREGON?--The Sewer has had a good deal to say about "Gen. Lane of Indiana," and grave surmises and hints that he would never bring his family to the Territory have been thrown out. The last steamer brought, we believe, every member of his family, near and remote, numbering twenty-nine. That looks strongly as though the old General intended to make Oregon his permanent residence. His Encarnacion friends, who have been so apprehensive that he would not settle his family here, will doubtless be gratified to learn that the male members, with one exception, are Democrats, "good and true."

Oregon Statesman,
Oregon City, May 21, 1853, page 2

Winchester, Aug. 17, 1853.           
    Dear Bush:--At 1 o'clock this morning I received by express per Mr. Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River, confirming the news which recently reached us of war with the Indians in that vicinity, of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes of that quarter. Dr. Rose, Jno. R. Hardin and several others have been killed, and a large amount of property destroyed.
    It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united, determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are, it seems, well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners; they have also a good supply of ammunition, consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
    In great haste, your ob't. serv't.
        JO LANE.
"Indian War in Rogue River," Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 23, 1853, page 2

Treating with the Southern Indians.
    By the letters which we published last week our readers have learned that the 1st inst. was fixed upon by Gen. Lane to consider a proposition for a treaty of peace made by the Indians, and that Gen. Palmer, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, had been sent for. The time of receiving the dispatch would hardly have enabled him to be there, however.
    The result of that contemplated conference we have not heard, but it is quite probable that it resulted in a postponement, on account of the presumed absence of the Superintendent, or in non-action and a consequent renewal of hostilities.
    As to the policy of treating with these Indians, we are not prepared to express an opinion, removed as we are from the scene of troubles, and, quite likely, misunderstanding to some extent the causes and nature of the difficulties. Our impulses are, if not for extermination, against a treaty until they have been thoroughly chastised and subdued. And such we apprehend is the case with a great majority of the public. But we have, and we believe all have, unbounded confidence in Gen. Lane's judgment in the matter, and no fear that he will advise a treaty against justice or the interests of the whites. He is on the ground; he understands those Indians and the difficulties existing there, and has been familiar with them for the past three years. Indian fighting with him, if the revenge of wrongs or the safety of citizens demand it, is pastime. And if the southern tribes deserve extermination, or the safety of the inhabitants of that quarter demand it, we know that Gen. Lane will be foremost in the fray, and "in at the death" of the last Indian. If such shall be his conclusion, no treaty has been or will be recommended by him. Or if he shall deem a severe chastisement sufficient, and necessary, treaties will not meet his approbation till they have had it to their thorough subdual. With his superior knowledge of the Indian character, of the character of those particular tribes and the history of this and former difficulties with them, and his oft-tested will to visit their crimes with the most ample vengeance, we are more willing to trust his judgment in the matter and manner of a settlement than our own. And such we believe is the sentiment of Oregon.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 13, 1853, page 2

    The wound received by Gen. Lane, in the fight on the 24th, was on the same arm and just above that received in Mexico.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane was in Rogue River at last dates, endeavoring to effect a treaty with the Taylor Indians, who, in consequence of the bad faith shown them, declined to treat. If he accomplished his object in time, he will pass through this valley to Washington. But if not he purposed proceeding to San Francisco by land.

Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

Jacksonville, Sept. 13, 1853.       
    Mr. Editor:--The attempt of a few persons who were dissatisfied with Gen. Lane's course in relation to the treaty, to get up an indignation meeting here on last evening, proved an entire failure, consequently some of our valiant men in talk were disappointed in not finding an opportunity to let off steam.
    A drunken loafer who never saw powder burnt rode through our streets yesterday, bawling at the top of his voice, "Ten dollars reward to the ladies of Jacksonville if they will present Jo Lane with a petticoat." All observers pitied the poor creature and regarded him as a hero who had purchased his patriotism for a quarter at the neighborhood doggery.
    The people are becoming satisfied with the treaty and are returning to their homes. There are some suspicions that the Indians have more credit for house burning than they are entitled to. The Indians say that a "Boston" was in their camp a few nights before the battle and furnished them with ammunition and advised them what course to pursue. They refuse to give his name. It will not be healthy for him if he is found out.
    Capt. Alden and others who were wounded are fast recovering. Mining business has been entirely suspended, but is beginning to be resumed.
    Never having seen Gen. Lane, my curiosity prompted me to visit his camp day before yesterday. Having seen generals in the States togged out in epaulets, gold lace, cocked hats and long, shining swords, I expected to find something of the kind at "headquarters." But fancy my surprise on being introduced to a robust, good-looking middle-aged man, with his right arm in a sling, the shirt sleeve slit open and dangling bloody from his shoulder, his nether extremities cased in an old pair of grey breeches that looked as though they were the identical ones worn by Gen. Scott when he was "exposed to the fire in the rear." One end of them was supported by a buckskin strap in the place of a suspender, while one of the legs rested upon the top of the remains of an old boot. His hair so twisted, tangled and matted that it would have frightened the teeth out of a currycomb, and set all tonsorial expectations at defiance, was surmounted by the remains of an old forage cap, which, judging from its appearance, might have been worn at Braddock's defeat. This composed the uniform of the old hero who never surrendered.
    The "quarters" were in keeping with the garb of the occupant, it being a rough log cabin about 16 feet square with a hole in one side, called a door, and destitute of floor or chimney. In one corner lay a pile of sacks filled with provisions for the troops, in another a stack of guns of all sizes, sorts and caliber, from the old French musket down to the fancy silver-mounted sporting rifle, while in the third sat an old camp kettle, a frying pan, a coffee pot minus a spout, four pack saddles, a dirty shirt, one old shoe, and a moccasin. The fourth corner occupied by a pair of blankets said to be the Genl.'s bed, and on a projecting puncheon just over it lay some articles said to be ammunition for the stomach in the shape of a chunk of raw beef and a wad of dirty dough. In the center of the "quarters" was a space about four feet square for the accommodation of guests. Such being the luxuries of a general's quarters, you may judge something how privates have fared in the war.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

Superintendent Dart--A Lie Nailed.
    The following correspondence will explain itself. The opponent of Gov. Lane was Mr. Skinner, an agent of Supt. Dart, and hence the slander against the latter-named worthy officer. Sat. Clark, during the session of the late legislature in this state, retailed similar slanders against Mr. Dart. Owing to their origin, however, little or no credit was attached to them.
    Mr. Dart, we learn, is about sailing for Europe.

Washington, Sept. 5, 1853.
    Sir--I am informed from what appears to be a reliable source that Gov. Joseph Lane while canvassing for reelection as delegate to Congress stated publicly both at Salem and Albany in Oregon in May last that I was guilty of having used government money for private purposes, and that I was a defaulter to the government for a large amount &c.
    Will you please to inform me whether Gov. Lane derived information from the Indian Office that would warrant the above statement? If not, whether there is any evidence of the truth of such a statement in your office?
    I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obt. servt.
Anson Dart
    Late Supt. of Ind. Affrs. Oregon
The Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington.
Department of the Interior,
    Office of Indian Affairs,
        September 12, 1853
    Sir--In reply to your letter of the 5th inst. I have to state that I have no knowledge of the charges which you state were made against you by Gov. Joseph Lane during his recent canvass for election as delegate to Congress from Oregon.
    I am not aware to what extent Gov. Lane obtained information in relation to the state of your accounts with the government before left here for Oregon. He was probably aware of the amount of public money charged to you, for which you had not then accounted, and also of charges which had been made against you of misapplication of public money, and other acts of malfeasance. Information was sought by this office as to the truth of these charges, but that obtained, it is due to you to state, did not sustain them.
    A person in your position cannot properly be called a defaulter until his accounts have been finally settled and he fails to pay over such balance as is found against him. Yours have not yet been finally settled, and I am not yet able to say what will be the result as between you and the government. The balance, however, either way will be but a small one.
    Very respectfully, your obt. servant,
Charles E. Mix,
    Acting Commissioner
Anson Dart, Esq., late Supt. &c.
Watertown Chronicle, Watertown, Wisconsin, September 28, 1853, page 3

    The Statesman has the following:--
    Gens. Lane and Alden--Gentlemen,--The undersigned, on the point of being discharged from the service, cannot permit the occasion to pass without taking this public manner of expressing our warmest thanks and profound obligations, for the sympathy and forbearance that you have manifested towards us on all occasions while under your commands; also for the prompt and efficient aid that you rendered us and the citizens of Rogue River Valley, generally, during our late Indian war. May your wounds, honorably gained in the front of the fight, speedily heal, your health restored, and live long to enjoy the society of your families and numerous friends.
    Most affectionately yours, &c.,
        Capt. J. K. Lamerick
            And Company.
    At a meeting of the "Mounted Rangers," at Jacksonville, Sept. 10th, 1853, a copy of the above letter was unanimously voted should be presented to Gens. Lane and Alden, respectively.
    Gens J. Lane and B. R. Alden--Dear Sirs,--In common with the troops who have so nobly aided us, and the citizens, without exception, permit me to gladly add my hearty concurrence in the above sentiments.
    Respectfully your friend,
        Edward Sheil, M.D.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2

Return of Gen. Lane--Matters South.
    Gen. Lane very unexpectedly returned to this place on Tuesday, and on Thursday proceeded down the valley on his way to Washington. He will leave on the first steamer.
    His return through the Willamette was unexpected to himself, expecting to be detained in Rogue River too late to permit him to pass this way, and so advising his friends in the valley. But the arrival of Col. Wright with four companies of U.S. infantry of twenty men each, earlier than was anticipated, induced him to gratify his anxious wish to visit his family and his friends in this part of the Territory. His wound has nearly healed, though he has not yet recovered the use of his arm. In other respects he is in excellent health and spirits.
    Col. Wright is preparing winter quarters for his men, and will remain in the country for the present. These forces will do much towards preventing aggressions, and preserving peace. Three of the companies are from Benicia, in command of Maj. Patton, the poet and soldier; the other is from Fort Redding, the whole under command of Col. Wright, an experienced and efficient officer.
    Gen. Lane had with him, and will take to Washington, a sprightly Indian lad of sixteen or seventeen years, an only son of "Joe," the head chief of the Rogue River tribes. He was given to him by his father as a hostage and a guarantee that his people should observe the treaty. He said "as proof that I have confidence in you, and that I intend to observe the treaty in good faith, I give you my only son, who is dearer to me than life, to take with you to the States, and if I violate the treaty you have permission to hang him." He will be brought back by Gen. Lane when he returns, and restored to his people, and his visit to Washington and return among the Indians must have a great moral effect upon them.
    Before leaving Gen. Lane, accompanied by two men, went into the mountains to have a "talk" with "Tipsey," the chief of the Klamaths, who is supposed to have done much towards inciting the recent hostilities. After much difficulty they found him, among the mountains and in the heart of a dense forest, with forty or fifty warriors of his tribe. They sent a messenger to him, telling him that they had come to hold a "talk" and make peace. He informed them that he would meet them the next day at a place named, and still more strongly guarded against surprise and attack, he fearing that was meditated. After a hard day's ride on the following day they reached the spot designated, and the General and his men approached "Tipsey's" camp. The General asked him if his heart was good, and disposed to peace? He replied that he didn't know, that that depended on their hearts; if their hearts were good, his was good; if theirs were bad, his was bad. The General camped with him during the night, and remained the next day having a talk with him, returning, a day or two after he went back, and a permanent peace was agreed upon. "Tipsey" was very timid, and afraid of being betrayed.
    Everything was quiet when Gen. Lane left; the people were fast returning to their employments, and the country resuming its wonted business appearance.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 11, 1853, page 2

    NOBLE AND DISINTERESTED CONDUCT.--Gen. Lane left his home without a moment's hesitation upon receiving intelligence of the Indian outbreak in Rogue River, was placed in command of the forces employed, fought gallantly at their head receiving a severe wound, assisting in conquering and concluding a peace, and remained till the latest moment upon the ground, endeavoring to secure the observance of its terms; when he resigned his post, charging not a dime for his services. It is fact we learned not from him but from an equally reliable source, that he claimed no pay, and permitted no charge to be made. How unlike the federal officials here, of times past, who clutched at every dollar that came within their grasp, and suffered no opportunity to deplete the public treasury to pass unimproved.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 11, 1853, page 2

Headquarters Camp Alden,
    September 5, 1853.
General Order.
    Capt. Goodall, of the Yreka Volunteers, and Capt. Rhodes, of the Humbug Volunteers, will march their respective commands to Yreka today, where they will muster them out of the service of the United States.
    In taking leave of these troops,the General commanding takes occasion to testify his admiration of their courage and general good conduct while in the service.
    JOS. LANE, Gen. Commanding.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 15, 1853, page 2

    In a recent battle with the Rogue River Indians, Gen. Lane was shot through the shoulder. The struggle, being somewhat decisive, induced the savages to sue for peace, which was granted. . . .
    Gen. Lane received the son of "Joe," a head chief of the Rogue River tribe, as a hostage for the observance of treaty stipulations. It is his intention to take the boy to Washington City with him, as per suggestion of the father. The moral influence of the act, it is presumed, will be highly useful in keeping down future difficulties.
"Further News from Oregon," 
Sacramento Daily Union, October 24, 1853, page 3

    Gen. Lane has sold his property in this place--one half the Island Mills--to Messrs. Guthrie and Farrar, of Portland, and the company is now composed of those two gentlemen and Jno. McCracken, the General's son--"Nat" having also sold.
Letter from Oregon City dated October 27, 1853, Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, November 1, 1853, page 2

    On the --th ult., at the residence of Samuel Stevenson, in Douglas County, by Judge Deady, Joseph S. Lane, Esq., to Miss Eleanor Stevenson.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1854, page 3

    On my way to this city, after having a little row with the Rogue River Indians, I stopped in Oregon City to see my mills. And here I may say that those mills nearly ruined me.  Their purchase was the worst thing I ever did. I agreed to give near $100,000 for them. I gave the earnings of twenty years of my life, and have now sold out for one-third what they cost me. I am not now the owner of a single mill. 
Joseph Lane, "Congressional,"
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 4, 1854, pages 1-2

    We notice with regret the death of Mr. Theodore T. Tierney, a young man of much promise, who left this city about five years ago for California, where he had, up to the period of his decease, met with the most deserved success. After remaining a few months in California, Mr. T. went to Southern Oregon, and had been living in Salem but a short time when he was killed by a fall from his horse. He was a young man of excellent abilities, honorable principles, and was highly esteemed by all who knew him. He had acted in the capacity of private secretary to Gen. Lane during the difficulties with the Rogue River Indians, was employed by the Oregon Statesman as reporter of the legislative assembly, and subsequently filled the office of Territorial Librarian.
New York Herald, July 31, 1854, page 8

    MELANCHOLY ACCIDENT.--Theodore T. Tierney, Esq., of Salem, was thrown from his horse, in town on Wednesday last, striking his head upon the ground, producing a violent concussion of the brain, from which he lay insensible until Sunday noon, when he expired. Mr. Tierney, we believe, came to Southern Oregon from California in 1850. During the difficulties with the Rogue River Indians last fall he acted as private secretary to Gen. Lane, and assisted in drawing up the treaties with those Indians, which have been lately ratified by the Senate. He was reporter for the Statesman during the last session of the legislative assembly, at the close of which he was elected Territorial Librarian. Mr. Tierney was a native of New York City, a young man of talent, a good scholar, an easy writer, and an agreeable and trusty friend. Although he had been in Salem but a few months, his companions were many, and warmly attached; they attended at his bedside during this his last illness like brothers, and his last breath and closing eye of death were witnessed by many solicitous of rendering the ultimate service and tribute to a departing associate. The most skillful medical attendancy which he had could not reconstruct the broken organization of the shattered brain, produced by the fall--so he died. Requiescat in pace.--Oregon Statesman.
Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 5, 1854, page 1

The Next Delegate in Congress.
    In this number of the Statesman we place the name of Gen. Joseph Lane at the masthead as a candidate for the next Delegate in Congress from Oregon, subject to the decision of the approaching Democratic convention. We have questioned, and will do, the propriety of this mode of expressing a preference for candidates for nomination, in the abstract, and under ordinary circumstances. But recent occurrences and existing circumstances leave no question as to the present propriety and justifiableness of this step. The Standard, at Portland, has been brought out unreservedly for the nomination of Judge Pratt, one of the candidates whose names will be before the convention. And not only this, but through it is being waged an ungenerous and unjust war upon Gen. Lane, another candidate before the convention, and one who is not here, and cannot be here, to defend himself. That Judge Pratt is privy to this proceeding is undeniable. So apparent is it that ten thousand denials would cause nobody to disbelieve it. These being facts, no liberal-minded man, whoever he may prefer for delegate, will enter a complaint at the raising of the name of any other candidate.
    In '53 our preferences were for the nomination of Judge Deady. Yet we did not deem it proper to raise Judge Deady's name. The canvass was conducted amicably, and with good feeling. So far as we are advised, Judge Deady and the friends of his nomination made no assaults upon Gen. Lane, and the latter gentlemen, and those who preferred him, made, with his privity, none upon Judge Deady. Both were content to leave their claims with their friends, and satisfied that they should support the man of their choice, without traducing and undermining his competitor. Had a system of attack been commenced upon Judge Deady with Gen. Lane's privity and approval, the columns of the Statesman would have done battle for him openly and heartily, and every generous-hearted man, whether preferring Lane or Deady, would have responded "WELL DONE."
    This system of attack by one candidate for the party's favor upon another is disorganizing in the extreme, and wholly destructive of our harmony and our power as a party. The candidate assailed and maligned may be the choice of the Democratic convention, and then will we find the mouths of the federal enemy filled with complaints and objections furnished by a rival Democratic candidate for the nomination, and thrust at us as Democratic arguments. How are they then to be met? How, indeed, are the men who coined and gave currency to them to meet them, in case the decision of the Democratic convention should make it their duty, as members of the Democratic organization, to support the candidate they had, through the public press, blackballed? In what degree would the support they would then give him compensate for the injury their previous detraction would do him, and the party whose standard bearer he shall have been made? Or if, on the other hand, such dishonorable means should prove successful in the nominating convention, would the unsuccessful feel like yielding that hearty, earnest and active support which the Democratic nomination should command from the humblest and highest member of the party? No Democrat has a right to permit his anxiety for official station to lead him [to] such lengths--to lead him to depreciate and attempt to destroy honorable competitors, and all who seek the perpetuity, harmony and success of our organization will frown upon and protest against such unworthy conduct.
    We prefer Gen. Lane's nomination because we believe he can be of more service to Oregon in the next Congress than any man who is likely to supersede him. He has been eminently successful in the past, and has the elements of increased success for the future. He has an extensive personal acquaintance with the leading men of the nation, an unbounded personal popularity with all classes, and an enviable national reputation, advantages which no other man among us enjoys to a like extent, advantages which give him an influence and a power at Washington which he has heretofore used in Oregon's behalf, and which he will continue so to use if he continues to represent us.
    Likewise, we look upon him as possessing greater elements of success at the polls than some others who are competitors for the nomination. We look upon his nomination as equivalent to the success of the Democratic ticket and cause. He is a people's man, of them, like them, and believing in them, and his nomination would receive a hearty response in the cabins of Oregon, and draw from them a warm and conquering support at the ballot box. And this is not an unimportant consideration. He who expects that the next election in Oregon is to be won by the Democracy without an effort, without hard work and hard blows, reads not the signs of the times, or reads them not correctly. With federalism, and its former cooperating isms, we have got to meet its dastardly midnight ally, Know-Nothingism--which skulks and plots and stabs in darkness--and we shall only carry off the victory after a desperate conflict. We have no strength to spare, no votes to throw away, and no labor to dispirit and chill. We want every legislative influence, every vote, and every effort. We want a man who can bring all these out, and we believe Gen. Lane is the man to do it, to save our heretofore triumphant flag from disaster and defeat.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, March 6, 1855, page 2

    GEN. LANE.--The worthy old hero came a passenger on the Columbia, and while the steamer was discharging her freight passed on shore and spent a few hours in our midst, where of course he was the observed of all observers. Gen. Lane is a candidate for re-election as Delegate to Congress from the Territory of Oregon, whither he was now returning after a long absence at Washington City. The General has most efficiently promoted the interests of that Territory in the Congress just closed, and the people of Oregon will probably avail themselves of his eminent services for another term.

Crescent City Herald, April 11, 1855, page 2

The Convention, the Nomination, and the Ratification.
    The Territorial Convention nominated JO. LANE on the first ballot, by an almost unanimous vote, six only out of fifty-nine voting for anther person! The proceedings of the body will be found at length in another column. Everything passed off with the utmost harmony and good feeling. Gen. Lane, by invitation, addressed the convention in a pleasing and interesting manner. The convention was largely attended both by delegates and by the people.
    In the evening a ratification meeting was held in the representatives' hall, which was filled to overflowing. Speeches were made by Messrs. Smith, Williams, Nesmith, Waymire, Drew, Jo. Lane, Gibbs, Thayer, King, Mosher, Chadwick, Officer, and others, the speaking continuing until 11 o'clock. The audience was almost wild with enthusiasm and joy, and a determination which makes the Democratic hosts invincible was manifested throughout the evening, and taken home. All resolved to WORK in this crisis, and to bury so deep the corrupt coalition banded against us, so deep that the hand of resurrection will never reach it. Defeat and disgrace to Know-Nothing Whiggery and canting hypocrisy was a decree which went forth from that meeting, and with it went a resolute ardor and stern determination which will only cease its efforts with a brilliant victory on the evening of the first Monday in June. The handwriting is upon the wall, and it reads: "Jo. Lane, a Democratic Legislature, Democratic Prosecutors, and Democratic Everything."
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, April 14, 1855, page 2

    OLD JO IN HS OWN COUNTY.--A friend writing from Douglas County says: "Old Jo will carry everything here, Whigs, Freesoilers, Softs and all. I never saw such enthusiasm in my life--Lane here, Lane there, and Lane everywhere."
    The Democrats of Douglas say they shall give Old Jo the largest majority of any county in the Territory in proportion to the vote cast, and from present indications, we think they are going to do it. They are acquainted there with Gaines' Mrs. Partington exploits in the southern country in the summer of 1851. And they are too well acquainted with him generally to vote for him.
    "Old Jo will probably manage to fall off his horse again, as he did two years ago, when he tumbled from his pony against a tree, hurt his shoulder, and put the arm in a sling and pretended that he had been 'shot!'"--Dryer, at the Corvallis convention.
    When the Rogue River war broke out, Gen. Lane, at a moment's warning, hurried to the scene of action, and was foremost and in the thickest fight. In the savage engagement in which Col. Alden fell, as was supposed, mortally wounded, Gen. Lane received a rifle ball in his right arm, the same that was wounded in Mexico in the act of maintaining his country's honor and his country's flag. And at the Know-Nothing Whig convention which nominated Gaines to oppose him, the above cowardly, base, and low-flung falsehood was received with applause! What think you of this, citizens of the Rogue River Valley, whose hearths and homes Gen. Lane volunteered to defend against savage fury! What think the sturdy men who went with Gen. Lane to battle, and who heard him cheering on his men regardless of his bleeding wound? Will you--a single man of you--endorse this cowardly insinuation and vote for Gaines, the nominee of men who cheer such baseness? What think the hardy pioneers and the people of Oregon? Is there not a universal feeling of disgust, and of pity and contempt, for the craven wretch who could utter it, and for the scarcely less base who could cheer?
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, April 28, 1855, page 2

Democrats Attend.
    JOSEPH LANE, Democratic candidate for Delegate, will address his fellow citizens at the times and places named below:
Pleasant Hill, Lane Co., Thursday, May 10, 1 o'clock p.m.
Eugene City, Friday, May 11, 1 o'clock p.m.
Calapooia, Linn Co., Saturday, May 12, 1 o'clock p.m.
Albany, Monday, May 14, 1 o'clock p.m.
Corvallis, Tuesday, May 15, 1 o'clock p.m.
Santiam City, Marion Co., Wednesday, May 16, 2 p.m.
Franklin Butte, Forks Santiam, Thursday, May 17, 2 p.m.
Salem, Friday, May 18, 2 o'clock p.m.
Parkersville, Saturday, May 19, 10 o'clock a.m.
Champoeg, same day, 5 o'clock p.m.
Dallas, Polk Co., Monday, May 21, 1 o'clock p.m.
Lafayette, Yamhill County, Tuesday, May 22, 1 p.m.
At Smith's blacksmith shop, north fork of Yamhill, Wednesday, May 23, 1 p.m.
Tualatin Academy, Forest Grove, Washington County, Thursday, May 24, 1 p.m.
Hillsborough, Friday, May 25, 1 p.m.
Portland, Saturday, May 26, 1 p.m.
Milton, Columbia Co., Monday, May 28, 1 p.m.
Columbia Slough, at Lewis Love's, Multnomah County, Wednesday, May 30, 1 p.m.
Milwaukie, Thursday, May 31, 1 p.m.
Oregon City, Friday, June 1, 1 p.m.
Harrison Wright's, Molalla, Saturday, June 2, 1 p.m.
    The opposing candidate is invited to be present.
    There are many other places I should like to meet my fellow citizens at, if time would permit, but it will not, and I therefore hope all who can make it convenient will attend at the places named.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, May 5, 1855, page 2

    SANTA ANNA'S SWORD.--During the Mexican War, General Lane attempted to take Santa Anna prisoner. He made a descent upon his quarters, but he had taken alarm, and just before made his escape. In his haste he left all his clothing, his sword, &c. Gen. Lane brought away his sword, and keeps it as a trophy. It is in the possession of his son in this place. It has a solid gold handle, with a sheath plated with the same metal.--Statesman.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1855, page 3

From the Statesman extra.
Difficulty Between Gen. Lane and Ex-Gov. Gaines.
Dallas, Polk County, May 21.
    Editor of the Statesman--There came very near being a serious difficulty between Gen. Lane and Gaines here this afternoon, between 4 and 5 o'clock. It arose as follows: Boise, in addressing the people, referred to Gaines' surrender at Encarnacion, and his escape in violation of his parole of honor, and read an extract from C. M. Clay's letter impliedly censuring Gaines for the manner of his escape. Gaines replied in very abusive and aggravating language. Gen. Lane then spoke; he quoted Gen. Worth's report to Major Bliss, in which Worth makes significant mention of the fact that Gaines surrendered without firing a shot, and Gen. Taylor's remark that he "would have fought a little, anyhow." Gaines, in reply, said what Lane had stated was a malicious falsehood. Lane ejaculated, you are a liar, at the same time rising to his feet. Two men instantly grasped him about the arms and chest and held him firmly, while others rushed before him. While Lane was thus held Gaines struck at him without in any manner marking him. All the Know Nothings present instantly gave the distress alarm (the cry given when one of their members is in difficulty) and rushing up hurried Gaines out of harm's way. Gen. Lane told them to leave Gaines there and they would settle the difficulty on the spot. While Gaines was being hauled off (very willingly) from the crowd, on seeing Nesmith, he asked him if the "Democracy of his damned county was going to murder him."
    Gen. Lane behaved with coolness and dignity throughout the affair, and regretted its occurrence. His eyes flashed anger at the conduct of Gaines in striking at him while he was held, and he struggled hard to disengage himself and reach Gaines, and if he had succeeded in doing so, Gaines would have paid dearly for that act. Gaines was very much excited and boisterously profane. He is extremely petulant and ill-natured, and daily gets more so as the canvass progresses.
    There were a large number of Know Nothings here from Yamhill and Marion counties.
    In haste, yours
    [no signature]
Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 2, 1855, page 3

Gen. Joseph Lane.
    We place at our masthead today the name of Gen. Joseph Lane, of Oregon, as a candidate for President of the United States, before the Democratic National Convention to be held in Cincinnati next spring. We know that he has many warm friends and supporters for the high position among the leading Democratic statesmen of the nation, who look confidently and cheeringly for his nomination, and we believe the selection of the old war chief would be responded to by the voting millions with an enthusiasm, ardor and devotion equaled only by that which followed Andrew Jackson. Like him, Gen. Lane is invincible, in war or in peace--upon the "tented field," or in the political arena. He never capitulated and never was conquered upon either.
    Jo Lane is the very man for the crisis, just the man to reunite and lead to victory the scattered but now gathering hosts of Democracy. Under his victorious banner the sturdy Democracy of Oregon have, after one of the most excited and hotly contested canvasses the Union ever witnessed, this week routed, with Waterloo slaughter, with a victory as signal and overwhelming as that which carried President Pierce into power, the combined forces of Know-Nothingism, anti-Nebraskaism and Whiggery, and started the list of Democratic triumphs and Fusion defeats which are certain to overtake the "madness which rules the hour." Make Jo Lane the Democratic standard bearer for 1856, and the battle is already half fought and won. Federalism, under whatever or however many disguises, would be borne down by the restless tide of his popularity and the eternal truths of the Democratic faith. The nation is studded all over with his gallant companions in arms on Mexico's fields, who would be wild with enthusiasm at the nomination of the old hero they honor and love, the scarred veteran who, among "the bravest of the brave," won the proud name of the "Marion of the Mexican War" by deeds of daring and duty.
    As a soldier or civilian, America holds not a truer patriot than Jo Lane; as a statesman, she has none of more national, liberal and correct principles, and none truer to the Constitution and the Union; as a man, as "Old Joe," a warmer-hearted, whole-souled, generous gentleman never breathed the breath of life. He is one of nature's noblemen. He is a true specimen of an American, and an American chieftain and statesman. He has come up unaided by wealth or rank, from humble life, through force of native talent, unconquerable energy and an indomitable will. He is emphatically a self-made man, and made not amiss.
    He has proved himself equal to any position he has ever been placed in, and any emergency which has arisen. Whether at the head of an army in Mexico, or a band of frontiersmen in a border Indian war, in the executive chair, or on the floor of Congress, he has shown himself all the post required, and all the occasion called for. And he is equal to an able, firm, wide and patriotic discharge of the high duties of President of a mighty Republic, spanning the continent, and washed by the waves of two vast oceans. He possesses great elements of success, both as a candidate and an officer, and the indications are highly favorable to his nomination and election.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, June 9, 1855, page 2

    REVENUE CUTTER "JOSEPH LANE."--The Norfolk, Va. Argus says that orders have been received by the Collector of that port from the Treasury Department, directing that the name of the splendid revenue cutter "Campbell," which has recently been reconstructed, should be changed, and she is hereafter to be called the "Joseph Lane," in compliment to Gen. Lane, late delegate in Congress from the Territory of Oregon. This determination arose from the fact that there are at present two vessels by the name of Campbell in the revenue service.
    She is intended for the Pacific coast, and active preparations are making for her departure at an early day.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 30, 1855, page 2

    Gen. Lane passed through here on Thursday, on his way to Washington. He intends to go out on the next steamer.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, September 22, 1855, page 2

(From the National Democratic Review.)
The West! the West! where is the West?
*    *    *
It follows the declining sun
Along the banks of Oregon,
Nor leaves him where he makes his pillow
On the great Pacific's billow.
    We have watched, with intense interest, the fearful struggle between civilization and humanity on one hand, and savage brutality on the other, which has been maintained during the last few months in the territories of Washington and Oregon. Nothing but an honest doubt in regard to the nature of the difficulties in which Oregon matters are involved has deterred us from calling aloud, on behalf of the settlers on our northwestern borders, for that aid which is necessary to quench the fagot in savage hands and stay the torrent of ruthless murder. After the most deliberate examination of the whole subject, we are satisfied our first opinion was correct, viz: that too small a body of troops was sent to the Pacific Coast, or that the military disposition of those troops did not justify the high expectations indulged in reference to those most prominent in command.
    What is Oregon, that it should be doomed to become a land of skulls? and who are its inhabitants, that they should be plundered, murdered and immolated by the savages? The Territory of Oregon is one of the loveliest in the world; it is a land of promise, where Providence seems to have been most prodigal in the expenditure of its riches. It has the boldest rivers, the most fertile valleys, the proudest forests and the grandest mountains in the world. It has vales delicious as Sempe, groves as delightful as Arcadia, and fields fair as those of Enna,
"Where Proserpine gathering flowers,
Herself a fairy flower, by gloomy Dis
    Was carried off."
Oregon is the last home of the emigrant. Here, wearied by the march of thousands of miles, he determined to rest forever. Here he erected his cabin, planted his garden, sowed his farm, and gathered his little family at night in confident security. In the midst of his repose he was aroused by the cry that his dwelling was in flames, and he awoke only to fall before the deadly rifle, and see his children struck down, and his wife violated in his presence!
    Tell us not that we should first inquire who were originally to blame in this matter! Shame upon the truckling demagogue who can maintain his composure and look coldly on while the fairest daughters of America are murdered and insulted upon the banks of the Columbia! These women, a little while ago, dwelt in New England, the Middle States, in the South, and in the West; they are our mothers, our sisters, and our daughters. Shall we protect them, or shall we suffer them to be butchered and immolated by the miserable savages of Oregon? All Greece engaged in the Trojan War to recover a woman who voluntarily fled her country; all Sparta would have invaded Scandinavia had such an invasion been necessary to rescue a single mother of the iron kingdom; shall we of this proud land prove the only ungallant people of the earth? We have not patience to reason with men who hesitate in a crisis like the present. It is the duty of a commanding officer to execute orders; it is his duty to take the field, conquer the enemy, and put an end to the destruction of human life. He is not the judge of the origin of a war, and he transcends the boundary of his authority when he presumes to call in question the right of a people to defend their own firesides.
    In this connection we may remark--nothing had gratified us more than the bold and manly course pursued by the Delegate from Oregon, Gen. Joseph Lane. The people on our northwestern coast were certainly fortunate in their selection of a man to represent their interests in Washington City. Gen. Lane, the gallant veteran who won the glorious title of "The Marion of the Mexican War," has watched day and night over the people who live on the borders of the Pacific.
    (Here followed some extracts from Gen. Lane's speech on the Oregon war, which having before published in the Statesman, we now omit.)
    Here is a plain and unvarnished statement, which bears the marks of truth. We have no disposition to reflect upon General Wool; on the contrary, we entertain the highest respect for him as a man and as a soldier; if it be true, however, that he attempted, while in the neighborhood of California, to detain the 9th Infantry, then on the way to Oregon--that his influence, at one period, prevented the settlers furnishing powder to the residents on the frontiers--that he did not move boldly against the savages, but instead hesitated, upon the pretext that the whites were guilty of the first offenses; if these things be true, General Wool should be held to account by the American people.
    We entertain no doubt that indiscretions in many instances marked the conduct of the white man in Oregon. There never was a frontier population which could be absolutely restrained; soldiers, though, were not sent to the territories to judge of the causes which precipitated the contest; it was not expected that they would constitute a judicial tribunal of even temporary jurisdiction, and we are proud to bear witness that our gallant army has ever been ready, at the first call of the country, to take the field and march to victory, leaving the consequences to be settled by the civil authorities. General Wool is a brave man--a soldier whose fame is the common property of the nation; if he did not act as promptly in the premises as he was expected to act, we have only to regret, on behalf of the slain of Oregon, his strange unnatural conduct.
    We shall not attempt to present, in our brief outline of the frontier difficulties, anything like a systematic account of the murders, burnings and bloody conflicts which have characterized the war. It is evident that the savages had been preparing for years for the contest in which they are engaged; there was a perfect understanding among numberless chiefs of well-known courage and acknowledged talent, and simultaneous blows were struck along defenseless lines of a thousand miles. At the very time--as General Lane informs us--hostilities commenced in Washington Territory, they occurred in Rogue River Valley; in one night, the Indians traveled several miles and killed every man, woman and child on the road, with a few exceptions; they burned every house except one; they killed every woman except one--Mrs. Harris. The house of this lady was surrounded, her husband killed, and her daughter wounded. She loaded and fired her rifle eighty times, and finally escaped under cover of the darkness. Every man on this route was killed except Wagoner, whose wife and children were murdered, and who himself fell on the 22nd of February last at the mouth of Rogue River. Almost all the cattle in this region have been driven off or shot and left to decay upon the plains.
    Lack of space prevents even the general glance which we had intended at the war on the Pacific. In our next number, we shall present from the most authentic records all the particulars of importance which can be obtained in Washington City. It is sufficient to remark that the beautiful territories of Oregon and Washington are subjected every day and night to the most fearful ravages; that large numbers of volunteers have been raised, and are ready to cooperate with the regular troops of the government; that there has been gross and unpardonable delay on the part of the principal officer in command. "I would never raise my voice," says Gen. Lane, "in behalf of these people, if I believed them capable of such an enormity as that charged upon them by General Wool--the enormity, startling and revolting to every right-minded man, of deliberately making war upon an innocent and unoffending people for the purpose of enriching themselves by robbery of the public treasury. I know that to avoid war they would submit, and have submitted, to many wrongs for the purpose of maintaining peace and saving the lives of their families. This war has brought devastation and destruction to every portion of the two territories, and the last letter from my own home stated that everybody there is terror-stricken, that dismay has taken possession of everybody, and that the settlers are now building blockhouses for the purpose of protecting their families and friends, and that they are determined to fight to the last. And yet General Wool charges, and his letter is read as authority upon this floor, that the people of Oregon are guilty of bringing on this war with the Indians, bringing to their dwellings the torch, and to the hearts and the heads of their wives and their children the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savage, whose soul inflamed with passion and thirsting for revenge, revels with demonic delight in scenes of carnage, and draws the greatest pleasure of which such depraved natures are capable from the agony of his tortured and writhing victim. The Indians are literally breaking up the whole country, and I am not certain but that a large portion of the Territory will fall into their hands. I am in continued dread--though I think I am not easily frightened--but by the very next arrival I shall hear something more terrible than anything which has yet reached me. They have burned our steamboats, they have destroyed numerous farms and dwellings in Oregon, and a beautiful town in the southern part of Washington Territory, on the banks of the Columbia River, and have now access to the valleys, and I have great fear they will dash into the valley of the Willamette, and do much damage."
    It is fortunate for the people on the distant shores of the Pacific that they have such an advocate in Congress as Joseph Lane. Such vigilance we have never witnessed on the part of any other gentleman in the House of Representatives as has been displayed by Gen. Lane in defense of the inhabitants of Washington and Oregon territories. He is a man of whom any constituency may well be proud. Possessing an iron nerve, he dares to take any responsibility; clear and sound in his judgment, he takes no false nor injudicious step; comprehensive in his views of public policy, he seems to discover by intuition the line of justice and honor. He is one of those bold, original characters that nature, in her munificence, never fails to provide for a startling and difficult crisis.
    We always indulge a feeling of pride when, in looking over the gallant Democratic champions of the House of Representatives, our eye rests upon the frank, open countenance of THE HERO OF BUENA VISTA. Thank God, some of the noble Romans still live--live, as monuments of the glorious past, and guarantees of the glorious future of America. The influence, the example, and the illustrious deeds of a few such men as "The Marion of the Mexican War," inspire us with a hope that, though the tempest of faction may rage, and threaten the dismemberment of our republic, we shall be able to weather the storm. We regret, and the people of the Union regret, and the unborn inhabitants of this continent will regret, that to the hands of Gen. Lane was not committed the management of the war on our western borders. We make, however, no incendiary appeal to the disinterested masses of this country, for we know that a verdict would be rendered in favor of our demand which would echo from hill to hill, and from mountain to mountain, and startle a whole empire of politicians. God knows, and hundreds of thousands of men in this country know, that Gen. Joseph Lane was the man for the crisis. The people of Oregon and Washington territories should be thankful, however, that they can claim his services in the Congress of the United States, and that he is toiling with unremitted zeal in their behalf.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 22, 1856, page 1  From the National Democratic Review of May, 1856, pages 433-440.

Delicate Taste.
    The Statesman of this week has dropped the name of Jo Lane as a candidate for the Presidency. The young man tells us that it is not done because he has ceased to love Jo Lane, or appreciate his towering worth, but the name was "omitted as a matter of typographical taste."
    By the same rule of "taste" we suggest another improvement, by your hauling down your own name as "editor," and substituting that of Wiggins or Pat Malone.

The Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 16, 1856, page 2

    The United States revenue cutter Joseph Lane, Capt. J. S. S. Chaddock, sailed yesterday for Astoria, Oregon, where she will be permanently stationed. Her officers are--Captain, J. S. S. Chaddock; First Lieutenant, John Mason, Jr.; Second Lieutenant, J. Wesley White; Boatswain, James Murphy; Gunner, Peter Person. The Lane was built by Messrs. Page & Allen, at Gosport, Va., and is one of the finest vessels that has ever visited our waters. Her dimensions are: length, 105 feet; beam, 24 feet; depth of hold, 8 feet; draft forward, 8 feet; aft, 10 feet 6 inches. She sailed from Norfolk, Va. in May last, and arrived here early in December, via Rio de Janeiro, Straits of Magellan and Valparaiso. While lying in port she was visited by many of our citizens and much admired for her beauty and neat appearance. Dr. Louis De B. Kuhn, surgeon, who came out in her, has been transferred to the cutter Jefferson Davis, and will proceed with Captain Pease in a few days to Puget Sound.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, March 4, 1856, page 2

Portland Oregon
    April 22, 1857.
Hon. Jacob Thompson
    Secy. of the Interior
            I have just arrived, have met Genl. Nesmith, lately appointed Superintendent [of] Indian Affrs. for Oregon & Washington Territories. He will accept and will forward his bonds by the next steamer. In your instructions you have directed the offices of Superintendent at Oregon City; now you must permit me to say that the office ought to be located at Salem, the present seat of govt. It is much more convenient to the Indians with greater facilities for dispatching business and for communicating with agts. and sub-agts., and in all respects a better location. You will therefore I trust allow him to establish his office at Salem.
    Allow me also to beg you to see that no appointments are made for Oregon or changes made till I can write you. I shall be in Washington in Nov. next.
Your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 363-365.

Acceptance of Gen. Lane.
    As some studied efforts are being made to misrepresent the position of Gen. Lane in relation to the movements of the disorganizers, we deem it proper to publish the following correspondence which took place less than one year since:
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gen Joseph Lane--Dear Sir: The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Democratic Territorial Convention, held at Salem on the 13th inst., to inform you of your selection by that body as the candidate of the Democratic Party for Delegate to Congress, and to present you with the resolutions adopted by said convention, and request your public acceptance of the same, have the pleasure of discharging that duty by enclosing herewith the proceedings of the Convention. Allow us to add our personal congratulations on again welcoming you as the standard bearer of the Democracy of Oregon.
Respectfully yours,
    Joseph W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    James M. Pyle,
Gen. Joseph Lane.
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gentlemen--Your note of this date, informing me of my nomination for Delegate to Congress by the Democratic Territorial Convention held at Salem on the 13th inst., and enclosing the proceedings and resolutions of that Convention, is before me, and I hasten to reply.
    In my renomination, I recognize again that manifestation of public confidence it has been, as it will continue to be my aim to merit at the hands of my fellow citizens, and for which I tender them my grateful acknowledgments. With a high sense of the honor thus conferred upon me, it is alone in the promotion of the interests of our people and our Territory (now about to assume her sovereignty as one of the states of this confederacy), that I hope to justify this confidence upon the part of the people, and through you I beg to assure them that nothing within the reach of the faithful performance of my duties shall be left undone for the achievement of this great object.
    In accepting the nomination, I cordially endorse the resolutions of the Convention as expressive of the principles and will of the Democracy of Oregon, and while it is to be regretted that either any portion of the press, or individuals claiming to be advocates of the principles, or members of the Democratic Party, should persist in a course inevitably leading to the violation of the "cherished usages of the party," the production of confusion and discord, and overthrow of all party organization indispensable to the maintenance of our political principles and measures, it is both the right and duty of the people, through their delegates in Convention, to condemn and repudiate the same whenever and wherever it may exist.
    Now that we are about taking incipient steps preparatory to our admission as a state, convictions of duty and of patriotism combine with our hopes of future prosperity as a people in prompting our strict and unswerving devotion to the time-honored principles of that party under whose auspices our whole country has progressed and prospered to an extent unparalleled in the history of nations, and by which alone the peace, prosperity and integrity of the Union can ever be maintained.
    Again allow me to express to the people whom you represent my profound gratitude and accept for yourselves assurances of my kindest regard.
Respectfully, your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane.
Messrs. J. W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    Jas. M. Pyle
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 20, 1858, page 2

    Gen. Lane arrived on the Columbia.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 28, 1857, page 2

South Fork Deer Creek, Douglas Co.,
    July 30th, 1857.
    Mr. Bush--This part of the Territory of Oregon has been and is infested by a lawless band of Indians ever since the last war, who go skulking through the mountains and canyons that lie adjacent to the settlements, frequently shooting cattle and horses, and robbing houses whenever a fair opportunity offers. About six weeks ago, Mr. Franklin Wright's house was robbed of a No. 1 rifle, one pound of powder, some percussion caps, two cwt. flour, two or three pairs of blankets &c., and on the 24th of July, Mr. Jas. Gilmore, a neighbor of Mr. Wright's living on the south fork of Deer Creek, about nine miles above Roseburg, unfortunately had one large American mare and two two-year-old and one yearling colt shot. The shooting was done with arrows, as each of the colts were found having one sticking in them. The mare was found dead, the arrow having passed clear through her body. The colts were driven home, and the spikes of bone (which had been sharpened to a point) drawn from two of them, and it is supposed those two will recover.
    How long we are to live in dread of these infernal pests of the country, there is no knowing. However, we know that as long as they are allowed to run at large, our farming community will be the sufferers. There are some five or six men in pursuit, among whom are Gen. Joseph Lane and Col. Wm. Martin. It is hoped that the old General will make some of them squat, or come to terms.
    Yours, respectfully,
        [no signature]
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 18, 1857, page 2

    A. J. Barlow, formerly a resident of Grants Pass, has left us an addendum that needs to be quoted. Barlow was General Lane's nephew. His letter follows:
    Uncle David Gilmore of Woodville relates an interesting reminiscence of pioneer history. In the June of 1856, soon after the Rogue River Indians were subjugated and were being taken to the Siletz reservation by Indian Agent Robert Metcalfe, about a dozen bucks and three or four squaws, who could not endure the idea of being forced by the hated whites on a reservation not of their own choice, concluded to desert and betake themselves to the mountains, which they did at Myrtle Creek in Douglas County.
    They were unarmed and had but little provisions, just what they stole from the camp on the night before they deserted. They soon managed to make themselves bows and arrows with which to kill game.
    Not many weeks after they went into the mountains, the settlers along the Umpqua River noticed that they commenced to miss provisions and wearing apparel. These little thefts became more and more frequent, so much so, indeed, that the settlers laid all sorts of traps to catch the midnight marauders but to no avail, the redskins being too foxy.
    This business continued uninterruptedly until the summer of 1857, when one hot moonlight July night, the Gilmores were awakened from their slumbers by the stampeding of their horses. When daylight came they went to the pasture to find that the Indians had shot their horses with arrows. Some had been shot through the bowels and afterward died. This so exasperated the settlers that they determined to hunt the red devils down.
    General Lane had just been elected to Congress, and he was consulted in relation to the matter. He at once organized a searching party, consisting of himself, Col. Wm. Martin of Jacksonville [sic], A. J. Burnett, David Gilmore, John Fitzhugh and his younger son, Lafayette, a lad of 15 years, and three friendly Klamath Indians named Sampson, Captain Chief and Joe Snakes.
    The searching party set out in the direction of Camas Valley and the head of Coquille River. After they had been out about three or four days the General divided his forces. He sent Burnett and Gilmore, accompanied by Captain Chief and Joe Snakes in the direction of Camas Valley, with instructions that if they discovered Indian signs to return to a certain place and report.
    Burnett and Gilmore had not proceeded many miles until they found unmistakable signs of the close proximity of Indians. They at once wheeled about and joined Lane's party about sundown of the same day they started. The next day, bright and early, all hands were in their saddles.
    The General cautioned the men not to make any noise, such as shooting at game, which was forbidden. However, about noon the party came suddenly in sight of an unusually large black bear. The temptation was irresistible, and the General sang out, "Let us give it to him, men." In an instant every man in the party sent his leaden missile into bruin's carcass, killing him instantly.
    One of the Indians wanted the itchfoot's hide, and accordingly they skinned him. They were detained at this about an hour, when they proceeded to move along cautiously in pursuit of the Indians. They soon found Indian signs, but by this time the day was drawing to a close. The party concluded to return to the gulch where they had shot the bear, in order to get water.
    When they arrived at the spot they were dumbfounded to find that the Indians had preceded them to the same spot and cut and carried the bear to their own camp, which evidently could not be far away. A guard was kept out all night. The next morning the searching party started down the gulch. Col. Martin discovered smoke on the left-hand side of the gulch.
    The party cautiously crossed over and soon went unobserved into the Indian encampment, which was a genuine surprise. In an instant the Indians were in a fearful commotion. They evidently thought they would all be murdered. Gen. Lane, with characteristic coolness, informed the Indians that his party did not come to kill them, but to capture them and send them to the reservation where they belonged--that they had to submit at once, and that any resistance on their part would cause all of them to be shot.
    The General ordered his men to keep their hands near their pistols and to proceed to gather up the bows and arrows of the Indians. Soon all their traps were gathered and loaded on the horses, and the captors and captives started for the Umpqua Valley. They traveled all day and at night camped at a beautiful stream called Snowberry Creek. A close watch was kept over the Indians during the night.
    In the meantime, however, it should be stated that two young Indians named Jim Burnteye and Bogus had the day before gone on a hunting tour. When they returned to their camp and ascertained that the whites had captured their comrades, their bewilderment and grief can be imagined.
    However, they followed the tracks of the captors into the valley to ascertain what the whites intended to do with their friends. When Jim Burnteye and Bogus found that the whites did not contemplate killing them, they also came in and gave themselves up.
    It turned out that the Indians, when they heard the shooting of the bear, merely supposed it was a hunting party out for game and little dreamed that they, themselves, were the game sought. They were taken to Winchester and there remained until officers from Alsea arrived and removed them unwillingly, as usual, to the reservation, from whence most of them doubtless, long ere this, have passed to the happy hunting ground.

Daily Courier, Grants Pass, April 2, 1960, Indians and Mining Section, page 12

    Gen Lane is in town.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, September 8, 1857, page 3

    Gen. Lane left here last week for Washington, in company with J. Ross Brown, special agent of the government. They have visited the Indian reservations in the Willamette Valley and will visit those east of the Cascades before their departure.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 29, 1857, page 2

    I have not written to our representative delegate in Congress (Hon. Joe Lane) in relation to the affair of Mr. Day, from the fact that the Genl. has not in 3 campaigns met with my support, or that of Mr. Day--although I am in politics a Democrat (somewhat, however, of the native-born order). But the Genl. has ever been nursing and caressing and imposing upon us the ---------- set of boobies & asses that ever tormented mankind. Of my identity, however, I will refer you to the Genl.
Courtney M. Walker, letter of November 18, 1857 to J. B. Thompson,
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frame 713.

Acceptance of Gen. Lane.
    As some studied efforts are being made to misrepresent the position of Gen. Lane in relation to the movements of the disorganizers, we deem it proper to publish the following correspondence which took place less than one year since:
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gen Joseph Lane--Dear Sir: The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Democratic Territorial Convention, held at Salem on the 13th inst., to inform you of your selection by that body as the candidate of the Democratic Party for Delegate to Congress, and to present you with the resolutions adopted by said convention, and request your public acceptance of the same, have the pleasure of discharging that duty by enclosing herewith the proceedings of the Convention. Allow us to add our personal congratulations on again welcoming you as the standard bearer of the Democracy of Oregon.
Respectfully yours,
    Joseph W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    James M. Pyle,
Gen. Joseph Lane.
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gentlemen--Your note of this date, informing me of my nomination for Delegate to Congress by the Democratic Territorial Convention held at Salem on the 13th inst., and enclosing the proceedings and resolutions of that Convention, is before me, and I hasten to reply.
    In my renomination, I recognize again that manifestation of public confidence it has been, as it will continue to be my aim to merit at the hands of my fellow citizens, and for which I tender them my grateful acknowledgments. With a high sense of the honor thus conferred upon me, it is alone in the promotion of the interests of our people and our Territory (now about to assume her sovereignty as one of the states of this confederacy), that I hope to justify this confidence upon the part of the people, and through you I beg to assure them that nothing within the reach of the faithful performance of my duties shall be left undone for the achievement of this great object.
    In accepting the nomination, I cordially endorse the resolutions of the Convention as expressive of the principles and will of the Democracy of Oregon, and while it is to be regretted that either any portion of the press, or individuals claiming to be advocates of the principles, or members of the Democratic Party, should persist in a course inevitably leading to the violation of the "cherished usages of the party," the production of confusion and discord, and overthrow of all party organization indispensable to the maintenance of our political principles and measures, it is both the right and duty of the people, through their delegates in Convention, to condemn and repudiate the same whenever and wherever it may exist.
    Now that we are about taking incipient steps preparatory to our admission as a state, convictions of duty and of patriotism combine with our hopes of future prosperity as a people in prompting our strict and unswerving devotion to the time-honored principles of that party under whose auspices our whole country has progressed and prospered to an extent unparalleled in the history of nations, and by which alone the peace, prosperity and integrity of the Union can ever be maintained.
    Again allow me to express to the people whom you represent my profound gratitude and accept for yourselves assurances of my kindest regard.
Respectfully, your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane.
Messrs. J. W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    Jas. M. Pyle
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 20, 1858, page 2

Letter from Gen. Lane.
    By the last mail, we received the following letter from Gen. Lane. Its appeal to the Democracy to support the "regular nominees" of the "Democratic" Party, is honest and patriotic. The General has doubtless been imposed upon by misrepresentations as to the strength of the combination of isms which now opposes the "regular Democracy" of Oregon. When he receives the result of the vote on the first Monday in June, he will be satisfied that every "regular Democrat" "has done his duty," to the utter discomfiture of the present mongrel faction which is in the field bidding for a fusion vote:
Washington City, March, 18, 1858.       
    Ed. Statesman--I see, with much regret, that division and discord exists in the ranks of the Democracy of Oregon, threatening in its character, and if persisted in, will result in defeat and overthrow. Fellow Democrats of Oregon, division in the Democratic Party will not do. Permit me, therefore, to address myself to you, and to ask, Shall the opposition carry the election on account of feuds and dissension in our own ranks? Shall Oregon come into the Union under the auspices of a sectional organization, or shall she come in to strengthen the friends of the Constitution and the Union, and cheer the heart of every patriot with renewed confidence that both Constitution and Union shall be perpetual. If ever there was a time for every Democrat to do his duty, his whole duty, it is now. All Democrats should bear in mind that the Democratic Party is the Union. I appeal to the Democracy to bury all private animosities, and sacrifice ill feelings and heart burnings on the altar of the public good, and unite as one man in support of the regular nominees.
    The people of Oregon have honored me with their friendship and confidence, and I hazard nothing in saying that I am as ardently devoted to their interests as any man has ever been in the interests of those who placed their confidence in him, and I would be very glad to be chosen one of the first Senators from our new state, but I shall never desire it at a sacrifice of the harmony, honor and integrity of the party. In the Senate I could be useful to Oregon and the country, but the harmony and integrity of the party is more important to both Oregon and the country, and must be maintained.
    It is vain to talk of success with our strength broken, our majority cut down by unnecessary and suicidal divisions and dissensions. Everybody cannot elect precisely the man he prefers--such a thing never was heard of at any election. Let everyone, then, make all reasonable concessions as to men, adhering to the old motto of our party, "measures, not men." To everyone who has a single Democratic drop of blood in his veins--everyone who feels one throb of patriotism in his breast--I would say, "The country expects every man in Oregon, regardless of self, to do his duty." I have said to all that Oregon would come in a Union-loving state, free from sectionalism, and would stand by the Constitution and the rights of all the states. Have I deceived myself and our friends? The Democracy will join me in exclaiming, No.
    Respectfully yours,
        JOSEPH LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 27, 1858, page 2

    A STORY OF HEROISM.--In the course of a recent speech in Congress by the Hon. Joseph Lane, Oregon, he related the following incident which occurred in the Indian war of Oregon:
    "While in Oregon last summer, I took occasion to inquire of the chief who was mainly instrumental in getting up this war, to learn the particulars of the fate of some of our people who disappeared in that war of 1855, and of whom we had been able to learn nothing.
    "When I suggested to the agent, in the council, that I proposed to inquire into the fate of Mrs. Wagoner, Mrs. Haines and others, he was inclined to think it would raise the bitter feelings of the Indians, but said he would make the inquiry. I told him that I had passed through the country where these people had lived, and that their friends were very anxious to learn their fate. We inquired in relation to Mrs. Wagoner, who was a well-educated and handsome woman from New York, who had lived long in the country and spoke the Indian tongue fluently. She kept a public house by the roadside, and the good cheer which she always furnished made it a place where travelers delighted to stop. The Indians informed us that on the morning of the 9th of October they came in sight of the house, where they met some teamsters and packers, a portion of whom they murdered, destroying the wagons and cargoes, as well as the animals, while she was standing in the door.
    "As soon as they had murdered the people outside they came towards the house, which was strongly built of hewn logs and had a heavy door which fastened with crossbars. When she saw them running towards the house she shut the door and dropped the bars to prevent their coming in. They came to the door and ordered her to come out and bring out her little girl. She said, 'No.'
    "Her husband was absent--and, by the way, he was the only man on that road who escaped. They said that if she did not come out they would shoot her. She declined, and after some deliberation they determined to set the house on fire. The house was directly enveloped in flames, and the chief, who watched her through a little window, told us that he saw her go to the glass, arrange her hair, then take her seat in the middle of the room, fold her little girl in her arms, and wait calmly until the roof fell in and they perished in the flames together. And the statement was confirmed by the people who found their remains lying together in the middle of the house."
The Daily Journal, Wilmington, North Carolina, June 15, 1858, page 2

    The address written for Gen. Lane styles the Statesman "a paper hitherto regarded as one of the most prominent, influential and orthodox in the Territory." In speaking of its orthodoxy, he might have added to "hitherto has been," "now is, and ever will be."
Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 15, 1859, page 3

    SAILED FOR CALIFORNIA.--The United States mail steamer Moses Taylor left New York Saturday for Aspinwall with a large number of passengers, among whom were Hon. Joseph Lane, United States Senator from Oregon, Hon. Wm. A Grover, Hon. Jas. M. Crane, Lieut. Mullan, U.S.A.; Gen. Mandeville, surveyor general of California, and several other gentlemen.
Richmond Dispatch, Virginia, April 12, 1859, page 1

    The convention met in pursuance of a call of the central committee, at Roseburg, on the 9th of April, 1859, and was organized by electing Solomon Fitzhugh chairman and A. J. Burnett secretary.
    The following persons were elected delegates to the state convention: James B. Weaver, Wm. J. Martin, Jesse Barker and J. C. Floed.
    The committee on resolutions reported the following, which were adopted:
    Resolved, That with the cause of Democracy the interest of our whole country is identified. We desire oblivion of all differences growing out of now past and obsolete ideas and call on all members of the Democratic family to unite heartily and earnestly in support of the nominees of the Salem Convention.
    Resolved, That the Hon. Joseph Lane, by his unwavering fidelity to every trust heretofore reposed in him by the Democracy of Oregon, by his diligent and watchful performance of duty as our representative, and by his manly and eloquent defense of our rights on the House of Representatives, richly merits the plaudit, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."
    Resolved, That we regard the course of Mr. Bush, State Printer, in publishing in his paper false and slanderous charges against the political character of Gen. Lane and other tried and faithful Democrats, as unjust and anti-Democratic, and believing that such a course can only result in injury to the party; our delegates are instructed to express our decided disapprobation of it.
    The convention then proceeded to make the following county nominations:
    Superintendent of common schools--S. Hamilton.
    Assessor--Philip M. Rhodes.
    On motion the chairman appointed a central committee for the county, with power to fill vacancies in the county ticket.
    Central committee--W. J. Martin, R. M. Hutchinson, W. R. Singleton, S. Hamilton, A. J. Burnett.
    On motion, the proceedings of the convention were ordered to be printed in the Democratic papers of the state.
S. Fitzhugh, Chairman
    A. J. Burnett, Secretary.
    Of course! The land office "disapproves." It was so incensed that it "stopped" its paper, though it has not stopped reading it. If it didn't disapprove and do aught else necessary to sustain the personal party, it would be very ungrateful. If it did not "disapprove" we should feel certain that the Statesman had not been doing its duty towards the Democratic Party in resisting its attempt to degrade it into a contemptible man party. The Statesman does not care a straw for your petty and spiteful censure, or whether you approve or disapprove. It is one paper that can't be laid under contribution, and will maintain its identity and its independence.
    We have no official copy of the above proceedings, but take them from a slip printed at the Black Republican office at Eugene, and expressed here by Mr. Mosher. By due course of mail we shall probably learn how it was "did," and who did it. We think it will be found that the opposition have been largely drawn upon for aid.
    The land office has passed its resolutions. We will pass one now:
    Resolved, That the appointment of sadly incompetent persons to important offices, and the devotion of most of the time of said officers, competent and incompetent, to electioneering for Lane, and a Lane party, "can only result in injury to the Democratic Party" and the country, and we express the people's decided disapprobation thereof.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 19, 1859, page 2  From this point on, the Statesman can no longer be relied on as an objective observer of Lane's career.

Yamhill Co., Ogn., March 24, 1859.
    Friend Bush--Gen. Lane's letter to the people of Oregon has been carefully read by me; I for one cannot exonerate the Gen. for his unfaithfulness at the last session, on the admission of Oregon. Gen. Lane, in the town of Lafayette, told the people that they had a right to make a slave or free constitution, and when their convention met and formed a constitution for Oregon, and that constitution was confirmed by a majority vote of the people of Oregon, let it be slave or free, when forwarded to Washington he would use every effort in his power to have Oregon admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states. Now the question comes up, did Gen. Lane do as he promised? I for one think he did not: my reasons for thinking so are these: After the admission bill passed the Senate and went to the House, Gen. Lane and his friends have failed to show from the Journals of the House that he ever made any effort to get the bill to pass that body, or have it considered there. Now if he made no effort in the House when he was a Delegate to get the bill through that body, the Journals of Congress and Gen. Lane's own letters stand as witness against him.
    In a court of justice, when a man is a witness for himself and his own evidence convicts him, a juror has but little trouble in making up his verdict. So I think it will be with the Democratic jurors of Oregon. The words of the great statesman Gen. Jackson were "measures and not men." We profess to be Democrats of the same school, and I think we are. It strikes me that my old friend Gen. Lane preferred men, or man, before measures, and that man himself. The admission of Oregon was a great measure and one that had been sanctioned by more than a two-thirds vote of the people of Oregon, so that measure went to Gen. Lane, at Washington, with more than a two-thirds majority vote of the people of Oregon; still, with that great majority, and the measure one of importance, and he pledged to the people in his public speeches, before his election as Delegate, to use every effort in his power to carry that measure, and then sat silently in the House where he was a Delegate, and let it be packed off by his personal and political friend to the Committee on Territories, and he know nothing of it, is a thing which I cannot believe. I think that Gen. Lane feared he would not be one of the Senators of the state of Oregon.
    Some Democrats say down with Bush, that Lane may live, and be honored with a renomination to Congress, or elected again to the Senate. I say down with no man at the expense of truth and justice, but I do say let the fatal blow fall upon the guilty head, if it be no less illustrious personage than Gen. Joseph Lane. If you never do anything worse than tell the truth on Gen. Lane, or any other person holding office by election, or appointment, you will be respected and honored by Democrats of integrity and firmness. The Democrats of Yamhill prefer measures to men, but I fear there are some in other parties of the state who prefer men to measures, but I think they will be a small minority.
    Last year we had to contend against Nationalism and Republicanism, united as one man to defeat the Democratic Party. This year we may expect something to transpire. The Democracy are ready for any contingency if they only use the weapons which have ever brought victory to their standard, that is, truth and justice, and take the advice of the lamented Jackson and go for "measures and not men."
F. B. Martin.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 19, 1859, pages 2-3

    If anyone has doubted the existence of a deep-laid plan on the part of Gen. Lane and his friends to build up and sustain a personal party within the Democratic organization in Oregon, and to retain all official power, honors and emoluments in the hands of a coterie devoted solely to Lane's interests, the events of the past week must remove the last doubt as to the real state of the case. No one, who is not willingly and interestedly blind, can fail to see, in the course pursued by the friends and supporters of Gen. Lane, both previous to and in the state convention, a determination to make their one-man hobby the paramount issue in the convention, and, even at the peril of the interests of the country, and the risk of destroying the Democratic organization, to visit their condemnation upon all who refused to aid their darling scheme of perpetuating Gen. Lane in Congress, and thereby perpetuating their own power and influence. For several years past, by all the means in their power--by liberal promises, by the judicious distribution of offices and official patronage, and by convenient bargaining with the opposition--they have been adding strength to this personal party, and riveting the chain which should bind Gen. Lane like a millstone upon the neck of Oregon. For some time past, whenever they have considered themselves strong enough to make the attempt, they have endeavored to proscribe all who would not succumb to the one-man power, and, regardless of principle or self-respect, substitute fealty to the man for fealty to the principles of the Democratic Party. This proscriptive feeling was carried into the election last year, and in more than one county in the state the Lane influence (we do not speak of Lane's immediate individual influence, but of that of his personal friends and supporters) was lent to the defeat of regularly nominated Democratic candidates, for the sole reason that they were known or suspected to prefer someone else to Gen. Lane for official position. This influence was used secretly, of course (although Hibben indiscreetly avowed that he would support no candidate for the legislature who was not for Lane for the Senate). But last winter, in the Territorial Legislature, the Lane party, emboldened by the circumstance that no opposition had been offered to the election of Gen. Lane to the U.S. Senate, and confident in their supposed strength, evinced a spirit of intolerance and even of truculence towards anti-Lane Democrats, which was both unjustifiable and unseemly, and which was at length carried to such an extent as to excite expressions of surprise and disapprobation from the opposition members. In that legislature, the Lane Democrats fairly outdid the bitterest of the opposition in their attacks upon and persecution of anti-Lane Democrats, and in one instance, where some of the Lane party opposed a measure of public importance, they did not hesitate to avow, as the reason of their opposition, that one of the parties interested in the measure was believed to be unfriendly to Gen. Lane. In short, the whole conduct of the Lane party in the last Territorial Legislature was tyrannous and intolerant to the last degree, and such as, it was believed, would be heartily condemned by the intelligence and good sense of the masses of the Democratic Party.
    But this spirit of intolerance and proscription reached its climax last week, when, regardless alike of the first and dearest interests of the state, and of the known wishes of a large majority of the Democratic Party, a minority of the state convention, by means which we need not detail here, procured the sacrifice of Mr. Grover to this unholy personal alliance. It is undeniable that Mr. Grover was the first, last and only choice of the Democracy of Oregon for Representative to Congress; a majority of the delegates came to the convention fully intending to support him, and to urge his nomination, but it had been decreed by the Lane party that Mr. Grover must be defeated. It was not charged that he had been derelict in his duty; it was not even attempted to be denied that he had been energetic, faithful and persevering in the discharge of his trust; it was acknowledged that he had rendered most efficient aid to our interests during the short time he was permitted to act as our Representative; he was not accused of any act or word of hostility to Gen. Lane. His offense (one of great enormity in the eyes of the Lane men) was that he had refused to become a mere echo and pliant tool of Gen. Lane, that he had dared to maintain his self-respect and independence in spite of the efforts which were made to draw him to the support of the personal party, and that he had chosen to devote his time and influence at Washington to the interests of his constituents and of the country, rather than to the perpetuation of Gen. Lane in office. This was the crime, and the only crime, for which Mr. Grove was ostracized. There was no other pretext for the conduct of the Lane party, but that Mr. Grover had not committed himself unconditionally to Lane and his interests. Gen. Lane's relatives and retainers (in office and expecting to be) were in the convention, when they could get in, and about it when they could not, zealously conspiring for Grover's defeat. That the gist of the matter was Lane-ism, and nothing else, is manifest from the refusal of the Lane caucus to keep their promise with the Linn delegation. After promising that that delegation might name the candidate, they refused to accept Judge Williams, when they had named him, averring that he was not for Lane. He no more than Grover would consent to sink his identity, become a mere echo of Gen. Lane, and devote himself to his praise. It is by no means certain that the order for this deed has not come from Washington City! Mr. Mosher was one of the candidates for Congress voted for in the Lane caucus.
    Mr. Grover and his friends had every reason to believe and to expect that he would be returned to the position which he had filled with honor to himself and with faithfulness to his constituents. He had, by his untiring industry, laid the foundation for future usefulness in that position; he had prepared a large amount of work involving the vital interests of Oregon, to be completed at the next Congress, in which he had shown himself peculiarly qualified to serve our interests as our Representative. His defeat at his time, and under existing circumstances, will be construed into a disapproval of the measures he has urged in our behalf; it will be considered as a virtual acknowledgment of the truth of the charge that our war debt is founded upon fraud and speculation, that the ablest and most earnest advocate of the justice of our claims upon the government has always been virtually condemned and stricken down, without even the form of an accusation, and in the face of a most able and eloquent effort for the payment of those claims. Mr. Grover is not the party most injured by this transaction. Although he cannot but experience regret and mortification at the ingratitude and treachery by which he has been betrayed, he can point with pride to his stainless record, and defy the puny malice of his enemies. He now, more than ever, occupies a position in the esteem and affection of the people of Oregon, from which no fraud or trick can remove him. To him, personally, this defeat is not important. He has been wronged by unfair means, but the people will right him in their own good time. The Democratic Party is the sufferer by this wrong. The country is the sufferer, and every individual citizen of the state of Oregon will have cause to regret the spirit of personal partisanship which sacrificed the harmony of the Democratic Party, and the best interests of the state, to the gratification of private and personal revenge. And bitterly will Gen. Lane and his friends regret the day when they offered the Hon. L. F. Grover as a victim upon the altar of their one-man party.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 26, 1859, page 2

    For nearly a half score of years it has been persistently and incessantly charged that there existed a political organization in Oregon known as the "Salem Clique," and that the influence of that mythical body, which none saw, governed Oregon. This song has been "dinned" into the public ear, until, finally, it has borne its natural fruit of suspicion and prejudice. It is impossible that it should be otherwise; "the constant dropping of water will wear a stone"; and the constant dropping of falsehood, year in and year out, will mislead right-intentioned persons.
    That there has been such a body as the "Salem Clique," as charged, is an error; the Democratic Party has been the only "clique" we have known of, and of its deeds it need not be ashamed. It has governed Oregon during its whole Territorial existence, with justice, with judgment, with prudence; in short, wisely and well. It points to a state starting upon its career without debt, and with credit unimpaired. It points to a record without stain, and as free from errors of judgment as human fallibility often leaves. If this is the work of a mysterious "clique," then the people of Oregon, secure in the enjoyment of every right, lightly taxed and free from public debt, will not complain.
    It is boastfully said that what are called "Lane men" were in the majority of the late Democratic convention, and they are contradistinguished from other Democrats by that name. This is a mistake; and those who adopt that conclusion deceive themselves. We will not comment with bitterness, or in a spirit of crimination, upon the distracted and boisterous proceedings of the late convention. But it is due the Democracy and the public that facts should be neither perverted nor smothered. A calm, temperate statement of them can do neither parties nor candidates harm.
    The peculiar adherents of Gen. Lane were far from being in a majority in the late convention. Indeed, they did not comprise, at the utmost, more than one-third of that body, and generally represented opposition counties. Let us see. We will enumerate as follows: five from Jackson, four from Douglas, five from Lane (three present), two from Benton, five from Clackamas, five from Multnomah, and one from Chicago. Of these twenty-seven, one from Clackamas has not been a Lane man, two from Multnomah profess not to be, one from Benton and one from Lane are not very much so, and one, at least, elected from Lane, but not present, was a decided anti-Lane man. The Lane County convention adopted a resolution endorsing the congressional delegation, by the casting vote of the chairman, and then reconsidered and laid it on the table. These are all the distinctive "Lane men" in the convention, and they are to be taken subject to the above qualifications. That there were others in the convention who were not anti-Lane, and who do not oppose that gentleman, is true. But they were far from being "Lane men" in the understood sense. Thus, we say those who conclude from the complexion of the late convention the domination of Lane-ism in the Democratic Party, deceive themselves. There were in that convention more declared anti-personal party delegates than there were Lane party men. There were not less than thirty members who voted against the mildest form of a resolution applauding Gen. Lane, and they, almost without exception, represented strongly Democratic counties. Leaving out the question of the senatorial succession, and the united Democracy of Linn would cordially sympathize and heartily cooperate with those thirty. Does anyone doubt this? Does anyone doubt, that, if there had been no senatorial election, or if Mr. Smith's reelection had been supported by the Democracy of Marion, that Marion and Linn would both have supported Mr. Grover, and have stood shoulder to shoulder in the late convention? We presume not a man. There is now no difference of sentiment in the two counties in regard to Gen. Lane, and, present obstacles removed, the two counties will act, in this matter of a personal party, as they think, alike. Ninety-five of every hundred Democrats in Linn know this; and if Winchester hopes otherwise, its hopes are destined to be blasted. Mr. Grover was formerly tendered the support of Linn County upon condition that Marion would support their candidate for the U.S. Senate. Had Marion acceded to that proposition, what the Winchester interest terms the "Salem Clique" would have had a positive majority in the convention. Did this ever occur to them? And did it ever occur to them that it would have better accorded with the feelings and sentiments of the Linn delegates (the senatorial question not in the way) to have supported Mr. Grover and sustained their old friends?
    We think that in the defeat of Mr. Grover, the will of not only the Democracy but that of the people of Oregon has been thwarted. We think the opponents of the "Salem Clique" cannot point to an instance where they ever thus disregarded and did violence to the public will, and trifled with the public interests in a nomination. It may be asked how was this brought about? IMMEDIATELY, by tactics imported from a neighboring state! A member of Gen. Lane's family, though holding an appointment, has spent the most of the past two months away from his office, visiting the extremes of the Territory. Grover had attended to his duties as Congressman, and left fulsome adulation of Gen. Lane to Hibben and others. This made his defeat desirable in rabid Lane circles. While the public heard no name but Grover's talked of for the Democratic nomination, a faction was secretly and zealously at work to defeat him. When the delegates came together, the north and the south were, in the main, induced to act in concert. Mr. Smith's friends in the Linn delegation were told that the "Salem Clique" was opposed to his return to the Senate, and that his only chance lay with the adherents of Gen. Lane; he was threatened with their opposition if Linn County did not defeat Grover; he was promised their support if it did; men instructed for Grover, and men intending to support him, were, by one device and one representation and another, induced to go into a caucus convened expressly to defeat him, and thus taken against him in the convention, where the nomination ought
to have been, but was not made. The body of the Linn delegation, mistakingly, as we believe, by acting with them. And thus Mr. Grover was sacrificed, and the country surprised and disappointed.
    So far from the late convention indicating that Gen. Lane has the support of the Democratic masses of Oregon, it indicates exactly the reverse to us. Considering the active efforts of his retainers, their bringing in outsiders of every hue, it is a matter of surprise that they succeeded so poorly, and got into the convention so small a minority of acknowledged "Lane men." And it proves conclusively that Gen. Lane has not the support of the Democratic masses of Oregon.
    In view of our great local interest--the war debt--and the position in which the events of the last session of Congress have placed it, this election was possessed of unusual interest to Oregon; we thought Mr. Grover the best man in Oregon to look after and support that interest.
    In one respect, this is an unusually important election, viewed in its political aspect; twice in the history of our government the election of President has gone to the House of Representatives, the electoral college failing to choose. In case there should be no choice in 1860, an event not likely to occur, however, the present House of Congress, of which Oregon is about to choose her member, will decide it--Oregon having there an equal voice with the other states, each state being entitled to one vote, and one only. In consideration of this possibly more than usual party importance, it behooved the convention, or rather side caucus, to have so conducted its proceedings, as to have united instead of distracting the Democratic Party. It behooved members of that convention to have made its nominations and transacted its business in sessions where all the members were admitted, and in the councils of which all were permitted a voice and a vote. It was a time when not only the unmistakable will of the party and the people should have been heeded in the selection of candidates, but a time when the mode of their selection should have permitted no question of its purity, regularity and fairness.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 3, 1859, page 2

Portland, April 18, 1859.
    Mr. Editor--I observe that the ebony-hued Hibben is out in the last Times in a characteristic, lying, laudatory letter of his master Jo. Lane. His efforts ought to pass as disinterested when it is remembered that on his arrival in Oregon his first salutation to a stranger was, "I am General Lane's dog; whose dog are you!" The disreputable occupation he followed before Lane made him his body servant is only equaled by his petty larceny instincts, which protrude like a livery stable sign from his Ethiopian countenance. Of course he worships his benefactor--it is that, or starve--and would do it for any man who would feed him when that gaunt owl starvation stares him in the face at a short distance.
    The fulsome, sickening adulations which he heaped upon Lane were so mixed up in his editorial columns with praises of Arrigony's eleemosynary grub, and Wasserman cigars, that it was at one time doubtful which of his trio of benefactors would receive his support for the U.S. Senate. We, of Portland, recollect him as he used to sit perched like a big baboon upon his editorial tripod, reading anti-Lane men out of the Democratic Party, in his peculiar nasal twang, with free nigger gesticulations. Poor Hibben! He has been transplanted from Oregon to the more congenial sphere of Washington life, where "thrift may follow fawning." The next Black Republican candidate for the Presidency should buy him for the purpose of illustrating the peculiar capacity of the happy mixture of the negro, baboon and--dog.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 3, 1859, page 2

    A Kerbyville correspondent says: "Smith and Lane spoke here on Sunday evening, June 26th, to a small audience. They doubtless injured the Democratic ticket in this county. Neither of them mentioned the slavery question." Of course not. The only question they cared about was the Lane question. They did not even oppose Logan upon the stump, but only made use of Stout's nomination as a justification and approval of themselves. Their speeches throughout the state were devoted to their own praises, and to the denunciation and abuse of all prominent Democrats who refused to support Lane's personal party, and to approve of the treachery and trickery of the Lane grocery caucus. Lane has caused more injury to the Democratic Party than any other man in the state, but the result of the late election has curtailed his power for evil.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 19, 1859, page 2

    Hundreds who have heard General Lane's harangues over the state have left mortified at the disgusting exhibition of self-praise and egotism. One of his own reporters makes him say, at Portland (and he said it, in substance, almost everywhere), the following:
    "Gen. Lane made a very effective speech. He detailed his sacrifices in the public services since he entered public life, in 1832, in the legislature of Indiana, in the war with Mexico, in the wilds of Oregon, both in the camp and in the executive chair--his bringing to condign punishment the Indian murderers of Whitman--his conquest over the Rogue River Indians, and his other many acts of duty and generosity to the people of Oregon, as a people, and as individuals."
    Lane was always a vain man, but he formerly had the good sense to avoid offensive exhibitions of it. But, surrounded as he is at Washington by a swarm of flatterers, idlers who earn their living by tickling the willing ear of a vain old man with adulation, it is inevitable that his vanity and egotism should increase in rapid ratio. And this will explain to many how Gen. Lane could talk for hours about himself and his services, a hundredfold magnified. The Hibbens and the Garrets, who feed by flattering him, tell him almost every hour of his life that he is a very extraordinary man, a marvelous patriot and wonderful statesman, and it is not strange that he has conceived the idea himself, and become inordinately egotistical.
    This reporter proceeds with Lane's speech:
    "His services in Congress were also referred to. He was now an old man, and a poor man to boot."
    This has been another leading feature of Lane's demagogical appeals. "He was a poor man, and didn't care for money." Gen. Lane does not care for money except for present uses; that is his reputation among the people, and knowing that, he has made the most of that material--has rung the changes upon it, with all the art and industry of which he is possessed. He has trumped up a man of straw, and then knocked it over; he assumed that he was accused of keeping the state out for the purpose of getting double constructive mileage, and then asserted that he "was a poor man, and didn't care for wealth," and appealed to the audience to know if that was not his character. We have always disclaimed that the mileage was the motive in keeping out the state--asserted that we didn't believe it--but that personal ambition was.
    But, we don't think the case will bear as much dwelling upon as Gen. Lane has bestowed. It is true that he cares not for money of itself, but he needs a vast deal. His Washington system cannot be kept up without it, and there have been men who didn't care for money, but yet who needed and used a great deal, and who would resort to questionable means to obtain it. Aaron Burr was perhaps more lavish and careless of money than any man who ever lived; at the same time, he used more and always wanted it!
    And the talk about being "a poor man" is a piece of demagogism in bad taste, to say the least. If it were true (and, strictly, it is not), it is certainly no fault of the people of Oregon, and no merit of his own. [Lane returned to Oregon poor, and died poor.] Gen. Lane has, since his nominal residence in Oregon, drawn from the public treasury near one hundred thousand dollars, for which he has rendered next to no service, except to enjoy a most luxurious life at Washington City. That he has seen fit to expend the most of his munificent salary for his gratification, or bestow it upon a band of harpies who were thereby purchased to praise him, and as he supposes, minister to the furtherance of his ambitious aspirations, which have become an all-absorbing passion with him, has conferred no benefit upon Oregon, and is not a matter with which he ought to go before the state, making a merit of, and claiming future support for. Politics in Oregon have cost him very little, if anything, except what he has bestowed upon such creatures as Hibben--imported and paid to serve Jo Lane alone, and not the Democratic Party. With such exceptions as that, whatever of his bountiful pay he has expended in politics has been done at Washington, and expressly for Jo Lane.
    Lane assumes, what is not the fact, that he has been charged with keeping out the state to get the double mileage. Our "Metropolis" correspondence said that one of the consequences of the failure was to entitle Lane to double mileage. So it was, but the correspondent did not say that was the motive with him. We said that we did not think it was, but that we thought the motive was ambition. If he had been beaten for Senator, it would have destroyed what he, Hibben, Garrett, the junior Yulee &c. understand to be his chances for the Presidency!
    But, again we ask, has not Lane overdone this "virtuous indignation" on the score of constructive mileage? He says, in his harangues, "I am an honest man. God knows I am, I know I am, and you, fellow citizens, know I am." But, notwithstanding this, he has Hibben appointed from Oregon, with the knowledge that he will, and the intention that he shall draw mileage from and to Oregon; at the same time Lane not only knows that Hibben will not perform a mile of that travel, but he knows that Hibben is not a resident of Oregon, and never expects to be. Will some Lane casuist inform us of the moral distinction between Lane's drawing that--both constructive and fraudulent--mileage himself, and thus enabling Hibben to do it? Hibben, whom he feeds, and whom he would have to feed from his own pocket, if it was not done from the treasury?
    We assert, that in the fact of Lane's unseemly praise of his honesty, he has ever practiced more chicanery and trickery than all the rest of the men engaged in politics in Oregon. And confidently appeal to any who have acted with him for the affirmation of the statement.
    He has, for his own personal ends, defied the public sentiment and disregarded the public weal, in a score of ways no other man would have dared to have done. He has appointed ignorant and intemperate men to important offices, to the sad detriment of the public interests. He has recently conferred an appointment upon a personal adherent, whose bad character is a household word in Oregon; who has been tried in our courts for one of the highest crimes in the calendar; to whom common fame attributes prison-breaking in one of the states to escape arraignment upon charge of a still higher. He has removed faithful and competent public officers to make place for his creatures; he has kept back appropriations; through him the state loses the value of its 500,000 acres of land; he has once voted against the homestead bill, and once dodged it; he has left the war debt (like the state bill at the first session) to sleep undisturbed. All these, and many more things he has done for ends personal to himself. And yet he has the hardihood to prate of his disinterested purity, and assail and denounce honest men and Democrats, who would not serve him. Free men of Oregon! ARE NOT THESE THINGS SO?
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 19, 1859, page 2  Actually, no, these things are not so. Compare Bush's assertions with Lane's private correspondence.

    The recent meeting of the "State Central Democratic Committee," convened at Eugene City on Saturday, 24th day of September, resulted in another Democratic flare-up. The several Democratic organs are now discussing the causes of the difficulties existing, and devising ways and means by which the Democracy of Oregon can become again a unit. It seems to be particularly necessary at this time, in order to secure the election of Jo. Lane to the Presidency of the United States, that all bickering and animosities in the Democratic ranks of the state of Oregon shall be at once "dried up." Therefore, we appeal to Bush, Slater, Russell, O'Meara, McCormick, Taylor, Pengra, Adams and the Dalles Journal to take Stout's vote as the only correct basis upon which the "harmonious" can define or find the strength of the Democratic Party in Oregon. Unless some compromise can be effected between the belligerents, we fear our candidate for President of the U.S., General Joseph Lane, will never occupy the White House, and Oregon will not soon have the credit of furnishing a model President, whom the people "delight to honor," and who "WOULD SAVE THE UNION."
Weekly Oregonian, October 15, 1859, page 2

    "Ye who have tears, prepare to shed them now!"
    Never, since the illustrious Hibben threw down his pen, kicked over the editorial tripod, and left our shores in wrath and disgust, leaving the country in deep affliction for his irreparable loss, has Oregon been made the victim of such a sad calamity as has just befallen it. The whole country is plunged in gloom and distress. We do not observe that any of our citizens have donned crepe hatbands, or enveloped their door knockers in sable dry goods, but we meet many countenances which wear a somber hue, and whose preternatural elongation evinces the deepest sorrow. Two of our brightest political stars have gone down in darkness! A pair of Oregon's "eminent statesmen" have succumbed together to cruel fate! Ancient Joseph and the Rev. Delusion have been consigned together to the "tomb of the Capulets"! Oh Oregonians, "beloved" of the one, and "dear" (almost) to the other, even as Congressional salary and mileage, are yet not ready to "weep, and rend your hair for those who never will return" to the U.S. Senate? Will not the very lachrymose nature of your grief materially elevate the commercial value of cambric and bandanna in your immediate neighborhood? Will you not be utterly inconsolable in your extreme woe--"mourning even as those who have no hope"? For Joseph and Delusion are dead--politically dead--dead as a mackerel, or a herring, or any other native of the vasty deep which has been caught, and scaled, and salted, and smoked, and barreled up, sold and delivered. Their "corpuses" may still show some feeble signs of life, but it is a mere galvanized vitality, which cannot be prolonged beyond the next session of the state legislature. They are gone! "They were lovely in their lives, and in death they are not divided."
    Never more shall we have the esteemed privilege of grasping the ever-proffered hand, and receiving the hearty "God bless you" of Ancient Joseph. No more shall he seize us warmly by the hand, and say: "God bless you, my dear sir, I thought of you frequently at Washington. I'm sure to be the next President, and if you ever come to Washington you must come and see me. I'll have a room fitted up in the White House expressly for you." Alas! for the vanity of human expectations! Never more shall we listen with astonishment and delight to his modest narration of his own proud achievements on the tented field and in legislative halls. No more shall we swallow, with open-mouthed credulity, his expressions of ardent and devoted affection for his "dear people," and his promises of future labors and successes in their behalf. "Nary 'nother time" shall we gaze, with irrepressible wonder and admiration, upon the dilapidated tile which was wont to protect that venerable pow from sun and storm, or the modest, old-fashioned, shad-bellied coat, with rusty brass buttons, wherewith he adorned his stalwart frame on electioneering occasions, or the antiquated waistcoats, or the inexpressibles posteriorly patched with buckskin, or the short black pipe, or the gold-headed cane, "presented by the President," or the other paraphernalia of demagogism wherewith he so long and so successfully astonished and deluded his "beloved Oregonians." Never again shall we open our ears and hold our breath, while in his peculiarly modest language and manner he tells us how Frank Pierce slapped him on the shoulder and asked him to take a seat in his Cabinet; how he dined and supped and slept with Old Buck; how Steve Douglas wished him nominated at Charleston for the Presidency, and promised to stump thirteen states for him; how ladies visited his rooms and drank champagne with him; how the sweet creatures begged for his daguerreotype, and wrote verses to him--we take a melancholy pleasure in remembering all these interesting particulars--never more shall we hear them again from the truth- and wisdom-speaking lips of Ancient Joseph.
    And Delusion--"dear Delusion"--we will miss his Stentorian voice, his Demosthenean thunder and his Delazonian eloquence. The roar of the Lion is silenced. Never more shall we hear his persuasive tones, urging his fellow citizens to the support of the "Democr-r-r-atic P-a-r-t-y!" or dispensing the gospel of Truth to poor sinners. Wounded in the house of his friends, vanquished and insulted in his "own bailiwick," forced to accept the poisoned chalice from the hands of those whom he had been accustomed to command, and to whom he fondly hoped his word was yet law, he fell, while his puling lips still breathed defiance. It is said that he had committed some grave errors and offenses, which caused his former friends to plot his destruction. But let us defend, rather than seek to tarnish, his memory, now that he has passed away. It is true he had faults, but other great men have had them too. Was not Nero a profligate and a debauchee? Did not Judas Iscariot and Benedict Arnold betray their friends? Was not Julian an apostate from God and religion? Was not Ananias a consummate liar? and Alexander an irretrievable drunkard? and Falstaff a cowardly boaster? And did not Commodus disgrace himself and degrade the authority and dignity with which he had been clothed, by openly consorting with shameless wantons and the infamous of both sexes? Admit that Delusion has been rather vicious and depraved, it can be shown that there have been men at various periods of the world's history, almost, if not quite, as bad as he. And take into consideration, too, the good which he probably effected whilst he was a minister of the Gospel. That ought to counterbalance at least a portion of his delinquencies since his fall from grace. Peace then to his ashes, and oblivion to his errors, or if ye will remember them, remember also that if his own morals and those of his associates were the reverse of correct, he insisted upon the strictest parity of conduct in all others; that if he was notorious for acts of perfidy and baseness, he could not endure treacherous conduct on the part of anyone else; that although habitually mendacious, he sternly reproved falsehood wherever he detected it, and very often when he didn't; that although he invariably deserted his friends or his party in an emergency, he as invariably denounced as a traitor and as ingrate anyone who deserted him; that although he edited an obscene and libelous paper, up to the very date of his political decease, yet he grieved much over the "licentiousness of the press," and earnestly besought that it might be corrected, and finally, and though a poltroon, he was (according to his own account) "descended from fighting stock." You see, here is for every view a corresponding inclination to virtue. We trust that whoever furnishes the few remaining particulars of Delusion's checkered life for the pages of the magazine published at Washington by the eminent Mr. Swackhamer (terms $3 per annum--for the magazine, we mean--Swackhamer is not to be had, individually, for that sum), will not omit to mention these highly important particulars, in order that justice may be done to the departed subject.
    It is not probable that we shall again have an opportunity of looking upon such another pair. And, although they need "no lofty dome nor monumental spire, whose towering height shall pierce the stormy clouds, to tell posterity their fame," yet we would respectfully advise that a suitable monument be erected, to commemorate their acts in the service of Oregon. For this purpose, we suggest that the following materials, which will cost nothing except for transportation, be collected, to wit:
    The vouchers issued on account of services and supplies during the Indian hostilities of 1855 and 1856;
    The petitions addressed to Ancient Joseph for reforms and improvements in our mail service (of which petitions for removal of the Astoria post office, to such place as the citizens could get to, will form a formidable pile) and disregarded by that individual;
    "God-bless-you" letters, written by Joseph;
    Buncombe speeches made by Joseph;
    The official appointments and commissions procured by Joseph, for venal and incapable persons;
    Joseph's "chances" for the Presidency;
    The votes of Joseph and Delusion on the Homestead Bill;
    Delusion's drunken speech in the Senate;
    Delusion's letters abusing Joseph;
    Delusion's letters praising Joseph;
    Delusion's last dying speech and confession, as published in the Delazonian of
June 5th, 1860;
    Joseph's dying speech, &c., &c., &c.
    Will those Oregonians who revere the memory of the dear departed consider the proposition?
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 12, 1860, page 2

Breckinridge and Lane Demonstration in Philadelphia.
    An enthusiastic Breckinridge and Lane demonstration was made in Philadelphia on the night of the 2nd instant, which was a perfect success, whether considered in point of numbers or the character of the actors who participated in it. An impartial eyewitness (the Philadelphia Inquirer, July 3) says of it:
    "The Breckinridge meeting last night in Independence Square was a very large and successful demonstration. Between it and the Douglas meeting on Saturday night there was a broad contrast, very much to the advantage of the Breckinridge meeting in every particular. Although there were three stands at the Douglas assemblage, and but one last night, a practiced eye could easily determine that the single Breckinridge meeting was much larger than the three others combined. There was another point upon which the contrast was still more marked. The Douglas meeting was largely composed of 'the boys,' and was excited and inclined to be demonstrative in its show of enthusiasm, while the Breckinridge meeting was made up almost exclusively of quiet, orderly and attentive listeners, who indulged in applause only when the speakers made 'palpable hits,' and then the outburst was genuine and not simulated. If these two meetings are fair indications of the relative strength of the two branches of the Democratic Party, our preconceived opinions on the subject have been wrong, for the Breckinridge party is much stronger than we supposed."
    Among the speakers were Hon. Charles J. Ingersoll, Senator Bright of Indiana, Gen. Lane of Oregon, Hon. Humphrey Marshall of Kentucky, and Hon. Josiah Randall of Philadelphia. The Journal of Commerce contains an abstract of Gen. Lane's speech as follows:
    "Gen. Lane was here introduced to the meeting, and was received with tremendous cheering. He said that it was not his intention to make speeches during the campaign, and that it was by mere accident that he was here. He could not forbear to express the gratification he felt at beholding such an immense gathering. (At this point the disturbers of the meeting became so riotous that the Breckinridge men resolved to put them out, but Mr. Lane forbid it, telling them to 'stand firm'--that it was only a squatter sovereignty fight.) A comparative quiet being secured, Mr. Lane continued, highly extolling the character of Mr. Breckinridge. No man knows more of his country than he does, and no man would do more for it. He (Lane) did not come here to beg anybody to vote for him. It was his pride to be a humble follower in the ranks of the Democracy. He had spent his lifetime in office, but he wanted that true patriot, statesman and soldier, John C. Breckinridge, placed in the Presidential chair. As to 'popular sovereignty,' he contended that a Territory was the common property of the United States, belonging as much to Pennsylvania, by equal right, as it did to any other state. Every man from every state has an equal right to go into the Territories with his property. Popular sovereignty as taught by some is a heresy. It should never have been introduced. If we intend to maintain this Union, we must maintain the Constitution and the equality of all its citizens. Mr. Lane then spoke of Mr. Lincoln's votes in Congress during the Mexican War. He (Lane) had followed almost every business. At one time he was a California miner, and while prospecting there he met a German who asked him about Joe Lane, and he told him he was a fine fellow, and had come very near catching Santa Anna. (Loud laughter.) That was all he (Lane) had to say of himself. In conclusion he would say that he would support Mr. Breckinridge with all his heart and soul, and that he did not believe that the Democracy would defeat a man whose heart was as big as the Union. He then earnestly implored all good Democrats to divest themselves of the bitterness resulting from the proceedings at Baltimore. Mr. Lane was frequently interrupted in his remarks by the disturbers of the meeting, but retired amid deafening applause."
    This successful demonstration in Philadelphia shows the weakness of Douglas in the old Keystone [State]. Breckinridge and Lane, standing on the clearest and most unequivocal Southern platform that has ever been promulgated by any party, are received with enthusiasm by the "solid men" of Pennsylvania, while Douglas and Johnson, the champions of squatter sovereignty, are met by the noisy welcome of the mob. If these men had the patriotism to withdraw, there can be no doubt that Breckinridge and Lane would carry Pennsylvania and other northern states like a flash. There would be no resisting the popular current in their favor. We speak in sober earnest. There is that about them to stir the hearts of the people. The noble platform on which they have planted themselves--the purity of their lives--their broad nationality and commanding services in the counsels of the nation and on the battlefields of Mexico and Oregon, while all their competitors were enjoying the luxurious ease of a quiet life at home, or were defaming their country by encouraging the enemy, these incidents in their lives are just such as to arouse the popular heart. Give these candidates a clear field, and Black Republicanism would be scattered to the four winds, never more to rear its head.
The Floridian and Journal, Tallahassee, July 14, 1860, page 2

    GEN. LANE'S MOVEMENTS.--We find the following communication in the Petersburg Daily Express, of the 23rd inst., and it gives us pleasure to see that the "old General" meets with such a warm reception. May he meet with a like reception at every point he may visit in his native state:
Shocco Springs, Warren Co.,
    N.C., July 20, 1860.
    General Joseph Lane, one of the Democratic candidates for the Presidency, was received today at Shocco Springs by a large concourse of people and the military of Warren and the surrounding country. After reviewing the troops, and responding to an address from the attorney general of the state, a salute of artillery was fired.
    A grand entertainment in honor of the General was given by the citizens. His presence in his native state creates the greatest enthusiasm. He leaves for Kittrill's Springs and Raleigh tomorrow.
The Weekly Courier, Fayetteville, North Carolina, July 28, 1860, page 1

    I have to note a little incident in connection with Ancient Joseph and the Presidency. Joseph's portrait has long graced a daguerrean gallery in this city, to the infinite delight, it appears, of his son-in-law, Thelby [Aaron D. Shelby]. The enterprising proprietors lately procured a large photograph of "Old Abe," as handsome, of course, as a map of his homely visage could be made, and hung it up in the same collection of notables with Joseph. Thelby considered it an indignity to "pa," and made it the occasion of having a flareup of the most outrageous kind with the unintentionally offending practitioners of the art preservative of personal beauty.
"Letter from Portland," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 22, 1861, page 3

Union Demonstration at Dallas--Lane Hanged in Effigy.
    The following letter from Polk County, which we are compelled to abridge somewhat for want of space, shows the odor in which treason is held in that locality, and the union feeling evoked by the presence of a traitor:
Dallas, May 5th, 1861.       
    Ed. Statesman--Yesterday afternoon Gen. Jo Lane, of South Carolina, and son, arrived in a two-horse wagon at the Eagle Hotel in this quiet village. The word flew through town; a crowd collected, and enthusiastically permitted the great man to remove his own boxes, big and little, baggage and bundles, into the hotel, himself, while they flew to the liberty pole and hoisted the national flag, shouting for "The Union"--"The flag of our Union." As the colors unfurled to the breeze, the General was heard to exclaim, in a tone of deprecatory astonishment, "Umph! Why, they are hoisting the stars and stripes!"
    Then we brought out the flying artillery, consisting of one gun--inch and a half bore--manufactured by drilling out an anvil; Capt. Theodore Thompson commanding, with plenty of powder, and a bushel of the General's ablest speeches on secession, marked, "free Jo. Lane," [i.e., letters franked with his signature] for wadding, and fired a national salute of thirty-four guns. Lane stood in front of the hotel, admiring the zeal of his friends in firing the cannon on his arrival, until four or five rounds had been fired, when one of the boys came up the street with an armful of wadding, and shouted, "Cram 'em in; we've got lots of em--they don't cost nothin'; they're all "free Jo. Lane." Upon this, the General "dissoluted" and dodged through the door. (The same mistake he made at San Francisco.)
    The thirty-third gun was hammered full to the muzzle with a sledgehammer and a bolt of iron and went off with a "Hurrah! for Oregon and the Union!" When the thirty-fourth gun was fired, Collins sprang upon the steps of the courthouse, waved his hat, and with a voice that would have deafened Stentor, shouted: "Three cheers for the Union and the Constitution, as our fathers made it and as we will preserve it, or die!" and the deafening cheers went up to Heaven from every gushing heart. Then all quietly retired, leaving the proud flag of the whole nation streaming at the masthead, and Joseph, whom no one had yet taken by the hand, to his reflections.
    This morning, when the General rose from the pleasant dreams of the night, the first thing that met his view was an effigy, with a black cockade in the cap, suspended by a rope from a tree in front of the hotel, marked, in unmistakable characters, "JO LANE, THE TRAITOR." Consequently, the General's wagon drew up to the back door, through which he made his exit, I presume reflecting with pleasure upon the enthusiastic manner in which he had been received and entertained. The effigy is still hanging, and I do not know the man who will cut it down. The General's journey through the land is certainly an ovation.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 6, 1861, page 2

    JOSEPH SLIGHTLY MISTAKEN.--The S.F. Times states that General Joseph Lane, ex-United States Senator from Oregon, evidently believed the guns fired in honor of Latham, as the mail steamer was coming in yesterday, were in honor of himself, and he showed himself on deck; but when the steamer reached the wharf, he was hissed, and retired to the cabin amid shouts of "Secessionist!" "Traitor!" "They have good hemp in store for you when you get to Oregon!"
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 6, 1861, page 3

    LOCKED UP--The Union men of Albany locked up their cannon to prevent the secession traitors from firing a salute for their bellwether, Gen. Lane.
Oregonian, Portland, May 11, 1861, page 2

Gen. Lane.
    The enemies of this gentleman in Oregon attempt by every means to cast odium upon his name and acts. Misrepresentation of the vilest character, and falsehoods that would shame an ordinary slanderer to utter, are resorted to in the foul work of debasing him. They may have effect upon those who do not know Gen. Lane or who know very little of the character of his maligners, but persons acquainted with either him or them will not be misled by anything spoken or published by the knavish band. They denounce him as a traitor. If to take up arms in defense of his country, to fight his country's battles, to support the Constitution and the laws, to favor equal and exact justice to every section and every state of the Union, to denounce fanaticism on the one hand and rebellion on the other, to serve his country, his state, his constituency, to be true to his friends and open in his hostility to his enemies--if to be this is to be a traitor, then is Gen. Lane a traitor; and for one, we glory in his style of treason. But who are those who now call him traitor? As well in Oregon as elsewhere, we find them to be the men who have for years violated and bid defiance to plain, unmistakable provisions of the Constitution they now so frothingly profess to revere, and to the laws as well; they have joined in the hue and cry against one section of the Union, and hating the people of that section, have taught and learned their children to grow up in hatred of them also, so that the fanatical war upon that people should never cease until the knell of the Union had sounded, or the South, robbed, laid waste by servile insurrection, prostrate and powerless, should accede or be forced to yield all that their merciless and malevolent foes should demand; they are of the class that have driven nine states from the bond of Union by their violation of written law and their denial of conceded rights and that would now wage a war of extermination against slaveholders sooner than maintain a peace upon a fair and honorable compromise of the difficulties which have sprung immediately from their own disregard and violation of the Constitution that held in firm and sacred bond for eighty years the states of the Republic. And now, when their madness, malevolence, persecutions and oppressions have forced the Union asunder, they would fill the air with their own clamors of love for the Union and cry down those who by a just course towards all the states, to the North and to the South alike, have proved their devotion in the past and evince their fealty at the present trying time to the government, even whilst administered by men who have materially aided in destroying it, as traitors?
    Gen. Lane can well afford to rest his case, so far as his love, honor, duty and service to the Union that was, or the government that is, is concerned, despite the ravings and malicious denunciations of enemies at home or abroad. His record is his country's. He has fought for her, he has served her long and honestly, and if he has not displayed the highest order of statesmanship, he has shown a devotion and a fealty to the whole country to the full measures of his abilities, with a sincerity and honesty it would be well for the ablest of his enemies to imitate. He has closed his political career, and left no blemish upon it. He has returned to Oregon, to pass the remainder of his days in peaceful retirement, and to prove by his course as a private citizen his obedience to the Constitution and laws of his country and his state. Ordinary instincts of charity would dictate to his enemies that he should no longer serve as a target for their shafts of spleen, malice and revenge. None but fiendish spirits would attack the retired brave soldier and faithful public servant, and we find those engaged in the disgraceful work to be of this class. In former years, they cringed before and fawned around him, accepting with well-feigned thanks the patronage, influence and position he gave to them. Grown vigorous under the kindness he manifested towards them, and rich from the bounties he extended to them, like serpents warmed to life they turned and used their venom upon their benefactor. As they could not use him in their evil designs they resolved to drag him from the high place he occupied. It was a cowardly, sneaking ruffian's work, and fitly each performed it. During his absence from the state, while in the performance of his duties at the federal capital, with his back turned, and as it were powerless, they concocted and carried out their base designs against him. The task required treachery, ingratitude and falsehood. The conspirators were amply armed with these prerequisites. Where all else failed, bribery was resorted to, and another state supplied the gold to purchase men whose sons were already bought, but whose palms were still prurient. By these means Gen. Lane was in his own state overcome.
    Since his retirement and especially since his return home, his enemies have struck at him more religiously than ever. He is now called "traitor"! We ask the fair-minded, the just of all parties, to read his last speech in the U.S. Senate. All true Union men will applaud it. It is an able, strong, patriotic speech. Not a disunion nor disloyal sentiment lurks in it. It is the speech [omission?]; it utters the sentiments of a just, good Union-loyal man. Further, if readers wish to learn Gen. Lane's position now that the Union is torn and sundered, since one section is arrayed in hostile arms against the other, we ask them to read the following from the Corvallis Union, which gives briefly but plainly his views upon the present condition of our country's troubles. It must convince all good men that Gen. Lane is far, very far, from being a "traitor," but that he is as he has ever been, true to his country and to the laws:
    "Gen. Joseph Lane arrived, unexpectedly, in our city on Sunday evening, by the way of Dallas; his son, Lafayette, and two nieces accompanied him. Immediately after midnight the cannon was taken out and a salute fired in honor of his arrival. During the morning of Monday, many of our citizens of all parties called upon him and bade him welcome and tendered their congratulations for his safe return. A formal reception was had at the courthouse in the afternoon. Hon. I. N. Smith received him in an appropriate and feeling address. He was then introduced to the audience by Col. Kinney, who was chairman of the meeting, and responded to the reception address in a short speech, reviewing his labors in Congress very briefly, and dwelling for a short time on our national troubles. The house was well filled, all parties being well represented, and by the prompt and loud cheering evinced their good will towards Gen. Lane and his views. Many were surprised to find that, instead of being a disunionist and secessionist, Gen. Lane was a strong Union man, and unequivocally opposed to any move towards the separate independence of the Pacific.
    "In the evening the General was serenaded at the residence of his son, Nath. H. Lane. There again the good will of all parties was displayed by their participating in the affair.
    "Gen. Lane in his speech and private conversation counseled against excitement, and argued a peace policy, particularly for this coast, and the effect has been most favorable on our community.  He left here on Wednesday morning for his home in Southern Oregon, bearing with him the good wishes of our entire community."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1861, page 2

    DREADFUL ACCIDENT.--The stage of Wednesday from the north brought sad intelligence concerning Gen. Lane. From a passenger we learned that the distinguished gentleman was in the act of getting out of his wagon when about four miles above his own residence on the road, and a pistol he had about him, catching by the hammer, accidentally discharged. The ball entered the lower part of the right breast and came out near the top of the shoulder. The wound was not considered mortal. Word of the terrible accident was instantly conveyed to Gen. Lane's family, who were hastening to the spot when our informant passed in the stage.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1861, page 3

    WILL HE DIE?--Gen. Lane is seriously wounded by the accidental discharge of his pistol; but we trust his life will be spared for a higher end.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, May 20, 1861, page 2

    ACCIDENTALLY SHOT.--A report was received by the stage on Wednesday to the effect that Gen. Lane while crossing the Calapooia Mountains came to a bad place in the road and got out of the wagon when his pistol fell and exploded, and lodged the ball in his shoulder. It is also stated seriously that an Irishman along with him, expecting him to die, desired Lane to give him a certificate before death that he had not murdered him. The Irishman evidently feared the curse pronounced against the slayer of Cain might rest on him.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, May 20, 1861, page 2

    The Jacksonville Sentinel says that Gen. Lane was accidentally shot with his own pistol, while getting out of a wagon when about four miles from his own residence. The ball entered the lower part of the breast and came out of the shoulder. The wound is not considered mortal.
"From Oregon," Red Bluff Independent, May 21, 1861, page 3

    CAUSE FOR SECESSION.--We are assured that John Lane would have been seceded from West Point, for want of proficiency, at the present examination, and that is the occasion of his joining the traitor army. The old one "dissoluted" because he could not be President, and the young one because he could not be a lieutenant.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, June 17, 1861, page 2

    John Lane, son of "our Joseph," who did not get to be President, seceded from West Point, took a lieutenant's commission under Jeff. Davis, served some time at Savannah, Ga., and was, at last accounts, at Manassas Junction, as fully determined to get into the White House as his "pa" ever was.
"Oregonians in Dixie's Land," Oregon Statesman, Oregon City September 16, 1861, page 2

    GEN LANE, since his return from the Capital, has kept entirely at home in the Umpqua Valley, attending strictly to the pursuits of a farmer. He, with the assistance of one of his grandsons, has just finished cutting and putting up near forty acres of grain, the venerable ex-Senator making a full hand in the field during the entire harvest.
"Coast and Local Items,"
Eugene Democratic Register, August 23, 1862, page 4

    A correspondent from Umpqua County says:--"Joe Lane has sold out his black mud farm, and it is thought he is bound for the land of Dixie. He says 'he will not be drafted--he will volunteer first.'"
    Probably going to lay down his "dead body" somewhere in Dixie, for our soldiers to walk over.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, October 6, 1862, page 3

    ON THE WING.--Joseph Lane has sold out his mud patch in Umpqua, and it may be he is "flying from his far-off Pacific home to lend all the powers of his arm and his head in defense of"--somebody. It's of no use to try, Yozef; that "arm" and that "head" are played out.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 11, 1862, page 3

    The great "konkerin' hero," Jo Lane, at a Copperhead meeting lately held in Roseburg, officiated as bottle-holder to the "Pygmy Chief of Oregon Copperheads," James O'Meara, while the latter spread himself through three mortal hours of space in denunciation of Abolitionists, etc. The "Democracy of Douglas County" (twenty persons) were there, in mass meeting assembled. By resolutions adopted and endorsed by "Josef," it is evident that he thinks the "rights" of the South have been "invaded," her "citizens oppressed," and, in conformity with the promise made in his North Carolina banquet speech, probably designs to "fly to their relief from his far-off Pacific home, to lend all the power of his arm and head (oh!) in their defense--in defense of the rights of the South." The breezes from the north are too bracing to be pleasant to foul birds inured to the foetid atmosphere of slavery. They should migrate.
Oregon Sentinel, November 28, 1863, page 2

    We had hoped that we were done with this old traitor. When he returned from Washington, in 1861, to the state he had so shamefully misrepresented, and the constituency whose sentiments he had outraged, he slunk with dread of arrest and punishment for his infamous treason to the retirement of his patch of black mud in the Umpqua hills, and there loathed by the loyal masses, and gnawed with remorse of conscience and defeated ambition, avoiding the gaze of honest men, he remained, until the people were about to forget, in eagerness to crush more dangerous because more active traitors, that so vile an one as old Jo. Lane had ever existed. But it appears that emboldened by the forbearance which has been shown him, and mistaking contempt for indifference, he has lately crawled out to spew his venomous treason upon the public. In three or four speeches he has made lately, he shows that repentance has been no part of his work in his retirement. An open and avowed sympathizer with Jeff. Davis and the Confederacy from the first, he is so lost to shame that he does not hesitate to avow that sympathy now.
    He reaffirms, upon every occasion, his infamous speech of March 2, 1861--the doctrine that a state cannot be coerced--and is for "peace on any terms," provided these terms do not involve the punishment or humiliation of the rebellious states. That our readers may not forget the declarations which this chief of the copperhead party was permitted to make upon the floor of the Senate on 2nd of March, 1861, forty days after Jeff Davis had left the Senate to assume the head of the rebel government, we make a few extracts from this speech. After quoting--as do the Oregon secessionists in this campaign--the Kentucky resolutions of 1798-99, and applauding their sentiment, he says:
    "Here Mr. Jefferson asserts that a state aggrieved shall judge not only of the mode but the measure of redress. Is this treason? If the measure of redress extends to secession, how can the Senator from Tennessee [Andy Johnson] do less than denounce the great apostle of liberty--as Mr. Jefferson has been called--a traitor?"
    We commend this paragraph to the consideration of those Democratic orators and newspapers which boldly assert that these resolutions do not teach secession. Their great light and leader is fearfully wrong if they do not. But again he says:
    "I think, for the sake of consistency with all my past professions as a Democrat, I am bound to respect the declared will of the sovereign states which for reasons satisfactory to themselves have seceded from the Union, and established a separate and independent government. Whatever the causes may have been which compelled them to a separation from the other states, I am bound to respect the expression of their sovereign will, and I heartily reprobate the policy of attempting to thwart that will under the pretense of 'punishing treason' and 'enforcing the laws.'"
    He then quotes Madison and Hamilton, Jefferson and Webster, in defense of the right of secession, and attempts to show that, although Jackson once held to the doctrine that "coercion" might be tolerated in case of an attempt to destroy the government, "his opinions afterwards underwent a radical change," and he "would never have struck a blow," he never "would have fired a gun."
    The Democrat and Review are continually quoting these eminent statements to show there is no secession in the resolutions of 1798-99. What can they say to these positions of their acknowledged leader?
    Referring to the arch-traitor who was then at the head of the rebellion, he says:
    "Yet upon this floor there are some base enough to allude to him as a traitor. Mr. President, I have not words to express my contempt for any man that can apply such a term to such a man as Jefferson Davis. Jefferson Davis a traitor! Treason applied to him! He, the purest and bravest of patriots! He fought for his flag and country when the cowards and poltroons that now dare vilify him were supine at home. He will live glorious in history when they are earth and forgotten."
    Every voter in Oregon ought to read the whole of this speech before election day. It may be found in the Congressional Globe for 1861, Part 2, page 1342. It is full of justification for the seceding states, full of denial of the right of the government to do anything to prevent secession and disruption, full of laudations of southern traitors, but has never a word of condemnation for the traitor, nor even an expression of regret that the government to which he, of all other men, owed so much was about to be destroyed. It seethes with treason--rank, vile, outspoken treason--from [one] end of it to the other, and it is a most remarkable instance of the over-liberality of our form of government, that such a speech, from one largely a recipient of its bounty, was tolerated, and the offender allowed to go unpunished.
    Fellow citizens! this man is the acknowledged leader of the copperheads, and is now stumping the state in support of Col. Kelly and the Democratic Party! He is puffed and lauded by the Democratic press of the state! Can we, then, believe that their professions of desire to maintain the Union, to put down the rebellion, or to punish traitors, are anything more than sheer gammon--transparent gull traps to catch credulous voters! Out upon such hypocrisy!
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 30, 1864, page 2

    Col. T'Vault and General Joseph Lane have both professed religion and joined the Catholic Church. The old sinners have deceived the people and been obedient servants of the devil all their lives, but now in their dotage they are both trying to cheat the devil out of his just rights. Gen. Lane has been so strongly impressed with Catholicism that he has been remarried to his wife. Col. T'Vault ought to follow suit. It is meet for such worthies to float together, and there should be no bastards in the royal families.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 3, 1868, page 2

        DEAD.--The Herald
learns that the wife of Gen. Lane died at her residence in Douglas County, a few days since.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 27, 1870, page 2

    Roseburg is the home of the Lanes--once the political power of the state--and up this creek, that comes pitching down between the great oak-topped hills, three miles in an easterly direction, and four miles perpendicular, as his son has it, lives General Joseph Lane--soldier, Governor, Senator, and at last candidate for the Vice Presidency. Very old is the General now, and quite retired, but the same as of old. His quiet, unpretending fireside and frugal meal are shared by the hermit the same now as when he was not poor, but strong and well-to-do, a great politician, and a power in the land.
Joaquin Miller, "A Ride Through Oregon," Overland Monthly, April 1872, page 305

Old Jo Lane.
    An Indianapolis correspondent of the Cincinnati Enquirer writes a long letter, embracing among other matters an interview between the writer and Mr. Matt Brown, one of the Oregon delegates to the St. Louis convention, in which a once-prominent public man of the United States is mentioned:
    "But the most notable object of interest we have out in our western regions," continued Brown, of Oregon, his eyes gleaming with devotional fire, "is old Gen. Joe Lane. I suppose there are thousands of people in this country familiar with his name and record who would swear he was dead, and the young politicians of the present generation manage to get along without mentioning him at all, which is very remarkable, I sometimes think, considering what a conspicuous figure he was in American politics twenty years ago. Indiana idolized him. No man ever received such an ovation for services in the field as Joe Lane when he returned from Mexico at the close of the war and gave the state a chance to carry him on its shoulders for his gallantry at Buena Vista. He came west in [1849], was appointed provisional governor of Oregon by Fillmore [sic--it was President Polk], then was in the Senate, and had just finished his term when the Charleston Convention recognized his radical pro-slavery opinions [sic--slavery was not an important issue for Lane] by placing him on the ticket with Breckinridge. After that defeat he came back to us in disgust, and the hot political places that once knew him will know him no more forever. He bought a farm back of Roseburg, running up from the Valley of the Willamette, and built him a small frame house high up on a picturesque spur of
where he has lived ever since in the most perfect seclusion. Two years ago he lost his wife, whom he always called 'the madam,' and loved devotedly. Since then his desolation has been relieved only by a negro boy, who cooks and keeps house for him. Infirm! You ought to see him. He's eighty-three now, straight as an arrow, six feet two in height, and he can pick up his gun and bring home a deer, or follow down a trout stream over the rocks about as well as the next man. And then he reads a great deal. One room in his cabin is sacred to his books, and his library is one of the most valuable on the Pacific Slope. Strange how the old man hangs on the skirts of the past! Old thoughts, old questions, old scenes, old statesmen, which have nearly faded out of our remembrance, and given place to the issues and plans of the present, are meat, drink and lodging to him. The new thoughts of an ever-busy and progressive race he cares very little about, comparatively, and seems to have made up his mind that the country is retrograding. He talks about ancient notions of political honor and integrity, and any comparison with the present turns him sick at the stomach. Only once lately we got him worked up to the point of coming down from his garret in the clouds and making a speech. It was on the 4th of June, at Roseburg, just as we were getting ready to leave for St. Louis. We circulated it in every direction, and people came over the mountains to hear him, taking three and four days for the journey. There were at least five thousand there, and when
the auditors stretched their necks as if some revelation was coming, and every word was to be precious. Only a few could hear him, for his voice was drifted into the childish treble, but curiosity kept them spellbound till he closed. He reminded one, with his majestic presence and flowing white hair and beard, of some John the Baptist in the wilderness, crying unto the people "Repent!" And when he came down from the platform he took us delegates to one side and begged us, with faltering voice and tears in his eyes, to give the country a pure ticket, and help bring back the honesty and decency which politics had lost and the country wanted to see restored. 'The boys,' for that's the name he calls us by, look up to him with great veneration, and think there is still more eloquence in those weak, trembling tones than in all modern orators combined. The old man had only one wish left--to vote for Tilden and Hendricks. If the ticket wins he wants to depart in peace, like Simeon, for he will have lived to see the country's salvation."
Galveston Daily News, August 8, 1876, page 2

"Bert" Hibben Drops Dead in the Prime of Life--
Vigorous and Strong One Minute, the Next a Corpse.

    This morning about 7 o'clock Mr. Ethelbert C. Hibben, so well known in politics and by virtue of his position as one of the deputies of the county clerk, died suddenly and unexpectedly at his residence, either from congestion of the stomach, or from rupture of blood vessels of the heart. The exact cause can only be determined by a postmortem. For several weeks Mr. Hibben has been suffering at intervals with neuralgic or congestive attacks of the stomach, and yesterday noon, while in the superior court, was the sufferer for several minutes from one of considerable severity. However, he attended to his duties as usual, and during the afternoon was unusually cheerful and pleasant-voiced, rattling off political bon mots with more than customary bonhomie, and being unusually facetious to the sallies from the laughing yet listening crowd. The evening he spent at home, and this morning arose at his customary hour and built a fire in the grate of the bedchamber. His wife and mother-in-law were out in the dining room preparing breakfast, and upon hearing him call answered the summons and found that he had lain down again upon the bed and seemed to have a difficulty in breathing. He so stated. Mr. James M. Myers, a near neighbor and an intimate friend, was summoned to his bedside, so also Drs. Hasty and Barbour, but nothing could be done in relief, for he died without a struggle and within five minutes after the first apprehension of danger. Coming so suddenly, and so entirely unexpected, the blow was a terrible one to his family. When the News reporter called the house was filled with mourning, and the scene was harrowing even to those attracted by mere curiosity, and who knew Mr. Hibben simply as a passing acquaintance. The remains will be shipped to Rushville at 10 a.m. tomorrow for burial.
    By interview with Mr. Claib Donaldson and others some history of the deceased was learned. He was born in Wilmington, Ohio, in 1824, his father Thomas Hibben being a leading merchant in that section. In the interval between 1839 and 1840, Ethelbert, or Bert as he was known to all, clerked for his brother George in Rushville, this state. Afterwards he came to this city and studied law under Governor Whitcomb, and was admitted to practice in 1845. In 1857, or thereabouts, he accompanied Senator Lane to Oregon, and for two years was editor of the organ which the party established at Portland [the Weekly Times]. In 1859 he returned and in 1860 was married to Miss Gertrude, daughter of John L. Robinson, of Rushville, a lady with whom he lived happily, and who survives him. The issue of this marriage was one child, a girl, at present eleven years of age.
    Two brothers survive the deceased, George Hibben, of Chicago, and James S. Hibben, of the firm of Hibben, Pattison & Co., this city. A sister, Mrs. Lida Mauzy, is now living at Rushville.
    Although prominent in politics, and a man, despite his apparently roughness of manner, wielding large influence, Mr. Hibben never held office. He had an unpleasant habit of plainly speaking the truth in not the choicest term, which made him unpopular with politicians, and this they remembered when his friends pushed him forward for position. In 1864, however, he was made a candidate for clerk of the supreme court, but notwithstanding party, work and personal sacrifice were of little avail at that time, even to the most popular man of the party.
    In 1857, as stated, he accompanied Senator Lane to Oregon, and when Jesse D. Bright was Senator from this state occupied a confidential position at Washington with him. Of later years he embarked in several enterprises, and finally brought up as deputy clerk, a position to which he was appointed by Austin H. Brown. In later life he was mainly conspicuous by the use of his trenchant pen, which he yielded in season and out of season, and at times cared little what politician's hide was pricked. Some years ago he contributed largely to the Rushville Jacksonian; he also wrote for the Sentinel, and more recently has used the People for the dissemination of pungent paragraphs and open thrusts. His expose in The Daily News
of the corruption of the Democratic supreme bench led to a change of the ticket after the nominations had been made in the state convention, and in various other directions has the power of his pen been felt.
    In character Mr. Hibben was a man of great force and determination. He was a bitter opponent and an uncompromising antagonist. Indeed, his violence often modified, if it did not neutralize, the effect of his efforts. He was not popular. He was a talkative man, and that made him pass for less than he was really worth, and his enemies were always ready to use that as an argument against him. His love of fair play and stern honesty were conspicuous. He knew no party when he saw wrong or fraud, and was as ready to denounce a political associate as a party opponent if he was guilty of corruption. In his aspirations to restore the ancient purity of his party and make it the servant of the people, he was ready to strike down anyone who stood in the way, friend or foe, and he believed most sincerely that the prosperity of the country depended upon the restoration to power of a purified Democracy. His faith in the people was so great that he was confident it only required the knowledge of official rascality spread abroad to create a revolution and purify that party. In support of his views he was always ready to work, and he knew how to take a blow as well as to give it. He was courageous, strong, self-willed, positive, trenchant--a man of marked characteristics, who with more self-control and with different associations would have made a conspicuous figure in politics.
    Upon hearing of his death this morning the following minute was ordered spread upon the record in room 3, superior court:
    "The court, having been informed of the death of Ethelbert C. Hibben, a deputy clerk of this court and clerk of this room, and who was but yesterday at the hour of adjournment in the active discharge of his duties, hereby testifies to his faithfulness and honesty in the performance of all the duties of his position, and directs this order to be entered of record. And the court hereby tenders to his family and friends the deepest sympathy in their sad bereavement, and in respect to the memory of the deceased it is now ordered that this court adjourn until tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock."
    The deputy clerks of the county office held an informal meeting today at noon and resolved to attend the funeral tomorrow in a body. No bar meeting had been called up to 2 p.m.
Indianapolis News, September 15, 1876, page 4

    The San Marcos [Texas] Free Press says of the now-venerable Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, candidate for the vice presidency on Breckinridge's ticket in 1860, that he was a member of the Indiana Legislature which met at Corydon in 1822. As the clerk called the roll, and came to the counties of Vanderburg and Warrick, Mr. Smith says: "I saw advancing a slender, freckle-faced boy, in appearance eighteen or twenty years of age. I marked his step as he came up to my side, and have often noticed his air since. It was Gen. Joseph Lane, of Mexican and Oregon fame in after years."
Austin Weekly Statesman, Texas, December 28, 1876, page 2

    At the decoration of the Confederate graves at Fayetteville, Joseph Lane of Oregon sent flowers from that far-off state to decorate the grave of his old comrade Colonel Yell, who fell in the Mexican War.
"Personal and General," Des Moines Register, June 11, 1878, page 4

The Last of the Generals.
    The death of Gen. James Shields leaves that gallant old veteran, Gen. Joe Lane, now living at Roseburg, the only surviving general of the Mexican War--one that added so much glory, wealth and territory to this country. Gen. Lane, though near eighty years of age, is still hale and hearty, and bids fair to witness the recurrence of several anniversaries of the bloody battle at Buena Vista, in which he gained glorious distinction that has ever made him famous. He has recently returned from a trip to Puget Sound that proved a perfect ovation. The people have not forgotten their old-time Governor, Senator and friend, nor are they slow to show the appreciation they always felt for him, though long years have intervened since he served them in official capacity. Private life has its charms, and he has preferred the quiet of his mountain home to the public honors always in store for him.
Oregon Sentinel, July 25, 1879, page 2

    On Tuesday, April 19th, at 9 o'clock, General Joseph Lane quietly breathed his last, and the spirit of one of Oregon's greatest men took its flight. For nearly half a century, General Lane has been closely identified with the interest of our state, and his name and public acts were familiar to all its inhabitants. Probably no man has done more for the welfare of the state or more enjoyed the respect and esteem of its people then he, and the news of his death was received with universal sorrow. Ever forward in his country's service, General Lane distinguished himself in the Mexican war and in the many Indian wars on the frontier, and carried to his grave the scars received in many a hard-fought battle. He was Oregon's first Governor and first Representative in Congress before it became a state, and was first chosen to represent it in the U.S. Senate after the state was admitted into the Union. General Lane was born in Buncombe County, North Carolina, Dec. 14, 1801, and at the time of his death nearly eighty years of age. He came to Oregon in the spring of 1849, and has been a resident of the state ever since. His funeral took place at Roseburg yesterday and was largely attended. He had shortly before his death renounced the Catholic faith and was buried by the Masonic fraternity, General J. W. Nesmith delivering the funeral oration.
Oregon State Journal, Eugene, April 23, 1881, page 5

    GEN. JOSEPH LANE died at his home in Roseburg, Oregon, last week, in the 80th year of his age. He was a native of North Carolina, and when only fifteen years old went to Indiana when that state was comparatively a wilderness. He participated in the Mexican War and was appointed a brigadier general by President Polk. In 1849 he was appointed Governor of Oregon Territory, and when she became a state in [1859] he was elected to the United States Senate and served until 1861. In 1860 he was a candidate for Vice President on the ticket with John C. Breckinridge. He was not a great man, but he bore himself honestly and without reproach in all the public stations he filled, and was regarded as a fine type of the rough and hardy pioneers who grow up amidst the difficulties and trials of life on the western frontier.
The Cambrian Freeman, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, April 29, 1881, page 2

    The brief dispatch announcing the death of Joseph Lane, which came from Oregon a day or two since, can have but very little significance for the great majority of the people who read it. Yet the man to whom it related was at one time one of the foremost figures in the republic. Had he died thirty years ago the nation would have gone into mourning for him, yet so fleeting is fame in our country that the present generation scarcely recalls his name and knows next to nothing of his most eventful history. Joseph Lane's grandfather was an American, born near the present site of Raleigh, N.C., in the early colonial times. He and his two brothers did good service during the War of the Revolution. His son, John Lane, the father of Joseph, was at the battle of King's Mountain and served in the patriot army until the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. He voted for George Washington for President and lived to see Jackson in the same office. The son of this old soldier was born in North Carolina in 1801. Early in life he went to Indiana. Later he became a power in the politics of the West. When the Mexican War broke out he was one of the first to go to the front, and by hard fighting and distinguished bravery won his way to a major generalship. Returning to his home, all Indiana united in doing him honor, and later on President Polk, in slight recognition of his services, made him Governor of the Territory of Oregon, to which place he was reappointed by President Pierce. In 1852 he had thirteen votes in the national [Democratic] convention which nominated Cass for President and at one time during that memorable meeting seemed almost sure of the nomination. As old William Allen used in after years to relate, "Joe Lane came nearer being President than any man who ever missed." But though he missed the Presidency, he did not lose influence with his party. In 1859 he was elected to the United States Senate from the new State of Oregon. He sympathized with the South in the struggle then pending, and later was nominated for Vice President on the ticket with Breckinridge. He carried eleven of the slave states, but was buried out of sight in the free North. Little has been heard of him since. He spent the last years of his life in his favorite Oregon.--New York Times.
The Union Republican, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, May 5, 1881, page 2

LANE, Joseph, born December, 1801, in North Carolina; died April 19, 1881, in Oregon, aged eighty years. In 1802 his father settled in Kentucky, and in 1821 Mr. Joseph Lane became a resident of Indiana. His talents and ability were so marked that in one year after his settlement in the state he was sent to the legislature, and, in one house or the other, continued to serve until 1846. He then resigned his seat in the state senate, and at the head of an Indiana regiment went to the Mexican War. After a time he was appointed brigadier general, and at the famous battle of Buena Vista commanded the left wing of the American army. After his recovery from a wound received in that battle, he returned to the army, and defeated Santa Anna at Huamantla, following up the victory shortly afterward with the capture of important posts. On the 22nd of November, 1847, he took the town of Matamoros, with a quantity of military stores. At the end of the war he was brevetted major general, and in August, 1848, was appointed by President Polk Governor of Oregon, from which office he was removed by President Taylor. On the admission of Oregon into the Union he was made United States Senator, and in 1860 was put on the same presidential ticket with John C. Breckinridge, being the nominee of one of the wings of the Democracy for Vice President. His defeat ended his prominent political career. Though he bore so illustrious a part in the war with Mexico, the gratitude of his country was never manifested by a pension or other mark of sympathy, and only a year before his death he declined an invitation to attend a reunion of Mexican veterans, because he was too poor to make the journey. With the modest dignity of true self-reverence he accepted his obscure old age in the Oregon village, where he calmly passed away from the scenes and affairs amid which he had long endeavored to make his life useful to his fellow men.
Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia of 1881page 475

    NOT ILLITERATE.--According to Joaquin Miller, General Joseph Lane, years ago a United States Senator from Oregon, so far from being the illiterate person his political enemies described, was one of the best-read men he ever met. He taught him to read Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius and a dozen other classics. General Lane knew them so well, adds Joaquin, "that if I misread a single word as we lay under the oaks--he looking up at the birds--he would correct me. He wrote in the old-fashioned, full, round style, every letter like print, not even a comma missing in letters of the greatest length. Using the simplest Saxon, he always said much in little--a duty of every writer of everything." The only specification of Lane's illiteracy was that he \"spelled god with a little 'g.' "
The Carolina Mountaineer, Morganton, North Carolina, August 18, 1883, page 3

    . . . Lane was one of the most popular men, if not the most popular, who ever inhabited Oregon. The people were impressible, and Lane knew them all and could tell a lot of good stories. Some of his narratives were cunning fabrications made to fit the occasion. In the art of flattery for political effect he could have had no peer. In short, he was exactly adapted to achieve office among a rude frontier people. This tells how he captured the good will of two ladies:
    Traveling through Douglas County, while stumping the state in 1855, he sought accommodation for the night at a house inhabited by a simple but hospitable woman, who placed before the gallant gentleman a dish of baked beans as the piece de resistance of the supper. After partaking of them, the visitors said insinuatingly: "My very dear friend and madam, would you be so very obliging as to give me, if you please, a cupful of your uncooked beans? I have never, never seen or tasted any so good, and I shall take it as a very great favor if you will so oblige me, for I am very desirous that my wife shall next year be able to cook beans as good as yours." He got his beans, and at the next halting-place regaled another and equally impressible female with this delicious flattery: "My dear madam, it does my heart good to see you! I have been in Washington City representing the good people of this Territory in the halls of Congress. But although I was kept exceedingly busy in attending to the welfare of my people and in making laws for them, I did not, my dear madam, forget you! To show you that I remembered you when in the midst of the gay capital, I will tell you that I dined, just before leaving Washington, with the President of the nation. We had a grand dinner at the White House, and among other things we had beans. I said to the President's wife: 'Dear madam, I have a friend in Oregon who is a notable cook. I would like to beg for her a few of your beans, for I know she loves beans.' She said yes, and she gave me these beans, madam, which I hope you will plant and raise a crop, and give me a few when I come this way again." And hereupon the gay old deceiver pulls out and presents the identical package of beans he had sponged from the other lady!
    Such tactics, such play upon the credence of inexperienced people, had their reward. The hero of Huamantla was elected in June by a vote of 6178 to 8943. Lane had majorities in all the counties save two, Columbia and Washington, where the Know-Nothing element was strongest. Such was the elation of the Democracy that their papers immediately began to speak of Lane as a likely candidate for the Presidency, to succeed Pierce.
"Early Oregon" Notes of the Days of Pioneer Webfoot Journalism," Oregonian, Portland, November 22, 1885, page 3

    A JUST TRIBUTE.--Ashland Tidings: Deputy Internal Revenue Collector Barlow, of Gold Hill, and his daughter Miss Nellie left for Spokane the first of last week to visit Mr. Barlow's aged mother, who is seriously ill at the home of her daughter at that place. Mrs. Barlow is the oldest daughter of the late Gen. Joseph Lane. She came with her husband to Oregon in 1852, at the time Gen. Lane removed his family to this state. The Barlow family settled in Siuslaw Valley in Lane County, where they raised a large family. At the death of Mr. Barlow, which occurred several years ago, Mrs. Barlow gave up housekeeping and since resided with her children, who are all married and living at various points on the Pacific Coast. Mrs. Barlow will be remembered by Oregon pioneers as a most estimable and exemplary woman, and the many all over the state who often shared the hospitality of her pioneer home will extend their deepest sympathy in her sickness, trusting that it "may not be unto death," and that she may be numbered a few years longer with the fast-passing Oregon pioneers.
Daily Eugene Guard, April 10, 1895, page 1

    He had a remarkable ability for recalling faces, and was rarely unable to call a man by name; however, he is remembered to have extended his hand to a Mr. Vineyard and addressed him as "Mr. Grapevine." The man, who was somewhat humorous, replied: "You belittle me, General, I am a whole Vineyard."
Hanna Wollenberg, "General Joseph Lane," Oregon Teachers Monthly, June 1902, page 24

    During the year 1904 I was the editor of the Daily Statesman, and each Sunday morning I would reprint extracts from the Statesman just fifty years before. It proved a very interesting department, not only to the old-timers, but to the newer residents, who marveled at the nature of the political contests of long ago. To "dig up" this stuff for the Sunday paper proved a very fascinating pastime each Saturday afternoon. One day I ran across an article which roasted General Joseph Lane to a finish, the latter distinguished gentleman and Mr. Bush, though both were Democrats, having broken their political friendship because of their difference of opinion on the slavery question [that is not at all clear], the bad feeling being accentuated, to be sure, by the natural action of local strifes and ambitions through a period of ten years' scrapping. Lane had written a letter which had greatly displeased Mr. Bush, and as the old General had a confirmed habit of showing his utter indifference to the rules laid down by the man who had invented spelling [Lane's spelling was excellent], the brilliant and ebullient editor not only applied his battery of ridicule to the subject matter of the Lane letter, but printed it with its original arrangement of the alphabet unchanged. It made "mighty interestin' reading," and I reprinted an extract from it of such liberal dimensions that its encroachment upon "valuable space" was entirely ignored.
    The next day I met Mr. Bush in front of his bank and he accosted me with a frown which seldom accompanies an inward feeling of hilarity.
    "Say," he remarked, "why do you reprint those extracts from the Statesman so long ago that most people have forgotten the matters they tell about?"
    "Why not?" I inquired. "Important history was being made in those days, and people living now are glad to know how it was made and who the chief actors were."
    "Yes," he replied, "but that extract you published yesterday about Jo. Lane should not have been reproduced. Lane was a pretty good man, after all, and we were living in exciting times and many things were said that it would have been just as well to have [been] left unuttered."
    "No doubt," I said, "but the same may be said of most men who have figured in the history of most countries. It is likely that Blaine, in after years, would have been glad to suppress the ebullition of satire he fired at Conkling while they were both members of the lower House of Congress, but the history of the United States would be crippled in one of its most important chapters if it failed to give the fullest details of that red-hot verbal engagement between two of the most renowned forensic gladiators America has ever known."
    But this didn't satisfy Mr. Bush--he never surrenders an opinion nor has he ever been known to acknowledge a conversion. His reply was:
    "Yes, but Lane has many descendants living now in all parts of Oregon, and the publication of these things will make them mad--they won't like it."
    "That may be," I insisted, "but there is a bare possibility that General Lane and his relatives didn't approve of the articles at the time you first printed them, and certainly they cared more about the matter and were entitled to more consideration at that time than his descendants are now."
    To this Mr. Bush replied that they all, perhaps, went too far in the excitement of the campaign, when everybody was striving for the ascendancy in the new territory, and that he was "younger then than now." The fact was that in after years, when they were both old men and had permanently retired from the activities of public life, Bush and Lane renewed their earlier friendship and often laughed at the bitterness which characterized the contests in which they had engaged.
    General Lane, of whom more will be said in this volume later, was twenty-two years older than Mr. Bush and died in 1881, aged eighty years. But the veteran editor and banker still lives in Salem at the advanced age of eighty-eight years, attends to his office business every day, maintains his cheerful disposition, takes a deep interest in current events, has but little use for many of the modern innovations in the forms of government, and quite recently remarked that, after all, in his opinion, the people of Oregon were fully as well governed when the "Salem Clique" was in the saddle as now. Mr. Bush is a very cultured gentleman of the old school. He still wears the tall standing collar of the old-time gentlemen of antebellum days, and has worn precisely the same style of hat for forty years without change--always new and becoming, totally unlike that ever worn by any other man, since no other man has been able to discover where it is obtained. He has the respect of all the people of this region, and his name will remain among the first on the remarkable list of brave and ambitious men who managed the public affairs of Oregon during the formative period of its existence, in the decade immediately preceding the Civil War. He was a Douglas Democrat, upheld the cause of the Union during the Rebellion, and was seriously considered by President Cleveland, at the time of his second inauguration, as a proper man to appoint Secretary of the Treasury.
Theodore Thurston Geer, Fifty Years in Oregon, 1912, pages 82-84

    Dr. Harry Lane, United States Senator from Oregon, comes by his political aspirations honestly. If you will trace the records of the Lane family you will find that wherever they have been they are serving as governors, generals, senators or at the head of affairs. Senator Lane's grandfather was Oregon's first territorial governor. He was also Oregon's delegate to Congress and United States Senator from Oregon and was the Democratic candidate for Vice President when Breckinridge and Lane ran against Lincoln in 1860. General Lane's daughter, Mrs. L. F. Mosher, of this city, talks very entertainingly of Oregon's early days and of the part taken by her father in Oregon history.
    General Lane had a wide acquaintance with the prominent men, not only of Oregon but of the whole country. Among his personal friends were Calhoun, Clay, Webster, Marcy, Douglas, Seward, Chase and Buchanan. Harriet Lane, the mistress of the White House during Buchanan's administration, was General Lane's cousin. As a boy he knew General Jackson and greatly admired him. In talking to the pioneers or in reading reminiscences of many of Oregon's great men one is struck by the fact that General Lane was universally admired. United States Senator Nesmith, who met General Lane in San Francisco in February, 1849, and who was his fellow passenger on board the former East India brig Jannett, in speaking of General Lane, says: "I served under his command in the Rogue River campaign in 1853. In 1849 we explored together the Siletz and Yaquina Bay country. I believe we were the first white men to cross out over the bar at Yaquina. We made the trip in an Indian canoe and sounded the channel to the sea. In all the exalted positions that General Lane occupied he never forgot his origin as one of the toiling people. The humblest farmer or mechanic always found in him a sympathetic friend. He led a life of remarkable abstemiousness and frugality, coupled with incessant industry. He was generous to a fault.
    "When the government sent out a paymaster with funds to pay us for our services in the Rogue River and [Yakima] Indian wars he signed the payroll and directed that his pay should be turned over to the destitute orphan children whose parents had been killed in the Boise massacre. He was gallant, chivalrous and modest. These were his inherent qualities which the rough garb of the farmer, miner, hunter, Indian fighter or the gold epaulets and uniform of the general or the habiliments of the governor or senator could never change. In danger or in battle he was cool and alert. I do not think he knew what fear was. I speak of his dauntless courage by the light of the experience I had in standing by his side under the shadow of Table Rock in September, 1853, when our little party of 11 men, unarmed, and General Lane, badly wounded, were surrounded by 700 hostile and well-armed Indians, who threatened our lives in retaliation for the death of one of their tribe. But for the coolness and defiant courage of our commander, General Lane, I believe our little party would have furnished another illustration of the barbaric instinct of the Indians for the treacherous shedding of blood."
    Judge Matthew P. Deady, in speaking of his friend General Lane, says: "On Sunday, September 10, 1853, I was present when the white chief General Joseph Lane and the Indian chief Joseph, the former with his arm in a sling and the latter in a blanket or toga that would have done honor to a Roman senator, met on the side of the mountain near Table Rock, in the presence of hundreds of Indians and of a few white men and agreed on terms of a treaty of peace. General Lane lived honestly and died poor. He was a man of more than ordinary ability. Generous, affable, brave, gallant and [a] lover of women, a friend of the helpless, we shall not soon look upon his like again."
Fred Lockley, "Oregon: In Early Days,"
Oregon Journal, Portland, February 20, 1915, page 4

Looks Forward with Keen Interest to Visit with Descendants of Old Chief John
Cause of Historic Indian Wars on Rogue River Explained--
Man Shot Fisherman to "See Him Tumble."

    Senator Harry Lane left today for the Siletz Indian Reservation to look into the affairs of the reservation. As chairman of the Senate committee on Indian affairs, Senator Lane has done more for the protection of the Indians of the nation than any other man for many years. He has exposed and stopped the methods by which the Indians were being despoiled of their property and were being neglected and ill-treated.
    On his visit to the Siletz Reservation, Senator Lane was looking forward with pleasure to a visit with the daughter of old Chief John, who took a leading part in the Indian wars of the late '50s.
    These wars started down in the Rogue River country. At that time Senator Lane's aunt was living on the Rogue River, and her boy and the Indian papooses used to play together. The Indians used to give the white boy dried venison to piece on [sic--"feast on"?] while the little Indian boys used to go to his home for bread and jelly.
    "One day," said Senator Lane, recounting incidents of those early days, "Colonel Baker and another man were riding along the Rogue River, when they saw an Indian leaning out over a rock spearing fish.
    "'Watch me drop that fellow into the river,' said the man with Colonel Baker.
    "'What do you mean by dropping him into the river?' demanded Colonel Baker. 'if you kill that Indian, you will have a horde of Indians after us before we can turn around. They will kill you and a lot more whites.'
    "Colonel Baker started on down the trail, and a moment later he heard a shot and saw the Indian tumble into the water.
    "'I got him,' shouted the man exultantly.
    "The two men put spurs to their horses and got out of the country, while the Indians went on the war path. Two nights later the Indians killed every settler on the river in that district, except my aunt and her family. She had been so friendly with them that they did not molest her place. But that was the beginning of the Indian wars of that time.
    "Chief John became one of the strongest fighting chiefs, and his daughter is now living on the Siletz Reservation."
Oregon Journal, Portland, August 7, 1915, page 5  I've been unable to identify either Col. Baker or Lane's aunt.

Attitude of Grandfather in Civil War Crisis is Recalled.

    PORTLAND, March 6.--(To the Editor.)--Senator Harry Lane is "running true to form." The Senator belongs to the medical profession and no doubt subscribes to the belief in heredity. Be it remembered, therefore, that the Senator's paternal grandfather was Senator from Oregon in the years up to 1861; that on the floor of the United States Senate in those dark days just preceding the Rebellion this same grandfather stated that Lincoln and the black Republicans would have to walk over his dead body before they would keep the southern states in the Union against their will, or words to that effect.
    We now see his grandson standing up for the great republic in the same way and from the same state.
    However, Grandfather Lane did not allow his body to be walked over, living or dead, but brought it carefully back to Oregon, where it would be out of danger.
    The citizens of the state of Oregon were patriotic at that time and welcomed Grandfather Lane by burning him in effigy and other forms of welcome of like nature.
    Yes, Grandson Lane is "running true to form," the theory of heredity is vindicated, but will Oregon run true to form in this case and give the Senator the same welcome on his return?
Oregonian, Portland, March 8, 1917, page 11  See below.

General Joseph Lane's Record.
    Portland, March 10.--To the Editor of the Journal--The merited rebuke of "Reader'" in the Oregonian of March 8 to Senator Harry Lane of Oregon, for joining with 11 other senators on March 4 to defeat the armed neutrality bill desired by President Wilson, deserves the strongest commendation. How any American with red blood in his veins can take any other view of the craven act of the "pusillanimous twelve" is beyond my comprehension.
    In condemning Oregon's junior senator, however, "Reader" ought not to have indulged in disparaging allusions to his grandfather, General Joseph Lane, first Governor of Oregon Territory, then delegate to Congress until it became a state on February 14, 1859, and then United States Senator until March 3, 1861, who has been in his grave over 35 years. Those allusions are particularly out of place, because it is not believed that there is any foundation for them, either in language used by General Lane in the United States Senate or in his being burned in effigy in Oregon. If he had used the expressions charged it is not likely that General Joseph Hooker--"Fighting Joe"--would have urged him to accept a commission in the Union army. Physical disability at the age of 60, largely caused by wounds received in the Mexican War of 1846-48 and the Rogue River Indian War of 1853, was one of the reasons causing him to decline the offer.
    General Lane has children and grandchildren still living in Oregon, some of them in this city, and so far as I know, they are deeply humiliated over the conduct of Senator Harry Lane, as they believe he ought to have strongly supported the President. If General Lane was alive there can be no doubt whatever that he would support the Administration without reserve.
    Of course it is true, in the words of Judge Matthew P. Deady, on April 21, 1881, soon after General Lane's death, that "During the heated controversy which immediately preceded the War of the Rebellion, General Lane was, by nature, education and position, an ardent friend of the South, and what he conceived to be its Constitutional rights, and took his share of the rancor and ill will which usually grow out of such contentions and conflicts. But these have been long forgotten by him, and it is not often that one who has played so long and prominent a part in public affairs, in troublous times, goes down to his grave with more good will and regard than Joseph Lane of Oregon."
    Having had a personal acquaintance with General Lane for a number of years prior to his death, I can freely corroborate the opinion of Judge Deady, and am satisfied that, notwithstanding his friendly attitude toward the South--the land of his birth--prior to the beginning of the Rebellion, he was perfectly satisfied that it was best for the welfare of the nation at large that success in battle was in favor of the Union armies. And furthermore, I am certain that had any occasion arisen during the remainder of his life, he would have been among the first to offer his services to the government, irrespective of political conditions or personal preferment. [In fact, Lane did offer his services during the Modoc War.]
    Therefore, I consider it in extremely bad taste for anyone at the present time to hide himself behind the cover of an anonymous signature and attack General Lane's reputation because of the despicable conduct of an erring grandson while holding a position in Congress which, nearly three score years ago, had been honored by his grandsire.
Oregon Journal, Portland, March 11, 1917, page C4

By Fred Lockley

    The recent death of Frank P. Lane of Lake County, Oregon, makes pertinent the sketch here presented by Mr. Lockley of that line of the Lane family in America from which the Oregon branch is descended. The record is continuous of active and able men entrusted with large affairs.
    Frank P. Lane met death in his automobile at "Death Bridge," in Lake County, a few days ago. He was one of the best-known and best-liked stockmen of Central Oregon, where he spent most of his life. He was a member of the well-known Lane family that has furnished so many men of high character to the public offices of Oregon, including Joseph Lane, first Territorial Governor of Oregon, and Dr. Harry Lane, United States Senator from Oregon.
    When Sir Walter Raleigh, that brilliant soldier of fortune, adventurer, author, navigator and colonizer, sailed from Plymouth in 1585, one of his passengers was Sir Ralph Lane, a dashing cavalier, the founder of the Lane clan in America.
    The first colonial governor appointed from among the residents of America was Captain Ralph Lane, son of Sir Ralph Lane. The Roanoke colony was broken up by the Indians, but some of the members of the colony sailed to the Carolinas and founded the Carolina branch of the Lane family. Sir Ralph sailed from America for a visit to friends in Ireland, where he died in 1604. Captain John Smith and his associates founded a colony at Jamestown in 1607, and 11 years later Joseph Lane came from England as a member of the colony, settling in America two years before the coming of the Pilgrims on the Mayflower in 1620.
    Joseph Lane's son, Joseph Lane Jr., had a numerous progeny, whose descendants fought in the colonial wars, in the Revolutionary War, in the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, and the Indian wars on the frontier.
    The name Joseph passed down from generation to generation. Joseph Lane, who was born in 1710, married Patience McKinne, a Scotch girl, whose father owned extensive land holdings in the Caledonia country in the South. They had three sons, Joel, Jesse and Joseph. With their little ones they moved from Halifax on the Roanoke to the wilderness, settling on land where Raleigh, N.C., now stands. The Lanes were "go-getters" and doers for, even in those days, they were civil and military leaders. Colonel Joel Lane became a lieutenant colonel in 1772, was a presiding justice, served as senator for 14 years, and was a member of the first provincial congress, which met at Hillsborough, N.C., August 21, 1885. The members of this assembly were branded as "rebels and traitors to the king." These "rebels and traitors" met at the home of Colonel Joel Lane and elected Thomas Burke governor of the state. Colonel Lane donated a tract of 1000 acres of his plantation for the establishing of the state capital at Raleigh and 600 acres as a site for the University of North Carolina. Joseph Lane, brother of Colonel Joel Lane, was a member of the tribunal of the first court of North Carolina, first held on June 4, 1771. He wooed and won Ferebe Hunter, and their descendants are scattered all over Virginia, Maryland and the Carolinas.
    Jesse Lane married Winnifred Hycock and had 15 children. He was a member of the Third North Carolina Continentals and with his sons fought at Guilford Court House, the Cowpens and at Kings Mountain. The battle of Kings Mountain has a peculiar significance of Oregonians, for Jesse Lane had among his sons in this fight John, father of Joseph Lane, Oregon's first territorial governor. General Ferguson, in charge of the British forces, seeing the North Carolina troops, clad in homespun, carrying flintlock squirrel guns, without bayonets or other military equipment, told his officers they would have no difficulty in repulsing this "motley horde," but the motley horde poured in such an accurate fire from these "squirrel guns" that the British lost 150 killed and over 900 prisoners, while but 30 of the North Carolina men were killed.
    Numbered among the grandsons of Jesse Lane, who with this sons did such valiant service at Kings Mountain, are General Joseph Lane, hero of the Mexican War, first governor of Oregon Territory, United States senator from Oregon and Indian fighter in the Rogue River War, Governor Henry S. Lane of Indiana, General Alfred H. Colquitt of Georgia, Lieutenant Governor Robertson of North Carolina, Governor David Swain of George and George W. Lane, district judge of the United States for Alabama.
    Jesse Lane moved to Georgia in 1736 and later moved to Missouri, where he died in 1806. Jesse Lane, grandfather of General Joseph Lane of Oregon, enlisted March 1, 1777, for three years, and was a member of Captain Jacob Turner's company. His son John, who fought so well at Kings Mountain, was his eighth child and was the fourth son. He was born in 1758. When he was 30 years old he married Betsy Street, daughter of Colonel James Street, first sheriff of Buncombe County, North Carolina. In 1804 John Lane and his family moved to Kentucky. They had five sons and three daughters--Rev. Jesse Lane, General Joseph Lane, who became a brigadier general in the Mexican War; Mary Lane, Lorina, Floyd, Winnifred, John and Simon. Winnifred Lane, one of the twin daughters of the Rev. Jesse Lane, with her sister Kate came to Oregon with General Joseph Lane when he returned to this state from Washington, D.C., 80 years ago. In 1866 Winnifred married E. H. White of Jackson County, Oregon.
    It would take a library to list the descendants of these hardy and westward-looking pathmakers and empire builders, the Lanes. All old-time Oregonians know how, when Abraham Lincoln declined appointment as governor of Oregon Territory, the place was offered and accepted by General Lane. They know, too, of his hazardous trip with Jo Meek to Oregon and of his services to the state and country and how he died at the age of 80 at Roseburg in the spring of 1881. The Lane family can truly say of the history of Oregon that they saw it in the making and helped to make it.
Oregon Journal, Portland, December 3, 1921, page 4

Genealogical Records Trace Direct Line from That Joseph Lane
Who Came from England to Jamestown Settlement.

    The death of Simon Robert Lane at his home near Roseburg, Or., June 1, 1925, closed the life record of the immediate descendants of that outstanding figure in Oregon's pioneer history, General Joseph Lane, "the Marion of the Mexican War," Oregon's first territorial Governor, first United States Senator, and Democratic candidate for Vice President on the Breckinridge ticket in 1860. His defeat in that campaign marked his retirement from public life, but he was the descendant of a remarkable ancestral line, and he was the father of ten children--six sons and four daughters--who taken as a whole constituted a remarkable family in the history of Oregon during the past century.
Lane Genealogy Interesting.
    The genealogy of the Lane family is exceedingly interesting. A manuscript chart owned by Mrs. Douglas Waite, daughter of Simon Lane, gives without a break the line of descent from that Joseph Lane who came to Virginia in 1618 from England, making his home at Jamestown, Va. He was of the same family as Sir Ralph Lane of Orlingbury, England, who in 1585 sailed from Plymouth, England, and founded the colony of Roanoke, thus becoming the first English governor in America.
    There has been a Joseph Lane in every generation of the family since that time down to the Joseph Lane who was the first Governor of Oregon. The second Joseph Lane settled in North Carolina. The history of that state is replete with deeds of the Lane family and of other families with which they intermarried.
Joel Lane, Founder of Raleigh.
    Joel Lane, great-grandson of the first Joseph in America, was the founder of Raleigh, N.C., and to establish the capital of the state there he deeded 1000 acres of land. His brother Jesse was married to Winifred Aycock, of Welsh descent, from which branch of the family came the Joseph Lane of Oregon. They had 16 children.
    Their eighth child, John, born Christmas Day, 1769, was married to Elizabeth Street, daughter of David Street, grandson of David Stokes and Sarah Montfort of Old Point Comfort, Va. One of the fruits of this marriage was the boy who became famous in the early history of Oregon.
    Mary, a sister of General Joseph Lane's father, was a grandmother of Alfred T. Colquitt, Governor and United States Senator from Georgia. Other descendants of the girls of this large family of 16 were Colonel Nolan and his brother, both gifted orators of Georgia, and John W. Bailey, United States Senator from Texas.
Joseph Lane of Oregon.
    Born in North Carolina, December 14, 1801, the Joseph Lane of Oregon history became a resident of Kentucky before he was three, knew all the hard life of a pioneer in his boyhood, working on the farm and clerking in a country store, getting very little education. At the age of 23 he married and settled upon a farm in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.
    The following year he was elected to the legislature, and for 20 years almost continuously he represented his county in one branch or the other of the state legislature. When war with Mexico was declared in 1846 he enlisted as a private soldier, but his fellow soldiers elected him colonel and not long afterward he received from President Polk a commission as brigadier general.
    His war record is written in many histories, in most of which he is spoken of as "the Marion of the Mexican War," in tribute to his bravery, boldness and success in many battles.
    August 14, 1858, Oregon was organized as a Territory. President Polk appointed Joseph Lane Governor with plenary powers and positive instructions to inaugurate the territorial government under his administration. Lane crossed the plains in the dead of winter--reached San Francisco in February--chartered a vessel there, entered the Columbia River the last of the month, arrived in Oregon City March 2 and on March 3, 1849, proclaimed Oregon a Territory within the jurisdiction of the United States. The next day Polk's administration was ended. Lane had kept his promise.
Ten Children Born to Lane.
    Joseph Lane's family consisted of six sons and four daughters, all but one of whom, the eldest son, Ratliff Boone Lane, who died in 1849 at the age of 22, came to Oregon with their father and mother in 1853.
    Melissa, the eldest daughter, married A. J. Barlow and died in 1895, at the age of 74 years.
    Nathaniel Hart Lane, the second son, died in this city. He was the father of Dr. Harry Lane, who was twice mayor of Portland and United States Senator for Oregon from 1914 to 1917, when he died at a hospital in San Francisco.
    Joseph Samuel Lane, third son, served with his father during the Mexican War. He came to Oregon with the family and died August 6, 1910, at Myrtle Creek, Or.
    Simon Robert Lane, the fourth son, was born February 29, 1843, and died June 1, 1925. He was married November 22, 1865, to Catharine Drain, daughter of Charles Drain and Nancy G. Ensley, Oregon pioneers of 1852, who settled first on a farm ten miles south of Albany in Linn County. Charles Drain was prominent in public life in territorial Oregon, serving two terms in the territorial legislature and on the admission of the territory into the Union was elected to a four-year term in the state senate and became president of that body. In 1860 he resigned his seat in the senate and removed with his family to Douglas County, locating at the town which bears his name and was his home until his death. A more extended history of this son is given below.
One Son Fights for the South.
    John Lane, fifth son, became a cadet at West Point and left there when the Civil War broke out to join the Confederate States army in which he served as colonel, his youthful sympathies being with the South in its rebellion. In later years he came to Lewiston, Idaho, where he died.
    LaFayette Lane, sixth son, was born in Vanderburgh County, Indiana, November 12, 1842. He was educated at Georgetown, District of Columbia, and Stamford, Conn., studied law in the office of Judge Aaron E. Wait, in Portland, was admitted to the bar on coming of age and soon thereafter was elected to the state legislature from Umatilla County. Miss Amanda Mann of Portland became his wife and they removed to Roseburg where he formed a law partnership with his brother-in-law, LaFayette Mosher. In 1871 Matthew P. Deady and LaFayette Lane were chosen commissioners to codify the laws of Oregon.
    In 1871 Mr. Lane was elected to Congress to fill an unexpired term of George A. LaDow, who died in office. Although his service for the state in Congress was brief, it will be remembered for obtaining the first appropriation for building the locks at the Cascades, which were completed just before his death in Roseburg November 23, 1896.
Daughters Well Known in State.
    Mary V. Lane, the eighth child, was married to Aaron Shelby, who was a partner with her brother Simon in a general merchandise store in Roseburg. She was the mother of Eugene Shelby, for many years superintendent of Wells, Fargo Express Company in Portland, and of Annie Blanche Shelby, well known in Oregon as an author and a frequent contributor to the Oregonian.
    Emily Lane, the ninth child, was married to a merchant of Roseburg, Creed Floed. They afterwards resided in California, in Spokane, Wash., and in Boise, Idaho, where she died in November, 1907.
    Winifred Lane, the youngest daughter, was married July 1, 1856, to LaFayette Mosher, who served as a second lieutenant in the 4th Ohio regiment in the Mexican War and came to Oregon with his old commander and future father-in-law in 1853, arriving in Portland May 15. He located in Jacksonville and engaged in mining, following General Lane in the Rogue River Indian War. He had been admitted to the bar in Ohio in 1853 and in 1855 was appointed registrar of the United States land office at Winchester, then the county seat of Douglas County, in which he served until 1861. He continued the practice of law and became circuit judge of the second federal district and by virtue of that office sat upon the supreme bench of the state.
    Four sons and four daughters were born to Winifred Lane Mosher and her husband: Charles Lane, John Shirley, Paul Albert, Henry Augustine, Anna, Winifred, Alice Key and Mary Emma. The eldest son, who was a journalist of ability, died in Portland in 1904. The second and fourth sons died in infancy and the third died in his 27th year. Winifred, who has given the best years of her life to the education of the children of others, is still a resident of Portland. The youngest daughter, Mary Emma, was married to John M. Cowan of the United States Lighthouse Service, and is the mother of eight children.
Simon Lane Last of Family.
    Although five of the brothers and sisters of Simon Lane were younger, he outlived them. Nothing in his appearance a short time before his death indicated other than that he had many years yet to live. The portrait accompanying this family biography was sketched from life only recently by Jeff Tester, the Oregonian's staff artist.
    "A healthy mind in a healthy body" was the old adage that came into the writer's mind as he sat in the spacious living room of Mrs. Douglas Waite's country home in Deer Creek Valley, near Roseburg, one beautiful day last month and enjoyed a long visit with the bearded patriarch who had witnessed the growth and development of a great state almost from its very birth.
    Mentioning the fact that but one of his father's children was never a resident of Oregon recalled to his mind clear recollections of his early youth at the old homestead in
Vanderburgh County, Indiana, and the never-forgotten trip down the Mississippi River to New Orleans with his elder brother on a barge loaded with corn.
Brother Victim of Cholera.
    The trip was not one of idle pleasure but of steady work, for the corn was loaded on the barge as it was cut in the fields and had to be husked, shelled and sacked on the way down the river and be ready for the market on arrival. Ratliff Boone, the older brother, 22, was in full charge of the farm while his father was away in the service of his country, and it was his job to market its products as well as to harvest them.
    It was a wonderful experience in a boy's life, this trip, but it had a sad ending, for the cholera was raging in New Orleans and Ratliff fell a victim and died in that city, leaving his brother of 17 years to sell his boatload of corn and get home the best way he could. Here, perhaps, was laid the foundation for his successful life as a merchant in after years in Oregon.
    Simon Lane was 22 years old when his father brought the family to Oregon to make their future home. They settled on a farm four miles north of Roseburg and that fall Simon, in partnership with Creed Floed, another young pioneer who afterward married his younger sister Emily, established a mercantile business at Winchester, at that time a more important point than Roseburg. Later, when Roseburg became the county seat, the store of Lane & Floed was removed to Roseburg. Mr. Lane soon after sold his interest in the store to his partner and returned to the farm to be with his mother, who was alone. In 1862 he went with a drove of cattle to Eastern Oregon, accompanied by Thomas Ledgerwood and two of his brothers, Joseph and LaFayette. The following spring he opened a store at Umatilla Landing under the name of Lane, Guthrie & Co. that furnished supplies to ranchers and miners as far away as Boise, Idaho. In 1864 he was again called upon to assume the duties of his father's farm, as his father was absent from the state, and in the next year he was married.
Four Die in Early Manhood.
    Five sons and one daughter were born of this union. Four sons died in early manhood, and his beloved wife died six years ago, May 20, 1919. Since her death Mr. Lane had made his home with his only daughter, Mrs. Douglas Waite.
    Francis B. Lane, the youngest son, born March 31, 1879, and married March 25, 1902, to Mary Cannon, lives nearby.
    Joseph Charles Lane, son of Simon Lane, at the age of 25 was appointed deputy collector of customs at Kodiak, Alaska, and died there April 16, 1896, at the age of 27 years, 7 months and 2 days, from cancer of the stomach, after three months of suffering endured with Christian fortitude. Owing to its isolated situation, vessels seldom reached Kodiak in the winter, and the first knowledge his parents had of his sickness was a letter saying he was dying. News of death came a few days later, and the body was brought to Roseburg, where funeral services were held in the Catholic church May 9. One of the most beautiful letters it has ever been my privilege to read was written to his mother February 20 after he had been confined to his bed three weeks. "I am not afraid to die," he wrote. "Dear Mother, do not grieve for me. I feel that I have fought the battle of life and treasured the teachings of my loving parents and the home ties of one and all, and if God sees fit to call me now, during this sickness, my last thought will revert to Mother, Father, Sister and Brother. I am sorry to leave you, but merely go before, where I will meet my dear brothers who have crossed over the river and are waiting to receive me in their loving embrace and where I with them will await to joyfully receive those I leave behind when your lives shall have ended here."
    What peace and consolation must this letter have been to the sorrowing mother's heart!
    Simon Lane, although 93, had but two grandchildren, Mrs. Walter M. Bain of Camas, Wash. (Catherine Lane Waite), the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Waite, and Frances Marie Lane of Roseburg, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. Lane.
    Four nieces reside in Portland, Misses Anna and Winifred Mosher, Miss Annie Blanche Shelby and Mrs. Ida L. Ross.
Oregonian, Portland, June 7, 1925, page 15

    In a sketch that will appear in three installments a niece of General Joseph Lane reviews the career of that notable character. The first is devoted to his early life and his record in the Mexican War and as a servant of the people of Oregon in high official stations.
    Miss Kate Lane, whose uncle, General Joseph Lane, was Oregon's first territorial Governor, lives at the Patton Home, in Portland. When I visited her recently she said:
    "My father, Rev. Jesse Lane, was born in North Carolina in 1799. His brother Joseph was born December 14, 1801. My twin sister Winifred and I came to Oregon with our uncle, General Joseph Lane, in 1861. Winifred and I were born in Kentucky, December 29, 1839. My father died when I was 5 years old. Mother lived on a farm near Evansville, Ind. General Joseph Lane also owned a farm in 'the pocket' of Indiana. I wish you could have known my Uncle Joe. He was one of the most lovable men I ever met. In 1816, when he was 15, they moved to Warwick County, Indiana, where he worked as a clerk in a store. He was elected to the legislature in 1822, when only 21. At the breaking out of the Mexican War he enlisted as a private in the Second Regiment of Indiana volunteers, and a few weeks later became colonel of the regiment. Before long he was promoted to brigadier general. At the battle of Buena Vista he was wounded. Not long after, at the battle of Huamantla, he won the love of his troops and a brevet as major general for his gallantry. His was in command at Atlixco. In November 1847 he took Matamoros and in January, 1848, captured Orizaba.
    "President Polk wanted to have Oregon organized as a territory under his administration, so he asked my uncle if he would accept the governorship and start for Oregon at once. Congress passed the bill organizing Oregon Territory August 14, 1848. My uncle, accompanied by Joe Meek and a small escort, started overland for Oregon by way of New Mexico and Arizona. They arrived at San Francisco in February, 1849, at the height of the gold excitement. He and Colonel J. W. Nesmith came to Astoria together on board the India brig Janette. As there was no ship at Astoria coming up to Oregon City, and as time was pressing, my uncle bought a small boat and helped row from Astoria to Oregon City, where he arrived one day before the end of Polk's term of office.
    "General Lane reached Oregon City on March 3, issued a proclamation organizing the Territory of Oregon, and assumed his duties as Governor of the territory. He had promised President Polk that Oregon Territory should be organized under his administration, and he kept his promise, though he had but a day's leeway, as Polk went out of office the next day, March 4. One of the first things General Lane had to attend to was the pursuit, capture, trial and execution of the Indians who had murdered Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife and the others at the Whitman Mission in November 1847. It is a rather curious thing that when he issued his proclamation organizing Oregon Territory, on March 3, 1849, it was printed in the Free Press at Oregon City, of which George L. Curry was editor and publisher. He, like my uncle, later became Governor of Oregon.
    "After about a year and a half in office General Lane resigned as Governor and went to Northern California, where he worked on a placer claim during the winter of 1850-51. In 1851 he was elected Oregon's delegate to Congress and continued to serve until Oregon became a state, when he was elected United States Senator. He took his seat as one of Oregon's first two United States Senators on February 14, 1859. Delazon Smith was the other Senator. Under the system of dividing the whole body of United States Senators into three classes, with overlapping terms, the terms of the two Oregon Senators fell into the two classes expiring March 4, 1859, and March 4, 1861, respectively. The longer term fell to General Lane. The next year he was the candidate for Vice President on the ticket headed by Breckinridge.
    "While living at Umpqua, Oregon, in the summer of 1853 he organized a force of volunteers and had a fight with the Indians and was shot through the shoulder in the same place he had received a musket ball while charging the Mexicans at the head of Lane's brigade during the Mexican War. The battle with the Indians occurred on August 24. On September 4 he and a few white men met the Indians at Table Rock and made a treaty of peace. In 1849, shortly after he had become Governor, with Colonel J. W. Nesmith he explored the Siletz country and the Yaquina Bay district. He and Nesmith went out over the bar at Yaquina in an Indian canoe to sound the channel to see what depth there was at low water.
    "When my uncle's term as Senator had expired, on March 3, 1861, he returned to Oregon. He had written to my twin sister Winifred and myself to come to Washington prepared to go to Oregon with him. We reached Washington in time to see President Lincoln inaugurated. My uncle always thought that if President Lincoln had been able to have his way the Civil War, with all its bitterness, would never have occurred, for President Lincoln wanted to buy the slaves and colonize them in Africa. But there were too many hotheads, both North and South, so we had to suffer four years of fratricidal strife."
Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, February 5, 1926

D.A.R.s Unveil Marker.
    The following message from Governor Patterson was read by Mrs. J. H. Cochran, past regent of the local chapter, D.A.R., at the unveiling of a marker near Table Rock last Thursday:
    "Since I cannot be among those who assemble to observe the 75th anniversary of the signing [of the] pact at Table Rock on September 10, 1853, I want to take this means of paying a brief tribute to the fearless warrior and able statesman whose portrait hangs on the wall of my office in the state capitol.
    "To General Lane belongs great credit for the successful council, which brought about a peace between the white men and the Indians which the Rogue River tribes, proper, faithfully observed. His bravery in walking, unarmed, unto the midst of seven hundred warriors in full regalia won a savage admiration from the Indians, who knew from experience that his word could be trusted. When, during the council, rumor came that white men had broken faith by murdering an Indian, it was General Lane's coolheaded courage which saved the day and averted a massacre. In his own words he summarized the policy which made him so successful in his dealings with the Indians: 'We had been at all times ready to fight them, and to faithfully keep and maintain our good faith with them. We never once on any occasion lied to them.'
    "General Lane possessed an iron will, absolute courage, fearless honesty, a keen intelligence and tireless energy. These were the qualities, together with soldierly ability of a high order, which won him renown in the Mexican War, where he enlisted in the ranks and attained the position of brevet major general. As Territorial Governor, delegate to Congress and United States Senator he made an invaluable contribution to the welfare and upbuilding of Oregon, and by his exceptional ability and integrity won for himself a national reputation as a statesman. With all the honors he achieved, he retained a genial, warmhearted sympathy which made him the good friend of the humblest citizen. He was generous at the cost of his own interests. Every cent of his pay for service in the Rogue River was sent to destitute orphans who had lost their parents in Indian massacres. He worked zealously, loyally and effectively for Oregon, and his descendants have carried on his high tradition of service to the state.
    "Senator James W. Nesmith, who delivered the funeral oration following General Lane's death in 1881, pronounced this tribute: 'In his association with the world he was always the gallant, chivalrous, polite and modest gentleman. Those were inherent qualities which the rough garb of the farmer, miner, hunter and frontier Indian fighter, or the gold-bedizened epaulets and uniform of the general, or the habiliments of the governor or the senator, could never change.'
    "For his indomitable courage, his tireless devotion to the public good, his integrity and generosity, and his outstanding services as a statesman, Oregon owes the highest honor to the memory of her first Territorial Governor, General Joseph Lane."
Medford Mail Tribune, September 30, 1928, page 5

    The hero of the Mexican war and the idol of Oregon in her territorial days (General Joseph Lane) was, from the time he left the seclusion of his farm home above Roseburg to spend his last days with his children in that city, a conspicuous figure on the streets of Douglas County's shire town.
    The writer remembers meeting him often around the store of J. C. Floed & Co., then the leading merchants of Roseburg. Mrs. Floed was a daughter of General Lane, and Fred Floed, known well in Salem in the eighties, was a grandson. The general's son, Lafayette Lane, who represented Oregon in the lower house of Congress from '75 to '77, was then living with his family in Roseburg. Father Lane, leading Catholic priest of Oregon, is a grandson of the general, son of Lafayette.
    In those days of the late seventies and first eighties, the hatreds of Civil War times had softened or disappeared, and Roseburg residents were proud of their most distinguished citizen. The principal address at the funeral of General Lane was made by James W. Nesmith, his great friend of his first years in Oregon, and his bitter enemy in the closing period of political strife. It was a sincere tribute of rekindled love and respect.
    John Lane, son of General Lane, left West Point to become a colonel in the Confederate army. The place at West Point left vacant by John Lane was filled by Volney Smith, son of Delazon Smith, Democratic war horse of Oregon's territorial days, leader in the state constitutional convention, and Oregon's first U.S. Senator, along with Joseph Lane. Volney Smith failed in his examination, and served as a lieutenant with the Union forces in a New York cavalry regiment.
    In 1860, and in the years preceding, back to 1855, the rumors concerning the great conspiracy for a Pacific Republic received a good deal of attention in the Douglas-Democratic and Republican press of Oregon.
    It was shown by the Statesman that the Senators and Representatives from California, the Senator (Lane) and Representatives from Oregon and the delegate from Washington Territory, representing altogether a little more than a million people, according to a writer in the Oregon Historical Society Quarterly for June, 1916, had held a caucus and resolved to favor disunion and the formation of three separate republics, and that the formation of a Pacific Coast republic was broached and advocated in case of a dissolution of the Union by Senator Latham of California.
    In its issue of December 10, 1860, the Statesman gave fairly complete details of the plan. The Pacific Republic was to be an aristocracy after the model of the ancient republic of Venice, all the power being vested in an hereditary nobility, the chief executive being elected on a very limited suffrage. Slaves were to be procured by inviting coolies, South Sea Islanders and negroes to immigrate to California, and then reducing them to slavery. [The Statesman article of December 10, 1860 repeats the story in the San Francisco Times of an organizational meeting of the Pacific Republic. An article in the Daily Alta California of December 15, 1860 points out that the reported organizers were in different cities at the time. Lane's private correspondence reveals his fatigue, eagerness to retire, and active planning to do so.]
R. J. Hendricks, "Bits for Breakfast," Statesman Journal, Salem, December 3, 1931, page 4

    A story is told of Asahel Bush, who, as an old man, walked grandly about the streets of the city he helped to build, Salem, Oregon. One day he met a brash young reporter from the Salem Statesman, the newspaper Mr. Bush had founded.
    "Were you responsible for that column they call Twenty-five Years Ago Today?" he demanded gruffly.
    The reporter admitted it. "I thought folks here might want to know what was being said back in the beginning of the Civil War."
    Bush thrust out his lower lip, glaring. "You put in a lot of old lies about General Lane. Didn't you remember that he has sons and daughters living who might be hurt by what you printed?"
    "But, Mr. Bush." the reporter answered, "1 only reprinted what you wrote yourself while General Lane was still alive. Didn't it hurt him then more than it hurts his sons and daughters now?"
    Bush was taken aback. "Hum. Ha," he said. "Harrumph. Well, our minds were heated. Maybe we all said more than we meant."
    But the old newspapers have been used as factual records too many times. Lane's sons and daughters protested whenever they could be heard; his grandchildren protested in their turn; and his great-grandchildren have done their best to get the old records set straight. Finally one Nina Lane Faubion, one of the high-spirited Lane women (daughter of Dr. Harry Lane, granddaughter of Nathaniel Lane, great-
granddaughter of General Joseph Lane), determined to write a book and "clear General Lane."
    She searched the public records and went over the thousands of letters on file in the Oregon Historical Society library. She sought out old family letters and gathered all she could from Lane's living descendants. When she had a Gladstone bag full of notes, and her head stuffed with family anecdotes, she began her book.
    Unfortunately, death interrupted her before she had finished the introductory chapters on the Lane ancestry.

"Acknowledgment," Victoria Case, The Quiet Life of Mrs. General Lane, Country Life Press, 1952. See the original telling of this story in Fifty Years in Oregon, above.

Last revised July 14, 2017